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October 23, 2006
The Secret of Crystal Units
In April 2006, Eckhard Kantz wrote: I confirm that I have received and thoroughly investigated best to my knowledge some multiple battery-like devices that deliver a continuous energy output without any energy input which would be visible to my (current) measurement equipment.
The devices were provided by Marcus Reid, the developer and manufacturer of those units. I am an engineer for energy devices and had the pleasure to take over the task and responsibility for conducting all kinds of experiments on the received crystal units since August 2005 when I met Marcus Reid the first time. ...
Recently a crystal unit running in continuous mode exceeded 3000 mAh electrical charge that was send through a 910 Ohm resistor.
The achieved result outperforms the biggest available NiMH Akkumulator of baby cell size on the market which can deliver up to 2900 mAh.
During the last months I have tested with the help of others, who I would like to thank them for their support, multiple crystal units developed and manufactured by Marcus Reid in the Institute of Vacuum Energy with the objective to find out which energy those battery-like devices could be powered by. The tests have been fully documented on a German web site "Das Geheimnis des Kristallaggregates" and included in particular:
* Investigations with a gamma spectrometer
* Thermoenergetic exchange
* Magnetic response
* Load tests
* High frequency noise
* Possible relationship to solar bursts
In no case there was any hint that the crystal unit would receive input energy from any known energy source like energetic particles, magnetic energy or heat energy. Especially all investigations on electromagnetic waves and temperature were done with extrem effort and as thoroughly as possible.
Whereas during the last months the source of energy, which power the crystal units, were in the center of investigation. Up to now it was not possible to find a known input energy-form. It is now the objective to develop and confirm more and more powerfull devices. Therefore the investigations will focus on investigating all kinds of relationships that will provide us with some better insight into the technology.
May 11, 2006
Posted by Rob
Crystalline power module
(MUCHAS GRACIAS to Jim Nicholson at Gravity Control dot org about the work of Marcus Reid with this incredible claim. It sounds similar to the Free Energy Chip being tested in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico which I hope to check out soon. Don't be put off by the very low power, as most discoveries start out with such low levels and can be SCALED UP to produce much more! - JWD) I (Eckhard Kantz), confirm that I have received and thoroughly investigated best to my knowledge some multiple battery-like devices that deliver a continuous energy output without any energy input which would be visible to my (current) measurement equipment. In no case there was any hint that the crystal unit would receive input energy from any known energy source like energetic particles, magnetic energy or heat energy.
Especially all investigations on electromagnetic waves and temperature were done with extrem effort and as thoroughly as possible. Crystal units can be reproduced by everyone who is interested in those devices. It is an aluminium cylinder where Sodiummetasilikat (Na2SiO3) is melted in and brought to crystalisation. Here is a shematic view of a crystal unit...The mentioned compounds are converted, during a chemical reaction, into a crystaline form. Crystal unit in comparison to a battery, R14 NiMH Accu 2900 mAh which currently run against each other with a load of 1 mA. It is expected that the NiMH Accu will break down latest after delivering 2900 mAh in about 100 days whereas the crystal unit was operated for more than six years already without any energy in but with a continuous current out (different device, the picture shows a 6 weeks old crystal unit). We have observed that these units decline in power during the first few weeks or month, but then for some reason, stop decreasing at some stage, most likely due to water evaporation. Even continuing dead shorts over several years (4-years is longest test) can not kill these units. The power decrease in a battery for example, is during the first phase rather small, and then towards the end, quite abrupt. So the power progress, in a battery and the crystal unit, is just contrarious.
The Secret of Crystal Units
I confirm that I have received and thoroughly investigated best to my knowledge some multiple battery-like devices that deliver a continuous energy output without any energy input which would be visible to my (current) measurement equipment.
The devices were provided by Marcus Reid, the developer and manufacturer of those units. I am an engineer for energy devices and had the pleasure to take over the task and responsibility for conducting all kinds of experiments on the received crystal units since August 2005 when I met Marcus Reid the first time.;;
Crystal unit (left) in comparison to a R14 NiMH Accu 2900 mAh which currently run against each other with a load of 1 mA. It is expected that the NiMH Accu will break down latest after delivering 2900 mAh in about 100 days whereas the crystal unit was operated for more than six years already without any energy in but with a continuous current out...
