Covid Database
Expert Virologist: Here's Everything You Need To Understand About Coronavirus
The best material for homemade face masks may be a combination of two fabrics

Researchers report that a combination of cotton with natural silk or chiffon can effectively filter out aerosol particles -- if the fit is good.
Russian researchers develop nanofibers that can stop coronavirus-sized particles

According to the researcher, after the epidemic is over, the nanofibers could be used in water purification systems

A group of scientists from Russia’s Krasnodar Region invented a nanofiber material for production of medical masks and respirator disposable filters that is more effective for prevention of the coronavirus spread than normal cloth, Dmitry Lopatin, a team representative, told TASS Wednesday...

Swedish Doctor: Electrostatic air purification kills Corona Virus
Translated from Swedish with Google Translate)

”Together with colleagues at Skaraborg Hospital, he evaluates the effect of electrostatic air purification, EAC. The method is used at a number of preschools and at the children's clinic at Skaraborg Hospital to clean the air from small particles.

    Scientific experimental studies show that this method we use to clean the air also kills viruses very effectively, especially if it is a little higher than normal humidity. It is extremely interesting when it comes to the corona virus because if you set up the air purifier in rooms where many gather at the same time, you can help many who do not get sick. Where many people gather, the humidity also rises rapidly.

When electrons are released into the air, they, together with oxygen and water vapor, form hydrogen peroxide, a simple water-like molecule that the body uses to kill viruses.”
3D Print Mask Making Emergency Kit Make Your Own Mask's
Perfect Fit - High Airflow - Custom 3D Printed Respirator Face Mask - Replaceable filters

Filter capacity calculation
Resting breathing volume: 0.3CFM (.5m3/h source,
Exercise breathing: 0.9CFM (1.5m3/h source

MERV 12 Filter - Rated for 1708CFM
Square inches of filter area:  (25 x 4.5 x 28) (Size of pleat x number of pleats)
Square inches of usable mask filter area: 9.75 (3 x 3.25)
Portion of filter used: 0.0031 (
Nominal CFM for MERV12 filter mask: 5.28cfm (.0031x1708cfm)

CFM rates appear to be well over the average human's breathing rate.
Custom Fitted Respirator Filter Mask - COVID-19
How to Make Liposomal C - The Proper Way
Aaron Murakami has directions you can print off.
HK scientists say new antiviral coating can protect surfaces for 90 days

Researchers at a Hong Kong university say they have developed an antiviral coating which could provide 90 days of “significant” protection against bacteria and viruses such as the one causing COVID-19.

The coating, called MAP-1, took 10 years to develop and can be sprayed on surfaces that are frequently used by the public, such as elevator buttons and handrails, researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) say.

“These places are frequently touched, and, at the same time, serve as a very effective medium for transmission of diseases,” said HKUST Adjunct Professor Joseph Kwan, one of the chief researchers in the team that developed the product.

The coating that forms after spraying has millions of nano-capsules containing disinfectants, which Kwan says remain effective in killing bacteria, viruses and spores even after the coating has dried...'
Zhejiang hospital launches ‘Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment"
Clif High -- critical thinking - Feb 26/2020 - SARS2 - Bio-warfare manual - DECONTAMINATION

November 10, 2015
Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses

Copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), new research shows. Animal coronaviruses that 'host jump' to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. Researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus - 229E - can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper...

Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses

New research from the University of Southampton has found that copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

Animal coronaviruses that 'host jump' to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. The Southampton researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus - 229E - can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper.

A newly-published paper in mBio - a journal of the American Society for Microbiology - reports that human coronavirus 229E, which produces a range of respiratory symptoms from the common cold to more lethal outcomes such as pneumonia, can survive on surface materials including ceramic tiles, glass, rubber and stainless steel for at least five days. While human-to-human transmission is important, infections can be contracted by touching surfaces contaminated by respiratory droplets from infected individuals, or hand touching, leading to a wider and more rapid spread

On copper, and a range of copper alloys - collectively termed 'antimicrobial copper' - the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated (within a few minutes, for simulated fingertip contamination). Exposure to copper destroyed the virus completely and irreversibly, leading the researchers to conclude that antimicrobial copper surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health.

