A Lexicon of Alchemy
Martin RULANDUS the Elder
Translated by Arthur E. Waite
John M. Watkins
1893 / 1964 (250 Copies)
A Lexicon of Alchemy
Containing a full and plain explanation of all obscure words,
subjects, and arcane phrases of Paracelsus.
Philosopher, Doctor, and Private Physician to the August Person
[With the Privilege of His majesty the Emperor for the space of
By the care and expense of Zachariah Palthenus, Bookseller, in
Free Republic of Frankfurt.
To the Most Reverend and Most Serene Prince and Lord, The Lord
JULIUS, Bishop of Halberstadt, Duke of Brunswick, and Burgrave of Luna;
His Lordship’s mos devout and humble servant wishes Health and Peace.
In the deep considerations of the Hermetic and Paracelsian
that has well-nigh come to pass which of old overtook the Sons of Shem
at the building of the Tower of Babel. For these, carried away by
with audacious foolhardiness to rear up a vast pile into heaven, so to
secure unto themselves an immortal name, but, disordered by a confusion
and multiplicity of barbarous tongues, were ingloriously forced. In
manner, the searchers of Hermetic works, deterred by the obscurity of
terms which are met with in so many places, and by the difficulty of
the hieroglyphs, hold the most noble art in contempt; while others,
to penetrate by main force into the mysteries of the terms and
endeavour to tear away the concealed truth from the folds of its
but bestow all their trouble in vain, and have only the reward of the
of Shem for their incredible pain and labour. Unto both these classes I
wish to come forward with help, that they may not only seek more
into the writings of the Hermetists, but that they may understand them
better, and that in this manner the divine Art of Alchemy may be more
taken in hand. For which reason I have concluded to publish this
of Alchemy, formerly compiled, and enlarged and completed since by me.
Which also I would dedicate to one who shines over all princes, not
in knowledge of the learned languages and more celebrated arts, but
daily shows himself, by his singular industry and skilful hand, most
and studious in the Art of Chemistry. Whence I have justly brought this
trivial work to be consecrated by your patronage, well knowing that it
will receive no small increase of reputation from the greatness of your
erudition and from your illustrious name; and as in some way a monument
of most humble reverence, it shall stand forth to its own greater
and preservation in the future. Fare thou well, most serene and learned
lord, and hold me and mine as committed unto thy care.
With humblest deference,
Your respectful Servant,
MARTINUS RULANDUS, Doctor.
A LEXICON OF ALCHEMY
PHILOSOPHER AND PHYSICIAN.
A ~ B ~ C
~ D ~ E ~ F
~ G ~ H ~ I
~ J ~ K ~ L
~ M ~ N ~ O
~ P ~ Q ~ R
~ S ~ T ~ U
~ V ~ W ~ X
~ Y ~ Z ~ Supplement
A A A
AABAM, ABARTAMEN, ACCIB, AIARAZAT --- are all Hermetic
for lead. See Plumbum and Saturn.Other equivalents in use were the
the Dual Chibor, Draiccium, Elevator, Araxat, Alusa, Ruba, Alech,
Alabrig, Alokot, Armic, Amioch, Amitich, Araxat, Azoro, Balamba,
Koal, Molybdos, Mosquet dei, Molibra, Mosider, Rasas, Rasasa, Rolos,
Rocli. All these are technical terms, which in themselves have no
but which were used to signify Lead.
ABACUS --- A counting-board, table or tray, etc.
ABACUS MAJOR --- A larger table, etc.
ABESAMUM --- The mire or grease which accumulates on the
of a wheel.
ABESUM --- Unslaked lime.
ABESS --- is the same as Rebis, to wit, the last matter of
nutriments which are absorbed by the body; that is to say, it is the
of the bowels.
ABESTUS --- Albesten, Abesten, and Morago, are Hermetic
ABICUM --- A cover.
ABLATIO --- A separation by means of the superior part. It
performed after several manners. In the dry region, where there is less
specific gravity, such cleansing can be effected by the hare's foot or
like agents. Sometimes we accomplish separation with a feather, with
knives, spatulas, etc. At other times, we purge in a narrow bag, with
and with wooden, iron, and bristly substances.
ABLUTION --- is exaltation by means of successive
washing away the impure refuse, and reducing the matter to a pure
It is also called Imbibition and Cohobation, or digestion.
ABLUVIEN --- Cleansing.
ABNELEITEM --- is Alum; also called Asfor.
ABOIT, or ABIT --- is White Lead. The same thing is
by Alkarad, Almachabar, and Alsiden.
ABRIC, KIBRIT, and KIBUZ --- are names of Sulphur.
ACACIA FERREA --- An iron spoon.
ACAHI --- is Alum-water; called also Fefcol.
ACAID --- is Vinegar, or sour substances.
ACALAI --- is Salt; called also Alet.
ACAMECH, or ACEMECH --- is the scoria or refuse of
ACARTUM --- is Cinnabar or Red Lead; called also Azemasor.
ACATO --- is Soot; called also Araxos.
ACAZDI --- is Jupiter, or Tin; called also Alkain and
ACCATU --- is Tinsel; called also Aurichalcum, properly
which is the brass of the ancients. Accatem signifies the same.
ACCORDINA --- is Indian tutty; called also Alcordine.
ACETABULUS --- A vessel for vinegar, or a cup-shaped
holding as much as would an eggshell.
ACETUM --- Vinegar.
ACETUM AMINEUM --- White vinegar. Acetum also signifies
wine, and in this sense Acetum Amineum would be sour white wine, wine
Aminaea, which was distinguished for vine culture.
ACETUM PHILOSOPHORUM --- is Philosophical Vinegar, that is,
Milk, or Mercurial Water, in which metals are dissolved. One of its
names was Sophic Hydor. According to Theophrastus, the Philosophical
is the Chemist's Vitriol-water, but the Turba states that it is the
of mercury which dissolves gold. Others affirm that Philosophical
is that which is made from fresh shells of tortoises by sublimation and
ACETUM RADICALE --- is Radical Vinegar, or Vinegar
from its proper radix
or matrix. It is also called dissolvent water.
ACETUM RADICATUM --- or Radicated Vinegar signifies in some
that most sharp liquor of vinegar which remains at the bottom of the
after the phlegmatic part has been evaporated. It is made by
in the retort out of the crystals of the dregs of vinegar. Or good
made from wine, may be placed in a retort, distilled gently by a moist
heat, often poured back upon its caput mortuum, and dissolved in dung,
after which it must be finally distilled, when that which is left may
taken and liquefied in a strong fire. The result is radicated vinegar.
ACHATES --- The Agate, first found in Sicily, near the
of that name, and afterwards in other localities, as testifies Pliny,
37 c. 10. There are various species, each bearing separate names:
Ceradhates, Sardachates, Haemachates, Leucachates, Dendrachates, the
of which are like unto minute trees; Autachates, which, when burnt,
forth fragrance of myrrh; Coralloachates, distinguished by a golden
after the manner of the sapphire; this variety is found in Crete.
are a safeguard against the bite of the spider, and eagles carry them
their nests to defend their fledglings against venomous animals. They
thirst and strengthen sight. Concerning the rest, consult Pliny in the
place cited, who also relates that various impressions of figures
in agates; in some, for example, may be seen rivers, woods, cattle,
of burden, herds, war-chariots, minute statues, and the furniture or
of horses. In particular, he relates (1. 37, c. 1) how Pyrrhus had an
gem in which could be seen Apollo and the nine Muses, with their
I myself have beheld a gem belonging to a nobleman, which, however, was
not a true agate, but when the blemishes had been dispersed, it
a rustic and a complete plough. I found also another at Albion Silicem,
near the gate of Tangra, wherein appeared the likeness of a wolf or a
near a half-rose, so clearly cut by nature as though the work had been
done by a jeweller. Most credible truly are those things of Pliny when
writing of the impressions upon this kind of stone.
ACORTINUS --- A lupine, wolf's-bean, or horse-bean.
ACSUO --- is Red Coral.
ACUREB --- Glass.
ACUS --- A needle.
ACUSTA --- Saltpetre.
ADAMAS --- in Arabic Subedhig, in Latin Adamas (Pliny, 1.
c. 4), the diamond, which is found both apart from gold and in gold,
to the opinion of the ancients, who knew it only as native in gold
the metals of Aethiopia. But for the better understanding of this
observe the ensuing scheme, which we have elaborated out of Pliny in
and in part from other authorities.
Not found in gold, and of this there are two species.
The Indian diamond, not having its birth in gold, is known by its
crystal colour and sex-angular sides; it is either cone-shaped at one
or else it has the form of a lozenge; it is sometimes as large as a
This species is said by Serapion to approximate to the colour of Sal
The Arabian diamond, likewise not found in gold, is smaller than
Native in the most Perfect Gold.
I. The Greek stone called Cenchron, because it is the size of a
II. Macedonian; generated in gold of Philippi; like the seed of
III. Cyprian; found in Cyprus; approaching brass in colour; most
IV. Having the splendour of iron sideritis (that is, according to
a precious stone; according to others it is loadstone ; and again it is
the plant ironwort); surpassing the others in weight, but differing
them in nature; can be broken by blows, and pierced by another diamond.
The two last are degenerate, and scarcely deserve their name.
The best diamonds are impervious to blows on an anvil, which they
so that even the anvil bursts asunder, while they themselves leap away
invulnerable. And inasmuch as the diamond is indescribably hard, it
and conquers fire, nor has ever been consumed thereby. Whence, from its
indomitable life and strength, it has the name *** among the Greeks.
That herb which is mentioned by Pliny (1. 24, c. 17), which cannot
torn up, was also called adamant. The stone, however, can be shattered
by the flesh, or rather by the warm blood of a young goat; more
when the goat has first drunk wine or eaten rock parsley and mountain
For the above reasons, diamonds are much in request among lapidaries
cutting and shaping gems and other substances, for which purpose they
to be mounted only in iron. Other metals they will by no means
while by lead, wonderful to say, they are themselves dissolved.
Furthermore, the diamond is so hostile to the loadstone that it
not permit iron to be attracted in its neighbourhood, and if a magnet
close quarters should have attracted a piece of iron, the approach of a
diamond will cause it to lose its hold.
In short, the diamond binds the magnet and strips it of its
Oh, how wonderful is God in all His works! For the rest, the diamond
venomous animals, drives away frenzies, lemures, incubi, and succubi;
makes men strong and lively, and is for this reason called anachitis
is, anancitis --- from the Greek *** --- to free from distress). It
against contentions and quarrels, and cures viscous fluxes. Consult
and Evax. Some will have that the diamond is cold and dry in the fourth
degree, others, on the contrary, that it is hot and dry, inasmuch as it
is mixed with warming medicines. Did the matter receive investigation,
doubtless diamonds would be found in our mines, as they have been found
in times past: witness Pliny on the authority of Metrodorus Scepsius.
Bohemia stones of excellent quality are still seen, which surpass
diamonds in shape and lustre. Consult Solinus, De Adamante, c. 55. The
ancient astrologers referred the diamond to the Moon.
ADAMAS ACUMINATUS --- A four-sided diamond point.
ADAMAS QUADRATUS PLANUS --- A flat square diamond.
ADAMATUM --- A kind of bright stone.
ADAMITA --- A species of tartar; a kind of wine-stone or
(Wine-stone, Germ. = Tartar.)
ADARCES, ARTIS --- According to some this is a marine
a spongy growth, a froth or efflorescence, a congealed saliva having
in sea-shallows, especially of Cappadocia and Galatia. The Indian
is found among reeds and cane-brakes on the shore. It has similar
to the substance called Halcyon. It was termed formerly Pericalamite
Calamoch. Some physicians make use of these ridiculous substances while
they despise more noble things. They have even gone so far as to invent
obscure names for it, which would be a puzzle to Oedipus himself. Some
having written as follows: Take the fat of the deformed child and the
of the vine of Dionysius. Who shall understand this save Oedipus? Who
quickly interpret the deformed child to be the she-bear, and the gum of
the vine of Dionysius to be the gum of the ivy? The Adarces here
to must be distinguished from the true Adarces or Oysters. It is a sort
of thick, salt scum which collects about reeds in marshy places. Its
name is Adarca, but this Rulandus confuses with the oyster, and says
its power in diseases is declared by Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 84) and by
(1. 32, c. 6), who represents it as coming into existence around tender
reeds amidst the spume of fresh water and sea water, and accredits it
ADARNECH --- is Orpiment.
ADARRIS --- is the spume or foam of sea water.
ADDERE --- To augment; but also used as an equivalent of
to combine in due proportion, to keep within bounds.
ADDITAMENTA --- Addition, increase.
ADEC --- Sour milk.
ADER --- Fresh skimmed milk.
ADECH --- is our interior and invisible man, who raises up
our minds the image or archetypes of all those things which our visible
and exterior man copies and forms with his hands. Each works after his
own nature, the invisible thin; unseen, the sensible, under form
those things which are within the dominion of the senses.
ADEPS --- A fluid in its final distillation.
ADHEMEST --- with its equivalents Aiohenec and Altohonec,
ADHEHE --- Another term for sour milk.
ADHO or ADHOC --- Milk.
ADIBAT --- Mercury.
ADIBISI or ADEBEZI --- The tortoise, also tortoise
ADIDACHOS, ADIDE ALARCOS, ADIDA LARCHOS --- Various terms
"mixed with lime", slaked.
ADIRIGE --- Ammoniac.
ADMI SURAB --- Earth.
ADOS --- Water in which red-hot iron has been plunged.
ADOLESCENS --- Young man.
ADORAT --- A weight of four pounds.
ADRAM --- Metallic salt, Cappadocian salt.
ADRARAGI --- Garden Saffron.