April 2006, Eckhard Kantz
New Development in the Area of Power Engineering
Marcus Albert Reid
( 9 April 2009 )
The following article is a summary of the research of a new kind of energy generator called the crystal cell. Research in the past has shown that the crystal cell can produce permanent electric energy over a long period (since 1999).
2) Basic construction
3) Metrological data
4) Operating mode
5) Course of action
With comments from:
Dipl. Ing. Eckard Kantz, Power Engineering ( July 2006 )
Dr. Frank Lichtenberg, Physicist ( July 2006 )
Prof. Dr. Dipl. Ing. Karl Ernst Lotz, Physicist & Chemist ( March 2008 )
Dr. Hans Weber, Physicist ( May 2008 )
Dr. Dieter Staschewski, Physicist & Chemist ( July 2008 )
2) Basic Construction
The crystal cell consists of a metal cylinder, which is filled with a specific silicate. Due to a chemical reaction, the silicate mixture is being converted into another material composition. Within the metal cylinder is another metal electrode.
This material was analysed with x-ray diffraction. This was done by Dr. Frank Lichtenberg at the Institute for Physics at the University of Augsburg. The analysis has shown that the solid material consists by a large part of XXXX, and a silicate compound. Further analysis with EDX has confirmed the data. The compounds, which are between the minus and plus pole have a large resistance in the megaohm range. It is known that these materials do not show ion conduction at room temperature.
3) Metrological Data
The idea of the crystal cell originated in the year 1999 and was initially pursued only till the middle of the year 2000. The crystal cells which were produced at that time release only very little electrical power (1mW at 23 degrees, weight approximately 900 g). The question regarding it´s working principle could not be answered without detailed tests based on measurement technology.
Mr. Dipl. Ing. Eckhard Kantz, Dr. Hans Weber and Dr. Dieter Staschewski have independently been testing several crystal cells on the basis of measurement technology. The findings of these tests are very encouraging and confirm the initial assumption, that the crystal cell is a new kind of energy generator.
For further research to find its working principle, it was also necessary, to explain whether it is not a quite common electrochemical reaction.
The following test data must be understood in the overall context. In the chart (Fig. 1) below, the heating of a load resistor can be seen. The chronological progression of the chart moves from the right hand side towards the left hand side.
Orange: Voltage of the crystal cell
Blue: Temperature of the crystal cell
Purple: Temperature of the load resistor
Above in the chart (Fig. 1) one can notice the prevailing 4-hour load cycle (with 312 ohm) of the crystal cell, followed by a 4-hour self charging phase. One can not only perceive from the chart, that the crystal cell again and again recharges automatically on its own, but also, that the unit does not discharge completely. Electric energy is being permanently produced.
In the load resistor, first of all, an intense heating is noticed (peak), which corresponds to the discharge course of the crystal cell. The temperature curve of the load resistor is shown highly compressed in the vertical, in reality it would be about 5 meter high (0.4 degree Kelvin) The measurement shows movements of a 1/1000th of a Kelvin. According to the power output of approx. 1mW, one would expect (depending on the working principal) a cooling or heating of the crystal cell in the range of several milli Kelvin but an increase or decrease of temperature is not observed. In newly produced (since 2005) smaller and more powerful crystal cells the temperature movement was measured in a resolution of 1/10 000th of a Kelvin. In these crystal cells a greater change of temperature was expected, but also no clear direction of change in temperature was observed. The data suggests that the electric energy of the crystal cell is not being drawn from the environmental temperature.
In the chart below (Fig. 2) an overall view shows that the self recharging voltage increases faster, than the discharge voltage decreases over time. Therefore a slight increase in the released energy occurs during the first weeks after connecting the load.
In the chart (Fig. 3) the device is under a permanent load for a period of one week. One can notice, that the power released after 7 days is slightly greater than on the first day, after the crystal cell has “run in”.
The upper thick line in the chart (purple) shows the temperature progression of the crystal cell. The curve (white) lying below, represents the voltage.
The power measurements were done with a two point measuring technique and a resistor. Using the voltage, we have then calculated the current. In this case the measuring approach is precise; we have repeated it using a 4 point measuring technique and a different load. The measuring equipment and the test resistor have been calibrated.
Moreover, the crystal cell is very sensitive to temperature changes. For example, the power at 23 degrees Celsius is approximately 1mW and at 38 degrees Celsius at 4mW, which corresponds to a 4-times increase in power. Bigger or smaller cells have a different temperature coefficient.
