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Ludwig HERBRAND

Finzi-Herbrand Turbine









http://www.hasslberger.com/tecno/tecno_1.htm
The Josef Hasslberger page: Technology

UNDERSTANDING WATER POWER

In 1989 (Vol. 2, No. 1) raum&zeit published an article by Ludwig Herbrand, dealing with a development in Water Power, termed in that article the "Herbrand Turbine". While it seems that Herbrand is not the inventor of this technology, the present author nevertheless believes that there is something about water power that present scientific thinking and engineering are not aware of. He believes that the work of the Austrian genius Viktor Schauberger holds the key to understanding Herbrand's story.

Historical

The sequence of "historical" events that led to Herbrand's discovery is as follows: Herbrand, in the early thirties, was a student of electrical engineering at the Aachen Technical College. The theme that was given him for his graduation thesis was the "Recalculation of the generators in the Rheinfelden power plant." Part of the thesis was also to make a comparison with an article that had appeared in the ETZ technical magazine of 1932, page 233.

The power plant of Rheinfelden is a plant that directly utilizes the flow of the Rhein river's water, feeding it through turbines, essentially without the use of a dam.

The power plant described in the ETZ magazine's article instead was a plant constructed in 1926 at Ryburg-Schwoerstadt, about 12 miles up river from Rheinfelden. The description was as follows:

"The dam and the power plant's generator building span the width of the river and dam up the water to a head of about 12 meters above the low water side. The driving power is provided by four turbines with an exceptional (for that time) capacity of 250 m3/sec. The power of each generator is 35.000 KVA."

The Rheinfelden power plant on the other hand was an older construction, built in the last decade of the nineteenth century. It had twenty turbines. As the total water flow of the Rhein river at that point is about 1000 m3/sec, each turbine received approximately 50 m3/sec of water. The power of each one of the generators, calculated according to established principles, was 500 to 600 KW, the plant reaching a total power of 10 to 12 MW.

However in this same power plant, some generators had recently been installed that were designed for a much higher power output than the older turbines. They were designed by Prof. Finzi of the Aachen Technical College and constructed by J.M. Voith of Heidenheim/Brenz. A description of these generators was as follows:

"They are built to yield 32.500 KVA and can be run with a 10 % overload indefinitely, thus actually producing 35.000 KVA. The tension is 10.000 Volts at 50 Hertz and 75 rpm, with a factor of cos phi of 0.7. Because of the continuous overload factor, all stresses are kept to a minimum."

Herbrand recalculated the wiring of one of these generators and was much astonished when making his comparison to find that these new Rheinfelden generators without a dam and with only one fifth of the capacity (50 m3/sec) produced as much electric power as the huge generators at Ryburg with their capacity of 250 m3/sec and a head of 12 meters.

He turned to his professor in dismay and Finzi's answer, as related to us by Herbrand, was:

"Do not worry. It is correct. The generator has been working without problems for some time now. Make the calculations backwards and you will see for yourself. We are electrical engineers. Why, those other problems are not ours to solve, we leave them to the water boys. We have repeated our measurements and the generator's yield of power is exactly as specified. The only thing is - no one knows about this."

Soon came the war and circumstances did not permit Herbran to obtain an electrical engineering job. Only many years later did he remember his graduation thesis and he has tried since then to offer his calculations to government and industry - without success. He also tried to obtain a patent but was refused as his proposal violated the law of conservation of energy, so he was told.

These are the "historical" facts of the matter. Without wanting to take away from Herbrand's achievement, it would seem more correct to name the turbine a "Finzi-Herbrand-Turbine", because the actual designer was Professor Finzi, not Herbrand.

In any case, Herbrand's great merit is to have come out publicly trying to get the idea into use more broadly.

Calculations of yield

The kinetic energy of a water turbine is calculated with the following formula:

E kin = m/2 . v2 (KW)

m is the usable amount of water measured in m3/sec and v is the velocity of the water, expressed in m/sec.