ADRARIGES --- is green atrament ; also blue sulphate of
ADROP, AZAR, AZANE --- A kind of stone.
ADSAMAR --- Signifies urine, but also lotion, fountain,
ADVERSA VENAE PARS --- Against the grain, literally,
the direction of a current; hence, opposition in general.
AER --- Equals breath, breeze, spirit, wind, weather.
AERIS --- That is, verdigris.
AERIS SCOBS --- Ordinary copper
AERIS FLOS --- Metaphorically so called, was termed by the
Chalckou Anthos, and is misnamed Calcantum, that is, vitriol, the
black of the Latins, the ignorant believed of old, being deceived by
similarity of the terms. But Flower of Copper differs among the
and moderns. For the ancients, as appears, denominated Flower of Copper
those purple globules which rise suddenly when the melted copper runs
the furnace, and is purged from impurity by the sudden sprinkling of
water. Of this kind of Flower of Copper Dioscorides speaks (1. 5, c.
and enumerates its medicinal powers and virtues. Among the moderns,
the Flower of Copper signifies verdigris. This distinction should be
in comparing ancient and recent authors. It should also be borne in
that formerly they intermingled copper scales and Flower of Copper,
a new substance was developed which was called Lepis, as appears out of
Pliny. At the present day Flos Aeris is not included in the
Concerning its virtues Pliny says (1. 34. c 11): The Flower of Copper
useful to medicine; verily there is not a mineral throughout all the
of so useful a nature as it is. It purgeth the stomach, strengthens the
eyes, remedies hardness of hearing, stayeth bleeding at the nose.
There are two kinds of Copper Scales, namely, dense and light. Of
first Dioscorides treats (1. 5, c. 44). It is called Copper Slag by the
Germans, but this, which is broad and thin, is produced from copper by
hammering. Dioscorides (l. c.) avers that which is beaten from bars in
the forges of Cyprus, and called Helitin, or Hammered, to be the best,
but that which is beaten from poor and vulgar copper, or from white
is wholly to be condemned. He leaches further the virtues and the
of Aeris Squama. He makes mention in addition of Stomoma, the fine
which fly off in hammering.
There is another stomoma which is the same as the lighter variety
Aeris Squama, and is mentioned, not by Dioscorides, but by Pliny. It is
called Copperborn by the Germans. And there is yet another stomoma
is, as it were, slack from the ore and is pierced easily. Yet again,
is that stomoma which is ferrum purgatum, purissimum, our chalybs,
It was Pliny (1. 34, c. 2) who first taught that coarse copper
differed from Flower of Copper, when he said: Now these scales come by
being driven and smitten off from those bars which they use to forge of
the said masses and lumps of copper, and all these most commonly are
in the Cyprian forges; herein only is the difference, that the
scales are driven forcibly from the masses of copper, whereas the
of verdigris fails off by itself. And yet there is a second kind of
scales, more fine and subtle than any other, to wit, driven and smitten
from the very outside and uppermost part of the bar, and this they call
Stomoma. He adds that both the one and the other are calcined either
earthen or brazen vessels, and afterwards washed. Finally, he also
that the scales made of the white metal are indefinitely less
But neither the scales nor the flower are used by our doctors as they
in the time of Pliny.
AERUGO AERIS --- or Verdigris, which the moderns, as we
shown, contradictorily call Flower of Copper, is twofold, natural and
the former being found in metallic Cypriot stones, having some
of copper; upon these the verdigris bursts out as in bloom, and this,
small in quantity, is the best, and is also found in our copper mines.
Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 45) mentions its varieties, with their
worth, and the manner in which they are sophisticated.
Concerning artificial verdigris, which is produced upon the
of copper when the metal has become sufficiently green, this is of
1. The smooth or scraped, whereof Dioscorides speaks firstly, and
after what manner it is made.
2. The vermiculated, or worm-eaten verdigris, which is also
that which is mineral and that which is made.
The former is the better, and is scraped by itself from the
upon which see Pliny (l. 34, c. 12), who disputes at great length as to
whether it be a species of vitriol, or chalchitis itself. Great indeed
is the knowledge of verdigris, of the natural above all, of Flower of
of Chrysocolla, and of Vitriol, that is, true Chalchitis. Do thou, most
excellent reader, well consider it, and judge the erudition of Pliny.
verdigris, of the manufactured kind, and the way of making it, are
by Dioscorides and by Pliny.
3. The third species of manufactured verdigris is goldsmiths'
which is also treated of by Dioscorides, and this is Santerna, which is
used for alum. Some call it Tinckar or Arabian Borax. Goldsmiths'
is nothing else but Chrysocolla, on which consult Pliny (1. 33, c. 5;
1. 34, c. 11 and 12).
All these species answer to Burnt Copper; they are astringent,
reduce, and heat, which is the case with all kinds of copper rust.
After what manner the rest are burnt, consult Dioscorides. In our
day similar species of copper rust are largely manufactured in Spain.
The Arabians, if I mistake not, call all the above enumerated
by the name Zinckar; and these are the species according to Pliny,
and others. But if we consider deeply, there are some which have not
distinguished by them, and are set forth in the following tabulation:
Verdigris or Copper Rust is:
Scraped: Natural / Manufactured (1. Scraped; 2. Vermiculate ---
/ Manufactured; 3. Goldsmiths’.
Scissile: Natural, i.e., copper-green. Gold-gluten / Manufactured,
green, scraped, manufactured copper, green.
The remaining species are distinguished thus:
1. Verdigris, colour of green copper; things dyed with green
rust are so named by Martial.
2. Natural verdigris found on copper quartz.
3. A variety from Satberg, of leaden colour, found in rude copper
4. Verdigris found on pure solid copper.
5. Manufactured verdigris.
6. Sublimed or distilled verdigris, used by painters.
AERARII LAPIDES --- Natural copper stones.
1. Black scissile copper ore in which are natural plates of
2. Ore containing natural green chrysocolla.
3. Ore containing natural blue chrysocolla.
4. Scissile ores in which is interspersed copper of a golden,
blue, purple, violet, or black colour.
5. Scissile ore, having seams of gold-coloured copper.
6. Ore containing seams of copper like the purest lead ore.
7. Cuprine scissile slate, burnt in the open air.
9. Burnt in the open air, afterwards melted out, and the dross
10. Small globular slate-stones, perfectly circular, hard and
of different sizes. Also found among copper quartz, with an ashy
as if composed of fine sand; if broken with a hammer, they are like
or ash-coloured pyrites inside. Sometimes copper and some times silver
is melted out of them.
11. Very hard, small pebbles, showing ruddy in black; found in
copper ore, like the kidneys of animals; when broken, they are of a
colour, showing rich cuprine hues, but if searched with fire they
no metallic quality.
12. Sterile ore, found beneath copper ore, showing white in
13. Primary masses melted out of rude copper.
14. Secondary, in which silver or gold are still present, which
sold to masters of laboratories for the separation of the silver and
15. Crumbling or spongy masses, out of which, when lead is added,
can be extracted.
16. Masses of silver and lead from which copper has been
17. Copper containing silver combined with lead.
18. Copper, of fine quality, free from torrefied, crumbling, or
19. Copper masses free from all other metal.
20. Sharp-pointed ore stones produced in torrefying masses of
21. Copper nuggets full of sharp points. Also layers of
22. Sharp-pointed nuggets of copper and lead, produced in the
of masses of ore.
23. Sharp-pointed pieces from nuggets which have been once subject
24. Fused copper, containing gold.
25. Fused copper, containing silver. .
26. Fused copper, containing both gold and silver.
27. Tinged with magnesia. White copper.
28. Tinged with metallic cadmia. Yellow copper.
29. Gold-coloured copper.
30. Flattened copper wire out of which garlands or wreaths are
31. Copper showing flaxen colour in red colour.
32. Copper showing swarthy in red.
33. Copper tinctures with gold-colour by chemical art. Alchemical
34. Gilded copper.
35. Copper coloured silver by chemical art. Alchemical silver.
36. Copper mixed with white lead.
37. Cremated copper.
38. Copper fused with white lead. Manufactured bell-metal.
39. Copper alloy, containing equal parts of copper and silver.
40. Copper fused in iron pipes. Finger-shaped pieces of copper.
41. Copper reduced to granules; vulgarly called granulated copper.
42. Flower of copper, given off from incandescent masses of
in appearance like millet seed.
43. A more minute kind, given off from molten crucibles, like
44. True flower of copper, given off spontaneously from red-hot
Very fine Cyprian copper dust.
45. Baked copper, hardened with hammers.
46. Scales of copper, beaten out by the hammer.
47. Most pure scales of copper, with which potters colour their
Brown copper, found useful in all coppersmiths' work.
48. Copper melted into the form of globules. Coarsely granulated
49. Copper filings.
50. Plates of Copper, called sometimes by an Italian name,
51. Copper wire. .
52. Gilt copper wire.
53. Silvered copper wire.
54. Copper wire overlaid with white lead.
55. Black refuse, separated in the first melting, from copper ore.
56. Metal extracted from copper ore which is once fused and
from its refuse.
57. The same, but melted up to the sixth time, then finally baked,
separated from its first and second refuse.
58. Yellow copper thread. Copper wire.
59. The first recrement of red colour is the material of those
out of which we usually drink must, or unfermented wine.
60. The second recrement, mixed with brass or lead, is called, in
vernacular, stone, and is again added to the metals in the second
when they begin to flow rapidly.
61. The third recrement remains in the furnace, when the copper,
which silver is still present, flows out. Out of this recrement, when
and prepared for another melting down, iron is extracted.
62. Recrements separated from torrefied copper masses.
63. The first recrements of copper are light.
64. The second are heavier.
65. The third are heaviest of all, and black, blue, purple, and
in colour. On the surface of the Islebian mountains there is found a
earth, or red ore, with which the copper ore of the mines is mixed in
out. Beneath this there are eleven other species of stone, before the
of mining is attained, i.e., before the copper veins are reached.
1. Granite. Hyalomite.
1A. A hard, rude stone, of earthy colour.
2. Another not so hard, and of ashen hue.
3. Smokestone. Smoky topaz.
3A. A third harder and rougher, and of colour similar to the
4. Zechstein, permian limestone.
4A. A fourth, showing swarthy in ash-colour, but more solid than
5. Smoky topaz.
5A. A fifth, ashen, hard, and rough.
6A. Another, like to the fourth.
7. Another similar to the second, but softer.
8. Another blacker than the seventh, small, and harder.
9. A ninth kind, showing ashen in white, soft, and may be broken
marl with a penknife.
10. Another of ash-colour, hard and solid as marble.
11. A layer of black horny slate.
11. Showing more black in ash-colour than all the others.
12. Scissile Islebian stone, dark ash-colour, rich in copper.
rich in copper.
AES --- or Copper is attributed to Venus by chemists. (N.B.
Aes signified any Ore; i.e., any metal as it is dug from the earth, but
especially refined copper.)
It is a metallic body of a bluish colour with a dark ruddy tinge;
is igneous and fusible, and occupies a middle position between Sol and
Luna, gold and silver. It is composed of quicksilver, but impure,
terrestrial, combustible, ruddy, and not clear; and, in like manner, of
sulphur wanting in fixity, purity, and density. Bad and feeble sulphur,
like a father of ill complexion and disposition, copulates with a noble
mother, that is, with quicksilver, and generates copper of good
a son of bluish colour, tinged with dark red.
This copper is obtained from veins in the mines, where there is
of pyrites, or marcasite, which beget the various natural species of
copperstone, copperas, inkstone, tutty, etc. Out of copper ore when it
is melted there are obtained the several varieties of artificial
Pompholyx, and Spodos (Pliny, 1. 34, c. 10-13). In the operation of the
furnace, burnt copper is obtained, and scales of copper indifferently
cooling the heated metal and by hammering. Finally, verdigris is
on the surface of the excocted metal.
There are, broadly, two species of copper, first, that which is
pure in copper and silver mines, and is in need of no purifying.
veins are sometimes met with, and again whole plates of thin metal
encompass the stone. Of this Albertus was ignorant. The second species
is that which is melted out of pyrites or marcasite, and other
such as, slate, stone, as well as out of various earths and clays; also
out of Chrysocolla and Azurite, like gold.
Aes, however, does not always denote copper, but sometimes gold or
as they exist in nature, without any mixture of other metal or stone-a
pure, unmixed metal, out of which money was stamped sometimes, in the
way as from alloys artificially prepared. This substance was first
in Galilee, but in a small quantity. In our own day it is likewise
but rarely, and is only to be obtained by a miracle. (The German
says: Properly it is called copper, some call it simply gold or silver
ore which has not yet been melted, but has been prepared by nature, and
out of which coins have been occasionally struck.)
(The copper nuggets referred to by Pliny are identified with burnt
by Rulandus, who also enumerates, Loaf-shaped copper masses, completely
baked ; Aes Caldarium, a copper warming vessel; Aes abstractum, copper
extracted from the ore; Aes residuum, refined copper; Aes liquefactum,
copper melted in an iron pipe. There is no context to explain the
of these enumerations.)
AERUGINATIS --- Copper rusting, is the gilding of the
in the ferment; the red earth which is resolved and cooked, which is
AES HERMETIS --- is the same as Mercury. It is also Solar
the Head of the Raven, our copper, citrine earth, the thing containing
and the thing contained, our lead. Mirerius calls it Gold extracted out
of Metals; it is also termed Venus; Vitriol; Orpiment; Arsenic; Money;
the Soul; the Green Lion; Green Water, because it germinates; Permanent
Water; Wine; Blood. But it is truly and properly an imperfect body, not
yet prepared, and in its original state.