The tests have revealed that the optimum operating temperature is approximately at 35 degrees Celsius. Above this temperature, the power increases slowly and below this temperature, it drops quickly.
Various crystal cells have been short-circuited rigorously in the past simply with a wire. The longest short-circuit lasted approximately for 4 years (2001 – 2005), which did only result in a small decrease in power. However, in the beginning right after production, the crystal cells decrease in power, but after a while “stabilize”. After a certain period the crystal cells do not show any decrease in power anymore. The first crystal cells are working now since 1999. At least since the year 2005 these cells show no decrease in power anymore. Precise measurements where only re-established in 2005. So if a load is being connected to the crystal cell after it has “run in” a slight increase in power of approx: 5% can be observed. It doesn´t make any difference if the crystal cell is under load (for e.g. short circuit) or not, the power progression curve over time is the same.
During the observation of the crystal cell it was established, that in addition to the dc. voltage, a broad-band radio signal is present (Fig. 4). The (grey) curve is shown at the bottom of the chart. It can be seen, that the signal changes to other clear defined values, depending on the temperature and/or on the power output. The frequency amplitude moves against the temperature curve, which means, that at a greater temperature a weaker frequency signal is obtained. Before the test, the crystal cell was shielded from all possible outside radio frequency signals.
So when more energy is extracted due to a greater temperature, the amplitude of the radio signal decreases. Normally one would expect, due to the increase of the temperature energy, a greater amplitude. But after the temperature starts to rise, it takes several minutes until the radio signal amplitude suddenly drops to a lower value. Right after the signal has dropped, a faster increase in electric power is observed. Therefore it is assumed, that the generated power of the crystal cell is connected to the reduction of the amplitude of the radio signal. The temperature just seems to act as an agent which enables the extraction of energy from another source of energy. So the actual source of energy could be connected to the amplitude of the radio signal and then by reducing the amplitude, the crystal cell then converts this energy to generate a direct current.
These findings also correlate with the fact why we have not observed a change in temperature of the crystal cell when putting it under load as shown on page 3 and 4.
The frequency of 245 MHz was selected as a measuring or test frequency, because daily solar measuring values are published on the Internet. A correlation with solar “bursts”, have not been found.
In Fig. 5 the purple line at the bottom of the chart shows a resonance effect at 968 mV. The thin gray line is the voltage. The purple line is an amplification of the permanently ongoing changes in amplitude of the voltage. The crystal cell is under load with a 1088 Ohm resistor and generates thereby a permanent voltage of 920 to 980 mV at room temperature. Due to temperature changes in the laboratory the voltage changes slightly with time. When the voltage moves through the 968 mV line then the amplitude of the signal is slightly stronger. It doesn’t matter if the temperature and voltage moves up or down through the 968 mV line, the resonance effect is always the same. The same effect is observed (not shown in Fig. 5) when the voltage moves through the 938 mV line. Then the amplitude of the signal decreases. This behaviour shows that there is a connection between a specific temperature / voltage and the amplitude of the voltage movement signal.
Dipole flipping phenomena within crystal cells.
Crystal cells can abruptly change their polarity when they are connected (+ to - and – to +) with another battery or a voltage source (6 volts) for a few seconds. If right after such a charging procedure the crystal cell is being left alone without a load, then it takes several seconds until the cell changes its polarity again into the correct direction and then it recharges on its own to normal power specifications within several minutes.
Another interesting observation is the recharge behaviour especially in newly manufactured crystal cells under permanent load. When a small crystal cell is under permanent load with a 1 k Ohm resistor it produces for example 1,000 volts. When this crystal cell is then being short circuited for one second, then right after the short circuit the voltage has decreased for example to 0,985 volts. Then the crystal cell starts recharging (still under load with 1 k Ohm) on its own again. After several seconds the crystal cell reaches to its normal voltage of 1,000 volts, but then it mysteriously charges further up to around 1,035 volts. Another few minutes later this voltage decreases again to 1,000 volts and then stays there. This observation indicates together with other measurements that it is more efficient to draw the energy from the crystal cell in a pulse like fashion. See below: Wall clock!
The crystal cell was also tested with regard to the release of gamma rays. See chart (Fig. 6). In comparison to the normally available rays any increased values were not found.
Again the crystal cell was tested for the effect of magnetic fields, likewise without any findings.
In a further test of the crystal cell in a Faraday cage, any change in the electrical power released was not established. The crystal cell was also shielded from elf.-em. waves and tested far away from any electric transmission line. No change in power could be observed.
