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Fullerene Manufacture








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Fullerene Manufacture Patents
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JP2003176114
METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To manufacture fullerene used for various applications such as functional devices, pharmaceuticals in simple manufacturing processes with an inexpensive apparatus in a large amount. SOLUTION: The fullerene is obtained by using processes of bringing the raw material containing aromatic compounds into contact with a supercritical fluid or subcritical fluid at a temperature in the range of 31°C to 500°C and a pressure in the range of 3.8 MPa to 60 MPa.

JP2003192318
MANUFACTURING APPARATUS FOR FULLERENE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a manufacturing apparatus and a method of manufacturing fullerene in large quantity, expensively and easily by controlling a precursor of the fullerene and a residence time of the fullerene in a fullerene producing region. SOLUTION: The fullerene manufacturing apparatus 10 is composed of a reaction furnace 15 provided with a burner part 14 having carbon containing compound feeding ports 11, 12, and an oxygen containing gas feeding port 13, wherein raw materials of the carbon containing compound and the oxygen containing gas are burned so as to manufacture the fullerene, and the carbon containing compound feeding ports 11, 12 are formed in a multistage state. The method of manufacturing the fullerene by burning the carbon containing compound and the oxygen containing gas at a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure, the carbon containing compound is fed in multistage feeding. ;C

JP2001019412
DEVICE FOR MANUFACTURING FULLERENES
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To enhance the yield and to reduce the cost about the manufacture of fullerenes. SOLUTION: This device for manufacturing fullerenes is provided with a forming section 1 for forming the fullerenes. The forming section 1 is provided with a chamber 11 constructed so that gas can be introduced into an inner part, a pair of electrodes 12 and 13 disposed oppositely to each other through an electrically discharging space for causing arc discharge within the chamber 11, and a gas discharging path 18 which is provided within the electrode 12 of one side has an opening of one end opened in a position facing to the electrically discharging space and has a nozzle section 12d for expanding the flowing gas into the inner part. The gas g1 is supplied to the electrically discharging space to function as the arc gas and carbon is evaporated in the electrically discharging space, and then the carbon vapor g2 is taken in the gas discharging path 18 provided in the electrode 12 of one side and expanded in the nozzle section 12d to be naturally-cooled and discharged as the fullerene gas.

US2005232846
PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF FULLERENES AND METHOD FOR SEPARATION
Manufacture of a fullerene comprises:  preparing a mixture including fullerene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and a carbon polymeric component; (b) separating the mixture into a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and a mixture of fullerene and carbon polymeric component; and (c) separating this mixture into fullerene and carbon polymeric component. Independent claims are also included for: (1) the separation of fullerenes where the temperature when subliming the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is 100-800[deg]C and the pressure is 0.001-200000 Pa; and (2) the fullerenes obtained by firing and/or heat decomposing a hydrocarbon compound where the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content is at most 1000 ppm.

CN107556166
Hydroxyl fullerene and preparation method thereof
The present invention provides hydroxyl fullerene and a preparation method thereof. The preparation method comprises: mixing a solid fullerene, a hydrogen peroxide solution and an alkali solution to form a mixed solution, and carrying out a reaction to obtain hydroxyl fullerene. According to the present invention, the hydroxyl fullerene is prepared by directly using the solid-liquid reaction, suchthat the obtained hydroxyl fullerene has at least one of the advantages of good water solubility, small particle size, high yield, easy expansion of production scale, and the like, and is suitable for field of biomedicine .

CN206624649
A burner for preparing fullerene
The utility model relates to a burner for preparing fullerene, including the burning jar body and the feed arrangement who sets up on burning jar body upper portion and set up the support in burning jar body lower part, a burning jar body is the cask form, feed arrangement include the feed nozzle and the blender is connected with the feed nozzle and setting the blender lower extreme and burning tank connection's porous heat accumulator, porous heat accumulator is greater than with burning tank connection end cross sectional area feed nozzle cross sectional area, so that the blended fuel reduces the velocity of flow and then abundant burning. Setting up feed arrangement and aperture size and setting up and make fuel and combustion -supporting gas feed arrangement get into, the intensive mixing is even, prevents to draw a temper the ablation to its production because of the misoperation. Porous heat accumulator size sets up the flame of guaranteeing its export and has suitable reaction temperature and suitable productivity and the output of the velocity of flow in order to improve the fullerene.

US2016059205
Fullerene Arc Source and Fullerene Production Apparatus Comprising The Same
A fullerene arc source and a fullerene production apparatus comprising the arc source. More than one independent arc source (2) is mounted in a vacuum furnace (1). Each arc source (2) comprises an anode (21) and a cathode trigger (23). The anode (21) is in contact with the cathode trigger (23) to generate an arc and a triggering end of a positive electrode is vaporized to produce a mixture comprising the fullerene. The multiple arc source in the vacuum furnace (1) simultaneously work to industrially produce the fullerene in a mass manner.

JP2015137408
PRODUCTION METHOD OF CARBON MATERIAL
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for generating a large amount of carbon materials in a relatively low temperature state.SOLUTION: Provided is the production method of carbon material for generating a carbon material on a surface of an action pole 12, by using an electrical chemical method in which direct current is fed with respect to a counter electrode 14 to the action pole 12 from a solution 10 whose temperature is 100°C or more, pressure is larger than 1 air pressure, and solute is a carbon compound. Temperature of the solution 10 is 250°C or more, and pressure of the solution 10 is 11 MPa or more, preferably. The solution 10 is not supercritical fluid, preferably. Therefore, a carbon material including at least one of diamond-like carbon, carbon nanotube, graphene, diamond, and fullerene is provided, for example. The carbon compound includes acetic acid, and the solution is a liquid state and is not the supercritical fluid, and the carbon material includes graphene.

RU2546052
METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION OF GIGA- AND TERAHERTZ FREQUENCY RANGE
FIELD: nanotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology, namely to the field of solid state physics, and can be used to create devices for medical diagnostics of new generation, non-destructive materials testing, scanning luggage in transport, search for explosives on their spectral composition, as well as for nanomicroscopy. The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the method of production of electromagnetic radiation of giga- and terahertz frequency range, which includes placing at least one single-walled carbon nanotube in an electric field directed along the tube, according to the decision a tube with the diameter of 1.39 nm and the length of at least 6.16 nm is selected, from one end of which there are at least three fullerenes Cconnected to each other and to the wall of the nanotube, and a free charged fullerenes Clocated in the potential well of the nanotube, formed through van der Waals interaction between related fullerenes, nanotube wall and the free charged fullerene. For production of electromagnetic radiation of the gigahertz frequency range the nanotube is placed in the electric field with the magnitude of 1·10to 9·10V/cm, and the charge of the free fullerene is selected from +1e to +3e. For obtaining electromagnetic radiation of the terahertz frequency range the nanotube is placed in an electric field magnitude of 1·10V/cm, and the charge of the free fullerene is selected as +3e.EFFECT: increasing the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

CN203620620
High-efficiency fullerene production device with electric arc process
The utility model discloses a high-efficiency fullerene production device with an electric arc process. The fullerene production device with the electric arc process comprises a vacuum furnace, wherein more than one independent electric arc source is arranged in the vacuum furnace; each electric arc source comprises an anode, a cathode and a cathode trigger body and the anode, the cathode and the cathode trigger body form a guide loop shaped like a Chinese character 'hui'; the anode and the cathode trigger body of each electric arc source can generate electric arc simultaneously, so as to generate a fullerene-containing mixture. The high-efficiency fullerene production device can well solve the problem of industrial batch production of fullerene instead of laboratory scientific research in the existing electric arc process, and can automatically, continuously and efficiently produce fullerene and metal fullerene.

