Hydrelate / HydroFuel
Toronto Blade ( 11 September 1975 )
New fuel Idea Works, Experts Say
A 1975 Ford statio wagon was driven from New to washington rcently
with its gas tank filled with HydroFuel.
HydroFuel is about 45 % crude alcohol, 45% medium octane gasoline,
and 10 % water."The entire mixture is made into a clear fuel by
adding a few percent Hydrelate", Alfred Globus said.
Dr Globus is co-counder and president of United International
Research, inc., an independent research firm on Long Island.
If his new fuel proves out, the impact our economy would be
tremendous. In mass production Hydrofuel would sell for less than
50 cents a gallon and would save 1million gallons of gasoline a
day, Dr Globus says.
The prospect of HydroFuel being everything Dr Globus hopes it is
are slim, if for no other reason than many ideas of this nature
pop up and inevitably (seemingly) fail.
Dr Globus, however, has credentials. he is a former teacher of
biochemistry at Fairleigh Dickinson University. United
International is affiliated with Guardian Chemical Corp. United
International's Polycomplex, which enables oil to with water, was
used to clean up the great Santa Barbara oil spill of 1969
A lto of schemes that didn't work involved mixing water and
alcohol with gasoline. For years engineers have known that adding
water to gasoline improves combustion. In World War 2, water was
injected into the cylinders of planes for increasing power during
More recently, water tanks have been put on cars for injection at
ignition. It is clumsy, and in cold weather the water freezes.
Dr Globus claims to have solved the problem with his Hydrelate,
synthetic compound made partly from coal. His fuel is mixed at the
refinery or at a distributor's station and may be handles at
stations just like regular gasoline.
That '75 Ford wagon is a stock model with 60,000 miles on it. Six
thousand were tun with the first version of Hydrofuel,and 6000
more were driven with the present HydroFuel. Dr Globus says the
car gets approximately one mile a gallon less than with regular
"The oil companies, with their large gas refining capacity, are
not too enthusiastic about our product", Dr Globus said.
"The entire fuel-water, alcohol and gasoline mixed with the
Hydrelate -- would cost 20 to 25 % less than unleaded gas if it
were made in carload quantities".
If oil companies aren't enthusiastic, the auto companies are. No
modifications of existing autos are needed. The fuel would solve
many, maybe all, of their problems in meeting anti-pollution
standards. Catalytic converters might be unnecessary. The fuel
could be the savior of Detroit's prime money maker, the big car.
Fuel For Heating
During the winter the oil furnace at United International burns
Hydroleum, which is 90% fuel oil and 10% water by the same
I could conceive of the fuel being used in airplanes, too", Dr
""I've had it in containers as long as three months with no sign
of separation. We've operated at 20 degrees below zero showing no
sign of crystallization, and it would be good to 30 below.
"Two foreign countries -- one in a part of South America where a
lot of sugar is grown, the other an Arab country -- have expressed
interest in the process. The alcohol come from cellulose, such as
sugar cane or corn stalks.
One of these times there's going to bea breakthrough in
supplementing gasoline. "I had a call from a major sugar
producer", Dr Globus remarked. "He said some day the waste they
now throw away might be worth more than the sugar is."
Ludington Daily News ( 23 April 1977 )
Fuel Substitute Ignored by Carter
Stabilization of ethanol-gasoline mixtures
A stabilized composition of matter comprising a fuel oil, such as
gasoline, ethanol, small amounts of water and a stabilizing amount
of an additive which is substantially insoluble in water, but
which is soluble in ethyl alcohol and gasoline and is effective to
prevent the separation of the gasoline-ethyl alcohol solution into
two distinct phases; said additive being n-hexylalcohol,
hereinafter, n-hexanol. The invention also includes a method for
stabilizing gasoline, that is, for preventing or retarding the
phase separation of gasoline-ethanol mixtures in the presence of
small amounts of water, and this being the case when the
temperature of the gasoline-ethanol mixture has been reduced to
below 20 DEG F.
This invention relates to the stabilization of gasoline which has
been diluted with ethanol, i.e. stretched with ethanol containing
3-4% water and which solutions are subject to separation.
In view of the relative shortage and high cost of gasoline, it is
desirable to provide some method and means which will stabilize
gasoline-ethyl alcohol mixtures, thereby allowing the
gasoline-ethyl alcohol mixtures to function at their fullest
efficiency, i.e., to exist as a single phase and this even when
the ambient temperatures fall below 20 DEG F.
