A Lexicon of Alchemy
Martin RULANDUS the Elder
Translated by Arthur E. Waite
John M. Watkins
1893 / 1964 (250 Copies)
A Lexicon of Alchemy
Containing a full and plain explanation of all obscure
words, Hermetic subjects, and arcane phrases of Paracelsus.
Philosopher, Doctor, and Private Physician to the August
Person of the Emperor.
[With the Privilege of His majesty the Emperor for the
space of ten years]
By the care and expense of Zachariah Palthenus,
Bookseller, in the Free Republic of Frankfurt.
To the Most Reverend and Most Serene Prince and Lord, The Lord
Henry JULIUS, Bishop of Halberstadt, Duke of Brunswick, and
Burgrave of Luna; His Lordship’s mos devout and humble servant
wishes Health and Peace.
In the deep considerations of the Hermetic and Paracelsian
writings, that has well-nigh come to pass which of old overtook
the Sons of Shem at the building of the Tower of Babel. For
these, carried away by vainglory, with audacious foolhardiness
to rear up a vast pile into heaven, so to secure unto themselves
an immortal name, but, disordered by a confusion and
multiplicity of barbarous tongues, were ingloriously forced. In
like manner, the searchers of Hermetic works, deterred by the
obscurity of the terms which are met with in so many places, and
by the difficulty of interpreting the hieroglyphs, hold the most
noble art in contempt; while others, desiring to penetrate by
main force into the mysteries of the terms and subjects,
endeavour to tear away the concealed truth from the folds of its
coverings, but bestow all their trouble in vain, and have only
the reward of the children of Shem for their incredible pain and
labour. Unto both these classes I wish to come forward with
help, that they may not only seek more diligently into the
writings of the Hermetists, but that they may understand them
better, and that in this manner the divine Art of Alchemy may be
more successfully taken in hand. For which reason I have
concluded to publish this Lexicon of Alchemy, formerly compiled,
and enlarged and completed since by me. Which also I would
dedicate to one who shines over all princes, not only in
knowledge of the learned languages and more celebrated arts, but
also daily shows himself, by his singular industry and skilful
hand, most intelligent and studious in the Art of Chemistry.
Whence I have justly brought this trivial work to be consecrated
by your patronage, well knowing that it will receive no small
increase of reputation from the greatness of your erudition and
from your illustrious name; and as in some way a monument of
most humble reverence, it shall stand forth to its own greater
adornment and preservation in the future. Fare thou well, most
serene and learned lord, and hold me and mine as committed unto
With humblest deference,
Your respectful Servant,
MARTINUS RULANDUS, Doctor.
A LEXICON OF ALCHEMY
PHILOSOPHER AND PHYSICIAN.
A ~ B ~ C ~ D ~ E ~ F ~ G ~ H ~ I ~ J ~
K ~ L ~ M ~ N ~ O ~ P ~ Q ~ R ~
S ~ T ~ U ~ V ~ W ~ X ~ Y ~ Z
A A A
AABAM, ABARTAMEN, ACCIB, AIARAZAT --- are all Hermetic
equivalents for lead. See Plumbum and Saturn.Other equivalents
in use were the Scape-Goat, the Dual Chibor, Draiccium,
Elevator, Araxat, Alusa, Ruba, Alech, Allonoch, Alabrig, Alokot,
Armic, Amioch, Amitich, Araxat, Azoro, Balamba, Cartistilium,
Koal, Molybdos, Mosquet dei, Molibra, Mosider, Rasas, Rasasa,
Rolos, Roe, Rocli. All these are technical terms, which in
themselves have no meaning, but which were used to signify Lead.
ABACUS --- A counting-board, table or tray, etc.
ABACUS MAJOR --- A larger table, etc.
ABESAMUM --- The mire or grease which accumulates on the
axle of a wheel.
ABESUM --- Unslaked lime.
ABESS --- is the same as Rebis, to wit, the last matter
of the nutriments which are absorbed by the body; that is to
say, it is the excrement of the bowels.
ABESTUS --- Albesten, Abesten, and Morago, are Hermetic
names for Asbestos.
ABICUM --- A cover.
ABLATIO --- A separation by means of the superior part.
It is performed after several manners. In the dry region, where
there is less specific gravity, such cleansing can be effected
by the hare's foot or like agents. Sometimes we accomplish
separation with a feather, with small knives, spatulas, etc. At
other times, we purge in a narrow bag, with twigs, and with
wooden, iron, and bristly substances.
ABLUTION --- is exaltation by means of successive
lustrations, washing away the impure refuse, and reducing the
matter to a pure state. It is also called Imbibition and
Cohobation, or digestion.
ABLUVIEN --- Cleansing.
ABNELEITEM --- is Alum; also called Asfor.
ABOIT, or ABIT --- is White Lead. The same thing
is signified by Alkarad, Almachabar, and Alsiden.
ABRIC, KIBRIT, and KIBUZ --- are names of
ACACIA FERREA --- An iron spoon.
ACAHI --- is Alum-water; called also Fefcol.
ACAID --- is Vinegar, or sour substances.
ACALAI --- is Salt; called also Alet.
ACAMECH, or ACEMECH --- is the scoria or refuse
ACARTUM --- is Cinnabar or Red Lead; called also
ACATO --- is Soot; called also Araxos.
ACAZDI --- is Jupiter, or Tin; called also Alkain and
ACCATU --- is Tinsel; called also Aurichalcum, properly
Orichalcum, which is the brass of the ancients. Accatem
signifies the same.
ACCORDINA --- is Indian tutty; called also Alcordine.
ACETABULUS --- A vessel for vinegar, or a cup-shaped
vessel, holding as much as would an eggshell.
ACETUM --- Vinegar.
ACETUM AMINEUM --- White vinegar. Acetum also signifies
sour wine, and in this sense Acetum Amineum would be sour white
wine, wine of Aminaea, which was distinguished for vine culture.
ACETUM PHILOSOPHORUM --- is Philosophical Vinegar, that
is, Virgin's Milk, or Mercurial Water, in which metals are
dissolved. One of its Hermetic names was Sophic Hydor. According
to Theophrastus, the Philosophical Vinegar is the Chemist's
Vitriol-water, but the Turba states that it is the water of
mercury which dissolves gold. Others affirm that Philosophical
Vinegar is that which is made from fresh shells of tortoises by
sublimation and distillation.
ACETUM RADICALE --- is Radical Vinegar, or Vinegar
distilled from its proper radix
or matrix. It is also called dissolvent water.
ACETUM RADICATUM --- or Radicated Vinegar signifies in
some authors that most sharp liquor of vinegar which remains at
the bottom of the retort, after the phlegmatic part has been
evaporated. It is made by distillation in the retort out of the
crystals of the dregs of vinegar. Or good vinegar, made from
wine, may be placed in a retort, distilled gently by a moist
heat, often poured back upon its caput mortuum, and dissolved in
dung, after which it must be finally distilled, when that which
is left may be taken and liquefied in a strong fire. The result
is radicated vinegar.
ACHATES --- The Agate, first found in Sicily, near the
river of that name, and afterwards in other localities, as
testifies Pliny, 1. 37 c. 10. There are various species, each
bearing separate names: Jaspachates, Ceradhates, Sardachates,
Haemachates, Leucachates, Dendrachates, the veins of which are
like unto minute trees; Autachates, which, when burnt, gives
forth fragrance of myrrh; Coralloachates, distinguished by a
golden speckling, after the manner of the sapphire; this variety
is found in Crete. Agates are a safeguard against the bite of
the spider, and eagles carry them to their nests to defend their
fledglings against venomous animals. They allay thirst and
strengthen sight. Concerning the rest, consult Pliny in the
place cited, who also relates that various impressions of
figures appear in agates; in some, for example, may be seen
rivers, woods, cattle, beasts of burden, herds, war-chariots,
minute statues, and the furniture or ornaments of horses. In
particular, he relates (1. 37, c. 1) how Pyrrhus had an agate
gem in which could be seen Apollo and the nine Muses, with their
insignias. I myself have beheld a gem belonging to a nobleman,
which, however, was not a true agate, but when the blemishes had
been dispersed, it exhibited a rustic and a complete plough. I
found also another at Albion Silicem, near the gate of Tangra,
wherein appeared the likeness of a wolf or a lion, near a
half-rose, so clearly cut by nature as though the work had been
done by a jeweller. Most credible truly are those things of
Pliny when writing of the impressions upon this kind of stone.
ACORTINUS --- A lupine, wolf's-bean, or horse-bean.
ACSUO --- is Red Coral.
ACUREB --- Glass.
ACUS --- A needle.
ACUSTA --- Saltpetre.
ADAMAS --- in Arabic Subedhig, in Latin Adamas (Pliny,
1. 37, c. 4), the diamond, which is found both apart from gold
and in gold, contrary to the opinion of the ancients, who knew
it only as native in gold among the metals of Aethiopia. But for
the better understanding of this subject, observe the ensuing
scheme, which we have elaborated out of Pliny in part, and in
part from other authorities.
Not found in gold, and of this there are two species.
The Indian diamond, not having its birth in gold, is known by
its translucid crystal colour and sex-angular sides; it is
either cone-shaped at one end or else it has the form of a
lozenge; it is sometimes as large as a hazel. This species is
said by Serapion to approximate to the colour of Sal Ammoniac.
The Arabian diamond, likewise not found in gold, is smaller
than the preceding.
Native in the most Perfect Gold.
I. The Greek stone called Cenchron, because it is the size of a
II. Macedonian; generated in gold of Philippi; like the seed of
cucumber in size.
III. Cyprian; found in Cyprus; approaching brass in colour;
most efficacious in healing.
IV. Having the splendour of iron sideritis (that is, according
to Pliny, a precious stone; according to others it is loadstone
; and again it is the plant ironwort); surpassing the others in
weight, but differing from them in nature; can be broken by
blows, and pierced by another diamond.
The two last are degenerate, and scarcely deserve their name.
The best diamonds are impervious to blows on an anvil, which
they repel, so that even the anvil bursts asunder, while they
themselves leap away invulnerable. And inasmuch as the diamond
is indescribably hard, it contemns and conquers fire, nor has
ever been consumed thereby. Whence, from its indomitable life
and strength, it has the name *** among the Greeks.
That herb which is mentioned by Pliny (1. 24, c. 17), which
cannot be torn up, was also called adamant. The stone, however,
can be shattered by the flesh, or rather by the warm blood of a
young goat; more especially when the goat has first drunk wine
or eaten rock parsley and mountain skirwort. For the above
reasons, diamonds are much in request among lapidaries for
cutting and shaping gems and other substances, for which purpose
they ought to be mounted only in iron. Other metals they will by
no means tolerate, while by lead, wonderful to say, they are
Furthermore, the diamond is so hostile to the loadstone that it
will not permit iron to be attracted in its neighbourhood, and
if a magnet at close quarters should have attracted a piece of
iron, the approach of a diamond will cause it to lose its hold.
In short, the diamond binds the magnet and strips it of its
virtues. Oh, how wonderful is God in all His works! For the
rest, the diamond irritates venomous animals, drives away
frenzies, lemures, incubi, and succubi; it makes men strong and
lively, and is for this reason called anachitis (that is,
anancitis --- from the Greek *** --- to free from distress). It
prevails against contentions and quarrels, and cures viscous
fluxes. Consult Serapion and Evax. Some will have that the
diamond is cold and dry in the fourth degree, others, on the
contrary, that it is hot and dry, inasmuch as it is mixed with
warming medicines. Did the matter receive investigation,
doubtless diamonds would be found in our mines, as they have
been found in times past: witness Pliny on the authority of
Metrodorus Scepsius. In Bohemia stones of excellent quality are
still seen, which surpass Oriental diamonds in shape and lustre.
Consult Solinus, De Adamante, c. 55. The ancient astrologers
referred the diamond to the Moon.
ADAMAS ACUMINATUS --- A four-sided diamond point.
ADAMAS QUADRATUS PLANUS --- A flat square diamond.
ADAMATUM --- A kind of bright stone.
ADAMITA --- A species of tartar; a kind of wine-stone or
kidney-stone. (Wine-stone, Germ. = Tartar.)
ADARCES, ARTIS --- According to some this is a marine
flesh, a spongy growth, a froth or efflorescence, a congealed
saliva having birth in sea-shallows, especially of Cappadocia
and Galatia. The Indian species is found among reeds and
cane-brakes on the shore. It has similar qualities to the
substance called Halcyon. It was termed formerly Pericalamite
and Calamoch. Some physicians make use of these ridiculous
substances while they despise more noble things. They have even
gone so far as to invent obscure names for it, which would be a
puzzle to Oedipus himself. Some having written as follows: Take
the fat of the deformed child and the tears of the vine of
Dionysius. Who shall understand this save Oedipus? Who shall
quickly interpret the deformed child to be the she-bear, and the
gum of the vine of Dionysius to be the gum of the ivy? The
Adarces here referred to must be distinguished from the true
Adarces or Oysters. It is a sort of thick, salt scum which
collects about reeds in marshy places. Its proper name is
Adarca, but this Rulandus confuses with the oyster, and says
that its power in diseases is declared by Dioscorides (1. 5, c.
84) and by Pliny (1. 32, c. 6), who represents it as coming into
existence around tender reeds amidst the spume of fresh water
and sea water, and accredits it with caustic virtues.
ADARNECH --- is Orpiment.
ADARRIS --- is the spume or foam of sea water.
ADDERE --- To augment; but also used as an equivalent of
temperare, to combine in due proportion, to keep within bounds.
ADDITAMENTA --- Addition, increase.
ADEC --- Sour milk.
ADER --- Fresh skimmed milk.
ADECH --- is our interior and invisible man, who raises
up in our minds the image or archetypes of all those things
which our visible and exterior man copies and forms with his
hands. Each works after his own nature, the invisible thin;
unseen, the sensible, under form sensible, those things which
are within the dominion of the senses.
ADEPS --- A fluid in its final distillation.
ADHEMEST --- with its equivalents Aiohenec and
Altohonec, signifies a plate.
ADHEHE --- Another term for sour milk.
ADHO or ADHOC --- Milk.
ADIBAT --- Mercury.
ADIBISI or ADEBEZI --- The tortoise, also
ADIDACHOS, ADIDE ALARCOS, ADIDA LARCHOS --- Various
terms for "mixed with lime", slaked.
ADIRIGE --- Ammoniac.
ADMI SURAB --- Earth.
ADOS --- Water in which red-hot iron has been plunged.
ADOLESCENS --- Young man.
ADORAT --- A weight of four pounds.
ADRAM --- Metallic salt, Cappadocian salt.
ADRARAGI --- Garden Saffron.
ADRARIGES --- is green atrament ; also blue sulphate of
ADROP, AZAR, AZANE --- A kind of stone.
ADSAMAR --- Signifies urine, but also lotion, fountain,
ADVERSA VENAE PARS --- Against the grain, literally,
against the direction of a current; hence, opposition in
AER --- Equals breath, breeze, spirit, wind, weather.
AERIS --- That is, verdigris.
AERIS SCOBS --- Ordinary copper
AERIS FLOS --- Metaphorically so called, was termed by
the Greeks, Chalckou Anthos, and is misnamed Calcantum, that is,
vitriol, the shoemakers' black of the Latins, the ignorant
believed of old, being deceived by the similarity of the terms.
But Flower of Copper differs among the ancients and moderns. For
the ancients, as appears, denominated Flower of Copper those
purple globules which rise suddenly when the melted copper runs
from the furnace, and is purged from impurity by the sudden
sprinkling of clear water. Of this kind of Flower of Copper
Dioscorides speaks (1. 5, c. 43), and enumerates its medicinal
powers and virtues. Among the moderns, however, the Flower of
Copper signifies verdigris. This distinction should be
remembered in comparing ancient and recent authors. It should
also be borne in mind that formerly they intermingled copper
scales and Flower of Copper, whence a new substance was
developed which was called Lepis, as appears out of Pliny. At
the present day Flos Aeris is not included in the Pharmacopia.
Concerning its virtues Pliny says (1. 34. c 11): The Flower of
Copper is useful to medicine; verily there is not a mineral
throughout all the mines of so useful a nature as it is. It
purgeth the stomach, strengthens the eyes, remedies hardness of
hearing, stayeth bleeding at the nose.
There are two kinds of Copper Scales, namely, dense and light.
Of the first Dioscorides treats (1. 5, c. 44). It is called
Copper Slag by the Germans, but this, which is broad and thin,
is produced from copper by hammering. Dioscorides (l. c.) avers
that which is beaten from bars in the forges of Cyprus, and
called Helitin, or Hammered, to be the best, but that which is
beaten from poor and vulgar copper, or from white copper, is
wholly to be condemned. He leaches further the virtues and the
lustration of Aeris Squama. He makes mention in addition of
Stomoma, the fine scales which fly off in hammering.