AES USTUM, or CREMTUM --- Burnt copper according to
(l. 5, c. 42) is obtained by arranging alternate layers of copper bars
with salt and sulphur, or alum, in an earthen vessel. The same author
other methods, and burnt copper is made in our own day out of copper,
and salt. Dioscorides praises the aes ustum of Memphis and Cyprus. It
astringent, desiccating, restrictive; it reduces, draws out, and
and it heals ulcers. It is serviceable in complaints of the eye; it is
a good emetic, when mixed with honey. It is cleansed like Cadmia, and
regarded as hot and dry in the fourth degree. The scum or excrement of
copper, prepared after the same manner, has the same virtues, in a
degree. Consult Dioscorides as above.
The other species of Copper Ore and Copper are as follows:
1. Pure native copper.
2. Native red copper, unalloyed with other metals, found, clean
solid, in its own mines, in the Duchy of Mansfield.
3. Mined copper, found in its own veins.
4. Pure copper mined from argentiferous veins at Scheberg.
5. Red Mansfield copper, which contains silver.
6. Red native copper of Suacensis in the Rhetian Alps, which
gold within it.
7. Copper of a chestnut brown colour, which adheres like a thin
to the hard stone. Solid copper.
8. Of the ordinary colour, in a violet fluor-spar.
9. Of the ordinary colour, intermixed with stony substance.
10. Of its own colour, cleaving to hard stone, which has the glow
11. Of its own colour, cleaving to a scissile stone. The German
speaks of a red copper mixed with sulphur on a slate bed; ruddy, solid
12. Thin shavings of copper, in a white flint.
13. Veinlets or fibres of copper in a bright, ruddy stone; a
of a copper ore in a hard stone.
14. A rich vein of copper; a speedy process for pure copper.
15. Rough, native, impure copper.
16. Pure solid copper of Moravia.
17. Natural yellow copper, gold-coloured copper, cleaving to
18. Blue copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
19. Copper, entirely blue.
20. Brownish or violet copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
21. White copper, similar to rude white silver, in a brittle
a rich white copper ore.
22. Black copper ore.
23. Copper ore so abundantly mixed with brittle stone that 100
contains 40 lbs. of copper.
24. A natural solid copper of several colours, distinguished into
of gold, purple, saffron, flaxen, green, and blue.
25. Friberg copper, allied to black lead, of so many excellent
that they shine as if they were transparent.
26. Copper native in white lead, having the brightness of polished
The German version reads, born in black lead, as crystallised tin-ore.
AETHNA --- This name is given to a subterranean, invisible,
sulphureous fire which burns stones into coals similar to asphalt; they
are full of resin and bitumen, and some nations use them instead of
or wood, especially spurious sophisticators of metals. Formerly, these
subterraneous fires were to be seen in several places, as, for example,
that called Aetna in Sicily, and another in the Neapolitan Kingdom not
far from Naples. In ancient times the men of those days, wonderstruck
to what could be the cause of these fires, and after great
being unable to assign it, became so desperate that one among the most
celebrated philosophers, physicists, and doctors, Empedocles, cast
headlong into the flames, choosing to be vanquished by shame rather
by ignorance. Again Caius Plinius delivered himself to suffocation from
the smoke of this fire. Oh insane talents of men, who, whilst they will
be ignorant of nothing, have attempted no labours, so that they can
nothing, and have nevertheless borne a shameful death, esteeming it
not to live than not to know that which at the same time they knew to
transitory! Housewives, when they have done cooking, shut up the fire
their grate, so that there may be no entrance of air, by which means
fire dies out, for it can live only in air. But if a draught be
before it is quite extinguished, the flame will revive. In the same way
we must regard volcanoes, whose fires originate in the earth's centre,
which holds them like a grate. They are the air-holes of the earth, by
which the central fires have their nourishment from the atmosphere, and
without which they would be extinguished like the fires in a grate. (An
invisible sulphureous fire in mountains, which turns stones into coal.)
Item. All fused ores are understood by the name Aethna.
AETHNICI --- are igneous spirits, or spirit-men, burning in
midst of flames. They appear in various modes and manners, like burning
fires, live circular coals, or fiery globes; they are also seen amidst
the sulphureous eruptions of volcanoes.
AETITES --- are Eagle-stones, so called on account of their
and their virtue, for without them can no eagle bring forth. For the
alleviates parturition. It is also called Lapis Erodialis and Lapis
It is a gem of several species. The first is the Pregnant-stone
by Dioscorides. When it is shaken another stone can be heard rattling
its stomach. It is of globular shape, is hollow, like the oak-apple,
bears another stone within it; this species is found in the vicinity of
the Saale and the Elbe, and especially in that district which we now
Steuermarch. Very great virtues are possessed by this species; in
it relieves the sense of heaviness experienced by women before
if the uterus be rubbed with it. The second species of Eagle-stone is
which is filled with earth, i.e., with white or saffron clay, and this
is the Geodes (full of earth, earthy), a precious stone mentioned by
Varieties of this sort, containing earth or clay, are found at Dresden
and in Saxony. I have myself seen a species, containing a saffron clay,
on the banks of the Elbe, and another, full of white clay, is met with
in the vicinity of the Saale. The third species is filled with water,
perspires in a warm place. It is called Enydros; hence those lines of
"The Enidros pours forth perpetual tears, Which spring like water
a fountain full ".
Pliny (1. 37, c. 11) and Solinus (c. 40) make special mention of
species. Says Pliny: The Enydros is always perfectly round; it is
and of little weight, but when moved water is seen to flow within it
the liquid in eggs. And Solinus: The Enydros exudes moisture, as if a
of water were contained within it. The fourth species of Eagle-stone is
full of sand and tiny pebbles. The fifth is full of chelonitis, the
of a white lime; this is the variety which I discovered by the Elbe; it
was of oblong shape, very hard, and honeycombed on its surface. I met
with another species separated from the matrix and of a peculiar shape
similar to the variety described by Pliny (1. 10, c. 3), called Gagates
by other writers, said to be found in the nests of eagles, especially
those of the bearded eagle, and termed the Pregnant-stone. When struck,
or shaken, another stone can be heard rattling within it. It is not
by fire, a quality it possesses in common with the true Gagates (this
a species of bitumen), whence the identity of name. Those Eagle-stones,
which are taken from the nests of eagles have the greatest medicinal
Pliny also pretends (11. 36, c. 27) to distinguish two kinds of
which are found in the nests of these birds, a male and female, which
both necessary to the hatching of their eggs. After the same manner,
eagle places an agate under its unfledged young to protect them from
reptiles. Pliny otherwise distinguishes four species of Eagle-stone.
1. The small soft African eagle-stone, containing soft white clay,
in a womb. It is easily crumbled to pieces, and has been regarded as
It is found at the present day full of yellow clay, and is the Geodis
2. A variety from Cyprus, similar to the African, but larger and
globular in shape, soft on its surface, easily crumbled, and containing
fine sand and pebbles. Varieties of this sort are also found pregnant
lime and conchylii.
3. Found near Leucadia, in the island of Taphus, whence it is
Taphinsius; it is met with in rivers, is white, and round in shape. In
its womb it contains the stone called Callimus, and it is exceedingly
4. A hard Eagle-stone like the oak-apple, found in Arabia, and
to be masculine; it contains a reddish stone, also hard, and is much
by Dioscorides. This also is familiar to us, and has been previously
All species of aetites assist parturition and prevent abortion, as
Pliny witnesses (1. 36, c. 21). They are to be distinguished from the
which is an herb of the clematis genus; from Echites, a stone spotted
a viper; and from Echitis, a variety of the last. Consult Pliny as
Solinus, c. 40, Serapion, Albertus, Rhasis, and others.
The eagle-stone is also classified as follows:
1. African male aetitis, very hard, black and red in colour,
a white crumbling earth.
2. Feminine, from Hildesheimer, mud-coloured, with yellow ochre
to it. This species contains a hard, mud-coloured earth.
3. Another kind, with a loose stone inside it, which sounds when
4. Hard, ruddy aetites, having an iron-grey stone.
5. Another, from Motteschanus, shaped like the human head, round,
very hard, having quadrangular, crystalline fluors like adamant.
6. A concave, iron-grey stone, found in iron ore, and containing
but air. The German Druse.
AFFARX, or AFFARIS --- is Atrament.
AFFRONITUM --- is Froth of Nitre, in Arabic Baurach; or it
that pseudo-Froth of Nitre which is called Glass-gall by the Germans;
it is the metallic salt called Cappadocius and Gemma.
AFFENICUM --- is Soul.
AFFEOS, or AFROS --- is Froth or Spume.
AFFORMAS --- is Glass.
AFRICUS --- Mid south-west.
AFFRODINA --- is Venus.
AFFROTON --- is frothy, spumous, etc.
AFFRENGI --- is Minium, Red Lead, Vermilion.
AFFIDRA, or ALLMAT --- is White Lead.
AFRAGAR --- is Verdigris.
AFROS --- is our Lead, the unclean body.
AGABAR --- is Prepared Calx.
AGAR, ALGIT, ALGERIT --- Names of Calx.
AHENUM --- is a metallic vase of copper, or iron, two feet
and of about the same width. On the top there is a cover which fits it
exactly, and is made in the following manner: A plate of copper is made
in exact correspondence with the capacity of the ahenum (for the sake
convenience some affirm that a wooden cover may be substituted), and of
circular shape, in the centre of which (when the ahenum is intended for
the reception of only one cuppingglass) a little door is cut, of the
size of the vase which is to be placed in the ahenum, and out of which
at the same time it can project a certain distance. On one or the other
side, and near the bottom of the ahenum, another door must be made,
which the heat can flow under, and more water be supplied to make up
evaporation. The use of this covered ahenum is manifold in the
of the baths.
AHIUS --- is Rock-Salt, or Muriate of Soda.
AHUSAL --- is Arsenical Sulphur. Also the Eagle.
AIARAZATH, or ALHENOT --- is Lead.
AKIBOT, ALCHIBIT, ALCHINIT --- are names of Sulphur.
AKON --- is a sharp-pointed stone. Hence aconite, an herb
grows on rocks, derives the name it bears. There is another
stone, with which knives and other instruments are sharpened, and it is
called Whetstone. Of this we have several species-black, white, yellow,
and one which is of a very deep black. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 93)
the uses of the Naxian Stone which is worn away by the sharpening of
thereon. The species under notice is also called Heraclean and Lydian
; it is the German Touch-stone, which is known to our goldsmiths and is
called Coticula by Pliny (1. 33, c. 8). That stone which is found in
and is now used by book-binders, is also a species of cos-stone. There
is, moreover, a variety which is of green colour, and is called
or Oil-stone, because instruments of various kinds are sharpened upon
after it has been lubricated with oil. There are additional species
the reader himself will be able to recall to his mind without further
--- Lydian Stone, Grind-stone, Clinthy Slate, etc.
ALABASTRITES --- Alabaster, from the town of that name in
Egypt, and also from Damascus of Syria. It is a species of marble, and
is familiar to the Venetians. There are three kinds; the first is white
and shining, and is that white alabaster of which in times gone by it
usual to make the images of saints and -the monuments of the departed.
The second species has black spots. The third is white and ruddy, and
hence called Onyx, ruddy Alabaster, because it has the tint of human
It is the species referred to by Dioscorides when he says: Alabaster,
called Onyx, when burnt with pitch or resin, removes indurations of the
body. For the various uses of the onyx, and concerning the vessels and
boxes for ointment which are made of it, consult Dioscorides (1. 2). At
the present time there are two species found in Germany, in Cheruscis,
not far from Northusia, and in Saxony, near Hildesheim. Pliny (1. 36,
7 and 8) says: Alabaster is used for vases containing unguents, and is
medicinally valuable in plasters to be placed over burns and scalds. He
also informs us that its native places are Thebes of Egypt and Damascus
of Syria. There is, however, a useless and inferior species which comes
from Cappadocia, a country of Asia between the Black Sea, or rather
and Cilicia. Consult also the same writer in the thirteenth chapter of
his thirteenth book of the History of the World.
ALABONI, or ALOANACH --- is Lead
ALAFOR, ALAFORT --- Salt of Alkali.
ALACHASCHE --- is a caltrop.
ALAFREG --- is a species of white lead.
ALAHABAR, ALABARI, ALCHONOR, ALLARINOCH, ALHOHONOCH, ALRACHAS,
ALOMBA, ALOOC, ALLABOR, ALCAMOR --- are all names of Lead. See
ALAHATIB --- is a ruddy stone.
ALAHIC --- according to some is an oven of the alchemists;
to others, it is Charcoal.
ALARTAR --- is burnt Copper Ore.
ALASALET --- is Ammoniac.
ALATAN --- is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead.
ALAURAT --- is Nitric Salt.
ALBANUM --- is Salt of Wine.
ALBANI --- is a stone of salt of milk.
ALBARAS --- is Arsenic.
ALBATIO --- Whiteness; white ashes left by calcination.
ALBERICK --- is White Copper or Metallic Ore.
ALBESTON --- is Quicklime.
ALBETAD --- is Galbanum, a disputed substance, supposed to
the resinous sap of an umbelliferous plant in Syria. It is referred to
by Pliny and Suetonius.
ALBI --- That is, Sublimated.
ALBIR --- is Pitch from the bark of the yew. I believe it
be a substance from which ink is made.
ALBOR --- is Urine.
ALBOT --- is Goldsmith's Brick.
ALBOTAT, ALFIDAS, and ASFIDE --- Names of White
ALBOTIM, or ALBOTAI --- is Terebinth, Turpentine.
other arbitrary names, such as, Albuhen, Altilibat, Albotra, Bora,
Helcabatan, Helkaboni, Helcalibat, Helcalidar, Kytram.
ALBUHAR --- White Lead.