UA34567
PROCESS FOR FULLERE PRODUCTION "EROSIVE-EXPLOSIVE
A process for fullerene preparation comprises the action on carbon-containing electrodes by currency pulses in the reaction area of working area, filled with dielectric liquid, discharge of fullerene-containing mass, acoustic action on flow of fullerene-containing mass, outgoing from reaction area, and isolation fullerene from it. As carbon-containing electrodes a plurality of granules of carbon-containing materials is used. As dielectric liquid water is used and electric exploitons of local microvolumes of surface layer of carbon-containing granules with currency pulses in areas adjacent to contact points of metal granules.

CN103585942
Device for producing fullerene efficiently with arc process
The invention discloses a device for producing fullerene efficiently with an arc process. The device comprises a vacuum furnace, wherein more than one independent electric arc sources is mounted in the vacuum furnace; each electric arc source comprises an anode, a cathode and a cathode trigger, and the anode, the cathode and the cathode trigger form a zigzag diversion loop; and an anode and a cathode trigger of each electric arc source can produce electric arcs simultaneously, so that a mixture containing the fullerene is produced. According to the device, the problem that during production of the fullerene with an existing arc process, scientific researches in laboratories are converted to industrial batch production is solved, and the fullerene and metal fullerene can be produced automatically, continuously and efficiently.

KR20130128813
METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING FULLERENE USING BY COMBUSTION
The present invention relates to the production of fullerene by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon. More than one transition metal compound selected from the group consisting of transition metal halides, transition metal sulfides, transition metal carbides, organic transition metal compounds, transition metal nitrides, and transition metal oxides are added as a catalyst to improve productivity compare to an existing combustion method, and to obtain manufacturing cost reduction and mass production effects.

CN103112842
Preparation method of fullerene
The invention discloses a preparation method of fullerene, which comprises the following steps of: grinding plastic; mixing the ground plastic particles with a carbon-containing substance and a combustion-supporting gas at a predetermined temperature and burning; carbonizing the plastic particles at 1,900-2,200 DEG C in a high-temperature carbonization area, and collecting the charcoal ash formed after the carbonization in a low-temperature area at 400-500 DEG C; and separating and purifying the charcoal ash to obtain fullerene. According to the invention, fullerene is prepared by taking a carbon-containing waste substrate as a raw material, thus the waste is sufficiently utilized, the production cost of fullerene is lowered, and relatively great market value is created.

CN102953150
Preparation of fullerene micro-nano fiber in volatilization and diffusion ways
The invention relates to a preparation method for a fullerene micro-nano fiber. The fullerene micro-nano fiber refers to a one-dimensional fullerene micro-nano material formed by connecting fullerene molecules through intermolecular acting force. According to the method, the fullerene micro-nano fiber is prepared by standing a fullerene solution and a poor solvent in a closed system and utilizing the volatilization and diffusion function of the solvent. The method is simple, easy, high in repetition rate and suitable for industrial production, and raw materials can be recycled. The fullerene micro-nano fiber has potential wide application value in the fields of material science, electronics, optics, biomedicine, catalysts, energy resources, environments and the like.

CN102688225
Fullerene lysine derivative and its preparation method and use in radiation protection
The invention relates to the technical field of medicine and discloses a fullerene lysine derivative C60-lys and its preparation method and use in radiation damage protection. The fullerene lysine derivative C60-lys has a molecular formula of C60(HNCH2CH2CH2CH2CH(NH2)COONa)6(H)6. Cytotoxicity and radiation protection experiments of C60-lys to AHH-1 prove that in the concentration below 1200mg/L, C60-lys has basically no toxicity to a human lymphoma parent cell AHH-1; and in a safe concentration range, C60-lys has radiation protection effects on cells, wherein the optimal concentration of C60-lys for radiation protection is 800mg/L. Therefore, C60-lys can be used for preparation a drug for radiation damage protection. The preparation method of C60-lys is simple. C60-lys can be used for preparation of a drug for radiation damage protection by large-scale industrial production.

WO2012067546
DEVICE FOR PRODUCING OF FULLERENE-CONTAINING SOOT
Device for fullerene-containing soot production comprises cylindrical plasma reactor, including horizontal cylindrical hermetical discharge chamber (1), where two graphite rod electrodes (2,3) are located along chamber axis; system of inert gas (mostly helium) circulation, comprising gas supercharger (5) for creation of inert gas flow and its supply into discharge chamber (1), pipeline (6) conducting soot-free inert gas, pipeline (7) taking out fullerene-containing soot and gas and mean (8) of fullerene soot trapping, for instance as a three cyclones (9, 10 and 11) with tangential supply of inert gas, mounted at the input of system (4) of inert gas circulation. Electrodes (2, 3) are installed with allowance of axial reciprocal movement. Hollow cylinder (12) and end lids (13, 14) of high-melted material are installed additionally into discharge chamber (1). Cylinder (12) and chamber casing have orifices for inert gas supply (15, 16) and output (17) and end lids (13, 14) have holes (18, 19) for feeding of said graphite electrodes.

RU2010119780
METHOD FOR PRODUCING EXTRA-PURE C60 FULLERENE CRYSTALS
FIELD: chemistry. ^ SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to chemistry, in particular, to growing crystals from gas-vapour phase. The method includes low-temperature processing of fullerene powder C60 in the dynamic vacuum of 10-4 Pa at the temperature of 720 K for three hours, then the processed powder is sublimated in the dynamic vacuum of 10-4 Pa at the temperature of 880 K for 8 hours, initial fullerene crystals C60 are grown from the sublimated powder in sealed quartz vessels at the temperature of 880 K and the temperature difference between the evporation zone and the growth zone of 5 K during 1-5 days. The final fullerene crystals C60 are grown from the initial crystals in conditions similar to the growth conditions for initial crystals. ^ EFFECT: production of fullerene crystals C60 with high structural perfection, relatively large size (4-8 mm length, 3-4 mm width and 1-2 mm thickness) almost without contaminants. ^ 3 dwg, 1 ex

CN102145881
Method and equipment for producing carbon nanotube and carbon fullerene
The invention discloses a method and equipment for producing a carbon nanotube and carbon fullerene, and in particular relates to a method and equipment for producing the carbon nanotube and the carbon fullerene by focusing incoherent light on a graphite disc and extracting the carbon nanotube and the carbon fullerene out. By the method, high-purity carbon nanotube and carbon fullerene can be directly obtained; and the method and the equipment can be used for research and small-scale production of the carbon nanotube and the carbon fullerene and the research of a carbon fullerene metal inclusion compound and multi-layer carbon fullerene.