There is another stomoma which is the same as the lighter
variety of Aeris Squama, and is mentioned, not by Dioscorides,
but by Pliny. It is called Copperborn by the Germans. And there
is yet another stomoma which is, as it were, slack from the ore
and is pierced easily. Yet again, there is that stomoma which is
ferrum purgatum, purissimum, our chalybs, which is steel.
It was Pliny (1. 34, c. 2) who first taught that coarse copper
scales differed from Flower of Copper, when he said: Now these
scales come by being driven and smitten off from those bars
which they use to forge of the said masses and lumps of copper,
and all these most commonly are found in the Cyprian forges;
herein only is the difference, that the aforesaid scales are
driven forcibly from the masses of copper, whereas the flower of
verdigris fails off by itself. And yet there is a second kind of
these scales, more fine and subtle than any other, to wit,
driven and smitten from the very outside and uppermost part of
the bar, and this they call Stomoma. He adds that both the one
and the other are calcined either over earthen or brazen
vessels, and afterwards washed. Finally, he also avers that the
scales made of the white metal are indefinitely less
efficacious. But neither the scales nor the flower are used by
our doctors as they were in the time of Pliny.
AERUGO AERIS --- or Verdigris, which the moderns, as we
have shown, contradictorily call Flower of Copper, is twofold,
natural and artificial, the former being found in metallic
Cypriot stones, having some proportion of copper; upon these the
verdigris bursts out as in bloom, and this, though small in
quantity, is the best, and is also found in our copper mines.
Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 45) mentions its varieties, with their
proportionate worth, and the manner in which they are
Concerning artificial verdigris, which is produced upon the
surface of copper when the metal has become sufficiently green,
this is of threefold kind, namely:
1. The smooth or scraped, whereof Dioscorides speaks firstly,
and shows after what manner it is made.
2. The vermiculated, or worm-eaten verdigris, which is also
duplex, that which is mineral and that which is made.
The former is the better, and is scraped by itself from the
copperstone, upon which see Pliny (l. 34, c. 12), who disputes
at great length as to whether it be a species of vitriol, or
chalchitis itself. Great indeed is the knowledge of verdigris,
of the natural above all, of Flower of Copper, of Chrysocolla,
and of Vitriol, that is, true Chalchitis. Do thou, most
excellent reader, well consider it, and judge the erudition of
Pliny. Vermiculated verdigris, of the manufactured kind, and the
way of making it, are taught by Dioscorides and by Pliny.
3. The third species of manufactured verdigris is goldsmiths'
verdigris, which is also treated of by Dioscorides, and this is
Santerna, which is used for alum. Some call it Tinckar or
Arabian Borax. Goldsmiths' verdigris is nothing else but
Chrysocolla, on which consult Pliny (1. 33, c. 5; also 1. 34, c.
11 and 12).
All these species answer to Burnt Copper; they are astringent,
they reduce, and heat, which is the case with all kinds of
After what manner the rest are burnt, consult Dioscorides. In
our own day similar species of copper rust are largely
manufactured in Spain.
The Arabians, if I mistake not, call all the above enumerated
species by the name Zinckar; and these are the species according
to Pliny, Dioscorides, and others. But if we consider deeply,
there are some which have not been distinguished by them, and
are set forth in the following tabulation:
Verdigris or Copper Rust is:
Scraped: Natural / Manufactured (1. Scraped; 2. Vermiculate ---
Mined / Manufactured; 3. Goldsmiths’.
Scissile: Natural, i.e., copper-green. Gold-gluten /
Manufactured, goldsmiths’ green, scraped, manufactured copper,
The remaining species are distinguished thus:
1. Verdigris, colour of green copper; things dyed with green
copper rust are so named by Martial.
2. Natural verdigris found on copper quartz.
3. A variety from Satberg, of leaden colour, found in rude
4. Verdigris found on pure solid copper.
5. Manufactured verdigris.
6. Sublimed or distilled verdigris, used by painters.
AERARII LAPIDES --- Natural copper stones.
1. Black scissile copper ore in which are natural plates of
2. Ore containing natural green chrysocolla.
3. Ore containing natural blue chrysocolla.
4. Scissile ores in which is interspersed copper of a golden,
ruddy, blue, purple, violet, or black colour.
5. Scissile ore, having seams of gold-coloured copper.
6. Ore containing seams of copper like the purest lead ore.
7. Cuprine scissile slate, burnt in the open air.
9. Burnt in the open air, afterwards melted out, and the dross
10. Small globular slate-stones, perfectly circular, hard and
heavy, of different sizes. Also found among copper quartz, with
an ashy surface, as if composed of fine sand; if broken with a
hammer, they are like silver or ash-coloured pyrites inside.
Sometimes copper and some times silver is melted out of them.
11. Very hard, small pebbles, showing ruddy in black; found in
scissile copper ore, like the kidneys of animals; when broken,
they are of a deceptive colour, showing rich cuprine hues, but
if searched with fire they possess no metallic quality.
12. Sterile ore, found beneath copper ore, showing white in
13. Primary masses melted out of rude copper.
14. Secondary, in which silver or gold are still present, which
are sold to masters of laboratories for the separation of the
silver and copper.
15. Crumbling or spongy masses, out of which, when lead is
added, silver can be extracted.
16. Masses of silver and lead from which copper has been
17. Copper containing silver combined with lead.
18. Copper, of fine quality, free from torrefied, crumbling, or
19. Copper masses free from all other metal.
20. Sharp-pointed ore stones produced in torrefying masses of
21. Copper nuggets full of sharp points. Also layers of
22. Sharp-pointed nuggets of copper and lead, produced in the
fusion of masses of ore.
23. Sharp-pointed pieces from nuggets which have been once
subject to fusion.
24. Fused copper, containing gold.
25. Fused copper, containing silver. .
26. Fused copper, containing both gold and silver.
27. Tinged with magnesia. White copper.
28. Tinged with metallic cadmia. Yellow copper.
29. Gold-coloured copper.
30. Flattened copper wire out of which garlands or wreaths are
31. Copper showing flaxen colour in red colour.
32. Copper showing swarthy in red.
33. Copper tinctures with gold-colour by chemical art.
34. Gilded copper.
35. Copper coloured silver by chemical art. Alchemical silver.
36. Copper mixed with white lead.
37. Cremated copper.
38. Copper fused with white lead. Manufactured bell-metal.
39. Copper alloy, containing equal parts of copper and silver.
40. Copper fused in iron pipes. Finger-shaped pieces of copper.
Used in testing.
41. Copper reduced to granules; vulgarly called granulated
42. Flower of copper, given off from incandescent masses of
copper; in appearance like millet seed.
43. A more minute kind, given off from molten crucibles, like
flying poppy seed.
44. True flower of copper, given off spontaneously from red-hot
crucibles. Very fine Cyprian copper dust.
45. Baked copper, hardened with hammers.
46. Scales of copper, beaten out by the hammer.
47. Most pure scales of copper, with which potters colour their
vases. Brown copper, found useful in all coppersmiths' work.
48. Copper melted into the form of globules. Coarsely
49. Copper filings.
50. Plates of Copper, called sometimes by an Italian name,
batitura. Sheet copper.
51. Copper wire. .
52. Gilt copper wire.
53. Silvered copper wire.
54. Copper wire overlaid with white lead.
55. Black refuse, separated in the first melting, from copper
56. Metal extracted from copper ore which is once fused and
separated from its refuse.
57. The same, but melted up to the sixth time, then finally
baked, and separated from its first and second refuse.
58. Yellow copper thread. Copper wire.
59. The first recrement of red colour is the material of those
pitchers out of which we usually drink must, or unfermented
60. The second recrement, mixed with brass or lead, is called,
in our vernacular, stone, and is again added to the metals in
the second melting when they begin to flow rapidly.
61. The third recrement remains in the furnace, when the
copper, in which silver is still present, flows out. Out of this
recrement, when pounded and prepared for another melting down,
iron is extracted.
62. Recrements separated from torrefied copper masses.
63. The first recrements of copper are light.
64. The second are heavier.
65. The third are heaviest of all, and black, blue, purple, and
red in colour. On the surface of the Islebian mountains there is
found a red earth, or red ore, with which the copper ore of the
mines is mixed in digging out. Beneath this there are eleven
other species of stone, before the object of mining is attained,
i.e., before the copper veins are reached.
1. Granite. Hyalomite.
1A. A hard, rude stone, of earthy colour.
2. Another not so hard, and of ashen hue.
3. Smokestone. Smoky topaz.
3A. A third harder and rougher, and of colour similar to the
4. Zechstein, permian limestone.
4A. A fourth, showing swarthy in ash-colour, but more solid
than the second.
5. Smoky topaz.
5A. A fifth, ashen, hard, and rough.
6A. Another, like to the fourth.
7. Another similar to the second, but softer.
8. Another blacker than the seventh, small, and harder.
9. A ninth kind, showing ashen in white, soft, and may be
broken like marl with a penknife.
10. Another of ash-colour, hard and solid as marble.
11. A layer of black horny slate.
11. Showing more black in ash-colour than all the others.
12. Scissile Islebian stone, dark ash-colour, rich in copper.
Slate-stone, rich in copper.
AES --- or Copper is attributed to Venus by chemists.
(N.B. --- Aes signified any Ore; i.e., any metal as it is dug
from the earth, but especially refined copper.)
It is a metallic body of a bluish colour with a dark ruddy
tinge; it is igneous and fusible, and occupies a middle position
between Sol and Luna, gold and silver. It is composed of
quicksilver, but impure, unfixed, terrestrial, combustible,
ruddy, and not clear; and, in like manner, of sulphur wanting in
fixity, purity, and density. Bad and feeble sulphur, like a
father of ill complexion and disposition, copulates with a noble
mother, that is, with quicksilver, and generates copper of good
quality, a son of bluish colour, tinged with dark red.
This copper is obtained from veins in the mines, where there is
abundance of pyrites, or marcasite, which beget the various
natural species of vitriol, copperstone, copperas, inkstone,
tutty, etc. Out of copper ore when it is melted there are
obtained the several varieties of artificial Cadmia, Pompholyx,
and Spodos (Pliny, 1. 34, c. 10-13). In the operation of the
furnace, burnt copper is obtained, and scales of copper
indifferently by cooling the heated metal and by hammering.
Finally, verdigris is deposited on the surface of the excocted
There are, broadly, two species of copper, first, that which is
found pure in copper and silver mines, and is in need of no
purifying. Intertwined veins are sometimes met with, and again
whole plates of thin metal which encompass the stone. Of this
Albertus was ignorant. The second species is that which is
melted out of pyrites or marcasite, and other substances; such
as, slate, stone, as well as out of various earths and clays;
also out of Chrysocolla and Azurite, like gold.
Aes, however, does not always denote copper, but sometimes gold
or silver, as they exist in nature, without any mixture of other
metal or stone-a pure, unmixed metal, out of which money was
stamped sometimes, in the same way as from alloys artificially
prepared. This substance was first found in Galilee, but in a
small quantity. In our own day it is likewise seen, but rarely,
and is only to be obtained by a miracle. (The German version
says: Properly it is called copper, some call it simply gold or
silver ore which has not yet been melted, but has been prepared
by nature, and out of which coins have been occasionally
(The copper nuggets referred to by Pliny are identified with
burnt copper by Rulandus, who also enumerates, Loaf-shaped
copper masses, completely baked ; Aes Caldarium, a copper
warming vessel; Aes abstractum, copper extracted from the ore;
Aes residuum, refined copper; Aes liquefactum, copper melted in
an iron pipe. There is no context to explain the object of these
AERUGINATIS --- Copper rusting, is the gilding of the
earths in the ferment; the red earth which is resolved and
cooked, which is the second operation.
AES HERMETIS --- is the same as Mercury. It is also
Solar Dust, the Head of the Raven, our copper, citrine earth,
the thing containing and the thing contained, our lead. Mirerius
calls it Gold extracted out of Metals; it is also termed Venus;
Vitriol; Orpiment; Arsenic; Money; the Soul; the Green Lion;
Green Water, because it germinates; Permanent Water; Wine;
Blood. But it is truly and properly an imperfect body, not yet
prepared, and in its original state.
AES USTUM, or CREMTUM --- Burnt copper according
to Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 42) is obtained by arranging alternate
layers of copper bars with salt and sulphur, or alum, in an
earthen vessel. The same author enumerates other methods, and
burnt copper is made in our own day out of copper, sulphur, and
salt. Dioscorides praises the aes ustum of Memphis and Cyprus.
It is astringent, desiccating, restrictive; it reduces, draws
out, and cleanses; and it heals ulcers. It is serviceable in
complaints of the eye; it is a good emetic, when mixed with
honey. It is cleansed like Cadmia, and is regarded as hot and
dry in the fourth degree. The scum or excrement of copper,
prepared after the same manner, has the same virtues, in a
weaker degree. Consult Dioscorides as above.
The other species of Copper Ore and Copper are as follows:
1. Pure native copper.
2. Native red copper, unalloyed with other metals, found, clean
and solid, in its own mines, in the Duchy of Mansfield.
3. Mined copper, found in its own veins.
4. Pure copper mined from argentiferous veins at Scheberg.
5. Red Mansfield copper, which contains silver.
6. Red native copper of Suacensis in the Rhetian Alps, which
contains gold within it.
7. Copper of a chestnut brown colour, which adheres like a thin
plate to the hard stone. Solid copper.
8. Of the ordinary colour, in a violet fluor-spar.
9. Of the ordinary colour, intermixed with stony substance.
10. Of its own colour, cleaving to hard stone, which has the
glow of hot
11. Of its own colour, cleaving to a scissile stone. The German
context speaks of a red copper mixed with sulphur on a slate
bed; ruddy, solid copper.
12. Thin shavings of copper, in a white flint.
13. Veinlets or fibres of copper in a bright, ruddy stone; a
preparation of a copper ore in a hard stone.
14. A rich vein of copper; a speedy process for pure copper.
15. Rough, native, impure copper.
16. Pure solid copper of Moravia.
17. Natural yellow copper, gold-coloured copper, cleaving to
brittle Mansfield stone.
18. Blue copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
19. Copper, entirely blue.
20. Brownish or violet copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
21. White copper, similar to rude white silver, in a brittle
stone; a rich white copper ore.
22. Black copper ore.
23. Copper ore so abundantly mixed with brittle stone that 100
lbs. contains 40 lbs. of copper.
24. A natural solid copper of several colours, distinguished
into zones of gold, purple, saffron, flaxen, green, and blue.
25. Friberg copper, allied to black lead, of so many excellent
colours that they shine as if they were transparent.
26. Copper native in white lead, having the brightness of
polished gold. The German version reads, born in black lead, as
AETHNA --- This name is given to a subterranean,
invisible, and sulphureous fire which burns stones into coals
similar to asphalt; they are full of resin and bitumen, and some
nations use them instead of coals or wood, especially spurious
sophisticators of metals. Formerly, these subterraneous fires
were to be seen in several places, as, for example, that called
Aetna in Sicily, and another in the Neapolitan Kingdom not far
from Naples. In ancient times the men of those days,
wonderstruck as to what could be the cause of these fires, and
after great investigation being unable to assign it, became so
desperate that one among the most celebrated philosophers,
physicists, and doctors, Empedocles, cast himself headlong into
the flames, choosing to be vanquished by shame rather than by
ignorance. Again Caius Plinius delivered himself to suffocation
from the smoke of this fire. Oh insane talents of men, who,
whilst they will be ignorant of nothing, have attempted no
labours, so that they can know nothing, and have nevertheless
borne a shameful death, esteeming it better not to live than not
to know that which at the same time they knew to be transitory!
Housewives, when they have done cooking, shut up the fire in
their grate, so that there may be no entrance of air, by which
means the fire dies out, for it can live only in air. But if a
draught be admitted before it is quite extinguished, the flame
will revive. In the same way we must regard volcanoes, whose
fires originate in the earth's centre, which holds them like a
grate. They are the air-holes of the earth, by which the central
fires have their nourishment from the atmosphere, and without
which they would be extinguished like the fires in a grate. (An
invisible sulphureous fire in mountains, which turns stones into
Item. All fused ores are understood by the name Aethna.
AETHNICI --- are igneous spirits, or spirit-men, burning
in the midst of flames. They appear in various modes and
manners, like burning fires, live circular coals, or fiery
globes; they are also seen amidst the sulphureous eruptions of
AETITES --- are Eagle-stones, so called on account of
their colour and their virtue, for without them can no eagle
bring forth. For the Eagle-stone alleviates parturition. It is
also called Lapis Erodialis and Lapis Aegreileius. It is a gem
of several species. The first is the Pregnant-stone described by
Dioscorides. When it is shaken another stone can be heard
rattling in its stomach. It is of globular shape, is hollow,
like the oak-apple, and bears another stone within it; this
species is found in the vicinity of the Saale and the Elbe, and
especially in that district which we now call Steuermarch. Very
great virtues are possessed by this species; in particular, it
relieves the sense of heaviness experienced by women before
child-birth if the uterus be rubbed with it. The second species
of Eagle-stone is that which is filled with earth, i.e., with
white or saffron clay, and this is the Geodes (full of earth,
earthy), a precious stone mentioned by Dioscorides. Varieties of
this sort, containing earth or clay, are found at Dresden and in
Saxony. I have myself seen a species, containing a saffron clay,
on the banks of the Elbe, and another, full of white clay, is
met with in the vicinity of the Saale. The third species is
filled with water, and perspires in a warm place. It is called
Enydros; hence those lines of the poet:
"The Enidros pours forth perpetual tears, Which spring like
water from a fountain full ".