The power output from certain crystal cells sometimes show at the same time small changes, which are not related to changes in temperature. It is currently not known why this is so.
In many occasions it was observed, that if the quality of the contact between the wire and the aluminium cylinder and / or the copper electrode is not very well, the ambient voltage rises suddenly up to several volts. The greatest ambient voltage measured in this way was at 9 volts. Even when a load resistor is attached a small increase in voltage and power output can occur when this contact is not very well.
Connecting crystal cells in parallel does not work too well. Connecting the cells in series, works better but also not as good as with chemical batteries. It is assumed that the cells have to be made exactly the same otherwise one cell has a dipole flipping effect onto the other one.
Changing load response
A crystal cell showed in past experiments a considerable inertia related to the voltage after changing the load condition. In order to receive meaningful results for a UI- characteristics, an experiment was conducted with a changing load condition for every 7 minutes. Only the almost balanced voltage in the end of the cycle was taken into account for generating subsequently an amperage-voltage characteristics chart.
The changing load was generated by four resistors of different values:
Combining one or multiple resistors in subsequent periods leads to a greater or smaller load in 16 steps.
The chart shows, that the crystal cell behaves mainly like a current source, especially in the second half (part of the chart which is on the right hand side) where the load was increased from a minimum load to a maximum load. Once the resistance is so small, that the voltage drops from 1,3 volts (ambient voltage) down to 1,0 volts, the current has already reached its maximum amperage of 1,2mA. From then on, the resistor can steadily be brought down to 0,1 Ohms, which of course will also lead to a steady voltage drop down to nearly zero. No matter for which further value one decreases the resistance, the current will always stay the same at 1mA. Even at a continuing dead short, the meter will show a constant 1,2mA. The excess amperage in the first half when the load was increased, is possibly a result of a non-balanced situation in the end of a 7-minute cycle, or it may also belong to the set of dynamic effects experienced within crystal cells. It must be mentioned that common electromagnetic systems show their optimum performance when driving down the voltage by 50%. So the optimum performance of the crystal cell should be at 0,65 volts.
Usually common electromagnetic energy conversion systems show their optimum operation mode, when their inner resistance is the same as within the load. Since the optimum operation mode for the crystal cell is achieved by using a 1 kilo Ohm resistor, the inner resistance of the crystal cell should also be at 1 kilo Ohm. But the inner resistance of the crystal cell shows a flexible nature.
The chart in Fig. 7 reveals that the inner resistance of the crystal cell changes when the load moves from a smaller to a greater load and the other way around. In the middle of the chart the load has it´s greatest value. When attaching a small load, the crystal cell firstly behaves like a common voltage source with an inner resistance of approx. 300 Ohm. After, when the load is being increased the crystal cell has a dynamic inner resistance of about 1,6 kilo Ohms and behaves like a current source. In this section this is so, because the current and the voltage changes with the same algebraic sign.
Then when moving from a greater load to a smaller load the current stays relatively constant and an inner resistance of about 100 kilo Ohm is obtained. So in this section we also find a current source characteristic. This means that the crystal cell changes its inner resistance by 60 fold, when changing from a smaller to a greater load and the other way around.
The resistance of the silicate compound is at 4 mega Ohm when measured with a measuring gage directly on the silicate material. Taken together these findings show that the energy conversion processes within the crystal cell have a complex nature.
Cyclic self recharge behaviour
The chart below shows a 7 min. self recharge and a 7 min. discharge cycle. The blue line represents the movement of the recharge and discharge voltage. Especially from the first half of the chart it becomes clear, that the crystal cell recharges in a periodic way. This behaviour indicates again, that the produced electric power is connected to resonance effects within the polycrystalline silicate compound. The bump in the self recharge curve after 120 seconds demonstrates, that the crystal cell suddenly recharges much faster for a few seconds. This indicates that the polarisation is being built up everywhere within the crystal cell at the same time.
Discharge curve (voltage) within a single discharge cycle using a 312 Ohm resistor. (This is a big cell from 1999) The time between the gray lines (vertically) is 2 hours.
The chart above shows a discharge cycle of a crystal cell, moving from the right hand side to the left hand side. The chart reveals that the discharge progression suddenly comes to a halt, then increases for about 1 hour and after that continues to decline. The discharge characteristic shows that the crystal cell is no typical capacitor, because in that case one would expect a linear discharge curve right down to zero.