Generally, v is calculated by the use of the following formula:

v = sqrt 2 . g . h

whereby g is gravity with 9.81 m/sec2 and h is the difference in level between the head water and the water on the lower side expressed in meters.

But here the matter becomes critical and we should clearly understand that the latter formula is only a secondary formula to find a v-equivalent in the special case of gravitational water pressure resulting from a difference in water levels. For the calculation of v in flowing water this formula is neither usable nor necessary. The velocity of flowing water can be quantified by direct measurement.

The important concept here is that water can gain its velocity in two distinctly different ways.

Water can be held up by a dam and at the point where we release it through a nozzle or say through a turbine, it will experience a strong acceleration. The resulting velocity can be calculated by use of the above formula.

If we take for instance a difference in water levels of 12 meters, we get a velocity of the water of sqrt 2 . 9.81 . 12 = 15.34 m/sec

Should the capacity of flow be 250 m3/sec then we get a kinetic energy of 250/2 . 15.34 . 15.34 = 29,414 KW, approximating the above description of the generators of the Ryburg-Schwoerstadt power plant.

The second way in which water may reach a certain velocity is the normal flowing of a river and in particular the natural vortex movement of water.

In our example of the Rheinfelden power plant, the velocity of water flow through the turbine was 35 m/sec, much higher than in Ryburg-Schwoerstadt.

This higher velocity of flow was reached in two stages.

A small island located in midstream provided the means for the first increase in velocity, as the water was forced to flow on one side only of the island. The water, finding itself in a much more narrow bed, increased its velocity of flow.

A further increase was achieved by a funnel-like construction of the inlet towards the turbine, restricting the diameter of the water's flow even further and increasing the velocity so as to pass the turbine at a considerable 35 m/sec (approximately 80 mph).

So the kinetic energy, in accordance with our first formula as given above, was

50/2 . 35 . 35 = 30,625 KW

We see that with a fifth of the amount of water per second, but with a considerably increased velocity of flow, the same kinetic energy can be obtained as with 250 m3/sec and a water level difference of 12 meters.

If we wished to obtain an equivalent of v = 35 m/sec through gravitationally induced water pressure, we would need a head 62.4 meters (nearly 200 ft!) high.

How is it possible that by simply restricting the space in which water may flow, we can free such tremendous energies?

Herbrand has calculated the effect of contraction by introducing a factor n. He found that an increase of the factor n, that is, a greater contraction, will increase the energy of the water but he has found that this concept is exceedingly difficult to grasp for our scientific "experts".

Viktor Schauberger: "We are using the wrong kind of motion!"

The Austrian forest warden and inventor Viktor Schauberger has researched and successfully applied the laws of motion of water. He said that we are using the wrong kind of motion, referring to all of our technological "achievements", from the internal combustion engine to our way of putting streams of water into an unnatural straitjacket.

In order to understand the discovery of Herbrand it is important to know that the natural motion of water is a centripetal vortical movement, turning or "rolling" inward around the axis of motion of the water's flow. This kind of motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water, accumulating kinetic energy in the form of an increased velocity.

A simple example for this is the vortex that forms when a bathtub is emptied of water. We can also observe the same kind of motion on a simple tap of water. In fact, if the water leaves the tap without disturbances such as bubbles of air or other disturbing flows, we see that the water takes a spiral course, accelerating and contracting on its way.

Anyone who has doubts as to the fact that the natural spiral movement can increase the kinetic energy of water, need only remember the extraordinary energies contained in tornadoes and hurricane winds.

These energies are accumulated by just the same spiral movement.

In the early years of his carreer as a forest warden, Schauberger has utilized this effect to allow the transport of heavier-than-water beechwood logs in wooden water sluices, very much to the amazement of his seniors and visiting scientists.

Science at that time, just as today, could not explain how it was possible to transport beech logs in a flow of water, as the wood of the beech tree has a specific weight higher than that of water.

Considering this, it is no wonder that also Herbrand's observations were to meet disbelief and even outright hostility from our scientifically educated "experts".