Pliny (1. 37, c. 11) and Solinus (c. 40) make special mention
of this species. Says Pliny: The Enydros is always perfectly
round; it is white, and of little weight, but when moved water
is seen to flow within it like the liquid in eggs. And Solinus:
The Enydros exudes moisture, as if a spring of water were
contained within it. The fourth species of Eagle-stone is full
of sand and tiny pebbles. The fifth is full of chelonitis, the
sixth of a white lime; this is the variety which I discovered by
the Elbe; it was of oblong shape, very hard, and honeycombed on
its surface. I met also with another species separated from the
matrix and of a peculiar shape similar to the variety described
by Pliny (1. 10, c. 3), called Gagates by other writers, said to
be found in the nests of eagles, especially in those of the
bearded eagle, and termed the Pregnant-stone. When struck, or
shaken, another stone can be heard rattling within it. It is not
consumed by fire, a quality it possesses in common with the true
Gagates (this is a species of bitumen), whence the identity of
name. Those Eagle-stones, which are taken from the nests of
eagles have the greatest medicinal virtue. Pliny also pretends
(11. 36, c. 27) to distinguish two kinds of Eagle-stones which
are found in the nests of these birds, a male and female, which
are both necessary to the hatching of their eggs. After the same
manner, the eagle places an agate under its unfledged young to
protect them from poisonous reptiles. Pliny otherwise
distinguishes four species of Eagle-stone.
1. The small soft African eagle-stone, containing soft white
clay, as in a womb. It is easily crumbled to pieces, and has
been regarded as feminine. It is found at the present day full
of yellow clay, and is the Geodis of Dioscorides.
2. A variety from Cyprus, similar to the African, but larger
and broader, globular in shape, soft on its surface, easily
crumbled, and containing fine sand and pebbles. Varieties of
this sort are also found pregnant with lime and conchylii.
3. Found near Leucadia, in the island of Taphus, whence it is
called Taphinsius; it is met with in rivers, is white, and round
in shape. In its womb it contains the stone called Callimus, and
it is exceedingly soft.
4. A hard Eagle-stone like the oak-apple, found in Arabia, and
believed to be masculine; it contains a reddish stone, also
hard, and is much praised by Dioscorides. This also is familiar
to us, and has been previously described.
All species of aetites assist parturition and prevent abortion,
as also Pliny witnesses (1. 36, c. 21). They are to be
distinguished from the Echite which is an herb of the clematis
genus; from Echites, a stone spotted like a viper; and from
Echitis, a variety of the last. Consult Pliny as above, Solinus,
c. 40, Serapion, Albertus, Rhasis, and others.
The eagle-stone is also classified as follows:
1. African male aetitis, very hard, black and red in colour,
containing a white crumbling earth.
2. Feminine, from Hildesheimer, mud-coloured, with yellow ochre
adhering to it. This species contains a hard, mud-coloured
3. Another kind, with a loose stone inside it, which sounds
4. Hard, ruddy aetites, having an iron-grey stone.
5. Another, from Motteschanus, shaped like the human head,
round, and very hard, having quadrangular, crystalline fluors
6. A concave, iron-grey stone, found in iron ore, and
containing nothing but air. The German Druse.
AFFARX, or AFFARIS --- is Atrament.
AFFRONITUM --- is Froth of Nitre, in Arabic Baurach; or
it is that pseudo-Froth of Nitre which is called Glass-gall by
the Germans; or it is the metallic salt called Cappadocius and
AFFENICUM --- is Soul.
AFFEOS, or AFROS --- is Froth or Spume.
AFFORMAS --- is Glass.
AFRICUS --- Mid south-west.
AFFRODINA --- is Venus.
AFFROTON --- is frothy, spumous, etc.
AFFRENGI --- is Minium, Red Lead, Vermilion.
AFFIDRA, or ALLMAT --- is White Lead.
AFRAGAR --- is Verdigris.
AFROS --- is our Lead, the unclean body.
AGABAR --- is Prepared Calx.
AGAR, ALGIT, ALGERIT --- Names of Calx.
AHENUM --- is a metallic vase of copper, or iron, two
feet high, and of about the same width. On the top there is a
cover which fits it exactly, and is made in the following
manner: A plate of copper is made in exact correspondence with
the capacity of the ahenum (for the sake of convenience some
affirm that a wooden cover may be substituted), and of circular
shape, in the centre of which (when the ahenum is intended for
the reception of only one cuppingglass) a little door is cut, of
the exact size of the vase which is to be placed in the ahenum,
and out of which at the same time it can project a certain
distance. On one or the other side, and near the bottom of the
ahenum, another door must be made, through which the heat can
flow under, and more water be supplied to make up for
evaporation. The use of this covered ahenum is manifold in the
operations of the baths.
AHIUS --- is Rock-Salt, or Muriate of Soda.
AHUSAL --- is Arsenical Sulphur. Also the Eagle.
AIARAZATH, or ALHENOT --- is Lead.
AKIBOT, ALCHIBIT, ALCHINIT --- are names of Sulphur.
AKON --- is a sharp-pointed stone. Hence aconite, an
herb which grows on rocks, derives the name it bears. There is
another sharp-pointed stone, with which knives and other
instruments are sharpened, and it is called Whetstone. Of this
we have several species-black, white, yellow, and one which is
of a very deep black. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 93) signalises the
uses of the Naxian Stone which is worn away by the sharpening of
instruments thereon. The species under notice is also called
Heraclean and Lydian Stone ; it is the German Touch-stone, which
is known to our goldsmiths and is called Coticula by Pliny (1.
33, c. 8). That stone which is found in Misnia, and is now used
by book-binders, is also a species of cos-stone. There is,
moreover, a variety which is of green colour, and is called
Eye-stone, or Oil-stone, because instruments of various kinds
are sharpened upon it after it has been lubricated with oil.
There are additional species which the reader himself will be
able to recall to his mind without further enumeration ---
Lydian Stone, Grind-stone, Clinthy Slate, etc.
ALABASTRITES --- Alabaster, from the town of that name
in Upper Egypt, and also from Damascus of Syria. It is a species
of marble, and is familiar to the Venetians. There are three
kinds; the first is white and shining, and is that white
alabaster of which in times gone by it was usual to make the
images of saints and -the monuments of the departed. The second
species has black spots. The third is white and ruddy, and is
hence called Onyx, ruddy Alabaster, because it has the tint of
human flesh. It is the species referred to by Dioscorides when
he says: Alabaster, also called Onyx, when burnt with pitch or
resin, removes indurations of the body. For the various uses of
the onyx, and concerning the vessels and boxes for ointment
which are made of it, consult Dioscorides (1. 2). At the present
time there are two species found in Germany, in Cheruscis, not
far from Northusia, and in Saxony, near Hildesheim. Pliny (1.
36, c. 7 and 8) says: Alabaster is used for vases containing
unguents, and is medicinally valuable in plasters to be placed
over burns and scalds. He also informs us that its native places
are Thebes of Egypt and Damascus of Syria. There is, however, a
useless and inferior species which comes from Cappadocia, a
country of Asia between the Black Sea, or rather Pontus, and
Cilicia. Consult also the same writer in the thirteenth chapter
of his thirteenth book of the History of the World.
ALABONI, or ALOANACH --- is Lead
ALAFOR, ALAFORT --- Salt of Alkali.
ALACHASCHE --- is a caltrop.
ALAFREG --- is a species of white lead.
ALAHABAR, ALABARI, ALCHONOR, ALLARINOCH, ALHOHONOCH,
ALRACHAS, ALASTROB, ALOMBA, ALOOC, ALLABOR, ALCAMOR ---
are all names of Lead. See Abam, etc.
ALAHATIB --- is a ruddy stone.
ALAHIC --- according to some is an oven of the
alchemists; according to others, it is Charcoal.
ALARTAR --- is burnt Copper Ore.
ALASALET --- is Ammoniac.
ALATAN --- is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead.
ALAURAT --- is Nitric Salt.
ALBANUM --- is Salt of Wine.
ALBANI --- is a stone of salt of milk.
ALBARAS --- is Arsenic.
ALBATIO --- Whiteness; white ashes left by calcination.
ALBERICK --- is White Copper or Metallic Ore.
ALBESTON --- is Quicklime.
ALBETAD --- is Galbanum, a disputed substance, supposed
to be the resinous sap of an umbelliferous plant in Syria. It is
referred to by Pliny and Suetonius.
ALBI --- That is, Sublimated.
ALBIR --- is Pitch from the bark of the yew. I believe
it to be a substance from which ink is made.
ALBOR --- is Urine.
ALBOT --- is Goldsmith's Brick.
ALBOTAT, ALFIDAS, and ASFIDE --- Names of White
ALBOTIM, or ALBOTAI --- is Terebinth,
Turpentine. It has other arbitrary names, such as, Albuhen,
Altilibat, Albotra, Bora, Debutum, Helcabatan, Helkaboni,
Helcalibat, Helcalidar, Kytram.
ALBUHAR --- White Lead.
ALBULA --- Pearl-white.
ALBUM --- is White Copper.
ALCADP --- is White Atrament; a contradictory
designation because atramentum is essentially a black liquid.
ALCALI --- Symbolical principle of the Chemists. It is
the salt derived from the ashes of any substance without the
limes of the bodies, and it inheres in all substances whether
aqueous or fiery. It may be called Salt of Ashes, or Salt of
ALCAOL --- is Sour Milk, otherwise Mercury.
ALCAHEST --- is prepared Mercury; some will have that it
is tartar ; but the special meaning of any writer may be judged
easily by the description of his preparation.
ALCAHESTI --- Mercury prepared as a medicine for the
ALCANNA, or ALCONA --- according to Avicenna,
are long slender plants, knotted like reeds, which are used as
spears by the Arabs. Some also understand it to be the Guaiacum,
or Tree of Life of America.
ALCEBRIS VIVUM, VIVIFIC ALCEBRIS --- is Sulphur. Called
also Alneric, Anerit, Aneric.
ALCHEMY --- is the separation of the impure from the
ALCHITRAM, or ALCHIERAM --- is Oil of Juniper,
Liquid Pitch, Arsenic purified by
ALCHITRAN --- is also Oil of Juniper, but especially the
dregs left after distillation.
ALCIMAD --- is Antimony ; called also Alcofol, Alfacio.
ALCOCL --- is Sour Milk.
ALCOHOL --- is a most subtle powder.
ALCOHOL --- is Stybium or Antimony.
ALCOHOL OF WINE --- (sometimes termed Distilled Wine) is
thus called when every superfluity of wine has been so purged
away that the whole is consumed and neither dregs nor moisture
remain in the retort. The most subtle powder that can be made.
If alcohol of wine be added, it is rectified, distilled wine.
ALCOLISMUS --- is crushing or corrosion.
ALCOL --- is Vinegar.
ALCONE --- is Aurichalcum, i.e., Brass, Bronze.
ALCOOL --- has been most incongruously interpreted by
some writers to be a powder ground to extraordinary fineness by
a brass or iron mortar; but their error is made sufficiently
plain by the fact that Paracelsus speaks in many places of
alcool of wine, which he uses for rectified Aqua fortis, and
this has nothing in common with a powder. The alcool of any
bodies whatever is therefore nothing else but the purer and
cleaner part separated from the impure. As regards the
Paracelsian Alcool of Antimony, it is nothing else, according to
this author, than antimony not merely ground with pestle and
mortar, but exalted into its volatile condition without change
in the natural colour. And it is needful that this should be
done by the exclusive conduct and guidance of fire and heat, in
such a manner that after it has been ground in the vulgar
fashion, it shall be disintegrated further by sublimations,
which are the philosophical pestle and mortar. Paracelsus also
teaches elsewhere that such sublimation is to be performed
without a caput mortuum, i.e., without leaving a residuum. It is
further certain that no refuse must be present before
sublimation. This sublimation of stibium is wholly
indispensable, or frustrated energy and vain labour will be
spent upon the flowers of antimony. Most of those who have
attempted to analyze the preparation of Paracelsian substances
have failed over this arcanum. By vulgar trituration the
substances evaporate into white smoke, and it is easier to
ascend into heaven than to produce in this way the citrine or
ruby flowers, as they have proved to their own cost. The
operation is not vulgar and the philosophical artifice is known
to few. But it is made known to the Sons of the Doctrine. The
sublimation is performed by a carefully tempered fire, so that
the powder of antimony may be liquefied as little as possible,
but at the same time may ascend until the flower of the powder
is seen sticking to the walls of the furnace.
ALCOR --- is Copper, burnt till it is fine as powder.
ALCORE --- is a kind of stone having spar like silver.
Called also Altores.
ALCUBD --- is Crude Butter. Called also Alumbair.
ALCUBRITH, ALCUR, and ALUZAR --- are all names
ALEC --- is Vitriol.
ALECHARITH --- is Mercury.
ALECHIL --- is three-footed. Cf. Tripod.
ALECTORIA --- is a gem mentioned by Pliny (1. 37, c.
10), which is like crystal or clear water; and he shows that
this crystalline substance, which is as large as a horse bean,
is found in the gizzard of poultry, or, as Albertus has it, of a
castrated cock. It is found after the bird has attained the age
of four years. It renders the possessor rich and of warlike
aspect. And they report that Milo of Crotona was made invincible
by such an Alectoria. It conciliates girls and quenches thirst.
See also Solinus, etc.
ALEFANTES --- is Flower of Salt.
ALEMBACI --- is Burnt Lead.
ALEMBIC --- is Mercury.
ALEMBICUS --- or Capitellum (helmet) is a vessel set
over the retort to receive and collect vapours.
The Alembic is of two kinds, beaked or curved, and without
beak. The first transmits the resolved vapours by a channel or
neck to the receiving vessel. The second, which is without a
beak or conduit, is used in sublimations, and in some cases is
pierced at the top for the passage of the rising vapours.
ALEMBROTH --- is Salt of Mercury, or Philosophical Salt,
Salt of Art, and Key of Art.
ALEMBROTH DESSICATUM --- Dessicated Alembroth, is by
some called Salt of Tartar, the Magistery of Magisteries.
ALES --- is compounded Salt, or manufactured Salt.
ALEXANTHI --- or Altingat, is Flower of Copper.
ALEXIR --- is a medicine alchemically prepared.
ALEZARAM --- is the washing of lead.
ALFACTA --- is Distillation.
ALFADIDAM --- is Dross of Gold.
ALFAMADI --- is ashen.
ALFATIDA --- is Burnt Copper, or Plates of
ALFATIDE --- is Sal Ammoniac. Among its other Hermetic
names are Salmiax, Alacap, Alorap, Alfol, Alisteles, Alcob,
Azonec, Anoxadic, Anacab, Andex,
Aquila, Butrum, Alizeles.
ALFASIT, or ALVASIT --- is Brick, burnt Clay ;
ALFUSA --- is impure Protoxide of Zinc.
ALGA --- is a reed, according to the German context, but
it is properly sea-weed.
ALGALI --- is Nitre, or Saltpetre.
ALGEMET --- Coals.
ALGERIAE, ALGERIE --- is Lime.
ALIGULUS --- is Confection, Composition.
ALIM --- is a sand found in auriferous metals, out of
which lead is extracted.
ALINZADIR --- is cold and dry earth. It is called in
Arabic Boneza and Tinckar.
Arles calls it Salmiac.
ALIOCAB --- is Sal Ammoniac.
ALKAES, or ALCHOCHOS --- is fine powder.
ALKALIA --- is the vase or vessel.
ALKALE --- is Oil of a Hen.
ALKALID, ALKES, ALCOB --- are Burnt Copper.
ALKALI --- is Vitriol from the mines, or fluid Vitriol,
calcinated in aludal. With others Alkali is a pebble of salt,
derived from pounded limestones, extracted by moisture and
coagulated by the dissipation of moisture. Above all alkali
signifies the elaboration of the essential form of the said
stone, freed from what is impure and separated from its body.
The term is also ascribed to calcined and diffused substances
when they are reduced to a solid consistency, as when common
salt is dissolved by moisture and again coagulated. Also when
pearls are calcined entire, are dissolved, and again coagulated,
they are in themselves magisteria, and are called alkali
ALKAMIS --- Name of the philosopher.
ALKANTUM --- Sometimes Burnt Copper, sometimes an
aromatic substance, sometimes Arsenic.
ALKANT --- is Mercury, or a species of inky matter.
ALKARA --- is a gourd. In medicine it is a
cupping-glass, and in alchemy a Cucurbite.