ALBULA --- Pearl-white.
ALBUM --- is White Copper.
ALCADP --- is White Atrament; a contradictory designation
atramentum is essentially a black liquid.
ALCALI --- Symbolical principle of the Chemists. It is the
derived from the ashes of any substance without the limes of the
and it inheres in all substances whether aqueous or fiery. It may be
Salt of Ashes, or Salt of Limestone.
ALCAOL --- is Sour Milk, otherwise Mercury.
ALCAHEST --- is prepared Mercury; some will have that it is
; but the special meaning of any writer may be judged easily by the
of his preparation.
ALCAHESTI --- Mercury prepared as a medicine for the liver.
ALCANNA, or ALCONA --- according to Avicenna, are
slender plants, knotted like reeds, which are used as spears by the
Some also understand it to be the Guaiacum, or Tree of Life of America.
ALCEBRIS VIVUM, VIVIFIC ALCEBRIS --- is Sulphur. Called
Alneric, Anerit, Aneric.
ALCHEMY --- is the separation of the impure from the purer
ALCHITRAM, or ALCHIERAM --- is Oil of Juniper,
Pitch, Arsenic purified by
ALCHITRAN --- is also Oil of Juniper, but especially the
left after distillation.
ALCIMAD --- is Antimony ; called also Alcofol, Alfacio.
ALCOCL --- is Sour Milk.
ALCOHOL --- is a most subtle powder.
ALCOHOL --- is Stybium or Antimony.
ALCOHOL OF WINE --- (sometimes termed Distilled Wine) is
called when every superfluity of wine has been so purged away that the
whole is consumed and neither dregs nor moisture remain in the retort.
The most subtle powder that can be made. If alcohol of wine be added,
is rectified, distilled wine.
ALCOLISMUS --- is crushing or corrosion.
ALCOL --- is Vinegar.
ALCONE --- is Aurichalcum, i.e., Brass, Bronze.
ALCOOL --- has been most incongruously interpreted by some
to be a powder ground to extraordinary fineness by a brass or iron
but their error is made sufficiently plain by the fact that Paracelsus
speaks in many places of alcool of wine, which he uses for rectified
fortis, and this has nothing in common with a powder. The alcool of any
bodies whatever is therefore nothing else but the purer and cleaner
separated from the impure. As regards the Paracelsian Alcool of
it is nothing else, according to this author, than antimony not merely
ground with pestle and mortar, but exalted into its volatile condition
without change in the natural colour. And it is needful that this
be done by the exclusive conduct and guidance of fire and heat, in such
a manner that after it has been ground in the vulgar fashion, it shall
be disintegrated further by sublimations, which are the philosophical
and mortar. Paracelsus also teaches elsewhere that such sublimation is
to be performed without a caput mortuum, i.e., without leaving a
It is further certain that no refuse must be present before
This sublimation of stibium is wholly indispensable, or frustrated
and vain labour will be spent upon the flowers of antimony. Most of
who have attempted to analyze the preparation of Paracelsian substances
have failed over this arcanum. By vulgar trituration the substances
into white smoke, and it is easier to ascend into heaven than to
in this way the citrine or ruby flowers, as they have proved to their
cost. The operation is not vulgar and the philosophical artifice is
to few. But it is made known to the Sons of the Doctrine. The
is performed by a carefully tempered fire, so that the powder of
may be liquefied as little as possible, but at the same time may ascend
until the flower of the powder is seen sticking to the walls of the
ALCOR --- is Copper, burnt till it is fine as powder.
ALCORE --- is a kind of stone having spar like silver.
ALCUBD --- is Crude Butter. Called also Alumbair.
ALCUBRITH, ALCUR, and ALUZAR --- are all names for
ALEC --- is Vitriol.
ALECHARITH --- is Mercury.
ALECHIL --- is three-footed. Cf. Tripod.
ALECTORIA --- is a gem mentioned by Pliny (1. 37, c. 10),
is like crystal or clear water; and he shows that this crystalline
which is as large as a horse bean, is found in the gizzard of poultry,
or, as Albertus has it, of a castrated cock. It is found after the bird
has attained the age of four years. It renders the possessor rich and
warlike aspect. And they report that Milo of Crotona was made
by such an Alectoria. It conciliates girls and quenches thirst. See
ALEFANTES --- is Flower of Salt.
ALEMBACI --- is Burnt Lead.
ALEMBIC --- is Mercury.
ALEMBICUS --- or Capitellum (helmet) is a vessel set over
retort to receive and collect vapours.
The Alembic is of two kinds, beaked or curved, and without beak.
first transmits the resolved vapours by a channel or neck to the
vessel. The second, which is without a beak or conduit, is used in
and in some cases is pierced at the top for the passage of the rising
ALEMBROTH --- is Salt of Mercury, or Philosophical Salt,
of Art, and Key of Art.
ALEMBROTH DESSICATUM --- Dessicated Alembroth, is by some
Salt of Tartar, the Magistery of Magisteries.
ALES --- is compounded Salt, or manufactured Salt.
ALEXANTHI --- or Altingat, is Flower of Copper.
ALEXIR --- is a medicine alchemically prepared.
ALEZARAM --- is the washing of lead.
ALFACTA --- is Distillation.
ALFADIDAM --- is Dross of Gold.
ALFAMADI --- is ashen.
ALFATIDA --- is Burnt Copper, or Plates of
ALFATIDE --- is Sal Ammoniac. Among its other Hermetic
are Salmiax, Alacap, Alorap, Alfol, Alisteles, Alcob, Azonec, Anoxadic,
Aquila, Butrum, Alizeles.
ALFASIT, or ALVASIT --- is Brick, burnt Clay ; also
ALFUSA --- is impure Protoxide of Zinc.
ALGA --- is a reed, according to the German context, but it
ALGALI --- is Nitre, or Saltpetre.
ALGEMET --- Coals.
ALGERIAE, ALGERIE --- is Lime.
ALIGULUS --- is Confection, Composition.
ALIM --- is a sand found in auriferous metals, out of which
ALINZADIR --- is cold and dry earth. It is called in Arabic
Arles calls it Salmiac.
ALIOCAB --- is Sal Ammoniac.
ALKAES, or ALCHOCHOS --- is fine powder.
ALKALIA --- is the vase or vessel.
ALKALE --- is Oil of a Hen.
ALKALID, ALKES, ALCOB --- are Burnt Copper.
ALKALI --- is Vitriol from the mines, or fluid Vitriol,
in aludal. With others Alkali is a pebble of salt, derived from pounded
limestones, extracted by moisture and coagulated by the dissipation of
moisture. Above all alkali signifies the elaboration of the essential
of the said stone, freed from what is impure and separated from its
The term is also ascribed to calcined and diffused substances when they
are reduced to a solid consistency, as when common salt is dissolved by
moisture and again coagulated. Also when pearls are calcined entire,
dissolved, and again coagulated, they are in themselves magisteria, and
are called alkali symbolically.
ALKAMIS --- Name of the philosopher.
ALKANTUM --- Sometimes Burnt Copper, sometimes an aromatic
ALKANT --- is Mercury, or a species of inky matter.
ALKARA --- is a gourd. In medicine it is a cupping-glass,
in alchemy a Cucurbite.
ALKARANUM --- is green Duenech, or Antimony.
ALKASA or ALKAZOAL --- is goldsmith's brick.
ALKASIAL --- is Antimony.
ALKIBRIC, ALKIBERT, ALGIBIC, ALKIBIC, ALCHABRIC --- are
of Living Sulphur.
ALKIN --- is Woad Ashes, or woad-colour Ashes.
ALKIR --- is Smoke or Coals.
ALKITRAM --- is Liquid Pitch.
ALKO --- is Tartar. Theophrastus says that it is the purer
of a thing separated from the impure. Thus Alcool of Wine is aqua
rectified and cleansed, the best and purest, the most subtle and
ALKOEL --- is the finest Lead of the mines; Lapis Lazuli;
ALKOSOR --- is Camphor.
ALKY OF LEAD --- is the soft substance of lead.
ALKYMIA --- is the powder of the basilisk.
ALLABROT --- is a certain species of manufactured salt.
ALMA --- is Water.
ALMABRI --- is a stone like amber.
ALMAGER --- is Synopide, like red grains (cf. Synephites).
ALMAGRA --- is a copper bolus, or laton, which see. A red
or clay, used as a lubricant by wheelwrights. Also a lotion.
ALMAKIST, ALMAKANDA --- That is Litharge.
ALMARCAB, or ALMARCHAZ --- is Litharge.
ALMARCAT --- is Dross of Gold and Cathmia of Gold, which
ALMARCAZIDA --- is Litharge of Silver, or Argyritis.
ALMARCHAT and ALMARETH --- signify Silver Litharge.
ALMARGEN, ARMALGOL, ALMARAGO --- Names of Coral.
ALMARTACK --- is Ash of Litharge.
ALMATATICA --- is a Mine of Copper.
ALMATKASITA --- is Mercury, the Mineral Stone.
ALMECHASIDE --- is Copper.
ALMENE --- is Solis Gemmae ( Solis Gemmae is a kind of
precious stone, mentioned by Pliny. But the German version seems to
to Sal Gemma, which see.).
ALMETAT --- s Dross of Gold, or Refuse of Gold.
ALMISADIR --- is prepared Sal Ammoniac; called also Asanon,
Almisadu, Amizadir; it is the German Salmiak.
ALMIZADIR --- is Verdigris.
ALNEC, ALLENEC, ALKALAP, ALETH, ALMIBA, ASEREBRAN, ASEBUM
are names of Tin.
ALOE, EPATICUM ALOE --- A medicine for the liver.
ALOFEL --- is the cloth which covers the Vase.
ALOHAR, ALOHOC, ALOSOHOC, ALOSOT --- are names of
ALOS, ALO, ALIX, ALMELE, ALEC, ALKALAT, ALKALAC --- are
ALOSANTHI --- Flower of Salt, in use among dyers.
ALRAMUDI --- Ashen.
ALSECH --- is a species of Alum.
ALSELAT --- is burnt Copper, or Calcecumenon, which is
ALTAMBUS --- is the Red Stone, to wit, blood from men's
ALTANUS --- is the South-west or South.
ALTARIS, ANTARIT, and ALOZET --- are names of
ALTHANACHA --- is Orpiment. Called also Alernet and
ALTIMAR, or AYCAPHER --- Burnt Copper.
ALTIMIO --- is Dross of Lead.
ALTINURAUM --- is Vitriol.
ALTINGAT --- is Flower of Copper.
ALUDEL, or ALUTEL --- is a glass vessel used in
ALUDIT, ANTARIC, AZOMSES, AZON --- Names of Mercury.
ALUSIR --- is redness.
ALUECH --- is the pure body of Jove. Called also Aluach.
ALUEUS --- is boatlike, otherwise a vessel shaped like a
Alueus minor is a vessel of like shape but smaller size.
ALUIS, or ALAFOR --- Called also Vabs, is Salt of
ALUMBOTI --- is burnt lead.
ALUMEN --- is known to all, and signifies Mercury, because
dissolves. It is the best of all crystals. Its species are various, of
which some are called technically Jamenum, Roccum, Scissum, Rotundum,
Debelgamo, Genoese Nitre, Alum from the mines, Fusible Alum, Scaly
Liquid Alum, Preserved Alum, Common Alum, Alum Placodes, Burnt Alum,
Alum, Rock-Alum, and Native Alum.
Albertus distinguishes four broad species-Simple, or Common Alum;
White, and one which he describes fully in his book on Minerals. But
follow the several species of Alum.
1. Alum of the mines.
2. Liquid, clay-like, pale yellow Alum, from the Island of Elba in
Mediterranean. When handled it becomes so soft that it almost flows.
3. Natural liquid yellow Alum like a soft butter; it is found in
lead mines near Naples.
4. Grey liquid Alum from the same place.
5. White scaly Neapolitan Alum.
6. Very white scissile Neapolitan Alum.
7. Yellow Neapolitan Alum.
8. Scissile Alum, mixed with black dye, and redolent of sulphur
burnt. This also is from Naples.
9. Fibrous Neapolitan Alum.
10. Globular Neapolitan Alum.
11. A Neapolitan variety, found in layers, having wide crusts.
12. Manufactured saccharine Alum.
13. Square-shaped Alum of a violet colour.
14. Bright reddish Neapolitan Alum.
15. Manufactured Alum, having the appearance of fluorspar. It is
by placing any igneous crux (untranslatable in this connection) into
vessels, to which it adheres as if consubstantial with them, and
in four-sided figures.
16. Pure bright digested Alum, found in Thuringia at Lobestein.
17. Venetian Alum which shows reddish in grinding, but is
18. Common Alum.
19. Burnt Alum.
20. Bright melted Alum of Dibanus, from which a sort of inky
21. A variety of the above, combined with Atrament, and found in a
22. Alum combined with Atrament excocted from Lye.
23. Pure white cocted Alum from Dibanus; this is pellucid and free
24. Bohemian Alum.
25. Alum of Misnense, mined in Burgos and Heringisdorf.
26. Alum of Tolpha, first mined in Italy during the pontificate of
27. Veins of Alum mixed with Persulphate of Iron (misy).
28. An exceedingly white earth, out of which Neapolitan Alum is
29. Rocca stone, from which Alum is derived.
30. Earth in the black ash of Dibanus, from which Alum is
31. A vein of globular Alum found on the top of the mountains near
32. A black Lobestenian vein, wherein there is a white natural
ALUMEN --- A name of Antimony.
ALUMEN ALAP --- Possibly Clay-like Alum.
ALUMEN ALAFRAN --- Final State.
ALUMEN ALAFURI, or ALAFOR --- Native Soda.
ALUMEN ALBEDANE --- Zacharine Alum.