A similar curve is observed, when the crystal cell is in a self recharge mode. After disconnecting the load the voltage first increases quickly, then slows down and comes to a halt. Then the voltage decreases and after about an hour this process comes again to a halt.
If there was a self recharge function due to an aluminium air or corrosion battery effect, then the curve should also go up in a linear way because the power would built up from the inner surface of the aluminium cylinder and then move to the inside of the crystal cell. But the recharge curve characteristic, indicates that the crystal cell recharges everywhere within the crystal cell simultaneously. This observation suggests, that if the polarisation is being built up from throughout the crystal cell, it suddenly comes to an overcharge situation, because the potentials suddenly start “pressing” from everywhere at the same time. But this over-potential cannot be held up (probably due to a small conductivity) so then the voltage drops down to a value which corresponds to a dynamic equilibrium between the permanent self recharge power and the (conduction based) potential discharge mechanism. It is assumed, that this is the mechanism how the crystal cell self regulates its ambient voltage.
Crystal cells have an ambient voltage between 1,1 volts up to 1,5 volts when using the same electrode materials.
The chart below (also moving from the right hand side to the left hand side) shows two self-recharge curves. The load during the discharge cycle is at 312 Ohm. The duration of a single self recharge and a single discharge cycle is 5 hours. Different recharge - discharge times and different resistor values result in differing recharge - discharge curve characteristics.
The chart below shows a dead-short discharge measurement of the crystal cell with a similar discharge characteristic as shown in Fig. 9. This measurement was done in the year 2000, about one year after the production of the crystal cell. In the beginning, after the production of the crystal cell, it had a dead short current of 1mA. Today this crystal cell has a dead short current of 1mA at 23 degrees Celsius, which leads in this case also to a power of 1mW. This power output has an absolute constant value at least since 2005.
The following information is from Dr. Dieter Staschewski (retired) who was employed as a scientist at the Research Centre in Karlsruhe, Germany.
Dr. Staschewski has researched the effects of the self-generation of potentials within agate stones and other dielectric materials and is also investigating the nature of the crystal cells.
The chart below shows, that the discharge behaviour (and recharge behaviour, not shown in the chart below) within agate stones is similar to the crystal cells.
This effect is explained as such, that when the voltage drops at the electrodes right after connecting the load resistor, the polarisation firstly decreases only within the contact area of the electrodes. Now more current can flow from the inside of the agate stone to the electrodes so the inner polarisation can get through to the edges more easily. Therefore a rising voltage and power released is observed. After some time, this process comes to a halt and then the power decreases again, because the agate stone has discharged everywhere within the material. This process shows the special nature of the internal energy storing characteristic within agate stones and crystal cells.
Fig. 12, shows the discharge characteristic of agate stones.
„Eigenpotenziale als Wirkung latenter Raumenergie“
HYPERLINK "http://www.borderlands.de/net_pdf/NET010507S28-37Det.pdf" http://www.borderlands.de/net_pdf/NET010507S28-37Det.pdf
New data from newly produced crystal cells during the year 2006 - 2007.
Even if we have basically excluded possible electrochemical effects as shown above, all possible aspects of operation must be discussed. There is still the possibility that a very weak aluminium-air battery or corrosion battery effect is involved which is at work in addition to another possible mode of operation, especially in the beginning during the first days after the production of the crystal cell. Crystal cells also work, when sealing them from the surrounding air, but in theory it might be possible, that the aluminium receives its oxygen from the silicate compound. We know that some cells show a yellowish layer in the inner side on top of the aluminium surface, indicating a slightly greater concentration of aluminium hydroxide. This was also analyzed with x-ray powder diffraction. In some of the newly produced crystal cells (since 2006) we have also observed a thin gray layer (about 0,5 – 1 mm thick) which is directly attached to the inner surface of the aluminium cylinder. On top of that gray layer is a yellow coloured region (approx. 1-3 mm thick). The gray and yellow materials have developed in this particular case during the production of more than 4Wh over a period of about 6 months (Size baby C). This observation shows a corrosion effect.
April 2009: new analysis from independent researchers have shown, that electrochemical effects play no significant role. See independent survey reports!