Thermodynamics and the Law of Conservation of Energy

This discussion about Rheinfelden and Herbrand's turbine lets us fly square into the teeth of recognized authority. We are seemingly violating the hallowed principle of the conservation of energy. I say seemingly, because all things considered, conservation of energy is assured. It's just that a stream of water is not a "closed system" as our scientists would like to believe.

In fact, there are no really closed systems in this world and thus thermodynamics, at least its second law, as well as the law of conservation of energy, are not correct as currently stated.

The author has dealt with the basic assumptions of physics and the law of conservation of energy in a previous article (A new Beginning for Thermodynamics).

Gravity and Inertia

In closing, I would like to point out that gravity and inertia, although they do show analogous effects, are not identical.

Even though we cannot subjectively distinguish the earth's gravity from an accelaration of 1 g (9.81 m/sec2), say in a spacecraft, when we talk about water we must distinguish well between gravitationally induced velocity and inertia, that is, velocity 'already acquired', of the water, such as in a free flow situation.

A mass of water held up by a dam is a mass which, under the influence of gravity, exerts a certain pressure and thus is able to drive a turbine. The energy utilized in this case is the gravitationally induced pressure, not the inertial force that comes from motion.

A moving mass of water has an inertial mass which by virtue of the velocity of the water and in fact by the inertialy induced energy, is able to drive a turbine. In this case, the force we are using is a direct result of the velocity of motion of our water medium.

The difference here is the natural (free flow) and the unnatural (pressure induced) motion of the water.

According to current scientific knowledge we hold up the water by a dam, thus stopping its natural flow and losing the inherent inertial forces, in order to use only the gravitational pressure of this now motionless mass of water to drive turbines!

It would be much more effective to use the natural motion of water and, if possible, to accelerate that motion, in order to gain more energy out of a fast flowing mass of water than we could ever get out of a dammed-up motionless mass, because

E kin = m/2 . v2

As this formula shows, the kinetic energy increases with the square of the velocity!

Schauberger has explained the principles of motion to us, Prof. Finzi has built a turbine and Herbrand has recognized the paradox and has tried to bring it into the public domain.

How long will it take us to finally understand that in our technological solutions we must work with nature and not against it?

Schauberger had a word for this (freely translated): Observe, understand and then copy nature.

Josef Hasslberger
Rome, Italy
1992



Note by Maranjovic

maranjovic



PATENTS

DE3415510
Environmentally friendly energy extraction


The invention relates to environmentally friendly energy extraction from a current which occurs in varying strength or at different times and is therefore not suitable for supplying the population with power.

Immense quantities of energy are stored in wind, waves, floods and tides. The water level of rivers and lakes changes with the seasons. The power required in power stations fluctuates continuously, and yet the machines can work at full load without loss. Bilaterally acting tubular turbines coupled to generators generate current which is fed via a rectifier to an electrolysis unit. Oxygen accumulates at one electrode and escapes into the atmosphere to improve the air, and hydrogen accumulates at the other electrodes and serves as an environmentally friendly fuel for driving power stations or vehicles.

DE3415510

Description of an embodiment.

An embodiment of the invention is shown schematically in the drawing. The current of varying intensity is conducted to the anode 1), to the oxygen S and to the cathode 2), at which hydrogen is formed. Both are in a basin 3.), is filled in the D├╝nnsaure. over the cathode is placed a bell, 4) which absorbs the hydrogen which is discharged through a pipe S.).



DE3418118
Boosting energy from flowing water


Large quantities of energy that are not developed are stored in clouds or in artificial lakes like coal in a mine. In order for these to be used, the potential energy which depends on the weight of the stored water and on the dynamic head, has to be converted into kinetic energy, which depends on the mass of the stored water and on the square of the velocity with which the mass is moved. It is found in flowing water, in streams, rivers, ocean currents or the like. A linear increase in the velocity before the energy is used causes a quadratic increase in the energy. Consequently, machines that are driven by water can provide more power than there is power contained by the unused forces. It is of no consequence whether the increase in velocity, which already takes place, for example, by a reduction in cross-section, is undertaken in the feed or in the turbine...