ALKARANUM --- is green Duenech, or Antimony.
ALKASA or ALKAZOAL --- is goldsmith's brick.
ALKASIAL --- is Antimony.
ALKIBRIC, ALKIBERT, ALGIBIC, ALKIBIC, ALCHABRIC --- are
names of Living Sulphur.
ALKIN --- is Woad Ashes, or woad-colour Ashes.
ALKIR --- is Smoke or Coals.
ALKITRAM --- is Liquid Pitch.
ALKO --- is Tartar. Theophrastus says that it is the
purer substance of a thing separated from the impure. Thus
Alcool of Wine is aqua ardens rectified and cleansed, the best
and purest, the most subtle and celestial.
ALKOEL --- is the finest Lead of the mines; Lapis
ALKOSOR --- is Camphor.
ALKY OF LEAD --- is the soft substance of lead.
ALKYMIA --- is the powder of the basilisk.
ALLABROT --- is a certain species of manufactured salt.
ALMA --- is Water.
ALMABRI --- is a stone like amber.
ALMAGER --- is Synopide, like red grains (cf.
ALMAGRA --- is a copper bolus, or laton, which see. A
red soil or clay, used as a lubricant by wheelwrights. Also a
ALMAKIST, ALMAKANDA --- That is Litharge.
ALMARCAB, or ALMARCHAZ --- is Litharge.
ALMARCAT --- is Dross of Gold and Cathmia of Gold, which
ALMARCAZIDA --- is Litharge of Silver, or Argyritis.
ALMARCHAT and ALMARETH --- signify Silver
ALMARGEN, ARMALGOL, ALMARAGO --- Names of Coral.
ALMARTACK --- is Ash of Litharge.
ALMATATICA --- is a Mine of Copper.
ALMATKASITA --- is Mercury, the Mineral Stone.
ALMECHASIDE --- is Copper.
ALMENE --- is Solis Gemmae ( Solis Gemmae is a kind of
glittering precious stone, mentioned by Pliny. But the German
version seems to refer to Sal Gemma, which see.).
ALMETAT --- s Dross of Gold, or Refuse of Gold.
ALMISADIR --- is prepared Sal Ammoniac; called also
Asanon, Meradum, Almisadu, Amizadir; it is the German Salmiak.
ALMIZADIR --- is Verdigris.
ALNEC, ALLENEC, ALKALAP, ALETH, ALMIBA, ASEREBRAN, ASEBUM
--- are names of Tin.
ALOE, EPATICUM ALOE --- A medicine for the liver.
ALOFEL --- is the cloth which covers the Vase.
ALOHAR, ALOHOC, ALOSOHOC, ALOSOT --- are names of
ALOS, ALO, ALIX, ALMELE, ALEC, ALKALAT, ALKALAC --- are
names of Salt.
ALOSANTHI --- Flower of Salt, in use among dyers.
ALRAMUDI --- Ashen.
ALSECH --- is a species of Alum.
ALSELAT --- is burnt Copper, or Calcecumenon, which is
ALTAMBUS --- is the Red Stone, to wit, blood from men's
ALTANUS --- is the South-west or South.
ALTARIS, ANTARIT, and ALOZET --- are names of
ALTHANACHA --- is Orpiment. Called also Alernet and
ALTIMAR, or AYCAPHER --- Burnt Copper.
ALTIMIO --- is Dross of Lead.
ALTINURAUM --- is Vitriol.
ALTINGAT --- is Flower of Copper.
ALUDEL, or ALUTEL --- is a glass vessel used in
ALUDIT, ANTARIC, AZOMSES, AZON --- Names of Mercury.
ALUSIR --- is redness.
ALUECH --- is the pure body of Jove. Called also Aluach.
ALUEUS --- is boatlike, otherwise a vessel shaped like a
boat. Alueus minor is a vessel of like shape but smaller size.
ALUIS, or ALAFOR --- Called also Vabs, is Salt
ALUMBOTI --- is burnt lead.
ALUMEN --- is known to all, and signifies Mercury,
because it dissolves. It is the best of all crystals. Its
species are various, of which some are called technically
Jamenum, Roccum, Scissum, Rotundum, Zacharinum, Debelgamo,
Genoese Nitre, Alum from the mines, Fusible Alum, Scaly Alum,
Liquid Alum, Preserved Alum, Common Alum, Alum Placodes, Burnt
Alum, Sodden Alum, Rock-Alum, and Native Alum.
Albertus distinguishes four broad species-Simple, or Common
Alum; Black, White, and one which he describes fully in his book
on Minerals. But here follow the several species of Alum.
1. Alum of the mines.
2. Liquid, clay-like, pale yellow Alum, from the Island of Elba
in the Mediterranean. When handled it becomes so soft that it
3. Natural liquid yellow Alum like a soft butter; it is found
in the lead mines near Naples.
4. Grey liquid Alum from the same place.
5. White scaly Neapolitan Alum.
6. Very white scissile Neapolitan Alum.
7. Yellow Neapolitan Alum.
8. Scissile Alum, mixed with black dye, and redolent of sulphur
when burnt. This also is from Naples.
9. Fibrous Neapolitan Alum.
10. Globular Neapolitan Alum.
11. A Neapolitan variety, found in layers, having wide crusts.
12. Manufactured saccharine Alum.
13. Square-shaped Alum of a violet colour.
14. Bright reddish Neapolitan Alum.
15. Manufactured Alum, having the appearance of fluorspar. It
is produced by placing any igneous crux (untranslatable in this
connection) into deep vessels, to which it adheres as if
consubstantial with them, and crystallises in four-sided
16. Pure bright digested Alum, found in Thuringia at Lobestein.
17. Venetian Alum which shows reddish in grinding, but is
18. Common Alum.
19. Burnt Alum.
20. Bright melted Alum of Dibanus, from which a sort of inky
21. A variety of the above, combined with Atrament, and found
in a moist clay.
22. Alum combined with Atrament excocted from Lye.
23. Pure white cocted Alum from Dibanus; this is pellucid and
free from inky matter.
24. Bohemian Alum.
25. Alum of Misnense, mined in Burgos and Heringisdorf.
26. Alum of Tolpha, first mined in Italy during the pontificate
of Pius the Second.
27. Veins of Alum mixed with Persulphate of Iron (misy).
28. An exceedingly white earth, out of which Neapolitan Alum is
29. Rocca stone, from which Alum is derived.
30. Earth in the black ash of Dibanus, from which Alum is
31. A vein of globular Alum found on the top of the mountains
32. A black Lobestenian vein, wherein there is a white natural
ALUMEN --- A name of Antimony.
ALUMEN ALAP --- Possibly Clay-like Alum.
ALUMEN ALAFRAN --- Final State.
ALUMEN ALAFURI, or ALAFOR --- Native Soda.
ALUMEN ALBEDANE --- Zacharine Alum.
ALUMEN ALBUM --- i.e., Learto (unexplained).
ALUMEN ALKORI, and ALUMEN ALKALI --- Saltpetre.
ALUMEN ALEXANDRINUM --- Soda, or Natron.
ALUMEN BULGANUM --- The German Eyestone, a species of
Varnish. It is red and transparent as mastic.
ALUMEN CALCILIEN --- Arabian Azub, or Alum.
ALUMEN CREPUM --- is tartar obtained from good wine.
ALUMEN DE ALEP --- is Greek or Macedonian Salt.
ALUMEN DE BABYLONIA --- is Zacharine Alum, and the same
as globular alum.
ALUMEN DE CRYSTALLO --- is Alumen roce, which is
ALUMEN DE PLUMA, or ALUMEN SCARIOLA --- is
Gipsum Or Gypsum.
ALUMEN FASCIOLI --- is Alkali, and is identical with
ALUMEN GLACIOSERO --- is fixed, saline alum.
ALUMEN IONID --- is Limpart.
ALUMEN LAMENUM --- is laminated Alum.
ALUMEN LIQUIDUM --- is Amonum, an aromatic Balsum,
ALUMEN LOSE --- is scaly Alum.
ALUMEN MARINUM --- is a humid spirit.
ALUMEN ODIG --- is Salmiac.
ALUMEN PHILOSOPHORUM --- is Lime of Egg Shells.
ALUMEN ROSA, ROSE ALUM --- That is, Burnt Alum, Baked
Alum, and Alum consumed by fire.
ALUMEN ROTUNDUM --- which is laminated Alum, is also
ALUMEN SCARIOLE --- is Gipsum.
ALUMEN SCAROLUM --- is split Alum.
ALUMEN SCISSUM --- is laminated alum.
ALUMEN SYRACH, ALUMEN SYSARACH, ALUMEN ALKOKAR, ALUMEN
ALURINT, ALUMEN LANIOSUM --- are all names of Alumen
combustum, which is Alum after it has been treated with fire.
ALUNIBUR --- is Luna --- Silver.
ALUNSEL --- is a drop.
ALUSAR --- is Manna.
ALUSEN --- is sulphurated.
ALZEGI --- is Atrament.
ALZEMAFOR --- is Cinnabar.
ALZILAT --- is a weight of three grains.
ALZIMAX --- is green.
ALZOFAR --- is burnt Copper.
AMALGAMA --- is a composition of Gold or Silver and
AMALGAMATION --- is a calcination of the familiar metals
by means of artificial Quicksilver. At the same time, the
operation of calcining is not carried out invariably to its
utmost limit, and it is enough for the metal to be sufficiently
melted to assume the consistency of the pulp or amalgam of the
goldsmiths. The disintegration into a most fine powder which
takes place under this process is also called a calcining.
Further, amalgamation is calcination of a metal by Quicksilver;
and it is performed when a metal, after being reduced into fine
filing, thin plates, or lamina, is blended and mixed with six,
nine, or twelve parts of Quicksilver, so that it becomes a
homogeneous mass; and in this way also is the metal calcined and
disintegrated. For the metal is reduced into the condition of a
fine ash by evaporation with Quicksilver over a gentle fire.
AMANDINUS --- is a stone of various colours. It destroys
and binds all venomous animals, and is in no way contemptible;
for which see Albertus.
AMASSA --- means confect, got together; hence, to amass.
AMBRA --- is Spermaceti.
AMENE --- is Common Salt, called Apostolus.
AMENTUM --- is Powdered Alum.
AMETHYST --- is a gem of violet colour, which Pliny says
(l. 37, c. 9) approaches the hue of wine, yet, before it
thoroughly taste thereof, it turns into a March violet colour,
and its purple lustre is not fiery altogether, but declines in
the end to the colour of wine. India is the native place of the
amethyst, as Pliny also testifies. Thence the finest are
brought; their colour is an absolute purple, and indeed the
dyers would give anything to reproduce it. There is, however,
another species which approaches hyacinth, which colour the
Indians term Sacon, and the gem itself they call Socondion.
There is a third species which is paler, and is called Sapenos
and Paranites. A fourth species is wine-colour; a fifth
approaches crystal, having a whitish purple tinge; and by some
this species is termed Anterotis, by others Pcederotos, and by
yet others the jewel of Venus. Amethysts are also found in
Arabia Petrea, Armenia, Egypt, Galatia, Tarsus, and Cyprus. But
these are of a miserable and worthless quality. The superstition
of the Magi declares amethysts to have power over drunkenness
and evil thoughts, to protect against poisons, to hive access to
the persons of kings, and to avert hail. Upon the colours of the
amethyst, consult Pliny (1. 20, c. 8, and 1. 9, c. 38). Inferior
amethysts are found in many parts of Bohemia, and in its mines
are fluorspars similar to these. The following varieties are
inferior to Oriental:
1. Amethysts of Misnia, from the mines of Bergenbricht.
2. Amethysts from the waters of Misnia, and from the river
Trebisa near Misena.
3. Amethysts found in the Bohemian mountains.
4. Amethysts which have the appearance of crystal.
5. Amethysts having crystalline lines.
6. Quadrangular and sexangular amethysts, brown and pointed.
AMIANTHUS, or AMIANTUS --- On the testimony of
Dioscorides, is a stone of Cyprus, not unlike certain species of
alum. It is impervious to fire, from which it issues more
brilliant. It is fabled by the Germans to be produced from the
hairs of a Salamander, which is accounted for by its fireproof
nature. It is a kind of stone which may be split into threads
and spun. It is without doubt a scaled or feathered Alum, which
can burn for ever (i.e. to say, it is Asbestos). In other
respects, the Amianth is not of great virtue; however, it
absorbs moisture. Pliny (l. 36, c. 19) says that it is similar
to alum, losing nothing in the fire, and especially defying all
the witchcraft of sorcerers. If we consider well, we (Germans)
ourselves are possessed of a species of Amianth, which is found
in our mines, and which we call Micah. It is of a silver colour.
It is called Cat's Silver, by similitude, because cats' eyes
shine like the Amianth at night, or because it is useless and
thought only fit for burning. But if we consider deeply, it
cannot be burned like the true Amianth; but is rather purged,
and assumes another colour; a thing of no moment. What is more
important to know is the power which resides in a certain stone
called Asbestos, which is found in the mountains of Arcadia, as
Pliny assures us (1. 37, c. 10). It is of an iron colour, and
Albertus tells us that it exists also in Arabia. When this stone
is set on fire there is scarcely anything that will extinguish
it. Its nature is humid and unctuous. There is also the
vitreous, ruddy-veined Absinth or Wormwood Stone, which will
burn for days at a time, and is said to make blood, or to cause
blood to flow, and is the opposite to Hematite, which congeals
or checks blood. Pliny (1. 37, c. 16) calls this stone Apiston.
There is again the stone called Iscultos by Albertus, and you
shall judge by his own words whether it is the same as the
Amianth, or a stone of other species. It is similar to the
flower Saffron, he tells us; it is found in the farthest parts
of Spain and in the vicinity of Cadiz; it is of a crumbling
nature, on account of its dried up viscousness. If garments be
spun from it they may be cleaned and made white by fire without
burning. It is this perchance which is called the Salamander's
hell, a wool, spun, as it were, from a humid stone.
AMIDUM, or AMYLUM --- is a most white meal.
AMMONIS --- A precious stone of an ashen colour,
representing a ram's head. It was held sacred in Ethiopia.
Otherwise, a horn-shaped stone, without polish, about eight
fingers wide, and over two pounds in weight. There is a variety
from Hildesheimer, also without polish. There is a third or
polished form which has an iron-coloured surface. A fourth is
overlaid with aurichalcum, a metallic substance resembling gold,
and usually regarded as mythical. There are also the following
1. Ammonites minor, like ova of fish, the lesser Rainstone.
2. Ammonites major, or greater Rainstone.
3. Lepidotus, or multi-coloured, like the scales of fish.
4. Strombites longus, the Snailstone, like the marine snail
because it tapers off even as, for example, the whorl of a
univalve, in a high and elevated spire.
5. Strombites brevis, a smaller variety of the same.
6. Ctenites parvus, Musselstone, ashen-coloured, striated,
7. A shining sandy stone, in which Musselstones are imbedded.
8. A hard ashen stone, found in Lusatia, and containing
9. A polished ashen stone, overlaid with gold colour, and in
which a stone like the Chama is found.
10. Onychites, having the appearance of talons.
11. Ostreites, oyster-shaped Ammonites.
12. Ostreites, another species, consisting of six of the above
kind joined together.
13. Tellinites, precisely similar to the molluscs, called
Tellina, overlaid with a gold-coloured covering.
14. Chemites, ashen, similar to Chama. See above, species 9.
15. Conchites, similar to a bivalve shell, with a gold-coloured
armature. Another variety of the Snailstone.
AMNIS ALCALISATUS --- is water filtered through
limestones. Alkalis are waters filtered through the stones of
AMONGABRIEL --- is Zynobrium.
AMPULLA VITREA --- is a retort. There is another Ampulla
Vitrea, which is a vessel of glass.
AMYGDALAE (Almonds) --- Signifies among surgeons a
certain fleshy excrescence which forms at the root of the
tongue. The German version calls it mouth-almond.
AN --- Father, Sulphur.
ANATON, AMATRON --- Native Soda.
ANATRON --- Refuse of Vitrum (glass).
ANATRON --- i.e., Baurac, which see.
ANATRON --- i.e., Sagimen (salt) of Vitrum (glass), or
Salt of Alkali.
ANATRON --- Froth of Vitreum, Gall of Vitreum. The
German context terms it Sandiber, Gall of Glass.
ANATRIS, or ANTARIS --- is Mercury.
ANATOMIA ESSATA --- is the parent of diseases.
ANATRUM --- is Vitreum melted into various colours.
Called vulgarly Smaltum or Saracenic earth. The species are
numerous-black, red, blue. It is also a substance which grows in
stones, and is itself of a white and stone-like character; by
some it is called Native Soda. The ancients erroneously called
it Gall of Vitreum, whereas it is Gall of Stone.
ANCORA --- is calx.
ANCOSA --- is lacka.
ANDARAC --- is red orpiment.