ALUMEN ALBUM --- i.e., Learto (unexplained).
ALUMEN ALKORI, and ALUMEN ALKALI --- Saltpetre.
ALUMEN ALEXANDRINUM --- Soda, or Natron.
ALUMEN BULGANUM --- The German Eyestone, a species of
It is red and transparent as mastic.
ALUMEN CALCILIEN --- Arabian Azub, or Alum.
ALUMEN CREPUM --- is tartar obtained from good wine.
ALUMEN DE ALEP --- is Greek or Macedonian Salt.
ALUMEN DE BABYLONIA --- is Zacharine Alum, and the same as
ALUMEN DE CRYSTALLO --- is Alumen roce, which is
ALUMEN DE PLUMA, or ALUMEN SCARIOLA --- is Gipsum
ALUMEN FASCIOLI --- is Alkali, and is identical with Cabia.
ALUMEN GLACIOSERO --- is fixed, saline alum.
ALUMEN IONID --- is Limpart.
ALUMEN LAMENUM --- is laminated Alum.
ALUMEN LIQUIDUM --- is Amonum, an aromatic Balsum,
ALUMEN LOSE --- is scaly Alum.
ALUMEN MARINUM --- is a humid spirit.
ALUMEN ODIG --- is Salmiac.
ALUMEN PHILOSOPHORUM --- is Lime of Egg Shells.
ALUMEN ROSA, ROSE ALUM --- That is, Burnt Alum, Baked Alum,
Alum consumed by fire.
ALUMEN ROTUNDUM --- which is laminated Alum, is also called
ALUMEN SCARIOLE --- is Gipsum.
ALUMEN SCAROLUM --- is split Alum.
ALUMEN SCISSUM --- is laminated alum.
ALUMEN SYRACH, ALUMEN SYSARACH, ALUMEN ALKOKAR, ALUMEN ALURINT,
LANIOSUM --- are all names of Alumen combustum, which is Alum after
it has been treated with fire.
ALUNIBUR --- is Luna --- Silver.
ALUNSEL --- is a drop.
ALUSAR --- is Manna.
ALUSEN --- is sulphurated.
ALZEGI --- is Atrament.
ALZEMAFOR --- is Cinnabar.
ALZILAT --- is a weight of three grains.
ALZIMAX --- is green.
ALZOFAR --- is burnt Copper.
AMALGAMA --- is a composition of Gold or Silver and Quick
AMALGAMATION --- is a calcination of the familiar metals by
of artificial Quicksilver. At the same time, the operation of calcining
is not carried out invariably to its utmost limit, and it is enough for
the metal to be sufficiently melted to assume the consistency of the
or amalgam of the goldsmiths. The disintegration into a most fine
which takes place under this process is also called a calcining.
amalgamation is calcination of a metal by Quicksilver; and it is
when a metal, after being reduced into fine filing, thin plates, or
is blended and mixed with six, nine, or twelve parts of Quicksilver, so
that it becomes a homogeneous mass; and in this way also is the metal
and disintegrated. For the metal is reduced into the condition of a
ash by evaporation with Quicksilver over a gentle fire.
AMANDINUS --- is a stone of various colours. It destroys
binds all venomous animals, and is in no way contemptible; for which
AMASSA --- means confect, got together; hence, to amass.
AMBRA --- is Spermaceti.
AMENE --- is Common Salt, called Apostolus.
AMENTUM --- is Powdered Alum.
AMETHYST --- is a gem of violet colour, which Pliny says
37, c. 9) approaches the hue of wine, yet, before it thoroughly taste
it turns into a March violet colour, and its purple lustre is not fiery
altogether, but declines in the end to the colour of wine. India is the
native place of the amethyst, as Pliny also testifies. Thence the
are brought; their colour is an absolute purple, and indeed the dyers
give anything to reproduce it. There is, however, another species which
approaches hyacinth, which colour the Indians term Sacon, and the gem
they call Socondion. There is a third species which is paler, and is
Sapenos and Paranites. A fourth species is wine-colour; a fifth
crystal, having a whitish purple tinge; and by some this species is
Anterotis, by others Pcederotos, and by yet others the jewel of Venus.
Amethysts are also found in Arabia Petrea, Armenia, Egypt, Galatia,
and Cyprus. But these are of a miserable and worthless quality. The
of the Magi declares amethysts to have power over drunkenness and evil
thoughts, to protect against poisons, to hive access to the persons of
kings, and to avert hail. Upon the colours of the amethyst, consult
(1. 20, c. 8, and 1. 9, c. 38). Inferior amethysts are found in many
of Bohemia, and in its mines are fluorspars similar to these. The
varieties are inferior to Oriental:
1. Amethysts of Misnia, from the mines of Bergenbricht.
2. Amethysts from the waters of Misnia, and from the river Trebisa
3. Amethysts found in the Bohemian mountains.
4. Amethysts which have the appearance of crystal.
5. Amethysts having crystalline lines.
6. Quadrangular and sexangular amethysts, brown and pointed.
AMIANTHUS, or AMIANTUS --- On the testimony of
is a stone of Cyprus, not unlike certain species of alum. It is
to fire, from which it issues more brilliant. It is fabled by the
to be produced from the hairs of a Salamander, which is accounted for
its fireproof nature. It is a kind of stone which may be split into
and spun. It is without doubt a scaled or feathered Alum, which can
for ever (i.e. to say, it is Asbestos). In other respects, the Amianth
is not of great virtue; however, it absorbs moisture. Pliny (l. 36, c.
19) says that it is similar to alum, losing nothing in the fire, and
defying all the witchcraft of sorcerers. If we consider well, we
ourselves are possessed of a species of Amianth, which is found in our
mines, and which we call Micah. It is of a silver colour. It is called
Cat's Silver, by similitude, because cats' eyes shine like the Amianth
at night, or because it is useless and thought only fit for burning.
if we consider deeply, it cannot be burned like the true Amianth; but
rather purged, and assumes another colour; a thing of no moment. What
more important to know is the power which resides in a certain stone
Asbestos, which is found in the mountains of Arcadia, as Pliny assures
us (1. 37, c. 10). It is of an iron colour, and Albertus tells us that
it exists also in Arabia. When this stone is set on fire there is
anything that will extinguish it. Its nature is humid and unctuous.
is also the vitreous, ruddy-veined Absinth or Wormwood Stone, which
burn for days at a time, and is said to make blood, or to cause blood
flow, and is the opposite to Hematite, which congeals or checks blood.
Pliny (1. 37, c. 16) calls this stone Apiston. There is again the stone
called Iscultos by Albertus, and you shall judge by his own words
it is the same as the Amianth, or a stone of other species. It is
to the flower Saffron, he tells us; it is found in the farthest parts
Spain and in the vicinity of Cadiz; it is of a crumbling nature, on
of its dried up viscousness. If garments be spun from it they may be
and made white by fire without burning. It is this perchance which is
the Salamander's hell, a wool, spun, as it were, from a humid stone.
AMIDUM, or AMYLUM --- is a most white meal.
AMMONIS --- A precious stone of an ashen colour,
a ram's head. It was held sacred in Ethiopia. Otherwise, a horn-shaped
stone, without polish, about eight fingers wide, and over two pounds in
weight. There is a variety from Hildesheimer, also without polish.
is a third or polished form which has an iron-coloured surface. A
is overlaid with aurichalcum, a metallic substance resembling gold, and
usually regarded as mythical. There are also the following varieties:
1. Ammonites minor, like ova of fish, the lesser Rainstone.
2. Ammonites major, or greater Rainstone.
3. Lepidotus, or multi-coloured, like the scales of fish.
4. Strombites longus, the Snailstone, like the marine snail
it tapers off even as, for example, the whorl of a univalve, in a high
and elevated spire.
5. Strombites brevis, a smaller variety of the same.
6. Ctenites parvus, Musselstone, ashen-coloured, striated,
7. A shining sandy stone, in which Musselstones are imbedded.
8. A hard ashen stone, found in Lusatia, and containing
9. A polished ashen stone, overlaid with gold colour, and in which
stone like the Chama is found.
10. Onychites, having the appearance of talons.
11. Ostreites, oyster-shaped Ammonites.
12. Ostreites, another species, consisting of six of the above
13. Tellinites, precisely similar to the molluscs, called Tellina,
with a gold-coloured covering.
14. Chemites, ashen, similar to Chama. See above, species 9.
15. Conchites, similar to a bivalve shell, with a gold-coloured
Another variety of the Snailstone.
AMNIS ALCALISATUS --- is water filtered through limestones.
are waters filtered through the stones of the earth.
AMONGABRIEL --- is Zynobrium.
AMPULLA VITREA --- is a retort. There is another Ampulla
which is a vessel of glass.
AMYGDALAE (Almonds) --- Signifies among surgeons a certain
excrescence which forms at the root of the tongue. The German version
AN --- Father, Sulphur.
ANATON, AMATRON --- Native Soda.
ANATRON --- Refuse of Vitrum (glass).
ANATRON --- i.e., Baurac, which see.
ANATRON --- i.e., Sagimen (salt) of Vitrum (glass), or Salt
ANATRON --- Froth of Vitreum, Gall of Vitreum. The German
terms it Sandiber, Gall of Glass.
ANATRIS, or ANTARIS --- is Mercury.
ANATOMIA ESSATA --- is the parent of diseases.
ANATRUM --- is Vitreum melted into various colours. Called
Smaltum or Saracenic earth. The species are numerous-black, red, blue.
It is also a substance which grows in stones, and is itself of a white
and stone-like character; by some it is called Native Soda. The
erroneously called it Gall of Vitreum, whereas it is Gall of Stone.
ANCORA --- is calx.
ANCOSA --- is lacka.
ANDARAC --- is red orpiment.
ANDENA --- is Chalybs, i.e., Steel, brought from Oriental
It melts in flame, in the same way as other metals, and can be poured
ANFAXA --- is a congealed substance.
ANHELITUS --- is smoke, otherwise horse-dung.
ANIADA --- are the fruits and powers of Paradise and of
they are also the Christian Sacraments. In things physical they signify
the astral potencies, and the celestial potencies, and they are those
which, by thought, judgment, and imagination, promote longevity in us.
But these things are the gift of God, and make for life eternal.
ANIADUS --- is the efficacy or virtue of things.
ANIADUM --- is the archnatural body which in us Christians
implanted by the Holy
Ghost working through the most holy Sacraments. Or it is the spiritual
man reborn in us.
ANIMA --- As the philosophers conceive three principles,
Sulphur, and Mercury, so also they conceive three other divisions-Soul,
Spirit, and Body, not that the Soul and the Spirit are to be
as cattle from men, but by way of similitude. The Soul is nothing else
but a living, formed Body, that is turned into Mercury, and when this
done to the dead Body and Spirit, then the whole is made living Elixir.
Therefore, do not make a mistake, when the philosophers speak of one
instead of two Souls, for it is all one thing. The Mercury has in
the Soul, and is called our Mercury, which is the house and dwelling of
the Soul. Also the Soul is called Spirit, and the Spirit is called
The Spirit produces the Soul from the Body, and returns it when it is
Therefore, it is called the Life of the Soul --- Vita Anima. Should the
Spirit depart from the Soul it could not give the life. The Soul unites
and conjoins the married, Body and Spirit; so the Spirit unites the
with the Body, so that it is all one thing. There are two Souls --- one
of gold, the other of silver. The Soul of the gold must remain, and
do so without the Spirit, nor yet the Spirit remain without the Soul.
must be fixed, abiding, undying Souls. At first the Soul lies hidden
the Spirit; finally, the Soul and Spirit remain hidden under the Body.
Then dost thou first behold pure Mercury. Through the crude Spirit is
mature Mercury taken away from the released Body, which is a fixed ash
remaining behind to be dissolved further. Out of this is extracted a
incombustible Olitet or Gum, which vivifies, unites, and welds the
together, and as they separated the natures through the Spirit,
through the Soul they unite them again. This Olitet preserves the
of the Spirit even to thickening. Then is it fit for the production of
royal weapons and metallic figures. It manifests itself as golden in
and as argentine in silver. The Soul's ascent is when the Body becomes
white, clear, and fluid. Immediately they are one and living. Then is
danger. If the Soul escapes or burns it is lost. So is the Soul quickly
given to the Body and takes shape. The Soul proceeds out of the unified
Body; she is herself the living body, and is called REBIS, Putrid
Corruption of the Dead, Blood and Blood Water, Lymph, the Animal Stone,
Blessed, Blood, Sulphur, Olitet. The Soul is a simple thing, which
has power to bring the Body with it.*
[* It is the tincture withdrawn from the body. Soul also is said
be in Arsenic.]
ANIMA SATURNI, or ALTHEA --- (Literally,
of Saturn, is a most mellifluous sweetness which is extracted from Lead
by vinegar. (A right noble sweetness, according to the German.)
ANNORA --- is Calx of Eggs, or living Calx, or Quicklime.
ANNUS PHILOSOPHICUS --- The philosophical year, is the
ANODUS --- is the nutriment which is separated in the
ANONTAGIUS --- is the Philosophical Stone, the gift of God,
fixed by Nature.
ANORA --- is Quicklime.
ANOTASIER, ALIOCAB, ALEMZADAT --- are names of Sal
ANSIR --- Son, Mercury.
ANSIRARTO --- Spirit, Salt.
ANTAL --- is a pure lotion.
ANTERIT --- is Mercury.
ANTHERA --- is extract of the medicinal properties of the
It is also the yellow centre which is found in such flowers as the
ANTHONOR, ATHONOR --- That is, Oven.
ANTHOUS --- is properly ROSEMARY, but in the terminology of
it signifies Quintessence, or Elixir of Gold. It means further the
ANTICAR --- is Borax.