Task: The object of the invention is to increase the energy of the flowing water.

Solution: The object is achieved according to the invention by increasing the speed of the flowing water before the energy is used.

Off + ├╝hrungsbei game; In the case of a garden hose, the amount of water flowing out can be regulated with the dispensing valve. Pressing the end of the hose together with your thumb and forefinger reduces the outlet cross section, increases speed, and sprays the water to the farthest corners of the garden. The amount of water entering the tube remains constant, but the energy of the exiting water increases in proportion to the square of the velocity.

This realization can be applied to hydropower plants in a river where the turbines are placed one after the other in the river bed. Before each turbine, the speed of the water is increased by reducing the cross-section of the riverbed so far that even with low infestations a sufficient drive energy is ensured.

In the South German power plant, the turbine is provided with two impellers, of which the upper, as with a vane pump, to increase the speed, and the underlying lying as a drive wheel for the generator. By contraction of the cross section between the wheels, a further increase in the speed of the water is achieved.

Further embodiment of the invention A power supply with hydropower is particularly favorable for the developing countries. In particular, in the case of tube turbines that are anchored to a float without the construction of power plants, the energy can be obtained free of charge at the point where it is needed.

Achievable Benefits: Using the technology described above, in 1932, in a Lau + waterworks built in the previous century, without structural alterations, the output of a test generator that is still in operation was increased 70-fold.

Performance increases on the 100 + % are quite possible.

No dams that transform the natural habitat into lake plates are required.

Green energy is abundant, enough to provide the whole world with energy when it is used. No coal-fired power station needs to destroy the livelihood of humanity through acid rain.

Exemplary embodiment: An exemplary embodiment of the invention is illustrated chemically in the figure. At 1.) the water of the turbine flows 2.). The first impeller 3) of the turbine steers the water with an increase in speed in a shaft 4), which becomes narrower down to the second impeller 5.) and from there into the underwater at 6.).

DE3418118



DE3628252
Nozzle propulsion for ships

In the same way as a fish squeezes the water out of its gills for moving through the water, the friction between outer skin and water is reduced and can help the propulsion. By the conical passage through which

the water flows in the interior of the ship, the speed and thus the energy of the water is increased, which helps the propulsion or takes over the propulsion.

The invention relates to an increase in energy from running water.

purpose

The energy is obtained environmentally friendly from running water, without dams, without destruction of primeval landscapes, lakes and wetlands, without destroying the natural habitat of rare animal and plant

species, without pumping out the groundwater, without endangering humans, animals, historical monuments and the like...

When the water comes out of a bathtub or when the water enters a turbine, the body Q remains constant. According to the law of natural law 1 / n x n = 1, the velocity v increases with increasing n and the mass m decreases. This increases the energy that is a function of speed. <img class = "EMIRef" id = "021732838-00120001" />

Without energy, only by the contraction of the mass, the energy in the turbine is increased fourfold. It is the mass energy that can not be explained by German physics.

This knowledge was used, and built a turbine, in which the water enters a funnel, which can be calculated according to the Natural Law and smoothly corresponds to the "natural course of the water". A second funnel pours its water into the lower one.

The increase in energy from running water I have under P 34 18 118.0-15 on 16. 5. 1984 patent pending. The disclosure took place on 21. 11. 85. At 6. 09. 1993 will the 10. Annual fee incl. Surcharge of DM 330.- requested. Anyone at home and abroad can rebuild the innovation and does not need to pay royalties because no patent has been granted, and the operators claim it will not work.

The generator produced, as calculated 35 MW, 70 times more power than the other generators installed in the same power plant. The increase in energy is purely mechanical in the inlet or "in the turbine"; therefore, one turbine can be placed behind the other as long as the free flow of water is secured behind the turbine. All perform the same, because the energy is not used up.

Mode of action and advantages of the invention

The innovation is particularly suitable for retrofitting existing plants, where the performance can be increased to 10-100 times. In the previous design of water turbines, in which only the potential energy of the water is used, it was endeavored to direct the water as perpendicular to the impeller.