ANDENA --- is Chalybs, i.e., Steel, brought from
Oriental places. It melts in flame, in the same way as other
metals, and can be poured into moulds.
ANFAXA --- is a congealed substance.
ANHELITUS --- is smoke, otherwise horse-dung.
ANIADA --- are the fruits and powers of Paradise and of
Heaven; they are also the Christian Sacraments. In things
physical they signify the astral potencies, and the celestial
potencies, and they are those things which, by thought,
judgment, and imagination, promote longevity in us. But these
things are the gift of God, and make for life eternal.
ANIADUS --- is the efficacy or virtue of things.
ANIADUM --- is the archnatural body which in us
Christians is implanted by the Holy
Ghost working through the most holy Sacraments. Or it is the
spiritual man reborn in us.
ANIMA --- As the philosophers conceive three principles,
Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, so also they conceive three other
divisions-Soul, Spirit, and Body, not that the Soul and the
Spirit are to be distinguished as cattle from men, but by way of
similitude. The Soul is nothing else but a living, formed Body,
that is turned into Mercury, and when this is done to the dead
Body and Spirit, then the whole is made living Elixir.
Therefore, do not make a mistake, when the philosophers speak of
one Soul instead of two Souls, for it is all one thing. The
Mercury has in itself the Soul, and is called our Mercury, which
is the house and dwelling of the Soul. Also the Soul is called
Spirit, and the Spirit is called Soul. The Spirit produces the
Soul from the Body, and returns it when it is white. Therefore,
it is called the Life of the Soul --- Vita Anima. Should the
Spirit depart from the Soul it could not give the life. The Soul
unites and conjoins the married, Body and Spirit; so the Spirit
unites the Soul with the Body, so that it is all one thing.
There are two Souls --- one of gold, the other of silver. The
Soul of the gold must remain, and cannot do so without the
Spirit, nor yet the Spirit remain without the Soul. There must
be fixed, abiding, undying Souls. At first the Soul lies hidden
under the Spirit; finally, the Soul and Spirit remain hidden
under the Body. Then dost thou first behold pure Mercury.
Through the crude Spirit is the mature Mercury taken away from
the released Body, which is a fixed ash remaining behind to be
dissolved further. Out of this is extracted a petrine,
incombustible Olitet or Gum, which vivifies, unites, and welds
the natures together, and as they separated the natures through
the Spirit, accordingly through the Soul they unite them again.
This Olitet preserves the colour of the Spirit even to
thickening. Then is it fit for the production of royal weapons
and metallic figures. It manifests itself as golden in golden
and as argentine in silver. The Soul's ascent is when the Body
becomes white, clear, and fluid. Immediately they are one and
living. Then is there danger. If the Soul escapes or burns it is
lost. So is the Soul quickly given to the Body and takes shape.
The Soul proceeds out of the unified Body; she is herself the
living body, and is called REBIS, Putrid Water, Corruption of
the Dead, Blood and Blood Water, Lymph, the Animal Stone,
Blessed, Blood, Sulphur, Olitet. The Soul is a simple thing,
which sometimes has power to bring the Body with it.*
[* It is the tincture withdrawn from the body. Soul also is
said to be in Arsenic.]
ANIMA SATURNI, or ALTHEA --- (Literally,
Marshmallows) of Saturn, is a most mellifluous sweetness which
is extracted from Lead by vinegar. (A right noble sweetness,
according to the German.)
ANNORA --- is Calx of Eggs, or living Calx, or
ANNUS PHILOSOPHICUS --- The philosophical year, is the
ANODUS --- is the nutriment which is separated in the
ANONTAGIUS --- is the Philosophical Stone, the gift of
God, Sulphur fixed by Nature.
ANORA --- is Quicklime.
ANOTASIER, ALIOCAB, ALEMZADAT --- are names of Sal
ANSIR --- Son, Mercury.
ANSIRARTO --- Spirit, Salt.
ANTAL --- is a pure lotion.
ANTERIT --- is Mercury.
ANTHERA --- is extract of the medicinal properties of
the Hyacinth. It is also the yellow centre which is found in
such flowers as the Lily.
ANTHONOR, ATHONOR --- That is, Oven.
ANTHOUS --- is properly ROSEMARY, but in the terminology
of metals it signifies Quintessence, or Elixir of Gold. It means
further the extracted medicine.
ANTICAR --- is Borax.
ANTIFIDES --- is Calx of Metals.
ANTIMONIUM, or ALKOFOL --- A stone from a lead
vein, or vein of Othi. It is also Marchasite, a kind of Saturn,
a kind of Antistinus (unknown), and Stybium. It is a muddy
Marchasite, having a fixed Sulphur, and is insoluble. It is of
two kinds. One is the ordinary black species of Saturn, and is
called Magnesia, Bismuth, Contersin. It is of the race of
Jupiter, an immature, ill-favoured product. It is Dross of Lead
and has the virtues of burnt Lead, being of similar substance.
It is cold, dry, and astringent.
ANUCAR, ANCINAR --- is Borax.
ANYADEI --- Eternal Spring, the new world, the Paradise
APENSALUS --- A utensil with a narrow mouth, used in
APHEBRIOCK --- is Sulphur.
APHRODISIA --- is the venereal state.
APHRONITRUM --- Froth of Saltpetre, Wall-salt. As salt
and froth of salt have great affinity for each other, so also
have Nitre and Froth of Nitre in like manner. For the rest,
Aphronitum, Froth of Nitre, Flower of Stone, or Wallflower (like
froth of salt) is excessively light, lumpy, crumbling, frothy,
pungent, and that which approaches a purple colour is the best
kind. We term Froth of Nitre both Aphronitum and Frothy
Aphronitrum which grows on walls and stones; in many places it
is known by the German name of Mergell. Froth of Nitre varies in
its species according to the stones and walls where it grows.
Its virtue is similar to burnt salt. Froth of Nitre, Flower of
Stone, and Flower of Stone of Asia are very nearly the same,
differing slightly in substance. If it melts in fire, it is
Flower of Stone of Asia; if not, it is our own Froth of Nitre.
At Iena, in Thuringia, which is rich in simples, a very
beautiful species of Aphronitum is found, which corresponds in
the main to the Flower of Stone of Asia, described by
AQUA--- i.e., Liquid; the elemental matter from which
water can always be obtained. It is not water from the clouds,
but a dry mineral first substance, a catholic water, which
dissolves all metals, and can be reduced to water even as ice is
reduced. It is almost like a blackish gum, according to R. W.
This water cleans, washes and expands, it renders substances
spongy and liquid, and afterwards dries and fixes them, making
them white and red. Therefore Gebir says: Burn it in water and
wash it in fire. The end of the Epistle to Thomas of Bonona
describes this water. As ordinary water in which vegetables are
boiled partakes of their nature and virtue, so also is it with
the mercury which is boiled with metals. Out of this water all
things grow and have their nourishment. It unites itself with
metals, which can be performed by no common water without aqua
The fruit shall not be disturbed for the intercourse of the
bridegroom and the bride, but no ordinary water shall be
extracted from the mercury, for if the mercury be changed from
its first nature, it is useless for this purpose, because it has
lost its spermatic and metallic character. Therefore our water
is not clear and translucid, but dark, for the (philosophical)
earth is beneath it.
There are two kinds of water; the first dissolves and makes its
subject spongy ; the other completes the operation. This is
truly fire, and even stronger than fire, for it is a universal
solvent. One is simple, though evil, the other is composite;
both are philosophical. The Water is Adam, the Earth is Eve, and
these two are one flesh. They are also called Salt Urine, Salt
Water, Vinegar, Sour Wine, Living Calx, Water, Sea Water, Ashen
Water, Yeast, Alum, Nitric Water, Dog Bane, Dragon's Tail, Soul,
Wind, Air, Life, the Illuminating Gift, Broad Daylight, Virginal
Milk, Armenian Salt, Saltpetre, White Smoke, Red Sulphuric
Water, Gummy Water, the Male, Tartar, Saffron Water, Burnt Ore,
White Composition, Putrid Water, Putrefaction of Dead Bodies,
Blood, Mercury, Cucurbit, Alembic, Vase of the Philosophers, of
which the upper part is called the Grand Man, or Head-piece, the
middle is called Belly, the end is called Foot. When the vessel
is put in the oven, a vapour rises into the funnel, and passes
as water into the belly, immediately producing a soul. The water
dissolves the rest and absorbs it upward. This takes place in a
philosophical month of 40 days. It is called the Flying Dragon,
heavenly natured, dividing the elements of bodies and again
uniting them. At last it turns thick like honey, and of green
colour. It is called the Green Bird.
AQUA ALMA --- is Water produced from Wine by
AQUA ALREGI --- is Lime Water.
AQUA COELESTIS --- Celestial Water, is rectified or
sublimed Wine, partaking, in a certain way, of the nature and
likeness of heaven, passing through many revolutions. It is the
German Himinels Wasser.
AQUA CCELESTINA --- is Mercurial Water.
AQUA CEREBRI --- is Tartaric Water.
AQUA CORRODENS --- is Vinegar, or any corrosive liquid.
AQUA ELSABON --- is Water of Common Salt.
AQUA FIECUM VINI --- Water of Wine Lees (in German
Weinhesen Wasser) is made when the lees, having been evaporated,
whitened, and calcined, are dissolved with water in a marble
basin, after the manner of oil of tartar.
AQUA FOETIDA --- is Mercurial Water.
AQUA FORTIS --- is composed of corrosives combined in a
certain proportion (that is to say, it is impure Nitric Acid),
and distilled by a fierce fire; it has a most piercing corrosive
power. The strongest is called Stygian, which rules Sal Ammoniac
with the rest, as therein gold is dissolved. The other species
have various qualities. Aqua Fortis, increased by careful
mixture, to be suitable for certain purposes, is called
Gradatoria, which is applied to the graduation of dyes. And they
(the other kinds) become like Aqua Fortis of the same material,
but this is done by the addition of colouring matter like
cinnabar and alum. In which (operations) it should be noted that
it dyes nothing unless there be cohibition over the feces at
least eight or ten times, since otherwise they will not be
AQUA HOLSOBON --- is common Salt Water.
AQUA LILII --- is Orpiment.
AQUA LUBRICATA --- or Mucilage, is Water combined with
Sugar, julep, and similar substances, such as claret and
AQUA MARINA --- is sea water.
AQUA MERCURII --- Mercurial Water. Essential Water of
AQUA NITRI --- is Salt of Alkali, or Aqua Fortis.
AQUA PERMANENS --- Enduring Water, is that which is made
by the philosophical solution out of two perfect metallic
bodies. It is Sol and Luna dissolved in water, and likewise
united. It is also called Celestial Water, and Mercury of the
Philosophers. It is Incombustible Gum, the very best Vinegar; a
sharp, penetrating Water, which dissolves bodies; and the
Spiritual Virtue. Called Mercury because it has sharp and clear
Mercurial power and property. Also Male, or Husband, and White
Smoke, because it rises and goes up. Also Dragon's Tail, and
AQUA PHILOSOPHICA --- Philosophical Water, signifies,
with some writers, Sublimed Vinegar; with others, Circulated
Wine; with yet others, Perennial Water, which does not wet the
AQUA PALIESTINA --- Palestine Water, is Flower of
Copper, or Verdigris.
AQUA PLUVIALIS --- is Rain-water, Soft-water.
AQUA RUBICUNDA --- Ruddy Water; Aqua Megi and Aqua Segi
are Vitriol Water.
AQUA SALMATINA --- is Water made from Salt.
AQUA SATURNIA --- is Water generated from the first
principles in the bowels of the earth, and resolved into small
diaphanous stones. Radicated Vinegar Water. Chalybeate. Aqua
Saturnia is also that which retains the nature of the three
first principles through which it passes, such as thermal
springs said to be naturally medicated.
AQUA STILLATITIA --- Dropping Water, is a specific
extract of aqueous consistence produced in the condensation of
vapours after distillation. It is of two kinds, solvent and
simple distilled water. Simple distilled waters are specific
material arcana, distilled from substances in such a manner
that, while retaining the arcane virtue, they are nevertheless
softer and weaker than are solvent waters, and approach nearer
to a phlegmatic element; more correctly, simple distilled
waters, which are softer, and more diluted in strength and
consistence, are produced by a more simple distilling. For the
phlegmatic element is cruder, and differs little from common
water in appearance. Simple distilled water has a more aqueous
and less igneous character than solvent water, but is more
igneous and less crude than phlegm. And although all the water
is used up in distillation yet it is first named from its
office, and in the end more properly receives the name of a
solvent. It differs from simple distilled water by its
penetrating and ardent sharpness, and laborious distillation, so
that it has a minimum of aqueous element, but is more like a
flowing fire, or a fiery water. By Gebir it is termed Aqua
Acuta; by others, the Key of Philosophers. Quicksilver obtains
in certain cases the whole strength of this water. Other
substances have the same office, as lye, stalactite, and honey,
also undefiled aqueous substances, like sour wine. It is the
vulgar custom to distinguish between simple distilled water and
corrosive water. True solvent water is the same as aqua fortis.
(Solvent water is distilled vinegar; also called sea water,
because in distillation there is more fluid than residue; and
again cloud water, because of the brightness of rain-drops.
AQUA VALENS --- is Aqua Fortis.
AQUA VITRI --- is glass dissolved with water.
AQUA VITAE --- is Mercury, but the term is sometimes
used for distilled Wine, and for various Waters mixed with
AQUARIUS --- is iron colour.
AQUASTOR --- is a simulaerum, which stands for a thing,
but is not the thing itself.
AQUILA --- The Eagle, queen of birds, signifies Sal
Ammoniac, because of its lightness in sublimations. In many
places Paracelsus, however, uses it for Precipitated Mercury.
AQUILA --- is Birdlime, which appears reddish in the
first coagulation. It is also the Spirit that is changed into
Earth, i.e., the Spirit of Mercury, the stone itself. The Turba
says: The perfection of every single thing is in its own order.
Therefore the adept fixes ten Eagles, etc. It is also said to be
Sal Ammoniac and Fixed Sulphur.
AQUILA --- is Arsenic, or Sulphur.
AQUILA --- is Aurum Guttendo (probably gold liquefied),
also Fidelo, Edel, Sedalo, arbitrary terms not explained by
AQUILA PHILOSOPHORUM --- The Eagle of Philosophers is
the Mercury of Metals, i.e., a metallic nature reduced into its
AQUILLO --- Wild Marjoram.
ARAGON --- is Laton, i.e., Aurichalcum.
ARBOR MARIS --- is a metalline substance which grows in
the sea. That is, it is a coral, and its other names are
Corallia, Curallion, Gorgonion, Dendrites, and Lithodendron.
ARBORES --- Same as Morphea (? Morphew); a scurfy
eruption of the skin, at first without ulceration, which,
however, follows in time.
ARCANUM --- is a secret, incorporeal, and immortal
thing, which no man can know save by experience. It is the
interior virtue of any substance which can achieve a thousand
more wonders than the thing itself. The unrevealed principle,
ARCANUM MATERIALS --- or Physical Secret, is a specific
extract akin to the matter of a body. But when the matter of
fixed bodies is composed of a duplex element, namely, humid and
dry (note that air and fire are more properly formatives, and
possess an efficient faculty), then does the Arcanum imitate a
like condition: distilled water and coagulate specific.
ARCANUM SPECIFICUM --- is an extract of the interior
nature, related so intimately to the substance of any species
that the same may be known therein. It must be educed with care
lest the gross substance perish. For this reason is it called
specific. And it differs from quintessence, which, by reason of
its extreme subtlety and excellence, seems almost to have
deserted its species, and gone over to the class of ethereal
things. But the Specific Arcanum exhibits the substance, shape,
and specific difference of composites as an extract more akin to
the interior body. The Specific Arcanum is duplex. One is of the
essential and substantial form, and is called Astral, the other
ARCHATES --- as it were, the pillars of the earth, the
Paracelsian foundation of the earth, which does not appear to be
supported by its fellows, but by a great and secret power of
God. Called also Archallem. The power which upholds the earth by
itself, for the other elements do not hold it up.
ARCHAEUS --- is the divider of the elements; he disposes
them, and relegates everything to its place, genus, and species.
ARCHEUS --- is a most high, exalted, and invisible
spirit, which is separated from bodies, is exalted, and ascends;
it is the occult virtue of Nature, universal in all things, the
artificer, the healer. Also Archiatros --- supreme physician of
Nature, who to every substance and member dispenses in an occult
manner, by means of the air, its own individual Archeus. Also
the primal Archeus in Nature is a most secret virtue producing
all things out of Master, doubtless certainly supported by
divine virtue. Or, Archeos is an errant, invisible species, the
power and virtue of Nature's healing, the artist and healer of
Nature, separating itself from bodies, and ascending from them.
Archeus signifies, in addition, the power which educes the One
Substance from Iliaster, and is the dispenser and composer of
all things. It individualizes in all things, including human
ARCOS, AYCOPHES, AZAPHORA --- are names for Burnt
ARCUS --- is a small bow.