CN201634428
Fullerene continuous preparation vacuum device
The utility model discloses a fullerene continuous preparation vacuum device, which comprises a pulverizing chamber, a collection chamber, a heat exchanger and a circulation chamber sequentially connected in series into a circulation system through pipelines. A water cooled screen power collection mechanism is arranged inside the collection chamber, collection tanks A and B are mounted below the pulverizing chamber and the collection chamber, a spiral feeding mechanism and two lifting water cooled anode mechanism sets A and B are mounted on the pulverizing chamber, a rotating water cooled copper plate cathode mechanism is disposed below the pulverizing chamber, and the spiral feeding mechanism and the lifting water cooled anode mechanisms A and B are oppositely mounted relatively to copper rings of the water cooled copper plate cathode mechanism. The fullerene continuous preparation vacuum device has the advantages that structure of the device is compact and reasonable, feeding of raw negative electrode materials and product recovery can be finished under working state, utilization rate of the raw materials and product recovery rate are increased, yield is increased, production cost is reduced, and the device can be used for industrial mass production of fullerene.

JP2009203098
METHOD FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE-LIKE STRUCTURE AND FULLERENE-LIKE STRUCTURE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain a structure having a structure similar to that of fullerene with high production efficiency. ;SOLUTION: The method for producing the fullerene-like structure includes a step of reducing coal having a button index of =2 to powder, a step of carbonizing the powder coal to form char, and a step of reacting the char with a gasifying agent at a predetermined temperature to produce the fullerene-like structure.

RU2341451
METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE-CONTAINING SOOT AND DEVICE TO THIS END
FIELD: chemistry; electricity. ^ SUBSTANCE: in a horizontal cylindrical air-tight discharge chamber 1, with a residue collector, graphite electrodes 2, 3 which are put in-line, and set in cold current leads 8, 9. Fullerene containing soot is obtained in an arc between the electrodes 2, 3. At least one of the electrodes 2, 3 is set with the capability of axial reciprocative movement. Circulatory system 10 for inert gas, which creates two turned annular streams for removal of the resulting products, contains at least two nozzles mounted on the end wall of the discharge chamber 1 at a tangent to the side wall and laying in planes, perpendicular to the axis of the electrodes 2, 3. Device 14 for collecting fullerene containing soot is made in the form of at least one cyclone 15, 16 or 17 with tangential input of gas. ^ EFFECT: increase in the production of soot and fullerene with minimal energy use, blow out and burning of the walls of the discharge chamber walls are eliminated.

RU2007114019
PLANT FOR FULLERENE SOOT PRODUCTION
FIELD: electricity; chemistry. ^ SUBSTANCE: in horizontal sealed discharge chamber 1 provided with residuals collector the coaxial graphite electrodes 2, 3 are installed in cooled current leads 8, 9. Fullerene soot is produced in electric arc between electrodes 2, 3. At least one of the electrodes is installed in such a way that it is capable to make axial back-and-forth movements. At least of the electrodes 2, 3 may be made capable to rotate axially. Discharge chamber 1 is made as two truncated cones couple by their wide bases. These cones are closed by spherical covers. Inert gas circulation system 10 is provided with two pairs of nozzles installed at end walls of discharge chamber 1 at a tangent to its side wall and laying in the planes perpendicular to electrodes 2, 3 axis. Facility 14 for fullerene soot trapping is made as at least one cyclone collector 15, 16 or 17 with tangential gas injection. ^ EFFECT: soot and fullerenes capacity is increased with minimal energy consumption, fullerene soot is fully removed in the process.

US2004208816
Fullerene whisker and production process for fullerene whisker
Provided are a novel fullerene whisker which can be expected to be applied to various uses as a new functional material and a process for efficiently producing the fullerene whisker described above. The above fullerene whisker is constituted from a fullerene derivative obtained by chemically modifying fullerene, and the fullerene whisker described above is produced by a process in which a good solvent solution dissolving a fullerene derivative obtained by chemically modifying fullerene with a malonic acid derivative such as dialkyl malonate in which an alkyl group has 1 to 4 carbon atoms is brought into contact with a poor solvent for the fullerene derivative described above to form a liquid-liquid interface and in which a whisker comprising the fullerene derivative is deposited in this liquid-liquid interface.

US5304366
Process and apparatus for producing and separating fullerenes
A process and apparatus is described for the production of purified fullerenes using a non-reactive gas to collect and transport impure fullerenes from an evaporation zone to a heated filter zone in which solid impurities may be filtered out of the mixture. If one or more condensed fullerenes are present in the gas stream entering the filter zone, such condensed fullerenes may be vaporized in the filter zone and carried to a condensation zone in which one or more vaporized fullerenes may be recovered. When more than one vaporized fullerene is present in the gas entering either the filter zone or the condensation zone, a temperature gradient may be used to permit separation and recovery of purified portions of different fullerenes.

US2005019245
Continuous production of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes
A method and a device for production of fullerene-related carbon nanotubes and fullerenes in direct current arc discharge between two graphite electrodes are disclosed. Two features distinctive from conventional arc discharge technique providing remarkably high productivity of the present method are introduced. The first feature comprises means for maintaining an optimal temperature of anode end surface to suppress formation of large carbon clusters and micro-crystallite carbon particles useless for synthesis of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. The second one comprises means for maintaining an optimal concentration of carbon and catalyst vapor in vapor generation zone to ensure optimal yields of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Airtight plug-in cartridges are used to supply consumable electrodes and catalyst material inside closed-loop device without process being stopped. The means to perform automatic continuous feeding of consumable electrodes and catalyst, pneumatic transportation of condensables and their automatic continuous discharge are also described.

US2006140845
Method for producing fullerene
A method for producing fullerenes is disclosed wherein a hydrocarbon-containing material gas and an oxygen-containing gas are discharged into a fullerene reactor ( 11 ) through a discharge portion ( 21 ) of a burner ( 16 ) arranged in the fullerene reactor ( 11 ), and burned to produce fullerenes. In this method, an average discharge rate at which the hydrocarbon-containing material gas and oxygen-containing gas are discharged through the discharge portion ( 21 ) into the fullerene reactor ( 11 ) is set at a rate higher than 0.75 m/s but not higher than 10 m/s, preferably at a rate not lower than 1 m/s but not higher than 6 m/s, thereby increasing fullerene yield relative to carbon in the hydrocarbon-containing material gas and fullerene content in produced soot-like material. With this method, production volume of fullerenes per unit time can be increased when compared with the conventional methods.