What clearly speaks against an electrochemical reaction due to an aluminium corrosion battery effect in the beginning, right after the production of the crystal cell, is that the recharge behaviour as shown in Fig.10 is much more distinctive in the early phase. Therefore we have come to the conclusion that the visible chemical reaction (corrosion) does not participate in the generation of electric energy. So the decrease of power after several months has to do with a destructive impact due to a corrosion effect (like in solar cells), rather than a discharge effect in the sense of an electrochemical discharge reaction.
The below chart shows the performance of a newly produced crystal cell over a period of 545 days. We received 7,2Ah. and 5,8Wh. from the crystal cell, which is more than twice as much as within a Nickel Metal Hydride Battery of the same size. This power curve decreases with time and then stabilizes after about 2 years.
A crystal cell after 6 months, producing approx. 4Wh. The total weight of the crystal cell is 85g., diameter 30mm, hight 50mm. Ambient voltagevoltage 1,23v. Max. power output: with a
1 k.Ohm resistor approx. 1volt, which is 1mW, at ? 23°C.
For the calculation, the author reduced the weight of the crystal cell from 85g. to 50g. leading to a power of 120Wh/kg crystal cell. This was done, because also at the end of the test, most of the aluminium was not used up. Before the manufacturing process the crystal cell container weighs approx. 37g. After the manufacturing process and before the test started, the container weighs approx. 35g., meaning that about 2 g of aluminium have dissolved into the silicate mixture compound. The best crystal cells (Size C) have produced more than 6Wh up to now. Therefore it was calculated, 6Wh and 50 grams, which leads to 120Wh/kg of the crystal cell.
From our view, even if there is a small aluminium corrosion effect involved, the corrosion should cease over time. There are crystal cells, which were manufactured in the Year 1999. One of these cells (approx. 900 grams) is working now since August 2005 without a noticed decrease in power. The power output is only at 1 milli Watt at 23 degrees Celsius, but considering the time and the total energy output since 1999 of approx. 150 watt hours, we assume that possible electrochemical effects have stopped a long time ago and that the electric energy, which is being produced today, has no electrochemical origin. It may be mentioned, that 150 watt hours at that size means, that this crystal cell has far excelled the best modern commercial batteries. Here it also has to be considered, that a part of the weight is due to the aluminium cylinder and may be subtracted.
We found that most crystal cells, new and old, do not show any corrosion on the inner side of the aluminium cylinder.
This crystal cell was manufactured in the year 1999 and is larger in size, approx. 900g. The total amount of energy, produced between September 1999 and December 2006, is in the above shown cell approx. 60Wh. This is more than the energy density of a comparable re-chargeable Nickel Metal Hydride battery. This observation indicates that the flow of electric energy within the crystal cell does not necessarily cause the production of a gray layer.
The manufacturing process of the old and big crystal cells is different to the manufacturing process which is being applied today.
4) Possible operating mode
The theoretical starting point presented here, is a first attempt to describe the possible method of function of the crystal cell.
“The regularity of a crystal lattice facilitates it to manifest a group of virtual photons, which normally lie below the recognisable or detectable threshold, temporarily in their summary power. The properties of semiconductors integrated in the crystal unit, facilitate the absorption of these energy portions available temporarily by electrons and electron holes and consequently a continuous removal of useful energy from the crystal unit”.
One of the ideas involved, with the help of a polycrystalline material, in which suitable semiconducting properties had been integrated, is to reach a material state, in which the electrons can move easily, due to vibratory motion caused by temperature and XXXXX. Due to the simultaneous availability of the semiconducting properties, it is possible to influence the movement of the electrons and to direct them into a specific direction like in a “Feynman rachet”. A related experiment, a “Reciprocal or Inverse Heating Spiral” has already been carried out successfully.
(New Scientist, 04.09.2004 – Electricity directly from heat! “Materials that scatter photons but allow electrons to pass can turn waste heat into electricity!”)
(New Scientist, 2.02.2002 – Experiments financed from the US Military on M.I.T. use – semiconductors as a source of electric energy)
5) Course of action
In a next step the author suggests to get the test data checked once again from a recognised institution. If the test findings till now prove to be well-founded, there should be no obstacle for further development.
As mentioned above, the undersigned was successful during spring of 2006, to reduce the size of the crystal cells to the commercial battery size “Baby C”, while receiving the same power output of approx. 1milli Watt. This has led to a volume – power increase by approximately 10 – times compared to the cells which were produced during 1999 and the year 2000. The total produced energy in the new cells over 17 months, is around 6 watt hours at room temperature (approx. 23ºC), which is more than twice as much as in a re-chargeable Nickel Metal Hydride battery of the same size. Therefore we believe that several very low current devices could be equipped with crystal cells, in which batteries have to be replaced after about 1-year or later. Therefore, in view of the author, an extensive market segment could be served already today.