ARDENTIA --- Ardent or fiery matters, which are not
assimilated in food and drink and are by their nature obnoxious
to operations, as, for example, Carabe, Therebinth, Bitumen, and
similar substances. That which naturally burns, or gives forth
AREA --- Any flat or open surface, as, for example, a
heath. In metals, a mass excavated from a mine. Tow.
AREAE --- Clear spaces.
AREA CAPITIS ADVERSI TODINARUM --- Shaft of a Mine. Mine
where ore has been found.
AREA ROTUNDA --- A sandy circle.
ARE MAROS --- Cinnabar.
ARENA --- Sand is the clear body of the stone.
The Species of Sand are as follow:
1. Common sand.
2. A beautiful white sand dug up in deep gulleys to the west of
3. Pestgrana, also from Misena.
4. Thirsty or absorbing sand, which is washed and sifted, and
has the character of German blotting-paper.
5. Table sand, or Block sand. Sand which has not been washed.
6. Sand found at Groede, in the Netherlands.
7. Sand from the pits of Misena.
8. River sand, which is mixed with lime, and is made use of in
9. Metallic sand from gold mines, in which particles and grains
of gold are found.
10. Metallic, out of which gold is washed in the Elbe.
11. Metallic sand of Misnense, in the district spoken of by
fishermen, near Leisnic.
12. Sand of Misnense, from the bank near the bridge of
Schellenberg, and in that wood.
13. Coarse sand which is strewn over roads-sand for pathways.
14. Coarse black sand, from which those small black pellets are
obtained out of which white lead is extracted. Sand containing
15. Coarse, barren Sand.
16. Red Sand of Thuringia.
17. Yellow Sand of Glogaw.
18. Sand of a golden colour, from which the Roman mountain
derives its name --- Golden Mountain, formerly called Janiculum.
19. Grey Sand.
20. Shining or Sparkling Sand
21. Sea Sand.
22. Sand out of pools and stagnant water. Muddy Sand.
23. Slimy metallic Sand.
ARENAMEN, or ARENARMEI --- Armenian Bolus. See
ARENAS RIVORUM FLUMINUMQUE LAVARE --- A scouring,
washing with lather. The cleansing of any sand from the foreign
matters which are mixed with it.
ARES --- Not to be confounded with the chemical Mars. It
is the giver of seed, the occult dispenser of Nature in the
three prime principles, and the bond of their union. It
distributes to all things whatsoever its peculiar form, species,
and substance, so that it may put on its proper and specific
nature, and no other. Between these three there is therefore to
be noted a difference in nature beautifully ordained by divine
providence. Ares is the spirit in Nature which out of the three
prime principles gives to everything its shape, genus, and
substance. These three are Iliaster, Archeus, and Ares. Iliaster
is a substance of most widely spread nature, consisting in the
universal first matter of all things, which it first distributes
into the three principles, Sulphur, Mercury and Salt. Iliaster
is the substance, the First Matter of all things, out of the
said three principles. Archeus is the first dispenser of Nature.
He produces and creates, like an artificer, all things, after
their own kinds, out of this Nature. Ares, or the Assigner,
extends the peculiar nature to each species, and gives
individual form, so that it is by him that, for example, in the
vegetable world, plants are endowed with root, stalk, flowers,
leaves, and sap.
ARFAR or ARSAG --- is Arsenic.
ARGENTUM --- The Luna of Chemists, to which also it is
attributed, is the metal ranked next after gold, white with a
pure whiteness, unspotted, hard, resonant; and the colour of its
whiteness is due to pure, very fixed quicksilver, which is also
white and clear. In like manner, it is composed of sulphur,
clean, fixed, white, and clear, which has precipitated the
substance of quicksilver, but is something deficient in
fixation, colour, and weight. Silver is, as it were, a daughter
of Nature most near unto gold, produced from the copulation of
quick silver, and white, incombustible sulphur. Silver is found
in our mines.
1. Pure, unmixed silver, needing no cleansing in the furnace;
solid silver, wanting no fusing, generated in perfection,
possessing a perfect colour, firmly encrusted with a species of
rock or ore. At this present time such silver is still turned
out from our mines. But of this species Pliny was ignorant when
he said (1. 33, c. 6): It is never found but in pits sunk on
purpose for it, nor is it ever found pure and solid, nor are
there any bright sparkles, as in gold mines, to indicate its
existence in the ore. The earth that engenders the vein is
either reddish or of an ashen grey. So far Pliny. But this pure
silver surrounds the stone in extremely thin plates; sometimes
also it exhibits a species of small hairs upon its surface, or
little curls of thread, also small twig-like filaments, either
white or red, or like such fibres of red silk as are used in
spinning. Again it bears impressions of trees, instruments,
mountains, herbs, and other objects. I have myself beheld
likenesses of fish; I have beheld the crucified Christ and our
Lady; I have seen a serpent, a scorpion, etc., formed out of
pure silver in the bowels of the earth.
2. Rude silver ore, of which various kinds are produced from
our mines, namely, deep red, leaden, black, purple, ashen, and
reddish in colour, of which we proceed to treat successively.
3. Silver melted out of other metals, such as leaden pyrite,
mica, etc., concerning which see also below.
Rude silver of a ruby colour- --- called red golden ore by the
Germans. It seems to be a kind of carbuncle. The carbuncle has,
however, an intenser ray, but this rude silver is of a paler
ruby. It is found in mines, valleys, and other places variously
deposited, but chiefly after three manners: Firstly, in a
black-coloured ore ; secondly, like minute bright particles
adhering to a certain species of rock; thirdly, in pure solid
masses or nuggets cleaving to stones or rocks. It is sometimes
found by itself, sometimes in combination with a foreign
substance, which projects in a sharp-pointed pyramidal or
top-like manner. Sometimes it assumes a square or quadrangular
form, sometimes it is sexangular, like the Iris stone;
frequently it consists of many unequal angles. Thus by a
wonderful operation does Nature practice geometry in the bowels
of the earth. Lastly, rude ruby-coloured silver is found
beautifully aspersed with blue, so that Nature would seem to
have exhausted her ingenuity over the formation of the metals,
and to have diverted and amused herself with so many and such
brilliant colours, that no art, however high, could possibly
attempt to follow. This last species of silver was unknown to
Dioscorides, to Pliny, indeed to all the ancients. Theophrastus
was the first to make mention of it, when he said: There is
another gem of a colour like unto plums, which loses a little of
its weight in melting, as the smiths know". It should be noted,
in fine, that a most admirable colour for painting is composed
out of this species. It might also have a place in medicine did
any one make the experiment. It has been erroneously confused
with Sandarach, as will be shown under that head.
Rude silver of a lead colour. Nature, by hot and dry vapours
exhausted in the bowels of the earth, tinges or dyes the sap or
moisture whence silver is made, or joins it with various
colours, as we find in these species of rude silver. The first
of these is of red colour, sometimes aspersed with cerulean. The
second, with which we are here concerned, has the hue of lead,
and is found in vale and mountain. It is conspicuously like the
lead ore with which it is connected by name. But this is as
regards colour, for in other points it differs, as the
illustrious Georgius Agricola very plainly lays down in his
Berinannus, or Metallic Nature. But to return to our subject. I
have said that rude lead-coloured silver resembles lead ore, but
it differs in this, that lead ore is of crumbling nature, and
falls to pieces easily when struck with a knife. But the silver
species cannot well be pounded; it can be cloven, it is true,
with a knife, like lead, but when it has been bitten with the
teeth it rebounds again, and lead ore will not do so to any
appreciable extent. This species of silver is found in large
lumps in its own veins, as if imbedded in a nest. It is also
found in conglomerated masses, looking something like buds
distributed on the branches of a tree, with perfectly circular
nodules, cleaving to rocks, or imbedded therein. At other times
it assumes the shape of little sticks, or other similar figures.
Agricola testifies that he has seen perfect specimens of
metallic instruments such as shovels and small hammers taken
from the ore. I myself have beheld natural figures or images of
small fish, lions, wolves, etc. Truly Nature is not idle in the
darkness and the depths of the earth. Other varieties of this
species adhere like thin plates to the rock.
Rude black silver, the black silver ore of the Germans, is the
third species of rude silver. Occasionally it shines in the
black ore, much like the lead-coloured species which has been
already described. Again, it has little particles of the
red-coloured variety, or particles at other times of white
silver, and the more it abounds in these, the more metal does
the ore yield when it is melted, which was unknown to Pliny and
the ancients. Occasionally the ore is sterile, when it is simply
termed black earth, and as such is treated in its proper place,
Rude purple silver, the fourth species of the rude metal, the
Braun Erz of the Germans, was unknown to Pliny and the ancients,
but it has no little percentage of silver in the ore. It is
found chiefly in the mines of Tarcicus.
Rude reddish and ash-coloured silver, otherwise grey ore, is
the fifth of the rude varieties, and yields more metal in
melting because its proportion of silver exceeds the others.
Thus we certainly see that the grey ore is frequently rich in
silver, more especially when it is somewhat hard, so that it can
be cut with a knife, or if it be soft, with very thin morsels of
silver shining in the leaden ore. When it does not possess this
colour, it is then of least value, having the smallest
proportion of silver. With these two varieties Pliny seems to
have been acquainted when he says (1. 33, c. 6.), One ore is
ruddy, the other ashen; I find little of any other kind. And
these were known to the ancients. These are the six species of
rude silver ore which are known to German metallurgists.
Perchance there are others also which might be discovered by a
diligent examination of the mines, such as we ourselves may
undertake at a future time when our leisure is greater than at
The refuse of silver, called also Scoria, Helcysma, Encauma,
Silver Slack, :; that which is left after the metal has been
melted out, or which is commonly removed from the furnaces where
silver is subjected to the operation of fire. Dioscorides (l. 5,
c. 51), affirms that the recrement of silver has the virtue of
lead wort, or plumbago, which is an astringent, and draws out.
It should, therefore, be an ingredient in plasters placed upon
wounds. But do you, candid reader, consider how complicated with
us is this matter of the recrement of silver? For silver is
melted out of pyrites, that is, out of copper ore, and out of
lead ore. Do you judge whether this, which is our true recrement
of silver, is that meant by Dioscorides, who was unacquainted
with these same species, and how, therefore, could he know the
true recrement of this precious metal? But we will set aside
these considerations. Consult Pliny on the recrement of silver
(1. 33, c. 6). It may be granted out of hand that silver cools
and desiccates, and, therefore, its scoriae are of a drying
nature, as .va may experience in our own recrement of rude
silver, if we put faith in the recrements of medicine.
ARGENTI SPUMA --- is Litharge, which still contains a
certain percentage of silver; it used in plasters, and has
otherwise a penetrating quality. It differs little from
recrement of silver obtained from the leaden ore, and is very
like lead spume. Dioscorides, who was well acquainted with the
workshops where metals are melted, and little with the mines,
enumerates (1. 5, c. 52), three species of silver litharge:
1. Molybditis, spume of lead, which is melted out of sand in
furnaces, until it burns with a perfect flame.
2. From lead, which is made from leaden plates; Dioscorides
praises the Attic and Spanish, and afterwards that which comes
from the warm wells of Puzzoli, Baia, the Campania, and from
3. Litharge of silver, which is of two kinds, Argyritis, German
silver litharge, from silver-coloured silver, which at the
present day is used in a crude and not a prepared state.
Chrysitis, which is of gold colour, and is the gold litharge of
the Germans, not that it is made from gold; it is derived from
silver, and the reference is to the colour only. The virtue of
these varieties, according to Dioscorides, is astringent,
mollifying, restoring, restraining, and cooling.
Consult also Dioscorides upon the methods of burning and
cleansing litharge of silver, how colouring matter is added to
it, how its mature state is ascertained, and what its virtues
are. Pliny (1. 33, c. 6), makes three species of silver
1. The best, which he calls Chrysitis.
2. Argyritis, made from silver.
3. Molybditis, fused out of lead, whence its name is derived.
Hence it would appear that Pliny represents Molybditis to be
fused out of lead, while, according to Dioscorides, it is
obtained out of sand, unless the species derived from leaden
plates was formerly called Molybditis. Pliny, who, according to
his custom, transfers all the information of Dioscorides
concerning litharge of silver to his own pages, notes also that
litharge from scoria differs as much as possible from litharge
obtained from recrement. There are others who regard Sterelite
and Pneumenis as species of litharge. When litharge of silver is
drunk, it is said to be a potent and speedy acting poison, which
also Dioscorides affirms (1. 6, c. 27). And Nicander, to whom
Dioscorides is in this place considerably indebted, in the
twenty-second recipe of his Alexipharmaca, which may be
consulted concerning symptoms and antidotes. On this point, see
also Serapion, his book of Aggregation, in the chapter on
Marechet. See also Paulus on the virtues of Litharge of Silver,
Silver is otherwise thus divided.
1. Rude white lumpy silver from Schneberg, which can be cut
with a knife and beaten out with a hammer. Snow-white solid
silver; thick silver.
2. Nuggets of solid silver in a very white metallic spar.
1. Silver of Anneberg, solid, white, capillary silver.
2. Solid capillary silver, having a multitude of wiry fibres
bundled confusedly together.
3. Very white silver, like a ball of minute silver threads ;
4. Like a silver curling iron, in a crumbling earth of a
5. In a shiny loam-coloured earth.
6. Silver of Marieberg, in a gray, metallic, fluid cobalt.
7. In a very white horn stone.
8. In a red quadrangular translucid fluor spar.
9. Silver of Marieberg, in a hard grey stone.
10. Capillary silver of Anneberg, in a mass of lead-coloured
11. Capillary silver of Anneberg, with silver of a lead-colour
in a very white spar, combined with a red-coloured pyrites.
12. Capillary silver, combined with lead-coloured silver in
white fluor spars. 13- Capillary silver found in the valley of
Joachimica, in a forest of fir-trees. 14- White ore of Anneberg,
containing rude, ruby-coloured capillary silver, of transparent
appearance. Also rude lead coloured silver clearly distinguished
in the same stone. Golden ore and vitreous ore combined, yet
Compounded in other Forms.
1. Deposited in the form of little trees.
2. A flame-shaped ore to which little masses of lead-coloured
silver are found adhering.
1. Pure, solid, white plates of silver in a fatty stone.
2. Thin solid plates of white silver in hard grey ore of
3. Pure white silver in iron pyrites.
4. A clear, solid silver in a clear mountain Chrysocolla, from
the Alps of
1. Lead-coloured silver, easily cut and made into coins, and
easily hammered into plates.
2. In hard and very white pyrites.
3. In sexangular white fluors.
4. Impressed, or stamped, vitreous ore, which has not been
tried by fire. Soft, and therefore easily broken.
5. A pure, quadrangular, vitreous ore, of conical or pyramidal
6. In transparent, purple, quadrangular fluors, blunt-pointed.
7. Rude ruby-coloured silver in the centre of a solid vitreous
ore of lead colour.
Grey or Ashen.
1. Grey solid silver, in shape like tongues of flame, found in
the hard cobalt of Anneberg.
2. A specimen of solid grey ore.
3. Grey silver in a very white flint.
1. Black solid ore in a sheer hornstone, or flint.
2. In grey pyrites.
3. Shaped like a branch of the cypress tree.
Transparent and Ruby-coloured.
1. A small nugget, like a carbuncle or amethyst. Fine ruby-red,
2. Like a carbuncle, with six, seven, or eight angles. Of the
shape of an upright beam, in grey pyrites, and natural yellow
3. Like the bristles of the hedgehog in a black metallic
cobalt; shaped like a head.
4. Little masses seeming to be compacted of red garnet.
5. Larger nuggets compacted like transparent red garnet.
1. Blood-red, seven-angled, gold-red ore.
2. A nugget in a white metallic spar.
3. A nugget in a gold-coloured pyrites, similar to natural
4. In white sexangular fluorspar, like the exterior cortex of
the chestnut rough and sharp and prickly.
5. In an ashen flint.
6. Beaten, golden-red ore, cleaving to a grey hornstone.
7. Showing white in a very golden-red ore.
8. White, red, and gold in a soft white stone.
9. In ashen pyrites.
10. In a worthless sulphuret of lead.
11. Silver containing gold; golden silver.
12. Dark golden red.
13. Liver-coloured, golden red.
1. A yellow capillary silver in a yellow earth.
2. Like copper pyrites, to which lead-coloured particles
3. A transparent horn-coloured pure silver of Marieberg,
scintillating with light.
4. Solid dark silver, like an ordinary grey earth. It is heavy,
and if struck with a hammer, will sparkle. Many experienced
miners are unacquainted with it.
1. Containing in its centre, like a kernel, a rude red silver.
2. Mixed with lead-coloured silver and pure white nuggets.
3. Green silver of Anneberg, mined in celestial blue veins.
4. Purple or brown-coloured silver mined in the same place.
5. Silverine stone.
6. Veins of silver in a hard gravel-stone.
7. A rich silver ore from which the recrement has not been
8. Silver mixed with lead, separated from copper. Mixed with
lead, i.e., tin, black lead.