ANTIFIDES --- is Calx of Metals.
ANTIMONIUM, or ALKOFOL --- A stone from a lead
vein of Othi. It is also Marchasite, a kind of Saturn, a kind of
(unknown), and Stybium. It is a muddy Marchasite, having a fixed
and is insoluble. It is of two kinds. One is the ordinary black species
of Saturn, and is called Magnesia, Bismuth, Contersin. It is of the
of Jupiter, an immature, ill-favoured product. It is Dross of Lead and
has the virtues of burnt Lead, being of similar substance. It is cold,
dry, and astringent.
ANUCAR, ANCINAR --- is Borax.
ANYADEI --- Eternal Spring, the new world, the Paradise to
APENSALUS --- A utensil with a narrow mouth, used in
APHEBRIOCK --- is Sulphur.
APHRODISIA --- is the venereal state.
APHRONITRUM --- Froth of Saltpetre, Wall-salt. As salt and
of salt have great affinity for each other, so also have Nitre and
of Nitre in like manner. For the rest, Aphronitum, Froth of Nitre,
of Stone, or Wallflower (like froth of salt) is excessively light,
crumbling, frothy, pungent, and that which approaches a purple colour
the best kind. We term Froth of Nitre both Aphronitum and Frothy
which grows on walls and stones; in many places it is known by the
name of Mergell. Froth of Nitre varies in its species according to the
stones and walls where it grows. Its virtue is similar to burnt salt.
of Nitre, Flower of Stone, and Flower of Stone of Asia are very nearly
the same, differing slightly in substance. If it melts in fire, it is
of Stone of Asia; if not, it is our own Froth of Nitre.
At Iena, in Thuringia, which is rich in simples, a very beautiful
of Aphronitum is found, which corresponds in the main to the Flower of
Stone of Asia, described by Dioscorides.
AQUA--- i.e., Liquid; the elemental matter from which water
always be obtained. It is not water from the clouds, but a dry mineral
first substance, a catholic water, which dissolves all metals, and can
be reduced to water even as ice is reduced. It is almost like a
gum, according to R. W. This water cleans, washes and expands, it
substances spongy and liquid, and afterwards dries and fixes them,
them white and red. Therefore Gebir says: Burn it in water and wash it
in fire. The end of the Epistle to Thomas of Bonona describes this
As ordinary water in which vegetables are boiled partakes of their
and virtue, so also is it with the mercury which is boiled with metals.
Out of this water all things grow and have their nourishment. It unites
itself with metals, which can be performed by no common water without
The fruit shall not be disturbed for the intercourse of the
and the bride, but no ordinary water shall be extracted from the
for if the mercury be changed from its first nature, it is useless for
this purpose, because it has lost its spermatic and metallic character.
Therefore our water is not clear and translucid, but dark, for the
earth is beneath it.
There are two kinds of water; the first dissolves and makes its
spongy ; the other completes the operation. This is truly fire, and
stronger than fire, for it is a universal solvent. One is simple,
evil, the other is composite; both are philosophical. The Water is
the Earth is Eve, and these two are one flesh. They are also called
Urine, Salt Water, Vinegar, Sour Wine, Living Calx, Water, Sea Water,
Water, Yeast, Alum, Nitric Water, Dog Bane, Dragon's Tail, Soul, Wind,
Air, Life, the Illuminating Gift, Broad Daylight, Virginal Milk,
Salt, Saltpetre, White Smoke, Red Sulphuric Water, Gummy Water, the
Tartar, Saffron Water, Burnt Ore, White Composition, Putrid Water,
of Dead Bodies, Blood, Mercury, Cucurbit, Alembic, Vase of the
of which the upper part is called the Grand Man, or Head-piece, the
is called Belly, the end is called Foot. When the vessel is put in the
oven, a vapour rises into the funnel, and passes as water into the
immediately producing a soul. The water dissolves the rest and absorbs
it upward. This takes place in a philosophical month of 40 days. It is
called the Flying Dragon, heavenly natured, dividing the elements of
and again uniting them. At last it turns thick like honey, and of green
colour. It is called the Green Bird.
AQUA ALMA --- is Water produced from Wine by sublimation.
AQUA ALREGI --- is Lime Water.
AQUA COELESTIS --- Celestial Water, is rectified or
Wine, partaking, in a certain way, of the nature and likeness of
passing through many revolutions. It is the German Himinels Wasser.
AQUA CCELESTINA --- is Mercurial Water.
AQUA CEREBRI --- is Tartaric Water.
AQUA CORRODENS --- is Vinegar, or any corrosive liquid.
AQUA ELSABON --- is Water of Common Salt.
AQUA FIECUM VINI --- Water of Wine Lees (in German
Wasser) is made when the lees, having been evaporated, whitened, and
are dissolved with water in a marble basin, after the manner of oil of
AQUA FOETIDA --- is Mercurial Water.
AQUA FORTIS --- is composed of corrosives combined in a
proportion (that is to say, it is impure Nitric Acid), and distilled by
a fierce fire; it has a most piercing corrosive power. The strongest is
called Stygian, which rules Sal Ammoniac with the rest, as therein gold
is dissolved. The other species have various qualities. Aqua Fortis,
by careful mixture, to be suitable for certain purposes, is called
which is applied to the graduation of dyes. And they (the other kinds)
become like Aqua Fortis of the same material, but this is done by the
of colouring matter like cinnabar and alum. In which (operations) it
be noted that it dyes nothing unless there be cohibition over the feces
at least eight or ten times, since otherwise they will not be fixed.
AQUA HOLSOBON --- is common Salt Water.
AQUA LILII --- is Orpiment.
AQUA LUBRICATA --- or Mucilage, is Water combined with
julep, and similar substances, such as claret and spirituous liquors.
AQUA MARINA --- is sea water.
AQUA MERCURII --- Mercurial Water. Essential Water of the
AQUA NITRI --- is Salt of Alkali, or Aqua Fortis.
AQUA PERMANENS --- Enduring Water, is that which is made by
philosophical solution out of two perfect metallic bodies. It is Sol
Luna dissolved in water, and likewise united. It is also called
Water, and Mercury of the Philosophers. It is Incombustible Gum, the
best Vinegar; a sharp, penetrating Water, which dissolves bodies; and
Spiritual Virtue. Called Mercury because it has sharp and clear
power and property. Also Male, or Husband, and White Smoke, because it
rises and goes up. Also Dragon's Tail, and Flying Bird.
AQUA PHILOSOPHICA --- Philosophical Water, signifies, with
writers, Sublimed Vinegar; with others, Circulated Wine; with yet
Perennial Water, which does not wet the hands.
AQUA PALIESTINA --- Palestine Water, is Flower of Copper,
AQUA PLUVIALIS --- is Rain-water, Soft-water.
AQUA RUBICUNDA --- Ruddy Water; Aqua Megi and Aqua Segi are
AQUA SALMATINA --- is Water made from Salt.
AQUA SATURNIA --- is Water generated from the first
in the bowels of the earth, and resolved into small diaphanous stones.
Radicated Vinegar Water. Chalybeate. Aqua Saturnia is also that which
the nature of the three first principles through which it passes, such
as thermal springs said to be naturally medicated.
AQUA STILLATITIA --- Dropping Water, is a specific extract
aqueous consistence produced in the condensation of vapours after
It is of two kinds, solvent and simple distilled water. Simple
waters are specific material arcana, distilled from substances in such
a manner that, while retaining the arcane virtue, they are nevertheless
softer and weaker than are solvent waters, and approach nearer to a
element; more correctly, simple distilled waters, which are softer, and
more diluted in strength and consistence, are produced by a more simple
distilling. For the phlegmatic element is cruder, and differs little
common water in appearance. Simple distilled water has a more aqueous
less igneous character than solvent water, but is more igneous and less
crude than phlegm. And although all the water is used up in
yet it is first named from its office, and in the end more properly
the name of a solvent. It differs from simple distilled water by its
and ardent sharpness, and laborious distillation, so that it has a
of aqueous element, but is more like a flowing fire, or a fiery water.
By Gebir it is termed Aqua Acuta; by others, the Key of Philosophers.
obtains in certain cases the whole strength of this water. Other
have the same office, as lye, stalactite, and honey, also undefiled
substances, like sour wine. It is the vulgar custom to distinguish
simple distilled water and corrosive water. True solvent water is the
as aqua fortis. (Solvent water is distilled vinegar; also called sea
because in distillation there is more fluid than residue; and again
water, because of the brightness of rain-drops.
AQUA VALENS --- is Aqua Fortis.
AQUA VITRI --- is glass dissolved with water.
AQUA VITAE --- is Mercury, but the term is sometimes used
distilled Wine, and for various Waters mixed with distilled Wine.
AQUARIUS --- is iron colour.
AQUASTOR --- is a simulaerum, which stands for a thing, but
not the thing itself.
AQUILA --- The Eagle, queen of birds, signifies Sal
because of its lightness in sublimations. In many places Paracelsus,
uses it for Precipitated Mercury.
AQUILA --- is Birdlime, which appears reddish in the first
It is also the Spirit that is changed into Earth, i.e., the Spirit of
the stone itself. The Turba says: The perfection of every single thing
is in its own order. Therefore the adept fixes ten Eagles, etc. It is
said to be Sal Ammoniac and Fixed Sulphur.
AQUILA --- is Arsenic, or Sulphur.
AQUILA --- is Aurum Guttendo (probably gold liquefied),
Fidelo, Edel, Sedalo, arbitrary terms not explained by Rulandus.
AQUILA PHILOSOPHORUM --- The Eagle of Philosophers is the
of Metals, i.e., a metallic nature reduced into its first matter.
AQUILLO --- Wild Marjoram.
ARAGON --- is Laton, i.e., Aurichalcum.
ARBOR MARIS --- is a metalline substance which grows in the
That is, it is a coral, and its other names are Corallia, Curallion,
Dendrites, and Lithodendron.
ARBORES --- Same as Morphea (? Morphew); a scurfy eruption
the skin, at first without ulceration, which, however, follows in time.
ARCANUM --- is a secret, incorporeal, and immortal thing,
no man can know save by experience. It is the interior virtue of any
which can achieve a thousand more wonders than the thing itself. The
principle, undying essence.
ARCANUM MATERIALS --- or Physical Secret, is a specific
akin to the matter of a body. But when the matter of fixed bodies is
of a duplex element, namely, humid and dry (note that air and fire are
more properly formatives, and possess an efficient faculty), then does
the Arcanum imitate a like condition: distilled water and coagulate
ARCANUM SPECIFICUM --- is an extract of the interior
related so intimately to the substance of any species that the same may
be known therein. It must be educed with care lest the gross substance
perish. For this reason is it called specific. And it differs from
which, by reason of its extreme subtlety and excellence, seems almost
have deserted its species, and gone over to the class of ethereal
But the Specific Arcanum exhibits the substance, shape, and specific
of composites as an extract more akin to the interior body. The
Arcanum is duplex. One is of the essential and substantial form, and is
called Astral, the other is Material.
ARCHATES --- as it were, the pillars of the earth, the
foundation of the earth, which does not appear to be supported by its
but by a great and secret power of God. Called also Archallem. The
which upholds the earth by itself, for the other elements do not hold
ARCHAEUS --- is the divider of the elements; he disposes
and relegates everything to its place, genus, and species.
ARCHEUS --- is a most high, exalted, and invisible spirit,
is separated from bodies, is exalted, and ascends; it is the occult
of Nature, universal in all things, the artificer, the healer. Also
--- supreme physician of Nature, who to every substance and member
in an occult manner, by means of the air, its own individual Archeus.
the primal Archeus in Nature is a most secret virtue producing all
out of Master, doubtless certainly supported by divine virtue. Or,
is an errant, invisible species, the power and virtue of Nature's
the artist and healer of Nature, separating itself from bodies, and
from them. Archeus signifies, in addition, the power which educes the
Substance from Iliaster, and is the dispenser and composer of all
It individualizes in all things, including human nature.
ARCOS, AYCOPHES, AZAPHORA --- are names for Burnt Copper.
ARCUS --- is a small bow.
ARDENTIA --- Ardent or fiery matters, which are not
in food and drink and are by their nature obnoxious to operations, as,
for example, Carabe, Therebinth, Bitumen, and similar substances. That
which naturally burns, or gives forth fire.
AREA --- Any flat or open surface, as, for example, a
In metals, a mass excavated from a mine. Tow.
AREAE --- Clear spaces.
AREA CAPITIS ADVERSI TODINARUM --- Shaft of a Mine. Mine
ore has been found.
AREA ROTUNDA --- A sandy circle.
ARE MAROS --- Cinnabar.
ARENA --- Sand is the clear body of the stone.
The Species of Sand are as follow:
1. Common sand.
2. A beautiful white sand dug up in deep gulleys to the west of
3. Pestgrana, also from Misena.
4. Thirsty or absorbing sand, which is washed and sifted, and has
character of German blotting-paper.
5. Table sand, or Block sand. Sand which has not been washed.
6. Sand found at Groede, in the Netherlands.
7. Sand from the pits of Misena.
8. River sand, which is mixed with lime, and is made use of in
9. Metallic sand from gold mines, in which particles and grains of
10. Metallic, out of which gold is washed in the Elbe.
11. Metallic sand of Misnense, in the district spoken of by
12. Sand of Misnense, from the bank near the bridge of
and in that wood.
13. Coarse sand which is strewn over roads-sand for pathways.
14. Coarse black sand, from which those small black pellets are
out of which white lead is extracted. Sand containing tin.
15. Coarse, barren Sand.
16. Red Sand of Thuringia.
17. Yellow Sand of Glogaw.
18. Sand of a golden colour, from which the Roman mountain derives
name --- Golden Mountain, formerly called Janiculum.