US2005031524
Process for producing fullerene
A process for efficiently producing a target fullerene having a high purity in high yield by a simple method comprising simple steps using small amounts of a solvent and a reagent. The process for fullerene production comprises passing a solution obtained by dissolving a fullerene mixture containing a fullerene in an organic solvent through a layer of powdery activated carbon and then passing an organic solvent in which fullerene C70 has a higher solubility than in that organic solvent. Thus, fullerene C60 and fullerene C70 can be separately obtained.

US6358375
Method and device for producing fullerenes
The invention relates to a method and a device for the continuous production of carbon black with a high fullerene content. The device essentially consists of a plasma reactor (1), a downstream heat separator (2) to separate the non-volatile constituents and a cold separator (3) attached thereto.

WO9323331
PLASMA METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FULLERENES
A process for the production of fullerenes using plasma is disclosed. Carbon powder is supplied through line (214) to a plasma flame located in plenum (206) between cathode (202) and anode (204). The plasma gases leave plenum (206) and proceed to pathway (216). Pathway (216) is lined with refractory insert (217) which maintains the temperature sufficiently high to allow annealing of fullerene precursors into fullerene molecules.

US2003015414
Method and system for production fullerene
An arc discharge is generated between a pair of carbon rod electrodes 1 and 2 and gas containing carbon is supplied to a part between the pair of carbon electrodes 1 and 2 from a gas supply pipe 8 or a through bole 16, so that a large amount of fullerenes, especially carbon nanotubes is simply produced with high yield.

RU2005120516
METHOD FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF FULLERENES
FIELD: fullerene technology. ^ SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, a mixture of fullerenes, dissolved in organic solvent, is let through a column with sorbent. As sorbent, carbonized active silica is used with effective diameter of pores 15-35 nm and specific surface 100-300 m2/g in granulated form, at least 1% of carbon being applied to the surface of aforementioned sorbent. After sorbent is saturated by fullerene mixture, fullerenes are eluted to separate fraction by letting one or serially letting a series of various organic solvents of aromatic origin, such as toluene, o-xylene, o- dichlorobenzene, through the column. Invention allows production of fractions of highest fullerenes with their relative content being 80-95%, provides 5-12 times higher extraction of highest fullerenes from total amount of highest fullerenes fed into columns and 7-13 times higher extraction of highest fullerenes into fractions saturated with them. ^ EFFECT: method is based on usage of accessible sorbents and solvents and can be easily realized in practice.

RU2004102149
METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE
FIELD: atomic power; methods of utilization of substandard materials. ^ SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of atomic power, to the methods of utilization of substandard materials such as the reactor black lead and a solid fuel, in particular, to production of fullerene. The invention provides for preparation of a mixture from the solid fuel and the spent reactor black lead ground up to the size of the fraction of no more than 2 mm at their ratio from 1:2 to 1:10 accordingly. Intermix it up to production of the uniform mass. In addition introduce MgO, Al2, SiO2, CaF2 and C20-28 in amount of 5 % from the total mass of the mixture. The prepared mixture feed to the reaction zone of the installation. Conduct the thermal sublimation first at the temperature of 1800/2700°C with the subsequent temperature rise up to 3500-5000°C. The reprocess product is withdrawn to the ultracentrifuge for separation. The separated solid material is withdrawn for usage as the target product - fullerene. The gaseous phases are subjected to the bubbling process through the alkaline solution with the subsequent conservation of a deposit. The final treatment of the gas is conducted using the screen of Petrjanov's system. The invention allows to expand the source base of raw materials for production of fullerenes, allows to utilize sub-standard materials and to improve ecology. ^ EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the source base of raw materials for production of fullerenes, utilization of sub-standard materials for the purpose and to improve ecology. ^ 2 cl

RU2004101947
PLANT FOR PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE-CONTAINING SOOT
FIELD: high-temperature superconductivity physics, chemistry, biophysics, medicine, biology, electronics, optoelectronics and material technology. ^ SUBSTANCE: graphite specimen 1, either monolythic or in form of tube is placed in radioparent tube 3 with high-frequency inductor 4 located along its axis and connected with RH oscillator 5. These units of plant are combined in heating system 2 made in form of closed space. It is connected with inert gas supply system 6 through flow meter 7 and gas former 8 connected in series; gas former 8 has helical thread for forming twisted flow. Carbon from surface of specimen 1 is directed in flow of inert gas to storage reservoir 9 hermetically connected with heating system 2 and inert gas discharge system 12. Storage reservoir 9 is provided with soot collector 10 located outside heating system 2 and provided with cooling system 11. Productivity of plant is increased by 10 times with no impairment of quality. ^ EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased productivity. ^ 7 cl, 1 dwg

RU2206500
PLANT FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE-CONTAINING MATERIALS
FIELD: production of fullerene-containing materials. SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for producing fullerenes and classifying them in continuous process, producing solvents and mixtures, as well as fullerene-containing materials from separated fullerenes. Carbon-containing material 3 is placed in reaction zone 2 of. working chamber 1. The latter is communicating with duct 4 for conveying fullerene-containing material to assembly 5. Slag is collected in bin 6. Chambers 7, 8, and 9 are designed to mix up fullerenes with fillers supplied from bins 10, 11, and 12. Assembly 5 used for selective classification of fullerenes communicates with bins 13, 14, and 15 for accumulating fullerenes of same class. Additional bins 16, 17, and 18 are meant for solvents such as polyethylene glycol, unsaturated fatty acid, and the like. Different fullerenes are mixed up with respective solvents in chambers 19, 20, and 21. Chambers 7, 8, and 9 are covered with sealing hood 22 communicating with vacuum unit 23 and filter 24. Chambers 19, 20, and 21 communicate with exhaust pneumatic system pumps 25 and with gas cleaning filters 26. Chambers 7, 8, and 9 are provided with acoustic-wave radiators 27, electromagnetic-wave radiators 28, and thermal field radiators 29. Assembly 5 has curvilinear passages with skew-cut holes, needles, and caverns for accumulating fullerenes. EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.  

RU227080
METHOD OF SEPARATION OF FULLERENES FROM SCHUNGITE
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of separation (extraction) of the natural and synthetic materials. ^ SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, to the methods of separation (extraction) of the natural and synthetic materials, in particular, to separation and purification of the most wide-spread fullerenes - C60 and C70 from the natural fullerene-containing soot of schungite carbon. The purpose of the offered invention is to simplify the method of separation of fullerenes from schungite, to increase the amount of the treated raw, to decrease the power input costs in terms of the costs per a unit of weight of the target product. The substance of the invention is that the processes of extraction and crystallization are combined in one production cycle, that allows considerably to reduce the solvent concentration. The purpose in view is realized by extraction from the water-schungite suspension using the sulfur-carbon bisulfide solution and the subsequent crystallization purification of the near-surface volumes of the produced solution. Besides an increase of effectiveness of the extraction according to the offered method is achieved by an anodic pickling of the schungite powder and irradiation by short-range UDV-light of the water-schungite suspensions. ^ EFFECT: the invention allows to simplify the method of separation of fullerenes from schungite, to increase the amount of the treated raw, to decrease the power input costs in terms of the costs per a unit of weight of the target product.  