9. Rich ore mixed with lead.
10. Lead or pig of workable lead, rich in silver.
11. Mediocre, a thin line in the vein.
12. Poor, a freshly deposited layer.
13. Hard layers, rich in metal.
14. Soft and dry, with a large proportion of black lead.
15. A small specimen of silver nuggets.
16. Refined silver.
17. Grey recrement of gold; grey silver slag.
18. Black silver slag.
19. Silver litharge.
20. Prepared silver, rich in lead.
21. Refined silver, purged from other metals.
22. Burnt silver.
23. Fine, prepared silver.
24. Pressed or stamped silver.
25. Gilt silver.
26. Silver drawn into wire.
27. Silver plates.
28. Silver separated by washing from copper.
29. Silver dissolved into grains.
ARGENTUM POPULI --- Alkali or nitre.
ARGENTUM VIVUM --- is the chemical term for Mercury. It
is simply a viscous water, in the bowels of the earth, of a
subtle substance, having the nature of white earth, made one
with a perfect union, up to the last point and particle, until
that which is humid is modified by that which is dry, and the
dry again by the humid, until the whole is absolutely
homogeneous. Also Vivific Silver, i.e., the philosophical
substance which is to be distinguished from common quicksilver,
is the complementary part of the stone of the philosophers, as
the chemists tell us; the second principle, the mother of all
the metals, and in proportion as it copulates with their father,
the male sulphur, it engenders perfection and imperfection in
metals, and when it predominates the metals (like a foetus)
derive more from the mother than the father. Into that also from
which they most originate are they most resolved. Now
quicksilver is twofold-natural and artificial.
Natural, possessing without excoction its own inherent colour,
in which state it is found among metals in the smith's troughs,
commonly in the form of filaments. True, Native Quicksilver, the
mother and element of metals. This species was known to Pliny,
1. 33, c. 6, who says: Within these veins and mines there is a
certain stone found which yields from it a humour continually,
and the same continues always liquid; men call it Quicksilver.
It may not have been seen by Dioscorides when he said:
Quicksilver is also met with among the debris of silver mines,
exuded in drops; others testify to having found it by itself
Artificial, which is made out of the minium secundarium of
Pliny (l. 33, c. 7), or out of veins of minium, or cinnabar,
which is found in our mines. The first was known to Dioscorides
(l. 5, c. 60). He describes the method of its preservation, its
use, its poisonous nature, and the antidotes thereto. Consult
also Pliny, 1. 20, c. 5, and 1. 28, c, 9, 10, as well as other
places and authors.
For the rest, it may be noted that the Greeks called both
native and artificial Quicksilver by the name Hudrargyron. But
Pliny only distinguishes the natural species, as appears by our
former quotation, by the name of Quicksilver, and that which is
artificially produced from cinnabar, or derived from its ore, he
distinguishes, if I err not, by the name Hydrargyron --- a
classification which is also observed by the most learned
Leonicenus. It may be finally noted that Quicksilver, while in
its liquid state, is called crude in our workshops; when
mortified, it is called concreted, or by some sublimated. It is
warm and moist in the fourth degree. Some say that it is cold in
the fourth degree. The chemists consider it both cold and moist
in the fourth degree, liquid in the third, white in the second,
and dark in the first degree. There are, moreover, other
The following species of Quicksilver are also enumerated:
1. Vivific Silver (Philosophical Quicksilver), i.e., Spirit, or
Mercury, which is also the Fugitive Servant, Asoc, Ydrogiros,
Sanlarum, Anzatig, Asoc, Zaylat, Azehoc, Kyregiros, White Smoke,
Alsohoc, Asob, Ayor, Azec, Alozet, Azoar, Aurarid, the Dragon.
2. That which is obtained without smelting, pure among metals.
3. Quicksilver smelted from veins of cinnabar.
4. That which is called Sublimated Quicksilver.
6. Mortified, or killed.
7. Quicksilver solidified, or fixed by art.
8. Native Minium.
9. A hard round nugget which the Arabs call Cinnabar.
10. Fragile Cinnabar.
11. Artificial Cinnabar.
12. Natural Cinnabar, or Red Lead. The vein from which it
13. A vein of Cinnabar in which Quicksilver exists, and which
exudes in drops when the ore is broken up.
14. Solid Quicksilver from the valley of Joachimica, similar in
colour to rude ruby coloured silver ore.
15. Similar to coccolite, with pyrites of gold.
16. Similar to coccolite in a white fissile stone.
17. A variety in a grey fissile stone.
18. Liver-coloured ore, rich in Quicksilver.
19. Similar to rude golden-red silver in silver coloured
20. A swarthy-red Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis, which exudes
drops of Quicksilver when broken with a hammer.
21. Liver-coloured Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis.
22. Tawny-coloured Quicksilver ore in which there are layers of
23. Recrement of Quicksilver.
ARGILLE --- are so called because they are similar to
the clays used by potters. Potters' Earth. There are numerous
species of these clays, which are distinguished by their
colours, and are found in our mines, distributed through many
1. White Seburg clay.
2. White clay of Anneberg.
3. White Islebian clay, sparkling with silver particles.
4. In white ashen Islebian deposit, which is found in copper
mines under a red sandy earth.
5. Fine grey ash-like clay of Misnense.
6. Light green ashy clay of Misnense, near Risa and the Elbe.
7. Cinereous clay from Herlesberg, which the people of
Nuremberg combine with a sandy earth to make those melting pots
in which brass is manufactured.
8. Combined with a sandy earth ; clay for the melting-pot.
9. Slime of Misnensis, of beautiful yellow hue.
10. Yellow clay of Anneberg, or silver clay.
11. Like red earth from the district of Okroll.
12. Red Islebian clay, in which silver particles are sparkling.
13. Iron-coloured Bavarian clay, with which those furnaces are
wherein iron is treated. An iron-grey sand.
14. Purple clay, which much abounds in my own country. When the
is removed it appears quite red. 15. Ash-coloured.
15. Bohemian, crumbling, loamy, rich in ore, abounding in
Colours may be manufactured from all these species, provided
they are not over-moist. The best jars and pots are made from
them, if the clays be treated rightly by the potters in moulds
shaped according to the prescribed rule. But this I leave to the
ARGISTATA is engrafted.
ARGYROS is Silver ; hence lithargyros,
argentiferous-stone. For lithos signifies a stone.
1. Aridura is the wasting of any bodies, or menstrua, in what
manner soever. It is especially the shrinkage of metals,
dissolution, dying. It is also called Sideratio, Numbness,
Sphacelus, Sphacelismus, Telia, Necrosis.
2. Aristolochia has a white flower, red inside, like a stone
3. Arles Crudum --- not translatable; the Germa context menas
soimpletpons or ninny, which seems irrelevant. What are refered
to, however, are drops of water falliong in June as the dew in
May. Caled also Hydatis (a precious stone of te colour of
water), Stalagmi (consisting of drops; also a species of
vitriol, Stagen and Straax.
4. Armoniac Sal, i.e., star. Called also Genzir.
5. Arohot --- Quicksilver.
AROLPH --- Mandragora.
ARSALTOS, ASPALTUM --- Asphalt.
ARSENICUM --- is the Greek Nitre, Effulgence of Metals;
Salt of Metals, and of Saturn Called also Artanek, or Artanech.
Found in many places. It is also Luna, and our Venus. According
to Gebir, it is Sulphur's companion. It is the soul, the
hermaphrodite, the means whereby Sulphur and Mercury are united.
It has community with both natures, and is, therefore, called
Sun and Moon.
ARSENII --- is Lacten, (?) milky.
ARTAVECK, ARTANECK --- ARSENIC, of which there
are three species: White, Yellow and Citrine. Yellow orpiment,
golden dye; crystalline arsenic. Item: Red Greek Sandaraca which
is of two kinds, rough and manufactured; the former was a red
arsenic mixed with brimstone, the latter a kind of vermilion.
ARTEFICIUS --- Deficiency of some member.
ARTHOICUM or PANNONIUM --- A red oil from the
roots of certain herbs obtained by their digestion with bread in
ARTIFEX --- Refiner, one versed in ores and metals; an
ASABON --- Soap.
ASAFOETIDA --- Fetid inspissated Sap from an Indian
ASAGEN --- Blood of the Dragon.
ASAGI, or AZEGI --- Vitriol or Red Atrament.
ASAMAZ --- Verdigris.
ASAPHATUM --- Impetigo, a cutaneous disease, and
Serpigo, twisted ringworm. Ulcers and blemishes of the skin are
of cognate character.
ASEB, or ASEP --- is the German Alaun, Alum. It
is a metallic substance or vein of earth, which occupies a
middle position between vitriol, or copperas, and salt, and is
found in mines. It is like a salt substance, or liquor, issuing
out of the earth (see Pliny, 1. 35, c. 15). It is composed of
water and slime; whence its nature is that of an earthy efflux.
It is drawn off in streams during winter, and it is perfected by
fermentation under the summer suns. It is like a vein of earth
which is transmuted into a white colour by excessive heat. Every
species of chalcantum contains alum. Now the name alum signifies
something manufactured (in this place the sense of the text is
obscure); we may admit several species of alum on the authority
of the learned, and most certainly that alum is made in hot
places, and above all in those which are sulphureous and
igneous. But as there are indeed many kinds of alum, we proceed
to tabulate them for the sake of those who are interested in
ASEB, SEBEL, ALPAR, ALUMAIC (in Arabic; Scipterea ; in
Greek, ALUMEN, ALAUM) --- is hot and dry in the fourth
grade, according to Avicenna. Others say that it is hot and dry
in the third degree. It is found native in mines; it is composed
of water and slime, and is like a salt of earth. It is either
white or black in Cyprus, and there gold is purged with it.
The white is thick or concreted, and liquid; it is called
Alumen de Rocha, or Rocca, otherwise Liparine (? from the island
of that name in the Etruscan Sea, but Lipara was also a precious
The Scissile is three-fold: Cloddy, Round, Scissile.
1. The cloddy again is two-fold-mined and manufactured. That
which is manufactured is, further, of two kinds-that which is
obtained by melting (generally of natural mined alum), and that
which is coagulated. Of all these species we have the cloddy
alone at the present day.
2. The round Zuccarine Alum, so called on account of its
likeness to Zuccar (unknown), is again two-fold : Mined, and
The mined is, if I mistake not, called Strongylos. Round Alum
from the mines is also two-fold: Spongy, and Porous.
The spongy variety is easily dissolved in the mouth, and is
The porous is better, and is full of hollow pipes, like the
sponge. It more nearly approaches white, with a certain
fattiness, is devoid of sand or grit, and is easily crumbled. It
is neither as black as that of Egypt nor as white as the
celebrated White Alum of Melos.
Manufactured Alum is that prepared by hand, and is worthless.
3. Scissile Alum is thick, hard, and massive. It is called
Schistos by Pliny (1. 35, c. 15). It distributes itself into
small threads, and is termed Trichitis, or Capillary. It is also
made and falsified out of Scissile Stone, and is now called
Scaly Alum, or Feathery Alum, and by the vulgar Scaiola ;
without doubt also the Amianthus of which we have before treated
is our Scaly Alum. What they call Chalcitis and Trichytis is
also alum, or rather the exudition of the stone thereof when it
is coagulated into spume. Some" term alum Copperine because it
occurs in pyrites. Hence Chalcitis is frequently called Concrete
Alum. But this alum does not possess astringent virtue, only a
dry quality. It is also called Scipterion, Alumen Jamenum, and
Broken Alum. When alum is generically spoken of, this species is
understood. Alumen Jamenum is brought from Babylon ; and because
it is not astringent, but of drying quality, it is therefore not
alum, much less broken alum, and has only the appearance of
alum. Take notice of this error of learning.
Liquid Alum, called Alumen de Rocha, or Rocca, or Liparine, is
two-fold (r) Soft, fatty, limpid, milky, called Phormion, the
falsification of which with the sap of the pomegranate we are
taught to detect by Pliny. (2) Rough, pale alum, which stains
like the gall-nut, and is called Paraphoron. It is astringent,
hardens, and eats away. It is found in Spain, Egypt, Armenia,
Macedonia, the Pontus, Africa, the islands of Sardinia, Melos,
Lipara, and Aeolian Strongylos. The virtues of these varieties
are astringent, heating, purging out, and lessening. They are
burnt like Chalchitis. For the rest, consult Dioscorides, Pliny,
Serapion, Avicenna, etc., on the medical virtues, native places,
and appearances of these kinds.
Alumen. The round, scissile, and liquid species are of use in
medicine. There is another kind, which is called Alumen Affar;
or in Arabic Usnen; and in Latin, Sparrow's Dung, several
varieties of which are enumerated by Serapion and Avicenna. Some
call it Salt of Alkali, and indeed it is not alum, but a sort of
ASED --- is the Lion.
ASEDENIGI --- Haematites.
ASEGEN or AZOGEN --- Blood of the Dragon.
ASENEC --- is Sol.
ASEPH --- is Broken Alum.
ASMAGA --- is the permixture or commixture of any metals
with each other.
ASOPER --- is Soot.
ASPALTUM or ASPHALTUM --- Flower of Copper, Red
Bitumen, or Indian Bitumen.
ASSALA --- is Nutmeg.
ASSALIAE --- are worms which eat into boards, wood
fretters, formed between the boards.
ASSANEGI, ASANIRGI, ASARAGI --- A powder which falls
from walls of salt.
ASSATIO --- A species of hard and dry Ash.
ASSINGAR, ASUGAR, ASMIAR, ASIM --- Names of verdigris.
ASSER TRIANGULARIS --- Hand-barrow.
ASSERCULI or PALI --- Small Planks, or Poles, on
which miners sit for working the mine.
ASSERES --- Boards joined by their sides.
ASSERES --- An outside plank or slab.
ASSOS --- An artificial alum of the appearance of the
stone, i.e., white. See Morien.
ASTERITES --- Quartz.
1. Astroites Mas, male Astroites, shaped like half a globe. An
asterite full of stars.
2. The female variety, without the stars of the male, but
having representations of caterpillars, in which way the stars
are thickly compacted by nature.
3. Little Globules of Asterite, on which prayers, like the
Lord's Prayer, were told formerly (Rosary Beads).
ASTRUM SYNUS --- The Sidereal Celestial Star. Here star
signifies the virtue and potency of things, obtained by
preparations, as for example, the star of sulphur is the
augmentation of sulphur, whereby it is changed into a most
notable oil. Note. The star of salt is its resolution into a
water or oil, by which it is endowed with more than its normal
virtues. In like manner, the star of mercury is its sublimation,
by which it acquires a wonderful increase of virtue and power,
far exceeding, and far more subtle than, what it naturally
possesses. (German version : Astrum.) But in our chemical art,
it signifies the nature and power of a thing, which it receives
from preparation, as when mercury is sublimed, sulphur lighted
with a spark of fire, salt dissolved, and dissipated by itself.
Then they become astral, starry, and are called the Star of
Mercury, Sulphur, or Salt. The Star is the Alkol or
Quintessence, the sheer and clear power, the extract, the cream,
and the property of the thing, says Bacchus.
ASUB --- is Galaxia, Constellation.
ASUBEVEGI --- is a stone which cuts other stones.
ASULCI, or LASURD --- is Azulite.
ASUOLI --- is Atrament. Called also Soot.
ATACK --- is Talc or Nitre.
ATANOR --- is a perforated vessel.
ATEBRAS --- A hook (literally); Uncus Aquinus, is a
vessel for sublimation.
ATHANOR --- Called both philosophical and arcane, is an
oven adapted for composing the stone of the philosophers. The
fire does not touch the base, and the required heat is suitably
and uniformly imparted. Many vain things have been imagined by
many persons concerning the method of constructing this oven.
But the one of our invention, even as it exceeds all the other
ovens which have been described by its superiority over all,
requires to be minutely treated of in this place, as much on
account of the contiguity of the fire as of the equable nature
of the same. A circular wall is erected of the height of one
foot. On either side of this wall a vacant space, with a small
door, is left. This is for the removal of the ashes. Above this
structure there is placed a small iron gridiron, and above the
said gridiron we erect another small door, which is broader at
the bottom than at the top, and is an aperture through which the
coals can be stirred with a poker. When this turret has been set
in an upright position in the manner described, and has been
filled with coals to the top we cover it with a covering of
clay. But at the same time, in the hindmost part of the wall,
and in that portion of it which is nearest to the gridiron, we
leave a small hole open, through which the heat may be able to
approach the Athanor, and we stop this aperture with a spatula
(a long instrument for stirring), or with an iron bar (some term
it a register), which can be raised and lowered. We make also at
the top of the turret, of the breadth of five inches, beneath
the cover, a small aperture, through which the index finger
shall just be able to pass, by which the fire may draw the air,
as if a fuel, to itself. Over against the turret constructed in
the manner described, there is set another oven, which is the
After the same manner, a circular wall, one foot and a half in
height, is constructed, which completely fits with its sides the
posterior opening of the first turret. On this wall we erect an
oven, leaving on the top of the furnace a small aperture, like
an imperial thaler, whereby the heat in this part, to some
extent pressing upon the furnace, can pass upward to the next
nearest furnace. Then we again build an eighteen-inch wall by
the place where we commenced the furnace ; we cover the same
with a lid, again leaving a small aperture at the top, as in the
case of the lower one. However, it is necessary that in one side
of this part there should be left a clear space where the matter
can be put in and taken out. For in this middle part is the
workshop where the matter is prepared in its proper vessel,
placed over a tripod. In order to fill up the clear space, and
close it up lest any air should be produced, a wellfitting lid
is made to.cover it. Finally, with a third lid, we cover the
whole of this second furnace, leaving, however, at the base four
air-holes, which also have covers, whereby the heat may be
increased or diminished. This is the philosophical distillatory
oven, the Turba Clibanus, or Reverberatory Oven of the
ATINCAR, or ATINKAR --- is Rock Borax.