Lead researcher Dr Sarah Warnes said: "Transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated surfaces is far more important than was originally thought, and this includes viruses that cause respiratory infections. This is especially important when the infectious dose is low and just a few virus particles can initiate an infection.

"Human coronavirus, which also has ancestral links with bat-like viruses responsible for SARS and MERS, was found to be permanently and rapidly deactivated upon contact with copper. What's more, the viral genome and structure of the viral particles were destroyed, so nothing remained that could pass on an infection. With the lack of antiviral treatments, copper offers a measure that can help reduce the risk of these infections spreading."

Speaking on the importance of the study, Professor Bill Keevil, co-author and Chair in Environmental Healthcare at the University of Southampton, said: "Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths, globally, than any other infectious agent. The evolution of new respiratory viruses, and the re-emergence of historic virulent strains, poses a significant threat to human health.

"The rapid inactivation and irreversible destruction of the virus observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces suggests that the incorporation of copper alloy surfaces - in conjunction with effective cleaning regimes and good clinical practice - could help control transmission of these viruses."

Previous research by Professor Keevil and Dr Warnes has proved copper's efficacy against norovirus, influenza and hospital superbugs, such as MRSA and Klebsiella, plus stopping the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria to create new superbugs.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Feb; 77(3): 794–802.
Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces
Christophe Espírito Santo, et al.
Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.

For many organisms, the trace element copper is an essential nutrient. It serves as a cofactor in respiration, and thus copper is required for aerobic metabolism. However, when copper is in excess, it is also highly toxic (29). This is because accumulation of copper ions or intracellular release of free copper ions from proteins causes cell damage. Copper readily catalyzes reactions that result in the production of hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions (13, 14). The highly reactive oxygen intermediates cause lipid peroxidation and oxidation of proteins (14, 16, 33). Free copper ions are able to oxidize sulfhydryl groups, such as cysteine, in proteins or the cellular redox buffer glutathione (15, 34). Specifically, copper ions inactivate proteins by damaging Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic hydratases. In Escherichia coli, these are dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) in the branched-chain amino acid synthesis pathway, isopropylmalate dehydratase (LeuC) in the leucine-specific branch, fumarase A (FumA) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase in the pentose phosphate pathway (Edd). All were recently found to be damaged by copper ions (17). Thus, these proteins constitute specific targets for copper-induced toxicity. In Bacillus subtilis, copper ion toxicity was shown to interfere with the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters and increased production of cluster scaffold and target proteins (5). In vitro exposure of DNA to copper ions causes mutations (36). It has also been thought that in vivo copper ion toxicity in bacteria is mediated by oxidative DNA damage, but this view was challenged because the growth rate of E. coli was found to be more strongly suppressed by copper ions under anaerobic conditions than when oxygen was present (28). Copper ions even decreased oxidative DNA damage when E. coli cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (18).

In recent years, it has become evident that copper surfaces with which pathogenic agents may come in contact, i.e., metallic copper touch surfaces, may help diminish surface-related hygiene problems. Dry copper surfaces in laboratory settings and in hospital trials proved to have great killing efficiency against a wide range of microbes (4, 9, 26). In most laboratory studies, cells suspended in buffer were applied to copper surfaces and incubated under ambient conditions. Usually, these cells were killed within hours (8, 25). We recently established a method that mimics contact of microbes with dry copper touch surfaces. Under these conditions, most microbes are killed within minutes (9, 10). Copper ions are released from metallic copper upon contact with bacteria (10) or with buffer alone (25). However, direct copper ion-mediated toxicity, targeting metabolic enzymes such as hydratases involved in amino acid biosynthesis (17), is unlikely to be the reason for contact killing because of the fast killing kinetics. Furthermore, extracellular supplementation with substances known to protect against oxidative stress, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, or the hydroxyl radical quencher mannitol, delayed the killing of E. coli cells on dry copper surfaces (10). Thus, while we have some insight into the molecular mode of action exerted by copper ions on bacteria, the specific modes of stress exerted by metallic copper surfaces and the identity of sensitive cellular targets have not yet been elucidated. Such knowledge is needed to better understand why surfaces made from copper alloys exhibited efficient antimicrobial properties in recent successfully completed hospital trials (4, 19, 23).