RU2205791
FULLERENE PRODUCTION PROCESS
FIELD: carbon materials. SUBSTANCE: graphite rods are placed in working chamber and, through the rods, electric current at voltage 28-32 V and intensity 220 A is passed. Reaction products are withdrawn from the chamber with neutral gas flow and, at the chamber outlet, they are affected by electron stream. Then, cross-section of flow is sharply (by 3-5 times) expanded and flow density decreases from center to periphery, therefrom slag is removed. Remaining fullerene mixture is affected by acoustic emission at frequency 25-35 kHz and then by infrared emission ionized by means of helium-neon laser radiation, which enables selective orientation of different fullerene fractions: C60 in the center and C70 and C78-84 farther in series. Each fraction is separately withdrawn on traps-accumulators. Prior to be trapped, fullerene flow can be additionally affected by electromagnetic emission with power 0.1 to 2.5 W/cu.dm. Recovered fullerenes are either directly employed in chemical industry or stored in sealed containers at reduced pressure under neutral gas. EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of separating fullerenes from slag, enabled process continuity, and ensured fullerene storage reliability. 2 cl

RU2205790
FULLERENE PRODUCTION PLANT
FIELD: carbon materials. SUBSTANCE: in working chamber receiving neutral gas, discharge distance between graphite materials is fixed. Graphite materials' processing flow is affected by electron stream from emitter 18, acoustic emission from emitter 19, infrared emission from emitter 21, and ionized infrared emission from emitter 22. Slag is withdrawn over reverse-oriented cavities 20. Selective classification of fullerenes is effected on electrostatic separators 24, 25, and 26, wherein fullerenes C60, C70, C84, respectively, are accumulated. Processing flow can also be affected by electromagnetic emission from additional emitter 23. Accumulated fullerenes are driven off to be directly employed in chemical industry or to be stored. Gas from connecting pipe 17 is transferred on filters 18 and then returned to chamber 1 through connecting pipes 12 and 13. EFFECT: increased productivity pf plant, enhanced efficiency of separating fullerenes from slag and in classification of fullerenes, improved control of parameters and composition of produced flow.

RU2186022
METHOD OF SYNTHESIS OF FULLERENES
chemical technology. SUBSTANCE: evaporation of graphite rods is carried out in reaction zone of working chamber by effect of current discharge with simultaneous effect by energy of electric and electromagnetic fields. The discharge current power is 150-500 A at voltage 26-32 V, electric field intensity is 10-25 A/m2, electromagnetic field intensity is 0.1-0.5 A/m2, induction value is 0.1-1.0 Tl. Method involves the effect acoustic field energy on fullerene-containing mass removing from the reaction zone by three perpendicular reciprocal directions at frequency 25-35 kHz for each and at intensity value 0.5-5.0 dB. This ensures to carry out the ordered and regulated process of removal of fullerene-containing mass with accumulation of fullerene particles. Invention can be used for production of new materials used in different branches of industry. EFFECT: decreased energy consumption, high yield of fullerenes (15-22 wt.-%).

JP2003160318
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an apparatus for continuously performing the production of a fullerene and the separation of the fullerene from another soot component in one apparatus and for continuously producing a large amount of fullerene and a method for producing the fullerene using it. ;SOLUTION: The apparatus for producing the fullerene has a fullerene generating device to generate a gas stream which contains the fullerene, a polycyclic aromatic compound and a soot material containing a carbon base polymer component from a carbonous raw material and a separator to separate a gaseous fullerene and/or a gaseous polycyclic aromatic compound from the gas stream containing the soot material.  

JP2005194131
PRODUCTION METHOD FOR FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an efficient method for producing a high-purity fullerene in a high yield by a simple method and process, by using small amounts of a solvent and a reagent, and by their regeneration and recycling. ;SOLUTION: A fullerene solution prepared by dissolving a fullerene mixture in a solvent with a fullerene C<SB>60</SB>solubility of 6 mg/mL or higher is caused to pass through a layer of activated carbon produced from a mineral matter. In another way, a fullerene solution containing a fullerene mixture dissolved therein is caused to pass through an activated carbon layer; then, an organic solvent is caused to pass through the activated carbon layer through which the fullerene solution has passed; and a new fullerene solution is caused to pass through the activated carbon layer.  

JP2005194131
PRODUCTION METHOD FOR FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an efficient method for producing a high-purity fullerene in a high yield by a simple method and process, by using small amounts of a solvent and a reagent, and by their regeneration and recycling. ;SOLUTION: A fullerene solution prepared by dissolving a fullerene mixture in a solvent with a fullerene C<SB>60</SB>solubility of 6 mg/mL or higher is caused to pass through a layer of activated carbon produced from a mineral matter. In another way, a fullerene solution containing a fullerene mixture dissolved therein is caused to pass through an activated carbon layer; then, an organic solvent is caused to pass through the activated carbon layer through which the fullerene solution has passed; and a new fullerene solution is caused to pass through the activated carbon layer.  

JP2005170695
FULLERENE PRODUCTION METHOD
 PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a fullerene production method capable of selectively forming fullerene C60, fullerene C70, or a higher fullerene. ;SOLUTION: In a method for producing mixed fullerene having fullerene C60, fullerene C70, and higher fullerenes by feeding a hydrocarbon raw material and an oxygen-containing gas into a reactor 11 and subjecting them to incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition in the reactor 11, the ratio (fullerene C70)/(fullerene C60) in the mixed fullerene is 1 or smaller, the ratio of the fullerene C60, the fullerene C70 and the higher fullerenes produced is controlled, and a sootlike material containing the mixed fullerene is continuously recovered from a high-temperature gas generated in the reactor 11.  

JP2004345893
PRODUCTION METHOD FOR FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for continuously and efficiently producing a large amount of fullerene. ;SOLUTION: This method for producing fullerene comprises feeding a hydrocarbon material and an oxygen-containing gas to a reactor 11 and incompletely combusting them in the reactor 11. In the method, the hydrocarbon material is preheated to a temperature higher than its gasification temperature and lower than its autoignition temperature in the presence of oxygen and then fed to the reactor 11. If necessary, the oxygen-containing gas is preheated to a temperature higher than the normal temperature and lower than its autoignition temperature.

JP2004269298
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREPARING FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method of preparing fullerene by which the fullerene is efficiently separated and recovered from a large quantity of a soot like material produced in the mass production of fullerene. ;SOLUTION: A hydrocarbon raw material is incompletely combusted or thermally decomposed to produce a soot-like material-containing gas stream containing fullerene, a polycyclic aromatic compound and a carbon-based high polymer component. The high temperature soot-like material-containing gas stream is passed through a heat resistant filter 20 to separate and remove a vaporized material consisting essentially of the polycyclic aromatic compound to obtain the soot-like material-containing fullerene.