19. Grey Sand.
20. Shining or Sparkling Sand
21. Sea Sand.
22. Sand out of pools and stagnant water. Muddy Sand.
23. Slimy metallic Sand.
ARENAMEN, or ARENARMEI --- Armenian Bolus. See
ARENAS RIVORUM FLUMINUMQUE LAVARE --- A scouring, washing
lather. The cleansing of any sand from the foreign matters which are
ARES --- Not to be confounded with the chemical Mars. It is
giver of seed, the occult dispenser of Nature in the three prime
and the bond of their union. It distributes to all things whatsoever
peculiar form, species, and substance, so that it may put on its proper
and specific nature, and no other. Between these three there is
to be noted a difference in nature beautifully ordained by divine
Ares is the spirit in Nature which out of the three prime principles
to everything its shape, genus, and substance. These three are
Archeus, and Ares. Iliaster is a substance of most widely spread
consisting in the universal first matter of all things, which it first
distributes into the three principles, Sulphur, Mercury and Salt.
is the substance, the First Matter of all things, out of the said three
principles. Archeus is the first dispenser of Nature. He produces and
like an artificer, all things, after their own kinds, out of this
Ares, or the Assigner, extends the peculiar nature to each species, and
gives individual form, so that it is by him that, for example, in the
world, plants are endowed with root, stalk, flowers, leaves, and sap.
ARFAR or ARSAG --- is Arsenic.
ARGENTUM --- The Luna of Chemists, to which also it is
is the metal ranked next after gold, white with a pure whiteness,
hard, resonant; and the colour of its whiteness is due to pure, very
quicksilver, which is also white and clear. In like manner, it is
of sulphur, clean, fixed, white, and clear, which has precipitated the
substance of quicksilver, but is something deficient in fixation,
and weight. Silver is, as it were, a daughter of Nature most near unto
gold, produced from the copulation of quick silver, and white,
sulphur. Silver is found in our mines.
1. Pure, unmixed silver, needing no cleansing in the furnace;
silver, wanting no fusing, generated in perfection, possessing a
colour, firmly encrusted with a species of rock or ore. At this present
time such silver is still turned out from our mines. But of this
Pliny was ignorant when he said (1. 33, c. 6): It is never found but in
pits sunk on purpose for it, nor is it ever found pure and solid, nor
there any bright sparkles, as in gold mines, to indicate its existence
in the ore. The earth that engenders the vein is either reddish or of
ashen grey. So far Pliny. But this pure silver surrounds the stone in
thin plates; sometimes also it exhibits a species of small hairs upon
surface, or little curls of thread, also small twig-like filaments,
white or red, or like such fibres of red silk as are used in spinning.
Again it bears impressions of trees, instruments, mountains, herbs, and
other objects. I have myself beheld likenesses of fish; I have beheld
crucified Christ and our Lady; I have seen a serpent, a scorpion, etc.,
formed out of pure silver in the bowels of the earth.
2. Rude silver ore, of which various kinds are produced from our
namely, deep red, leaden, black, purple, ashen, and reddish in colour,
of which we proceed to treat successively.
3. Silver melted out of other metals, such as leaden pyrite, mica,
concerning which see also below.
Rude silver of a ruby colour- --- called red golden ore by the
It seems to be a kind of carbuncle. The carbuncle has, however, an
ray, but this rude silver is of a paler ruby. It is found in mines,
and other places variously deposited, but chiefly after three manners:
Firstly, in a black-coloured ore ; secondly, like minute bright
adhering to a certain species of rock; thirdly, in pure solid masses or
nuggets cleaving to stones or rocks. It is sometimes found by itself,
in combination with a foreign substance, which projects in a
pyramidal or top-like manner. Sometimes it assumes a square or
form, sometimes it is sexangular, like the Iris stone; frequently it
of many unequal angles. Thus by a wonderful operation does Nature
geometry in the bowels of the earth. Lastly, rude ruby-coloured silver
is found beautifully aspersed with blue, so that Nature would seem to
exhausted her ingenuity over the formation of the metals, and to have
and amused herself with so many and such brilliant colours, that no
however high, could possibly attempt to follow. This last species of
was unknown to Dioscorides, to Pliny, indeed to all the ancients.
was the first to make mention of it, when he said: There is another gem
of a colour like unto plums, which loses a little of its weight in
as the smiths know". It should be noted, in fine, that a most admirable
colour for painting is composed out of this species. It might also have
a place in medicine did any one make the experiment. It has been
confused with Sandarach, as will be shown under that head.
Rude silver of a lead colour. Nature, by hot and dry vapours
in the bowels of the earth, tinges or dyes the sap or moisture whence
is made, or joins it with various colours, as we find in these species
of rude silver. The first of these is of red colour, sometimes aspersed
with cerulean. The second, with which we are here concerned, has the
of lead, and is found in vale and mountain. It is conspicuously like
lead ore with which it is connected by name. But this is as regards
for in other points it differs, as the illustrious Georgius Agricola
plainly lays down in his Berinannus, or Metallic Nature. But to return
to our subject. I have said that rude lead-coloured silver resembles
ore, but it differs in this, that lead ore is of crumbling nature, and
falls to pieces easily when struck with a knife. But the silver species
cannot well be pounded; it can be cloven, it is true, with a knife,
lead, but when it has been bitten with the teeth it rebounds again, and
lead ore will not do so to any appreciable extent. This species of
is found in large lumps in its own veins, as if imbedded in a nest. It
is also found in conglomerated masses, looking something like buds
on the branches of a tree, with perfectly circular nodules, cleaving to
rocks, or imbedded therein. At other times it assumes the shape of
sticks, or other similar figures. Agricola testifies that he has seen
specimens of metallic instruments such as shovels and small hammers
from the ore. I myself have beheld natural figures or images of small
lions, wolves, etc. Truly Nature is not idle in the darkness and the
of the earth. Other varieties of this species adhere like thin plates
Rude black silver, the black silver ore of the Germans, is the
species of rude silver. Occasionally it shines in the black ore, much
the lead-coloured species which has been already described. Again, it
little particles of the red-coloured variety, or particles at other
of white silver, and the more it abounds in these, the more metal does
the ore yield when it is melted, which was unknown to Pliny and the
Occasionally the ore is sterile, when it is simply termed black earth,
and as such is treated in its proper place, s.v. Terra.
Rude purple silver, the fourth species of the rude metal, the
Erz of the Germans, was unknown to Pliny and the ancients, but it has
little percentage of silver in the ore. It is found chiefly in the
Rude reddish and ash-coloured silver, otherwise grey ore, is the
of the rude varieties, and yields more metal in melting because its
of silver exceeds the others. Thus we certainly see that the grey ore
frequently rich in silver, more especially when it is somewhat hard, so
that it can be cut with a knife, or if it be soft, with very thin
of silver shining in the leaden ore. When it does not possess this
it is then of least value, having the smallest proportion of silver.
these two varieties Pliny seems to have been acquainted when he says
33, c. 6.), One ore is ruddy, the other ashen; I find little of any
kind. And these were known to the ancients. These are the six species
rude silver ore which are known to German metallurgists. Perchance
are others also which might be discovered by a diligent examination of
the mines, such as we ourselves may undertake at a future time when our
leisure is greater than at present.
The refuse of silver, called also Scoria, Helcysma, Encauma,
Slack, :; that which is left after the metal has been melted out, or
is commonly removed from the furnaces where silver is subjected to the
operation of fire. Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 51), affirms that the
of silver has the virtue of lead wort, or plumbago, which is an
and draws out. It should, therefore, be an ingredient in plasters
upon wounds. But do you, candid reader, consider how complicated with
is this matter of the recrement of silver? For silver is melted out of
pyrites, that is, out of copper ore, and out of lead ore. Do you judge
whether this, which is our true recrement of silver, is that meant by
who was unacquainted with these same species, and how, therefore, could
he know the true recrement of this precious metal? But we will set
these considerations. Consult Pliny on the recrement of silver (1. 33,
c. 6). It may be granted out of hand that silver cools and desiccates,
and, therefore, its scoriae are of a drying nature, as .va may
in our own recrement of rude silver, if we put faith in the recrements
ARGENTI SPUMA --- is Litharge, which still contains a
percentage of silver; it used in plasters, and has otherwise a
quality. It differs little from recrement of silver obtained from the
ore, and is very like lead spume. Dioscorides, who was well acquainted
with the workshops where metals are melted, and little with the mines,
enumerates (1. 5, c. 52), three species of silver litharge:
1. Molybditis, spume of lead, which is melted out of sand in
until it burns with a perfect flame.
2. From lead, which is made from leaden plates; Dioscorides
the Attic and Spanish, and afterwards that which comes from the warm
of Puzzoli, Baia, the Campania, and from Sicily.
3. Litharge of silver, which is of two kinds, Argyritis, German
litharge, from silver-coloured silver, which at the present day is used
in a crude and not a prepared state. Chrysitis, which is of gold
and is the gold litharge of the Germans, not that it is made from gold;
it is derived from silver, and the reference is to the colour only. The
virtue of these varieties, according to Dioscorides, is astringent,
restoring, restraining, and cooling.
Consult also Dioscorides upon the methods of burning and cleansing
of silver, how colouring matter is added to it, how its mature state is
ascertained, and what its virtues are. Pliny (1. 33, c. 6), makes three
species of silver litharge:
1. The best, which he calls Chrysitis.
2. Argyritis, made from silver.
3. Molybditis, fused out of lead, whence its name is derived.
Hence it would appear that Pliny represents Molybditis to be fused
of lead, while, according to Dioscorides, it is obtained out of sand,
the species derived from leaden plates was formerly called Molybditis.
Pliny, who, according to his custom, transfers all the information of
concerning litharge of silver to his own pages, notes also that
from scoria differs as much as possible from litharge obtained from
There are others who regard Sterelite and Pneumenis as species of
When litharge of silver is drunk, it is said to be a potent and speedy
acting poison, which also Dioscorides affirms (1. 6, c. 27). And
to whom Dioscorides is in this place considerably indebted, in the
recipe of his Alexipharmaca, which may be consulted concerning symptoms
and antidotes. On this point, see also Serapion, his book of
in the chapter on Marechet. See also Paulus on the virtues of Litharge
of Silver, s.v. Galenum.
Silver is otherwise thus divided.
1. Rude white lumpy silver from Schneberg, which can be cut with a
and beaten out with a hammer. Snow-white solid silver; thick silver.
2. Nuggets of solid silver in a very white metallic spar.
1. Silver of Anneberg, solid, white, capillary silver.
2. Solid capillary silver, having a multitude of wiry fibres
3. Very white silver, like a ball of minute silver threads ;
4. Like a silver curling iron, in a crumbling earth of a nut-brown
5. In a shiny loam-coloured earth.
6. Silver of Marieberg, in a gray, metallic, fluid cobalt.
7. In a very white horn stone.
8. In a red quadrangular translucid fluor spar.
9. Silver of Marieberg, in a hard grey stone.
10. Capillary silver of Anneberg, in a mass of lead-coloured
11. Capillary silver of Anneberg, with silver of a lead-colour in
very white spar, combined with a red-coloured pyrites.
12. Capillary silver, combined with lead-coloured silver in white
spars. 13- Capillary silver found in the valley of Joachimica, in a
of fir-trees. 14- White ore of Anneberg, containing rude, ruby-coloured
capillary silver, of transparent appearance. Also rude lead coloured
clearly distinguished in the same stone. Golden ore and vitreous ore
yet clearly distinguished.
Compounded in other Forms.
1. Deposited in the form of little trees.
2. A flame-shaped ore to which little masses of lead-coloured
are found adhering.
1. Pure, solid, white plates of silver in a fatty stone.
2. Thin solid plates of white silver in hard grey ore of
3. Pure white silver in iron pyrites.
4. A clear, solid silver in a clear mountain Chrysocolla, from the
1. Lead-coloured silver, easily cut and made into coins, and
hammered into plates.
2. In hard and very white pyrites.
3. In sexangular white fluors.
4. Impressed, or stamped, vitreous ore, which has not been tried
fire. Soft, and therefore easily broken.
5. A pure, quadrangular, vitreous ore, of conical or pyramidal
6. In transparent, purple, quadrangular fluors, blunt-pointed.
7. Rude ruby-coloured silver in the centre of a solid vitreous ore
Grey or Ashen.
1. Grey solid silver, in shape like tongues of flame, found in the
cobalt of Anneberg.
2. A specimen of solid grey ore.
3. Grey silver in a very white flint.
1. Black solid ore in a sheer hornstone, or flint.
2. In grey pyrites.
3. Shaped like a branch of the cypress tree.
Transparent and Ruby-coloured.
1. A small nugget, like a carbuncle or amethyst. Fine ruby-red,
2. Like a carbuncle, with six, seven, or eight angles. Of the
of an upright beam, in grey pyrites, and natural yellow sulphur.
3. Like the bristles of the hedgehog in a black metallic cobalt;
like a head.
4. Little masses seeming to be compacted of red garnet.
5. Larger nuggets compacted like transparent red garnet.
1. Blood-red, seven-angled, gold-red ore.
2. A nugget in a white metallic spar.
3. A nugget in a gold-coloured pyrites, similar to natural
4. In white sexangular fluorspar, like the exterior cortex of the
rough and sharp and prickly.