The development of the crystal cell till now has reached a level which is very promising. Without the cooperation of the physicist Dr. Frank Lichtenberg and Dipl. Ing. Eckhard Kantz, with who in the course of time a team of colleagues has developed, this would not have been possible. They are gladly available in the future, as well for further research work.
The objective of the further research is first of all to find the exact working principle with a suitable increase in power. This work would however, far exceed our financial resources.
The undersigned, therefore, is looking for partners and investors, who would like to be involved in the further research and development with subsequent commercialization of the crystal cell.
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Comment on the crystal cell
Since half a year I am privately involved in the research work of Mr. Marcus Reid on the so-called crystal cell. I have seen two of such cells and opened one of them to analyze some of its inner material by x-ray powder diffraction. To me the research work by Mr. Marcus Reid and Mr. Eckhard Kantz seems trustworthy. In my opinion, the release of electrical energy from the crystal cell represents an interesting and potentially new phenomenon. Therefore I recommend an extension of the research and development work.
July 11, 2006
Josef Priller Str. 55
Telephone: --49-821-59 55 16
(Since 1997 scientist at the Institute for Physics at the University of Augsburg in the field of special oxides. 1989 – 1991 Doctorate in Physics at the IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich on the same topic and thereafter for 4 ½ years as a scientist at the research centre of the VARTA Battery AG in the field of re-chargeable Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries.)
Annual Review of the Research into Crystal Cells
In August 2005, I became aware of the description of crystal cells on the Internet, which should provide a continuous energy flow. As an engineer for power systems, I was interested in the question, from where this energy flow should come, which was observed by Marcus Reid during a period of over 5 years. I am thankful to Marcus Reid for the opportunity given to me to test the prototypes of these crystal cells thoroughly according to my choice, up to the intentional application of destructive measurements (tests), in order to plumb the boundaries of the crystal cells.
I have completed a training from the Technical University in Wroclaw/Poland in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Power Systems, which was made possible for me in the former GDR in the framework of a study abroad programme. Topic of my dissertation was the Mathematical Modelling and the Process Analysis of Steam Generators (Heat Exchangers) between the first and the second cycle of an Atomic Power Plant with 1360 MW thermal power (WWER-440). During an overall eight years of my work in an atomic power plant, I have co-developed programmes for the optimum operation of atomic power systems, used these programmes and was in charge and looked after the continuous operation of these programmes.
My starting point in the research into crystal cells was the question, which type of energy transformation or conversion takes place in the cells. According to my education and training, I always assume that “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed”, but can be transformed from one energy form into another energy form.
As a summary of almost one year of research work, I can say that, with the means and resources available to me, any conventional energy form could not be detected as a source of the crystal energy cell. In the process, I have carried out below mentioned tests in detail.
The first main point was the investigation and testing of electromagnetic influences.
From the detected magnitude of the energy released of about one milliwatt, it was thought that perhaps the crystal cell acts as an antenna and absorbs the energy from the nearby radio sets or transceivers and due to the integrated semiconductor structures could convert it into the direct current. This assumption has been proved wrong with certainty, after a crystal cell was operated for several months in a Farady cage under full electromagnetic shielding, which has not affected in any measurable manner on the energy release. In these tests, however, sporadic noise increases in the high frequency range have been detected, which particularly at high temperature variations undoubtedly appeared with more than 3 dB high noises and which due to the above mentioned full electromagnetic shielding inevitably must be due to the internal processes or actions in the crystal cell. A further testing of these noise increasing events is recommended, however, first of all, any direct correlation to a possible energy source is not seen, whose determination, however, was a main topic.
At last, however, this can not be completely ruled out, as well, at the present state of the research.
The second main point in the investigation was the issue, whether the possible cause for the energy release was due to nuclear transformations or conversions. As far as I know, this is always linked with emissions, which should be proved in a gamma spectrometer. In a 16-hour long test, it was revealed that the crystal cell does not show any type of emissions of energy quanta or particles, which would stand out in a noticeable manner from the activity background. On the basis of this finding, the nuclear transformations or conversions as source of the energy were ruled out again.