ATRAMENTUM ALBUM --- is White Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM CITRINUM --- is fixed Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM HISPANICUM --- is, I believe, Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM RUBEUM --- Red Atrament, is called Asaric or
ATRAMENTARUM --- is Akata; another variety is Alfrein;
another, Kalkadis; another, Chalcanthum, is Egythian Atrament.
ATRAMENT --- is variously classified.
1. Scrivener's Atrament, Writing Ink.
2. Printers' Ink, Oily Atrament.
3. Shoemakers' Ink, or Tanners' Atrament, Shoemakers' Wax,
Chalcanthum, Hydride of Copper, Cobblers' Black, Copper Ore, or
Vitriol, red inside and having red stripes.
4. Atramentum Rubeum, Red Burnt Vitriol.
5. Atramentum Tectorium, Vel Pictorium, Soot, Painters' Black.
6. Atramentum Album Tenue, soft, white Atrament, Hydrate of
7. Atramentum Fossile, Native Copper-stone (apparently from
which the ore has been extracted).
8. Atramentum Candidum, Durum, Stalacticum, native Stalactical
9. Reddish and spongy native Hydride of Copper.
10. Red Stalactical Vitriol, of good quality, native in white
11. Hard green Copper Stone washings, native in Goslaria.
12. Native porous Green Atrament.
13. Green hard Stalactical Atrament of Goslaria.
14. Grey Stalactical Atrament in a white earth, natural grey
15. Grey hard native Copperas.
16. Green hard prepared Copperas or Vitriol of Goslar. Green
hard native stalactical Vitriol.
17. Green hard porous prepared Copperas of Goslaria.
18. Grey native Neapolitan, with a pure yellow Sulphur.
19. Very beautiful cerulean prepared Copperas from Cyprus.
20. Green bluish prepared Copperas from Goslaria.
21. Blue Roman prepared Copperas.
22. Blue Hungarian prepared Copperas.
23. Blue Hungarian Copperas combined with a very white Alum.
24. Blue prepared Copperas from Radeberg, similar to Pannonian.
25. Radeberg Copperas combined with Sulphur.
26. Blue prepared Silesian Copperas combined with Alum.
27. White hard transparent sublimed Vitriol or Copperas.
28. Distilled Copperas or Oil of Vitriol.
29. Burnt Vitriol.
30. Burnt Cyprian Copperas.
31. Recrement of Atrament, Salt, Nitre, and Alum after
distillation. The dead body of Aqua Fortis.
32. Recrement of Atrament from which Sulphur of Radeberg is
afterwards melted out.
ATRAMENTUM --- i.e., Duenec, Malagislaca, Black Chalk,
ATRAMENTUM SUTORIUM --- is nothing else but Vitriol,
i.e., Chalcanthum, i.e., a sort of Flower of Copper. It is not
however Kalkou Anthos, or true Flower of Copper, as we have
before stated. Chalcanthus, or Vitriol, or Atramentum Sutorium,
is one thing; the ancient Flower of Copper is another, and was
obtained, among other ways, from the washings of copper ore,
while Flower of Copper has in modern times been given as an
alternative name of Verdigris, or Copper-Rust. Once again then
Atramentum Sutorium is Vitriol formerly used in leather tanning.
But because it is corrosive to shoes, another kind was devised
by shoemakers, which is in fact our present Cobblers' Black. But
with the ancients Atramentum meant Vitriol, that metallic
substance which is simply a congealed water, having a quality of
copper, but differing in its form and nature with the stone to
which it adheres. In a discourse upon springs and rivers, Seneca
tells us that the earth contains various humours, and a spirit
like that of the human body where there are also various
humours, of which some are vital, some corruptible, some more
fatty, and some which in time become dried or hardened. Of this
substance are all metals which are melted out of the moisture in
stone. Such also, in like manner, are those metals which
chemists have not inappropriately termed spirit, and which are
different from things which flow. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 64) says
that soft and hard Atrament are both Sutorium, or Shoemaker's
Atrament, but that there are three species:
i. That which is concreted from humours which are collected by
droppingsin mines, and is called Stillatic Vitriol. The best
quality is furnished by copperine metals. This species is also
called Pinarion and Distillatic. It is the German native
2. That which is termed Pecton, i.e., concreted and congealed
Vitriol; which forms in caves and grottos, and brought
afterwards by a simple process into excavated trenches, assumes
a concrete form.
Now, these two species are natural, and differ in shape and
manner of formation. This is the German Copper-smoke, or Soot of
Copper, or Pyrites, concreted or congelated in the mines. Both
species have their medical uses; they are astringent, healing,
and induce the formation of skin. Classified according to
colour, there are three species of Shoemakers' Black or Vitriol.
White Vitriol, not mentioned by Dioscorides, but which Pliny
describes (1. 34, c. 12). On account of its white colour, or
similitude of colour, he tells us that it was called Leucoion
(white violet), and is used by fullers in their trade.
Shoemakers' Wax and Sory are akin to this species. For the rest,
the white violet Leucoion of Theophrastus and Dioscorides is
well known in physics. (But this probably refers to the herb
called Leucoion. Some editions of Pliny read Lonchoton,
following Dioscorides, instead of Leucoion in the passage cited
The second species of Atrament is green. The third is blue, and
is said by Dioscorides to be the best stillatic atrament; it is
heavy, close-grained, and translucent. By others it is called
Lonchoton (see above), because it forms in the figure of a
javelin. The method of operating upon this species by fire is
taught by Dioscorides: And a great thing verily is the knowledge
of the virtues of Flower of Copper, i.e., of Verdigris,
according to the moderns, and of Chrysocolla, and of the
Manufactured Atrament is made in Spain, and the mode of its
manufacture will be also found in Dioscorides, who further
informs us that it is of high service in dyeing and colouring.
By the Germans it is called Hydride of Copper, which is
manufactured either simple or in clusters; that is reputed to be
the best which is of a blue colour.
Pliny (1. 94, c, 12) divides Chalcanthum, i.e., Vitriol and
Shoemakers' Black, into Native Mined and into Manufactured. Of
the first there are three varieties:
1. That which is dug up in trenches, or obtained from caves.
2. That which comes from mines in the rocks.
3. That which is obtained from sea-water, on admitting sweet
water, and by means of violent heat.
The manufactured species is made from materials found in those
pits and pools of Spain where there is the same kind of water
from which native Atrament is derived.
The Metamorphosis, transmutation, or transfiguration of these
Minerals by the Artifice of Nature alone.
Great is the Knowledge of Flower of Copper, the Verdigris of
the moderns, of Chrysocol, of the Vitriols, and other species of
I. Green Zeg, or Shoemakers’ Black, or Vitriol, or Chalcanthum
(native or changed or passes into:
1. Misy, very easily.
2. After a long time into Chalchitis, as regards outward
appearance; internally it is still Shoemakers’ Black.
3. Filaments, when it is old. Manufactured Chalchitis is then
wrought from it. Also Chalcanthum changed into Chachitis can
then be made into Misy.
II. Chalcitis, or honey-yellow Zeg, according to Pliny; brass
colour, according to Diosorides (Zeg is the name given by the
Arabs, who also call it Colcothar), has a middle position
between marchasite (i.e., Black Zeg, or Pyrites, or Black
Atrament), and Vitriol (i.e., Green Zeg, or Chalcanthum), and
when old can be changed, and passes into:
Sory, very easily;
Sory and Melateria pass on the other hand into:
Chalcanthum Leucoion, i.e., White.
The Arabs call Atrament Zeg simply, and distinguish these
1. Black Zeg, i.e., Black Atrament, i.e., Marchasite, i.e.,
Pyrites. For Marchasite, or dissolved Pyrites, makes Ink, which
Serapion calls Black Zeg, which mixed with wine and vine garis
resolved into a black colour; Avicenna calls it (De Atramento,
1. 2) White Atrament, because before it is dissolved it is
2. Zeg Colcotar, or Chalcitis, or Zegi, of a citron hue, or
copper colour, according to Dioscorides. Also called Citrine
Atrament. There are in all four varieties: Red Zeg, or Ruby Zeg,
or Ruby Atrament, or Red Atrament. It is called Asuria.
3. Green Zeg, or Green Atrament, which is Chalcanthum or
Vitriol, already described. And this is Shoemakers' Black.
Serapion in his chapter on Zeg affirms that he has himself seen
in the mines Black Zeg, i.e., Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, and
afterwards Colcotar, i.e., Chalcitis, and Green Zeg, i.e.,
Vitriol, or Chalcanthum, in combination.
And he says that these three species differ in subtlety, and
grossness. For out of them is derived the grosser kind, i.e.,
Black Zeg, i.e., Pyrites ; and also the finer, i.e., Green Zeg,
i.e., Chalcanthum, or Shoemakers' Black. But Colcotar is a
middle species between the two others. This is also called
Chalcitis. Moreover, Green Zeg and Colcotar are liquefied by
fire, but Black Zeg is not easily melted.
Green Zeg, Chalcanthum, or Shoemakers' Black, more especially
the Cyprian kind, is solid, though it is the finer species of
Atrament, and it is easily changed into Misy. Outwardly also it
becomes Chalcitis, though inwardly it is still Shoemakers'
Black. This transformation is very beautiful. All these are
natural metals, namely, white, green, or blue Chalcanthum ; also
Chalcitis, which is copper-colour ; also Misy, which is
gold-colour ; also Sory, which is almost the hue of Melanteria
(Shoemakers' wax) ; and they all are mentioned by Galenus, and
were used by him in plasters; nor were they less valued by
others of the ancients, for they were held in high respect of
old, and were used universally in Cyprus. I do not know whether
they are found in our silver mines, but I do not deny that they
might be, if they were diligently sought. They are met with in
the copper mines of Goslaria and in other places, though but
rarely, it must be allowed. It is a remarkable thing that
wherever Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, exists there also are all the
others, namely, Chalcanthum, Chalcitis, Misy, Sory. All these
species blacken, and hence are called Atramen. Chalcanthum is
hot and dry in the fourth degree, according to Paulus.
We have treated of Shoemakers' Black from the ancient and the
We must now briefly consider with Dioscorides the subject of
Scriveners' Black, or Writing Ink. The methods of its
manufacture which are described by Dioscorides, are, however,
quite obsolete. We now compound ink for writing in a very
different way, namely, from Vitriol, Gall, Gum, and in other
fashions, as our clerks have reason to know, seeing how inks
vary with the ingredients that compose them. It would be
permissible to classify writing ink into natural and
manufactured. The first is an extract well known to all
scriveners, namely, Sepia, derived from the Cuttle-fish, on
which consult Dioscorides, Pliny, and Nicander. It is also
obtained from Eruca, a kind of plant which some call white
Mustard, on which also consult Dioscorides in his 1. 2. The
manufactured species, according to the same writer, are these:
1. From the Resin of Pine Trees.
2. From the Soot of other Resins, and Corrosives of Painters.
But among us manufactured ink is obtained:
1. From Stone, which we shall treat of in the section De
2. ? From burnt Bark (ex carta combusta --- but there is
no such word as Carta).
3. From the Seed of the Alder.
4. From Milk and Curds [? the text reads cate, but
there is again no such word in Latin].
5. From the Soot of oily or fat substances.
6. From Vitriol, Gall, and Gum. Pliny (1.35. c. 6.) gives other
methods --- as from Sulphur-coloured Earth, from Coals, Soot,
ATTAGAR --- i.e., Stone.
ATTINGAT --- i.e., Flower of Copper.
ATTINGIR --- i.e., a small clay Coffer.
ATTRACTIVA --- is a name given to some Medicaments, also
called Magnetite, which have an attractive power.
ATUREB, or AZAZEZE --- is Glass.
AURANCUM, or AURANTUM --- Signifies Egg-shells.
AURARIC, or AZOCH, AZOG, AZET, BESECH, BESEC ---
are names of Mercury.
AURUM COCTUM --- is Gold-leaf.
AURUM COTICULA EXPERIRI --- To test gold with
AVIS HERMETIS --- is that Red Lead in the middle of the
egg which rises above itself, which flies on high, and again
descends to earth for its nourishment, for earth gives
nourishment to all things. It is also the Soil in the Matrix,
and is called otherwise the Goose.
AURIPIGMENTUM --- is Orpiment, Arsenical Earth, the
Operment, Yellow Gold, of the Germans, and is used by painters.
It is a native metallic substance, and is found in combination
with Sandarac (Dioscorides, 1. 5, c. 70). It is covered with a
crust, and glitters with a gold colour. In its fundamental
nature it is a certain kind of sulphur, and is, so to speak, a
terrestrial excrement in the caverns of the earth, which in the
long process of time is turned into Orpiment. There is also a
fissile species, of scaly character, found in Mysia Minor on the
Hellespont. Another variety is pallid, cloddy and granular,
having the colour of Sandarac; it comes from Pontus and
Cappadocia. The Arabs say that Orpiment is similar to Lapis
Specularis (which see), but the latter has no unguent quality.
The Arabs, however, confound Sandarac with Arsenic, and, in
fact, give the name of Arsenic indiscriminately both to Sandarac
and Orpiment, distinguishing only their variety according to
colour. Chemists as well as physicians call our Sandarac Red
Arsenic; and Arsenical Earth what we call Orpiment. Avicenna
speaks of White Arsenic, but true White Arsenic is never found
in mines, and his description may possibly refer to certain
manufactured species, one of which is mud-colour and the other
white, which are manufactured chemically, and are both at the
present day known only by the general name of Arsenic.
Concerning all these species see Serapion (lib. Agg. cap.
Harmech) and Avicenna (cap. on Arsenic), who treat of its good
and evil qualities. Sublimed Arsenic, or Arsenical Salt,
destroys life, and White Arsenic in its natural state is also
fatal. They are all poisonous. (See Diosc., 1. 6.)
Orpiment is also the Blood of the Stone. The Turba calls it the
female which we use to colour the Sun and to cook with Mercury.
It is, however, genuine Sulphur. Quicksilver Orpiment is Sulphur
which rises from the composition.
There is also Auripigmentum Lempinas, which is Lily-water,
Crusty Orpiment, Cloddy Orpiment, dry Yellow, Cloddy Orpiment,
mixed with Sandarac, Ruby Orpiment, or Realgar, white Sublimated
Orpiment, differing from that of the mines, and Sublimed
Orpiment from black, ruddy, and mud-coloured veins of ore.
AURUM --- Gold, called Sol by chemists, and dedicated to
the Sun, is the most tempered of all the metals; it is said to
be warm and dry in the second grade, and red in the third grade.
It is a metallic body, of citrine colour, effulgent, heavy,
equably digested in the womb of earth, washed with mineral water
during a very long time. It is composed of pure living Silver,
fixed, and of a clear red; also of a clean, fixed, red,
incombustible Sulphur. In fine, it is the most subtle substance
of Quicksilver. Truly we have beheld Quicksilver absorbing gold
which it receives most willingly, even as a mother receives her
son. Further, Gold consists of a small quantity of clean Sulphur
and of a pure redness; the greater the quantity of Vivific
Silver, the more does it derive from the mother than from the
father. Purest Sulphur copulating as father with Quicksilver as
mother, generates finest Gold as a son. Briefly, coagulate
Quicksilver, together with Sulphur, like a pure fire, yet not
burning, produces Gold. This is that beloved son which Nature
ever intends to beget, after which she ever strives ; but
various accidents intervene and procreate the other metals. Now
Gold is duplex-native and prepared by fire.
Pure Native Gold, which is naturally pure, whose lumps or
masses are called in Spain Palacrae (ingots), and by the Germans
Solid Gold, this is found
1. In rivers, such as the Tagus, Elbe, Saale, Schwartza, etc.,
as you may learn from the gold washers.
2. In Arabian mountains, in mines, and wells; in part pure, in
part with its grains cleaving to a certain species of white
stone which the Germans call Quartz. Found plentifully at
3. In the heads of fish which we call trout.