In this study, we investigated the mode of action of dry metallic copper surfaces against E. coli and other bacterial model organisms. Our results demonstrate that exposed cells accumulated copper ions and exhibited membrane and cell envelope damage. It is likely that membrane proteins or the membrane lipids constitute the major targets of copper surface toxicity, but contact killing did not involve lethal damage to the cellular DNA through mutations and lesions...

In conclusion, this study proposes cell envelope damage as the mode of action of contact killing mediated by dry metallic copper surfaces. The toxicity exerted does not target the genomic DNA in Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms tested, even though cells are overloaded with copper ions. Further research will be directed at identifying the molecular targets through which membranes are damaged upon contact with metallic copper. It will be interesting to test whether specific membrane proteins or the lipids themselves constitute the weakest link in cells exposed to this lethal challenge.

Copper Medicine:

Carlo GIANSANTI : Copper Breathing Mask
Carlo Copper is Back as the Copperman!
American Inventor: Mad Man Carlo Giansanti
American Inventor - Carlo Giansanti
copper mask
US6266824 -- Head shield
An electromagnetic shielding apparatus for covering and protecting the head of a user from EMF radiation which may be worn by itself or discretely beneath other head gear. A head covering is fabricated from a conductive, non-magnetizable material such as copper, bronze, brass or the like which may be drawn and shaped into a web or mesh material. The resulting shield is lightweight, air permeable and supple enough to be worn beneath other head gear.

Chinese Scientists Develop Electrostatic Antiviral Masks: What Are Their Advantages Over N95 Masks?

...The School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering at the Xi'an University of Electronic Science and Technology has developed an “electrostatic antiviral mask” with a special “air purifier”. Associate Professor Tong Xufeng has shared information about the advantages of the new mask compared to the standard N95 mask.

He said that viruses can’t survive in the air alone: ​​they spread mainly by attaching themselves to particles. Therefore, the virus first needs to cling to something. The diameter of such particles is usually less than PM 2.5, about 1 micron.

    "The advantage of the new mask is mainly that it can filter out particles with a diameter of less than 1 micrometre. Having absorbed these particles, the mask uses rays and high-voltage fields to kill viral organisms. If you use conventional masks that filter PM 2.5, they don’t filter out particles smaller than 2.5 microns"...

    ave increased the radiation power of the original masks. The high voltage created by first-generation electronic masks is more than 3000 volts; we have increased it by another 1000 volts. Usually, ozone appears under high voltage. Its smell is very unpleasant, but our new electronic masks filter out ozone. Moreover, we guarantee that the mask’s high voltage is not harmful for people. We take this very seriously".

The new masks are expected to enter the market in about two months. Tong Xufeng said that they have already applied to the relevant departments to certify the new antiviral mask and are currently awaiting verification and approval. At the same time, mass production of the masks is being prepared.
Pandemic Preparedness Kit

Harvard Chan Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology looks to improve on soap and water


Various embodiments of the present invention relate to, among other things, systems for generating engineered water nanostructures (EWNS) comprising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methods for inactivating at least one of viruses, bacteria, bacterial spores, and fungi in or on a wound of a subject in need thereof or on produce by applying EWNS to the wound or to the produce.

Brown's Gas for Health

The following is the text of a study by Prof Isaac Ben-Israel, first published on April 16, 2020. (Ben-Israel discussed his research on Israeli TV on April 13, saying that simple statistics show the spread of the coronavirus declines to almost zero after 70 days — no matter where it strikes, and no matter what measures governments impose to try to thwart it.)

The following article aims at examining the development of the coronavirus disease in Israel since its inception 56 days ago (8 weeks).

It turns out that the peak of the virus’ spread has been behind us for about two weeks now, and will probably fade within two more weeks.

Our analysis shows that this is a constant pattern across countries. Surprisingly, this pattern is common to countries that have taken a severe lockdown, including the paralysis of the economy, as well as to countries that implemented a far more lenient policy and have continued in ordinary life.

The data indicates that the lockdown policy can be stopped within a few days and replaced by a policy of moderate social distancing...