Subsequently the influence of the switching on and switching off of magnetic fields on the initial power was tested. This corresponds in the system theory to the excitation of an unknown system for determination of a transmission factor or transfer coefficient from one input signal to an output signal. In the measurings (tests) magnetic fields up to a strength of 0.7 milli Tesla were applied, however, on their switching on and switching off, there was not any measurable influence on the power of a crystal unit, which can be attributed to the magnetic field. The magnetic field measurings (tests) were made only for a short period of a few minutes due to heating of the object being measured (tested) due to the considerable thermal power of the magnetic spools in combination with a big temperature coefficient of the crystal cell output power. A confirmation or certification of the measuring (test) using a cooling system for temperature stabilisation in combination with the application of higher magnetic field strengths, would be a logical conclusion for confirmation or relativity of the findings till now.
Special attention was paid to the power characteristics of crystal cells in order to find out, whether the crystal cells, like the most common energy sources, can be described/represented as a current source or voltage source with an internal resistance. For that a crystal cell was loaded stepwise with different resistances and the resultant current values and voltage values were determined after an initial transient phenomenon of a couple of minutes. Particularly within the stepwise discharging phase of the crystal cell it became clear, that a crystal cell releases a constant current in a wide load range. An optimum power operation can be achieved through the use of an as big as possible load resistor, in which the current flow corresponds just to the maximum current of the crystal cell.
Presumably the special emphasizing short-circuit behaviour of crystal cells is closely connected with the power behaviour. On my first visit to the research laboratory of Marcus Reid, it was demonstrated to me, how a crystal cell after several years of short-circuit “automatically charged” within a few minutes. In several own short-circuit tests carried out over a period of a couple of days and weeks my assumption was confirmed that the crystal cell, a few minutes after cancellation of a short-circuit, returns back to original power characteristics.
More accurate tests of this “automatic charging” by means of cyclic load tests provided the indication that after switching off a load, an exponential approximation of the voltage in the unloaded state releases for several minutes, whereby this process can have a sudden voltage-increase after a few seconds up to a few minutes, linked with highly increased noises of the voltage during this increase phase.
A very large influence on the initial power can be proved due to the temperature. Just a few degrees increase in temperature over the ambient temperature increases the initial power to double.
In an experiment carried out intentionally as destructive measuring (test), the power of a crystal cell could be increased by ten times compared to the power measured (tested) at an ambient temperature of about 21oC. However, above 60oC a sudden fall in power occurred, which was obviously irreversible in nature and which continued to be available even after the cooling of the crystal unit to an ambient temperature. By observing the power of the affected crystal cell in the next weeks a certain recovery effect was noticed, however, till today, the original performance or efficiency has not been achieved.
All tests carried out till date lead to the conclusion that there is an energy source in the crystal cells, which can not be explained with any of the technical systems known till now. A continuation of the tests using efficient measuring (testing) techniques, therefore, seems to be a reasonable offer, which will not satisfy unexplainable phenomena permanently. As quite often in the history there are enigmas. The crystal cell also poses an enigma, initially, which can be solved, however, by suitable and carefully carried out tests in future, with certainty. In my personal opinion, it could be useful to set-up measuring arrangements (experimental tests), which prove the influence of quantum mechanical phenomena on the power or performance of crystal cells. As far as I know, physicists agree that in the fluctuations at quantum plane, an enormous energy reservoir is present, which, however, for local application of the second law of thermodynamics, can not be made available. My assumption is that the atomic arrangement in the crystal lattice of a crystal cell is possibly successful in producing a non-local energy flow, which makes it necessary to use a much broader application of the second law of thermodynamics, possibly in the scale of the entire universe.
I confirm, that I consider it to be necessary to continue research into the crystal cells until final clarification about their working principle, in view of the chance to discover an energy source unutilized till now. Not least, the withdrawal or removal of several ampere-hours of electric charge and several watt-hours of electric energy during the experiments, without putting-in in advance visible energy in the crystal cells being tested, is in favour of the assumption, that here we could be dealing in a worthwhile direction of research for alternative energies.
When this would be confirmed in the future, then the crystal cell like solar cells and wind turbines, would be viewed as a technical device for removal of energy from an open system, whereby the type and the character of the open energy system would be required to be explained through further tests and particularly through theory in the field of Physics. In this case the crystal cell would agree with my profound conviction, that energy can only be transformed from one energy form in to another energy form, in accordance with all laws of Physics known till date.
Germany, July 15, 2006
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