JP2004075453
METHOD FOR CONTINUOUSLY PRODUCING CARBON NANOTUBE OR FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To inexpensively and easily produce a carbon nanotube, a fullerene or both of them. ;SOLUTION: In the production of the carbon nanotube, the fullerene or both of them, air intake, compression, combustion/explosion and exhaust are continuously performed inside a cylinder 1 having a piston 2, a crank 3, an air intake valve 4, an exhaust valve 5 and a hydrocarbon raw fuel injection nozzle 6 as constituents. The compression at this time is performed in such a manner that rapid compression is carried out at a temperature of 300 to 800°C till 0.5 to 5 MPa pressure in a short time from 1 ms to 1 s. Further, a part of the raw fuel is burnt inside the cylinder to form a reaction field at a temperature of 800 to 3,000°C under a pressure of 0.5 to 15 MPa.

JP2003206115
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING FULLERENE AND CARBON NANOTUBE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and an apparatus for manufacturing fullerene and a carbon nanotube by which the mass-production of the fullerene and the carbon nanotube using an inexpensive carbon raw material is continuously performed. ;SOLUTION: In the method and the apparatus for manufacturing the fullerene and the carbon nanotube, three phase AC arc electrodes 36, 38, 40 are arranged at a certain interval in an arc plasma chamber 34, and after a mixture of the granular carbon material with a catalytic metal powder are filled in the arc plasma chamber 34, three phase AC power is supplied to the arc electrodes and a neutral electrode while passing a plasma gas through many fine arc passages formed in a gap among the mixture of the granular carbon material with the catalytic metal powder. The fullerene and the carbon nanotube are synthesized by moving an arc producing region periodically to form carbon vapor in the arc plasma chamber and cooling the carbon vapor.

JP2003232505
BURNER AND PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT OF FULLERENE WITH USAGE OF IT
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a burner capable of forming an even flame having a wide area and a short length, and production equipment of a fullerene whereby economical mass production is possible. ;SOLUTION: This burner has a plurality of oxygen-containing gas supply regions and fuel supply regions on an almost plane flame forming part. The sum of the oxygen-containing gas supply region area and the fuel supply region area is 0.1% or more with respect to a flame forming part area. The production equipment of the fullerene includes the burner on a furnace bottom surface, and a fullerene raw material hydrocarbon supply port.

JP2003192317
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE POLYMER
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and an apparatus for producing a fullerene polymer simply and in large quantities, and to provide the method and apparatus capable of controlling the production of the fullerene polymer of trimer or more. ;SOLUTION: The fullerene polymer is produced as follows: a fullerene powder is heated under an atmospheric gas of a predetermined pressure and the fullerene grains are produced, and the produced fullerene grains are ionized and polymerized.

JP2003160317
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING FULLERENES
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and an apparatus able to produce economically a fullerene with mass production. ;SOLUTION: Fullerenes are produced by combustion and/or pyrolysis of a carbon containing compound in a combustion furnace. A combustion and/or pyrolysis gas in the combustion furnace is rotated to a combustion furnace axis direction.

JP2003160316
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING FULLERENES
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and an apparatus able to produce economically a fullerene with mass production. ;SOLUTION: Fullerenes are produced by combustion and/or pyrolysis of a carbon containing compound in a combustion furnace. An oxygen containing gas fed for a combustion reaction is preheated.

JP2003054924
METHOD AND APPARATUS OF PRODUCING FULLERENE AND CARBON NANOTUBE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method and apparatus of producing fullerence and carbon nanotubes by which continuous mass production is possible using an inexpensive carbon raw material. SOLUTION: In the method and apparatus of producing fullerence, a neutral electrode is arranged at the center part, and an arc plasma confined chamber 41 is formed in the insides of cylindrical multiphase alternate current electrodes 36, 38 and 40 arranged concentrically with the electrode. A mixture of a carbon material and a catalytic metal is filled into the arc plasma confined chamber 41, and thereafter arc plasma continuously and periodically moving in an axial direction within the gaps of the mixture of the carbon material and the metallic catalyst is generated to generate carbon vapor. The carbon vapor is separated by a filter 84, and fullerence is separated and recovered by a condenser 18. A carrier gas passes through an exhaust heat recovery part 63, and is circulated from a gas feed port 52 to the inside of the arc plasma chamber 34.

US6884404
MANUFACTURING METHOD OF CARBON NANOTUBE AND/OR FULLERENE AND MANUFACTURING DEVICE THEREFOR
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a manufacturing method and manufacturing device capable of continuously manufacturing high purity nanotube and/or fullerene with high production efficiency. SOLUTION: The manufacturing method of carbon nanotube or the like is performed by reducing the pressure in a system to <=1.3 Pa, supplying at least a carbon-containing liquid material, changing the pressure in the system to 1.3-93.3 kPa, discharging arc and supplying the carbon-containing liquid material into the discharge plasma generated by the arc discharge to decompose the carbon-containing liquid material to form carbon nanotube and/or fullerene. At least a pair of electrodes 11a and 11b for generating discharge plasma by the arc discharge is provided in a vacuum chamber 10 and the vacuum chamber 10 is equipped with a gas supply means 17 capable of supplying a carrier gas and a raw material supply means 16 capable of supplying the carbon-containing liquid material to the discharge plasma through an introducing pipe 15.

JP3025772
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE BY COMBUSTION METHOD
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve the yield of fullerenes in the industrial scale production of fullerene by the combustion method, and to sharply decrease the production cost. SOLUTION: In the production of fullerenes by incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel, at least one transition metal compd. selected from the group described below is added as a catalyst to the hydrocarbon fuel and combusted. The group of transition metal compds. includes sandwich-type metallocenes comprised of transition metals and two molecules of cyclopentadiene, complexes of transition metals and ketoenol-type org. active compds. such as acetylacetonate, coordinate compds. of transition metals with amines, olefins, carbon monoxide or the like, chlorides of transition metals, oxides of transition metals and org. carboxylates of transition metals.

JPH05116923
METHOD FOR PRODUCING FULLERENES
PURPOSE:To efficiently use carbon material in producing fullerenes. CONSTITUTION:Soot contg. fullerenes is formed in a fullerene producing device 50, introduced into a heating vessel 68 of a fullerene separator 66 and heated by a heater 70. The fullerenes in the soot are sublimated and recovered in traps 74, 76 and 78. The soot separated from the fullerenes is again supplied to a spray nozzle 54 through pipelines 71 and 56 and used in the fullerene forming reaction. Since the soot separated from the fullerenes is recycled in this way as the raw material, the cost of raw material is reduced. High-purity fullerenes are obtained because the fullerenes are heated, sublimated and removed from the formed soot, and the production process is also simplified.