In particular, it would be desirable to provide some method and
means which will stabilize gasoline-ethyl alcohol mixtures,
wherein the alcohol is ethyl alcohol containing small amounts of
water, for instance 3-4%, and is present in an amount of 10% or
more and preferably above 20%, so that the phase separation which
would normally occur is avoided and the mixture maintained as a
The use of ethyl alcohol as an extender for gasoline has been
proposed. However the successful use of ethyl alcohol has been
limited to those instances where the alcohol has been
substantially anhydrous. In the presence of even small amounts of
water, the ethyl alcohol is no longer miscible with gasoline,
bringing about a separation into two phases, especially when there
is a drop in ambient temperature. When this occurs, i.e., when the
separation into two phases takes place, the bottom phase which
consists of water and alcohol is corrosive to the steel brought
into contact therewith and in particular the gas tank, pumps,
holding tank, etc.
This invention contemplates the use of ethanol which is not
anhydrous, but which instead contains 3-4% water. Such alcohol is
made by simple distillation methods, instead of the expensive
azeotropic distillation procedures which require more energy and
the use of costly materials. In addition, the presence of the
water introduced with the gasoline-ethanol mixture when used for
example in the conventional engine gives rise to an increased
The use of an alcohol to hold ethanol and small amounts of water
in gasoline solution has already been proposed. Thus it has been
suggested to use alcohols such as i-propanol and i-butanol because
they are miscible both with water and gasoline.
The applicant has now found that the use of an alcohol such as
n-hexanol, which is substantially insoluble in water but which is
instead soluble in both gasoline and ethanol has numerous
advantages in forming a stable liquid and preventing separation of
the gasoline and alcohol. The hexanol is 1-hexanol i.e., the
straight chain alcohol, since it has been found that branching
materially reduces the effectiveness of this alcohol as a
stabilizer, the reduction in effectiveness bearing a direct
relationship to the amount of branching present.
It is an object of this invention to provide compositions
comprising a fuel oil, i.e., gasoline and ethanol which
compositions are stable against separation into more than one
phase and that in the presence of small amounts of water and that
particularly in the event of a drop in ambient temperature.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method for
preventing or retarding the separation into more than one phase of
gasoline-ethanol solutions in the presence of small amounts of
It is still another object of this invention to provide
compositions of matter comprising a high grade fuel oil i.e.
gasoline, ethanol and a stabilizing agent therefore.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an additive
especially adapted for stabilizing gasoline, particularly mixtures
of gasoline and ethanol in the presence of small amounts of water
comprising n-hexanol per se or in the form of its solution in the
gasoline and/or ethanol. The n-hexanol serves to "couple" the
ethanol to the gasoline, forming a stable liquid and preventing
separation even in the presence of small amounts of water.
These and other objects and advantages will become more apparent
as the description thereof proceeds.
In accordance with this invention, the above objects and
advantages are accomplished by the addition to a fuel oil i.e.
gasoline-ethanol solution containing small amounts of water of a
stabilizing amount of an additive which is both alcohol and
gasoline miscible and/or soluble and is effective to prevent the
separation of the gasoline-ethanol solution into two distinct
phases and namely by using as additive n-hexanol. It is possible
in accordance with the invention to employ a mixture of n-hexanol
with its isomers such as methyl pentanol, ethyl butanol or the
like, but as noted above such mixtures have not been found to be
as effective as n-hexanol. Therefore, if n-hexanol is not readily
available for the purposes of the invention, it has been found
satisfactory to employ n-hexanol and the mixed isomers thereof, as
for example produced in the oxo-process. The n-hexanol and/or
isomers thereof act to couple the alcohol to the gasoline
effectively stabilizing the mixture so that the phase separation
which would normally occur when even trace amounts of water are
present is avoided.
The stabilizing additive in accordance with the invention, in
addition to being miscible with both the ethanol and gasoline
phases is also relatively volatile and boils and evaporates in
approximately the same range as gasoline, i.e., the stabilizing
additive has a flash point below about 145 DEG F.
The additive in accordance with the invention, as noted above is
preferably n-hexanol or a mixture thereof with its isomers.
However it has been found that the efficiency of this stabilizing
additive can be increased if there is included therein a
dispersing agent which is itself sufficiently volatile to meet the
requirements of a combustion engine. Such a dispersant is
3.5-dimethyl-1-hexyn-3-ol is a clear colorless volatile liquid
having a boiling point of 150 DEG-151 DEG C. Other surfactants
similar to the 3,5-dimethyl-1-hexyn-3-ol can be employed, as for
instance the Surfynol products (manufactured by Air Products).
Such products must be unsaturated and must constitute volatile
surface active agents that eventually evaporate from the system
containing them, so as to leave no residue to clog the engine or
otherwise interfere with its functioning.