To regulate the amount of water and thus the performance of the turbine, a regulating ring with adjustable vanes was attached, which leads the water in the mounted on the shaft carrier bags. The contraction by the handlebars results in an increase in energy, resulting in an efficiency of 100% of the potential energy.

A Herbrand turbine deliberately uses the mass energy, which is increased by the contraction of the water in the energy basket to Vernail. The water flows horizontally with v1 into the turbine and is deflected by 90 degrees in the conical energy basket. The path of the water is getting higher and higher. The downward velocity v2 is significantly greater than the velocity v1 entering the energy basket. The energy equals the square of the speed and is significantly increased.

embodiment

In the figure, the cross section of a Francis turbine is shown schematically in FIG. Via guide vanes 2 for regulating the amount of water, the water flows directly onto the impeller blades 3, which are mounted on the shaft 4. Here, only the pot. Energy of the water used.

Fig. 5 shows the Herbrand turbine with energy basket according to Vernail. Just as with a Francis or Kaplan turbine, a guide device 6 is mounted, in which the guide vanes 7 are at an angle of about 40-45 degrees. In addition, they are mounted so that they act like a nozzle, which increases the speed of the water.

In the energy basket 8, the water flows freely down. From Fig. 5 it can be seen that the water arriving at the bottom of the basket has to travel a shorter distance than the water entering the top of the energy basket. The speed of the water flowing upwards therefore increases without energy supply "by itself".

The water flows at a speed v1 into the energy basket and out with v2. The speed in the energy basket is increased without friction. The speed increases linearly and the energy becomes square.

By the pot. Energy is the water accelerates even more, until it hits the impeller with adjustable blades 9.

DE3628252



DE4408483
Herbrand water turbine with 90 deg. change in water flow direction

The invention relates to an increase in energy from running water...

The generator produced, as calculated 35 MW, 70 times more power than the other generators installed in the same power plant. The increase in energy is purely mechanical in the inlet or "in the turbine"; therefore, one turbine can be placed behind the other as long as the free flow of water is secured behind the turbine. All perform the same, because the energy is not used up.

Mode of action and advantages of the invention

The innovation is particularly suitable for retrofitting existing plants, where the performance can be increased to 10-100 times. In the previous design of water turbines, in which only the potential energy of the water is used, it was endeavored to direct the water as perpendicular to the impeller.

To regulate the amount of water and thus the performance of the turbine, a regulating ring with adjustable vanes was attached, which leads the water in the mounted on the shaft carrier bags. The contraction by the handlebars results in an increase in energy, resulting in an efficiency of 100% of the potential energy.

A Herbrand turbine deliberately uses the mass energy, which is increased by the contraction of the water in the energy basket to Vernail. The water flows horizontally with v1 into the turbine and is deflected by 90 degrees in the conical energy basket. The path of the water is getting higher and higher. The downward velocity v2 is significantly greater than the velocity v1 entering the energy basket. The energy equals the square of the speed and is significantly increased.

embodiment

In the figure, the cross section of a Francis turbine is shown schematically in FIG. Via guide vanes 2 for regulating the amount of water, the water flows directly onto the impeller blades 3, which are mounted on the shaft 4. Here, only the pot. Energy of the water used.

Fig. 5 shows the Herbrand turbine with energy basket according to Vernail. Just as with a Francis or Kaplan turbine, a guide device 6 is mounted, in which the guide vanes 7 are at an angle of about 40-45 degrees. In addition, they are mounted so that they act like a nozzle, which increases the speed of the water.

In the energy basket 8, the water flows freely down. From Fig. 5 it can be seen that the water arriving at the bottom of the basket has to travel a shorter distance than the water entering the top of the energy basket. The speed of the water flowing upwards therefore increases without energy supply "by itself".

The water flows at a speed v1 into the energy basket and out with v2. The speed in the energy basket is increased without friction. The speed increases linearly and the energy becomes square.

By the pot. Energy is the water accelerates even more, until it hits the impeller with adjustable blades 9.

DE4408483

DE4408483b  DE4408483c





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