JPH0585711
REFINING METHOD OF FULLERENE C60
PURPOSE:To provide a refining method of fullerene C60 with simple operation and process, high space time yield which is significantly and practically useful and easily applied for mass production in an industrial scale so that high purity fullerene C60 is efficiently separated and recoverd from soot containing fullerene C60 obtd. by arc discharge of carbon such as graphite or the like or laser abrasion or from a soln. containing fullerene C60 with impurities obtd. by extraction of the soot above described with an org. solvent. CONSTITUTION:A soln. containing fullerene C60 with impurities obtd. by extraction of soot containing fullerene C60 with an org. solvent is subjected to contact treatment with activated carbon. The fullerene C60 is refined by separating and removing the org. solvent from this treated liquid.
 
JPH06122513
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE
PURPOSE:To synthesize a fullerene in improved production efficiency by subliming and reacting graphite by the discharge of microwaves generated from the microwave incidence graphite antenna of a cavity resonator for discharging the microwaves. CONSTITUTION:A graphite bar as an antenna 2 is attached to the inner conductor 3 of a coaxial wave guide converter 8 in a cavity resonator 1 for discharging microwaves. He gas is charged in the cavity resonator 1 sealed with a Teflon seal 4 to a prescribed pressure, and a microwave field is discharged from the graphite antenna 2 through waveguide converter 8 after produced with a microwave oscillator 7. The surface temperature of the graphite antenna is uniformly raised with the discharged plasma to sublime and react the graphite. The change in the length of the graphite antenna 2 is adjusted with an antenna length- adjusting screw 6 to constantly maintain the length of the antenna. After a prescribed discharge time, black products (flaky products) stuck to a filter 9 and to the inner wall of the cavity resonator 1 are recovered and subsequently extracted with a soxhlet using toluene, etc., to provide the fullerene.

JPH0570115
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENES
PURPOSE:To provide a process for the mass-production of fullerene which is a spherical cluster of carbon. Fullerene exhibits physically and chemically interesting behavior different from conventional carbon material in spite of the fact that the molecule is exclusively composed of carbon. It forms a compound with alkali metal, etc., to exhibits electrical conductivity, especially superconductivity and the practical utilization of the substance is being investigated. Conventional process for the production of fullerene is the heating of the surface of a solid carbon at a high temperature in an inert atmosphere under reduced pressure and the separation of the compound from the soot evaporated from the carbon. CONSTITUTION:A hydrocarbon gas 3, especially ethylene or acetylene is allowed to decompose in a reaction vessel 1 to form carbon soot, which is dispersed in a solvent to effect the extraction and separation of fullerene in the solvent. Since ethylene or acetylene explosively decomposes to instantaneously form carbon soot, the soot has high fullerene content and the fullerene can be produced in high productivity.

JPH1087310
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE AND DEVICE THEREFOR
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a producing method by which continuous synthesis of a fullerene and a metallic atom-contg. fullerene is easily carried out and the rates of recovery of fullerene and metallic atom-contg. fullerene and this reac tion yields can be enhanced as compared with the conventional techniques. SOLUTION: A gaseous medium for discharge is introduced into a discharge tube 2 disposed in a cavity resonator 1 causing microwave discharge, discharge is caused under atmospheric pressure to generate hot plasma and a hydrocarbon compd. or this compd. and a metal as starting materials are fed into the plasma, decomposed and brought into reaction to produce the objective fullerene and metallic atom-contg. fullerene.

JPH0761803
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE AND CARBON NANOTUBE
PURPOSE:To synthesize fullerene and carbon nanotubes with good mass productivity. CONSTITUTION:This method for synthesizing fullerene and carbon nanotubes comprises making Ar gas flow through the interior of a reactional tube 1 made of quartz glass, making a high-frequency electric current flow through an induction coil 3 wound around the periphery thereof under >=100Torr pressure, producing a thermal plasma 4, feeding powder 6 of carbon into the thermal plasma 4, evaporating and recombining the powder. Since the thermal plasma 4 produced by the high-frequency induction has a wide plasma region at a high temperature, a large amount of the carbon powder 6 can instantaneously be evaporated to synthesize large amounts of the fullerene and carbon nanotubes in a short time.

JPH0656414
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE COMPOUNDS
PURPOSE:To improve the efficiency of the production of the fullerene compound. CONSTITUTION:A constant amount of a raw material is continuously fed into a thermal plasma 11 downward generated from a plasma-generating system 7 and reacted in the thermal plasma 11 to produce the sooty product containing the fullerene compound. The product is introduced into a product-recovering tank 37 from a connecting piping 36, and most of the product is deposited in the product-recovering tank 37. The non-deposited product is perfectly recovered with a bag filter 40. Since the plasma-generating oven is disposed in the vertical direction and further since the thermal plasma 11 is jetted in the downward direction, the sooty product containing the produced fullerene compound is effectively dropped from the plasma-generating oven 35 into the product-recovering tank 37. Therefore, the deposition of the product in the plasma-generating oven 35 is reduced, and the operation can continuously be continued over a long period. And, since the sooty product containing the fullerene compound is almost perfectly recovered with the product-recovering tank 37 and the bag filter 40, the recovery rate of the fullerene compound is extremely high.

JPH09309713
FULLERENE AND ITS PRODUCTION
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To enable the preparation of a giant fllerene under controlled conditions and further the control over the shape or formed position, etc., of the giant fllerene. SOLUTION: This fullerene is the one formed in the surface layer part of an amorphous carbon 1. Furthermore, the fullerene, e.g. a giant fullerene 7 is formed from a constituent atom or a constituent molecule of a target material 4, separated and sticking to the amorphous carbon 1 by the oblique irradiation of the target material 4, arranged on the amorphous carbon 1 and having pores 3 with high-energy beams 5 as a nucleating point at a position corresponding to each pore 3 of a target material 4. The giant fllerene 7 can be changed into a filmy structure by mutually connecting plural grains of the giant fllerene 7.

JPH08295505
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE THIN FILM
PURPOSE: To form a rigid fullerene thin film by providing a process for forming the fullerene thin film on a substrate and a process for polymerizing the fullerene by the irradiation of light energy to prevent the detachment or movement of the fullerene from the substrate. CONSTITUTION: The fullerene is made of carbons bonded into a basket state having single bonds and double bonds between carbons. When the fullerene is irradiated with light at the wavelength of about 300nm, a part of the double bonds is broken to bond fullerene molecules to each other. As a result, several numbers of fullereene molecules are cross-linked, and then, fullerene is fixed and so prevented from the detachment from the substrate or the movement on the substrate. In the figure, after a monomolecular layer of C60 is vapor deposited on the (001) plane of a molybdenum disulfide substrate 2 kept at 200 deg.C from a vapor deposition cell 1 under vacuum, a shutter 3 is closed and ultraviolet ray at the wavelength of 300nm is applied through a viewing port 4 for 1min from a ultraviolet lamp 5. The work of vapor depositing the monomolecular layer of C60 and irradiating with light is repeated 100 times.