The quantity of surfactant utilized amounts to 3-7% preferably
3-5% referred to the stabilizer.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, in order to
reduce any tendency of the water present in the gasoline-ethanol
mixture, to bring about corrosion of the steel, it has been found
expedient to add a volatile amine and more specifically an alcohol
amine, most preferably a glycol amine which is volatile under the
conditions of use. One example of a preferred amine for use herein
is diglycol amine. Another particularly effective amine is n-butyl
amine. If n-butyl amine is employed, then the effectiveness
thereof can be further increased by the addition of a small amount
of 2-pentanone (methylpropylketone). The pentanone serves to
prevent the separation of n-butyl amine from the hexanol. (This is
to a great extent due to their overlapping boiling points.) The
selection of the amine is in part determined by its flash point
which must be sufficiently high that it does not increase the
flash point of the gasoline-ethanol-stabilizer-surfactant mixture.
Preferably a boiling point of about 135-145 DEG F. is to be
strived for. All of the components of the composition as noted are
volatile and in use leave no residue in the engine.
According to this invention, stabilizing of the mixture of
gasoline and ethanol containing small amounts of water is achieved
by the addition of small quantities of the stabilizing additive
n-hexanol or its mixture with one or more of its isomers per se or
together with the non-ionic surfactant and/or alcohol amine. The
additive employed to effect the stabilization may be added to the
gasoline-ethanol mixture or to the gasoline or the ethanol prior
to forming the mixture. It is preferred however to add the
stabilizing additive to the gasoline-ethanol-water mixture.
Thus in accordance with the invention it has now been found that
if about 1-20% of the stabilizing additive is introduced into the
mixture of gasoline and ethanol containing small amounts of water,
the mixture exists as a solution or as one phase.
The stabilizer, as pointed out here and above may be added to the
ethanol or to the gasoline prior to forming the mixture thereof or
it may be added directly to the gasoline-ethanol mixture. The
stabilizer is added in amounts on the order of from about 1-20%
and preferably 3-10% based on the mixture of gasoline and ethanol,
which amounts have been found to effect a substantially complete
stabilizing of the gasoline-ethanol mixtures with which the
invention is concerned. Preferred ranges of the stabilizer to be
added to the gasoline-ethanol-water mixture range from about 3% to
The surfactant and the amine are added directly to the stabilizer,
the surfactant in an amount of 3-7% referred to the stabilizer and
the amine in approximately like amounts.
The resultant mixture burns clearly without free carbon (soot) and
ignites easily in combustion engines.
Using 194 proof ethanol and gasoline (10:90), separation takes
place at 30-32 DEG F. If n-hexanol is added in an amount of one
part per hundred parts of mixture, no separation takes place until
the temperature has fallen to below -25 DEG F. If the mixture
includes the surfactant, separation does not take place until the
temperature has fallen to below -40 DEG F.
Using 190 proof ethanol and gasoline (10:90) and 21/2% either of
hexanol, tertiary butanol or isobutyl alcohol, the anticipated
separation takes place as follows:
tertiary butyl alcohol: +55 DEG F.
isobutyl alcohol: +24 DEG F.
hexanol: -2 DEG F.
The following examples are set forth for purposes of illustration
and are not to be construed as limitations of the present
invention except as set forth in the appended claims.
9 parts of 194 proof ethanol and 90 parts of gasoline (regular
unleaded) were mixed together. T this mixture there was added 1
part of a stabilizer having the following composition:
7%: surfynol (3,5-dimethyl-1-hexyn-3-ol)
3%: diglycol amine
No separation of the mixture took place even when the ambient
temperature dropped to about -30 DEG F. When 2% of the above
mixture was added separation did not take place until the
temperature had reached -65 DEG F.
When isobutyl alcohol was substituted for the n-hexanol,
separation was observed at 25-27 DEG F.
1.5% of n-hexanol was added to 13.5% 193 proof ethanol and this
combination added to 85% of gasoline (regular unleaded).
No separation was observed to occur even when the temperature had
fallen to below -20 DEG F.
The addition of the stabilizer, n-hexanol in this case is
particularly preferred, since the specific gravity of n-hexanol is
similar to that of the ethanol facilitating the further
1.5% of a stabilizing additive having the following composition:
were added to an ethanol-gasoline mixture of the following
13.5%: ethanol (194 proof)
85%: gasoline (leaded or unleaded)
No separation was observed even when the ambient temperature was
dropped to below -20 DEG F.
Example 3 was repeated with identical results using as the
stabilizer the following composition:
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