JPH08268705
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE AND DEVICE THEREFOR
PURPOSE: To provide an inexpensive method and device for continuously and stably synthesizing fullerene from a carbonaceous material by an arc-discharge process in good yield and in large quantities for a long time while sufficiently excluding the factors such as oxygen, moisture, etc., inhibiting the synthesis of fullerene. CONSTITUTION: A long-sized and flexible carbonaceous material 2 is arranged in the carbonaceous raw material feeder 1 such as creel and bobbin set in a treating chamber 6. The chamber 6 is transiently evacuated to a super-high vacuum of <=10<-2> mmHg to exclude oxygen, moisture, etc. An inert gas is then introduced into the chamber 6 to adjust the pressure in the chamber 6 to 5-500-mmHg. The atmosphere is maintained, the carbonaceous material 2 is continuously supplied closely to the counter electrode 4 set in the chamber 6, and a power is impressed between the material as an electrode and the counter electrode to generate an arc discharge. As fullerene is scattered, the fullerene is recovered from the soot accumulated in a soot receiver 5 surrounding the counter electrode 4.

JP3335791
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE
PURPOSE: To obtain fullerene to which application in various technological fields is expected at high yield. CONSTITUTION: Direct current arc discharge is induced using an anode which is a carbon complex electrode containing diamond to produce the objective fullerene. The carbon complex electrode is formed by boring a hole in the central part and packing a mixture of diamond powder with carbon powder into the interior.

JP2000219506
PRODUCTION OF FULLERENE
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain fullerene with a relatively simple method at high yield by filling carboneceous powder in a mold, in which electrodes are arranged to face each other, and passing pulse current undetrvacuum or a non-oxidizing gas atmosphere. SOLUTION: The energizing condition is set to 50-30,000 A/mm2 current to be passed, 50-35,000 Hz base current cycle, 0.1-500 Hz rectangular pulse cycle and 15-85% pulse cycle width. The kind of the carbonaceous powder is not limited and carbide powder originated from biomass or carbide powder originated from fossil fuel can be used. As the electrode, thoria tungsten, non- consumable heat resistant electrode such as W, Mo can be used. Short cycle numerous arcs are generated not only between the electrodes but among each filled carbonaceous powder by passing pulse current between the electrodes and the formation of fullerene efficiently proceeds to reach >=80% in the rate of formation of fullerene in corporation with gas forming effect by oxygen or hydrogen adsorbed on the carbonaceous powder.

JPH08217431
FULLERENE AND ITS PRODUCTION
PURPOSE: To obtain fullerene with excellent reproducibility in a state capable of various operations or controls on a room-temperature stage by irradiating high-energy beams to an amorphous carbon in vacuum in the presence of an active metal. CONSTITUTION: The objective huge fullerene such as onion-like graphite is generated from carbon atoms existing near the surface layer of amorphous carbon by irradiating electron beams having >=1×10<19> e/cm<2> .sec intensity to amorphous carbon in a vacuum atmosphere of <=10<-5> Pa in the presence of an active metal such as pure Al ultrafine particles of about 5-100nm diameter. Alternatively, huge fullerenes such as carbon nanocapsule, carbon nanotube or onion-like graphite are generated from a carbon source existing the surface layer of semi-stable metal oxide particles by irradiating electron beams having >=1×10<19> e/cm<2> .sec intensity to semi-stable metal oxide particles such as ?-Al2 O3 about 50-200nm diameter existing on amorphous carbon in a vacuum atmosphere of <=10<-5> Pa.

JP3434926
FULLERENE AND ITS PRODUCTION
PURPOSE: To obtain fullerene with excellent reproducibility in a state capable of various operations or controls on a room-temperature stage by irradiating high-energy beams to an amorphous carbon in vacuum in the presence of an active metal. CONSTITUTION: The objective huge fullerene such as onion-like graphite is generated from carbon atoms existing near the surface layer of amorphous carbon by irradiating electron beams having >=1×10<19> e/cm<2> .sec intensity to amorphous carbon in a vacuum atmosphere of <=10<-5> Pa in the presence of an active metal such as pure Al ultrafine particles of about 5-100nm diameter. Alternatively, huge fullerenes such as carbon nanocapsule, carbon nanotube or onion-like graphite are generated from a carbon source existing the surface layer of semi-stable metal oxide particles by irradiating electron beams having >=1×10<19> e/cm<2> .sec intensity to semi-stable metal oxide particles such as ?-Al2 O3 about 50-200nm diameter existing on amorphous carbon in a vacuum atmosphere of <=10<-5> Pa.

JPH05186209
PRODUCTION OF CARBON CLUSTER C60
PURPOSE:To obtain a carbon cluster C60 of improved purity by separating carbon cluster C60 through liquid column chromatography from a carbon cluster mixture obtained by extracting soot in an exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine with an aromatic hydrocarbon. CONSTITUTION:A fuel such as gasoline is burned in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine and soot is collected from the exhaust gas from an exhaust vent. The soot is then extracted with an aromatic hydrocarbon such as benzene using a Soxhlet extractor to obtain a carbon cluster mixture whose content is 0.1-5wt.% in the soot. On subjecting the mixture to mass spectroscopy, carbon cluster (hereafter, referred to as fullerene) C60 and fullerene C70 can be recognized at mass/charge of 720 and 840, respectively. The mixture is then developed with e.g. hexane using liquid column chromatography packed with neutral Al2O3 as absorbent to obtain a hexane solution of fullerene C60 followed by evaporating the hexane, thus obtaining the objective high-purity fullerene C60.

HK1127019
SEPARATION OF FULLERENE C60 AND C70 USING CRYSTALLIZATION
The present invention provides a method for separating two highly pure fullerenes from a mixture of fullerenes comprising crystallizing a first fullerene component and a second futlerene component, wherein the phase equilibrium behavior of the mixture fed to a crystallizer is characterized by a region(s) where a pure fullerene of the two fullerenes or the solid solution or solvate thereof can be crystallized out. In particular, the present invention provides a method for simultaneously separating two highly pure fullerenes from a mixture of fullerenes via crystallization, which comprises (i) adjusting the amount of a solvent in the mixture fed to a first crystallizer to obtain a phase equilibrium behavior such that a first fullerene components of the two fullerenes, in the form of a pure crystal, a solid solution crystal, or a solvate crystal is obtained during crystallization; (ii) adjusting the amount of a solvent in the mixture fed to a second crystallizer, operating at a different temperature compared to the first crystallizer, to obtain a phase equilibrium behavior such that a second fullerene component of the two fullerenes, in the form of a pure crystal, a solid solution crystal, or a solvate crystal is obtained during crystallization; and additionally (iii) purifying the solid solution or the solvate into a highly pure fullerene, when the solid product from the crystallizers is in the form of a solid solution or a solvate. The method according to the present invention allows to obtain up to 99.99% pure fullerenes, with relatively low production and separation cost. The method can be applied for various two fullerenes-solvent systems.




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