5. In an ashen flint.
6. Beaten, golden-red ore, cleaving to a grey hornstone.
7. Showing white in a very golden-red ore.
8. White, red, and gold in a soft white stone.
9. In ashen pyrites.
10. In a worthless sulphuret of lead.
11. Silver containing gold; golden silver.
12. Dark golden red.
13. Liver-coloured, golden red.
1. A yellow capillary silver in a yellow earth.
2. Like copper pyrites, to which lead-coloured particles adhere.
3. A transparent horn-coloured pure silver of Marieberg,
4. Solid dark silver, like an ordinary grey earth. It is heavy,
if struck with a hammer, will sparkle. Many experienced miners are
1. Containing in its centre, like a kernel, a rude red silver.
2. Mixed with lead-coloured silver and pure white nuggets.
3. Green silver of Anneberg, mined in celestial blue veins.
4. Purple or brown-coloured silver mined in the same place.
5. Silverine stone.
6. Veins of silver in a hard gravel-stone.
7. A rich silver ore from which the recrement has not been
8. Silver mixed with lead, separated from copper. Mixed with lead,
tin, black lead.
9. Rich ore mixed with lead.
10. Lead or pig of workable lead, rich in silver.
11. Mediocre, a thin line in the vein.
12. Poor, a freshly deposited layer.
13. Hard layers, rich in metal.
14. Soft and dry, with a large proportion of black lead.
15. A small specimen of silver nuggets.
16. Refined silver.
17. Grey recrement of gold; grey silver slag.
18. Black silver slag.
19. Silver litharge.
20. Prepared silver, rich in lead.
21. Refined silver, purged from other metals.
22. Burnt silver.
23. Fine, prepared silver.
24. Pressed or stamped silver.
25. Gilt silver.
26. Silver drawn into wire.
27. Silver plates.
28. Silver separated by washing from copper.
29. Silver dissolved into grains.
ARGENTUM POPULI --- Alkali or nitre.
ARGENTUM VIVUM --- is the chemical term for Mercury. It is
a viscous water, in the bowels of the earth, of a subtle substance,
the nature of white earth, made one with a perfect union, up to the
point and particle, until that which is humid is modified by that which
is dry, and the dry again by the humid, until the whole is absolutely
Also Vivific Silver, i.e., the philosophical substance which is to be
from common quicksilver, is the complementary part of the stone of the
philosophers, as the chemists tell us; the second principle, the mother
of all the metals, and in proportion as it copulates with their father,
the male sulphur, it engenders perfection and imperfection in metals,
when it predominates the metals (like a foetus) derive more from the
than the father. Into that also from which they most originate are they
most resolved. Now quicksilver is twofold-natural and artificial.
Natural, possessing without excoction its own inherent colour, in
state it is found among metals in the smith's troughs, commonly in the
form of filaments. True, Native Quicksilver, the mother and element of
metals. This species was known to Pliny, 1. 33, c. 6, who says: Within
these veins and mines there is a certain stone found which yields from
it a humour continually, and the same continues always liquid; men call
it Quicksilver. It may not have been seen by Dioscorides when he said:
Quicksilver is also met with among the debris of silver mines, exuded
drops; others testify to having found it by itself among metals.
Artificial, which is made out of the minium secundarium of Pliny
33, c. 7), or out of veins of minium, or cinnabar, which is found in
mines. The first was known to Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 60). He describes
method of its preservation, its use, its poisonous nature, and the
thereto. Consult also Pliny, 1. 20, c. 5, and 1. 28, c, 9, 10, as well
as other places and authors.
For the rest, it may be noted that the Greeks called both native
artificial Quicksilver by the name Hudrargyron. But Pliny only
the natural species, as appears by our former quotation, by the name of
Quicksilver, and that which is artificially produced from cinnabar, or
derived from its ore, he distinguishes, if I err not, by the name
--- a classification which is also observed by the most learned
It may be finally noted that Quicksilver, while in its liquid state, is
called crude in our workshops; when mortified, it is called concreted,
or by some sublimated. It is warm and moist in the fourth degree. Some
say that it is cold in the fourth degree. The chemists consider it both
cold and moist in the fourth degree, liquid in the third, white in the
second, and dark in the first degree. There are, moreover, other
The following species of Quicksilver are also enumerated:
1. Vivific Silver (Philosophical Quicksilver), i.e., Spirit, or
which is also the Fugitive Servant, Asoc, Ydrogiros, Sanlarum, Anzatig,
Asoc, Zaylat, Azehoc, Kyregiros, White Smoke, Alsohoc, Asob, Ayor,
Alozet, Azoar, Aurarid, the Dragon.
2. That which is obtained without smelting, pure among metals.
3. Quicksilver smelted from veins of cinnabar.
4. That which is called Sublimated Quicksilver.
6. Mortified, or killed.
7. Quicksilver solidified, or fixed by art.
8. Native Minium.
9. A hard round nugget which the Arabs call Cinnabar.
10. Fragile Cinnabar.
11. Artificial Cinnabar.
12. Natural Cinnabar, or Red Lead. The vein from which it comes.
13. A vein of Cinnabar in which Quicksilver exists, and which
in drops when the ore is broken up.
14. Solid Quicksilver from the valley of Joachimica, similar in
to rude ruby coloured silver ore.
15. Similar to coccolite, with pyrites of gold.
16. Similar to coccolite in a white fissile stone.
17. A variety in a grey fissile stone.
18. Liver-coloured ore, rich in Quicksilver.
19. Similar to rude golden-red silver in silver coloured
20. A swarthy-red Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis, which exudes
of Quicksilver when broken with a hammer.
21. Liver-coloured Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis.
22. Tawny-coloured Quicksilver ore in which there are layers of
23. Recrement of Quicksilver.
ARGILLE --- are so called because they are similar to the
used by potters. Potters' Earth. There are numerous species of these
which are distinguished by their colours, and are found in our mines,
through many places.
1. White Seburg clay.
2. White clay of Anneberg.
3. White Islebian clay, sparkling with silver particles.
4. In white ashen Islebian deposit, which is found in copper mines
a red sandy earth.
5. Fine grey ash-like clay of Misnense.
6. Light green ashy clay of Misnense, near Risa and the Elbe.
7. Cinereous clay from Herlesberg, which the people of Nuremberg
with a sandy earth to make those melting pots in which brass is
8. Combined with a sandy earth ; clay for the melting-pot.
9. Slime of Misnensis, of beautiful yellow hue.
10. Yellow clay of Anneberg, or silver clay.
11. Like red earth from the district of Okroll.
12. Red Islebian clay, in which silver particles are sparkling.
13. Iron-coloured Bavarian clay, with which those furnaces are
wherein iron is treated. An iron-grey sand.
14. Purple clay, which much abounds in my own country. When the
is removed it appears quite red. 15. Ash-coloured.
15. Bohemian, crumbling, loamy, rich in ore, abounding in garnet.
Colours may be manufactured from all these species, provided they
not over-moist. The best jars and pots are made from them, if the clays
be treated rightly by the potters in moulds shaped according to the
rule. But this I leave to the potters.
ARGISTATA is engrafted.
ARGYROS is Silver ; hence lithargyros, argentiferous-stone.
lithos signifies a stone.
1. Aridura is the wasting of any bodies, or menstrua, in what
soever. It is especially the shrinkage of metals, dissolution, dying.
is also called Sideratio, Numbness, Sphacelus, Sphacelismus, Telia,
2. Aristolochia has a white flower, red inside, like a stone
3. Arles Crudum --- not translatable; the Germa context menas
or ninny, which seems irrelevant. What are refered to, however, are
of water falliong in June as the dew in May. Caled also Hydatis (a
stone of te colour of water), Stalagmi (consisting of drops; also a
of vitriol, Stagen and Straax.
4. Armoniac Sal, i.e., star. Called also Genzir.
5. Arohot --- Quicksilver.
AROLPH --- Mandragora.
ARSALTOS, ASPALTUM --- Asphalt.
ARSENICUM --- is the Greek Nitre, Effulgence of Metals;
of Metals, and of Saturn Called also Artanek, or Artanech. Found in
places. It is also Luna, and our Venus. According to Gebir, it is
companion. It is the soul, the hermaphrodite, the means whereby Sulphur
and Mercury are united. It has community with both natures, and is,
called Sun and Moon.
ARSENII --- is Lacten, (?) milky.
ARTAVECK, ARTANECK --- ARSENIC, of which there are
species: White, Yellow and Citrine. Yellow orpiment, golden dye;
arsenic. Item: Red Greek Sandaraca which is of two kinds, rough and
the former was a red arsenic mixed with brimstone, the latter a kind of
ARTEFICIUS --- Deficiency of some member.
ARTHOICUM or PANNONIUM --- A red oil from the roots
certain herbs obtained by their digestion with bread in horse-dung.
ARTIFEX --- Refiner, one versed in ores and metals; an
ASABON --- Soap.
ASAFOETIDA --- Fetid inspissated Sap from an Indian tree.
ASAGEN --- Blood of the Dragon.
ASAGI, or AZEGI --- Vitriol or Red Atrament.
ASAMAZ --- Verdigris.
ASAPHATUM --- Impetigo, a cutaneous disease, and Serpigo,
ringworm. Ulcers and blemishes of the skin are of cognate character.
ASEB, or ASEP --- is the German Alaun, Alum. It is
substance or vein of earth, which occupies a middle position between
or copperas, and salt, and is found in mines. It is like a salt
or liquor, issuing out of the earth (see Pliny, 1. 35, c. 15). It is
of water and slime; whence its nature is that of an earthy efflux. It
drawn off in streams during winter, and it is perfected by fermentation
under the summer suns. It is like a vein of earth which is transmuted
a white colour by excessive heat. Every species of chalcantum contains
alum. Now the name alum signifies something manufactured (in this place
the sense of the text is obscure); we may admit several species of alum
on the authority of the learned, and most certainly that alum is made
hot places, and above all in those which are sulphureous and igneous.
as there are indeed many kinds of alum, we proceed to tabulate them for
the sake of those who are interested in this matter.
ASEB, SEBEL, ALPAR, ALUMAIC (in Arabic; Scipterea ; in
ALAUM) --- is hot and dry in the fourth grade, according to
Others say that it is hot and dry in the third degree. It is found
in mines; it is composed of water and slime, and is like a salt of
It is either white or black in Cyprus, and there gold is purged with
The white is thick or concreted, and liquid; it is called Alumen
Rocha, or Rocca, otherwise Liparine (? from the island of that name in
the Etruscan Sea, but Lipara was also a precious stone).
The Scissile is three-fold: Cloddy, Round, Scissile.
1. The cloddy again is two-fold-mined and manufactured. That which
manufactured is, further, of two kinds-that which is obtained by
(generally of natural mined alum), and that which is coagulated. Of all
these species we have the cloddy alone at the present day.
2. The round Zuccarine Alum, so called on account of its likeness
Zuccar (unknown), is again two-fold : Mined, and Manufactured.
The mined is, if I mistake not, called Strongylos. Round Alum from
mines is also two-fold: Spongy, and Porous.
The spongy variety is easily dissolved in the mouth, and is wholly
The porous is better, and is full of hollow pipes, like the
It more nearly approaches white, with a certain fattiness, is devoid of
sand or grit, and is easily crumbled. It is neither as black as that of
Egypt nor as white as the celebrated White Alum of Melos.
Manufactured Alum is that prepared by hand, and is worthless.
3. Scissile Alum is thick, hard, and massive. It is called
by Pliny (1. 35, c. 15). It distributes itself into small threads, and
is termed Trichitis, or Capillary. It is also made and falsified out of
Scissile Stone, and is now called Scaly Alum, or Feathery Alum, and by
the vulgar Scaiola ; without doubt also the Amianthus of which we have
before treated is our Scaly Alum. What they call Chalcitis and
is also alum, or rather the exudition of the stone thereof when it is
into spume. Some" term alum Copperine because it occurs in pyrites.
Chalcitis is frequently called Concrete Alum. But this alum does not
astringent virtue, only a dry quality. It is also called Scipterion,
Jamenum, and Broken Alum. When alum is generically spoken of, this
is understood. Alumen Jamenum is brought from Babylon ; and because it
is not astringent, but of drying quality, it is therefore not alum,
less broken alum, and has only the appearance of alum. Take notice of
error of learning.
Liquid Alum, called Alumen de Rocha, or Rocca, or Liparine, is
(r) Soft, fatty, limpid, milky, called Phormion, the falsification of
with the sap of the pomegranate we are taught to detect by Pliny. (2)
pale alum, which stains like the gall-nut, and is called Paraphoron. It
is astringent, hardens, and eats away. It is found in Spain, Egypt,
Macedonia, the Pontus, Africa, the islands of Sardinia, Melos, Lipara,
and Aeolian Strongylos. The virtues of these varieties are astringent,
heating, purging out, and lessening. They are burnt like Chalchitis.
the rest, consult Dioscorides, Pliny, Serapion, Avicenna, etc., on the
medical virtues, native places, and appearances of these kinds.
Alumen. The round, scissile, and liquid species are of use in
There is another kind, which is called Alumen Affar; or in Arabic
and in Latin, Sparrow's Dung, several varieties of which are enumerated
by Serapion and Avicenna. Some call it Salt of Alkali, and indeed it is
not alum, but a sort of salt.
ASED --- is the Lion.
ASEDENIGI --- Haematites.
ASEGEN or AZOGEN --- Blood of the Dragon.
ASENEC --- is Sol.
ASEPH --- is Broken Alum.
ASMAGA --- is the permixture or commixture of any metals
ASOPER --- is Soot.
ASPALTUM or ASPHALTUM --- Flower of Copper, Red
or Indian Bitumen.
ASSALA --- is Nutmeg.
ASSALIAE --- are worms which eat into boards, wood
formed between the boards.
ASSANEGI, ASANIRGI, ASARAGI --- A powder which falls from
ASSATIO --- A species of hard and dry Ash.
ASSINGAR, ASUGAR, ASMIAR, ASIM --- Names of verdigris.
ASSER TRIANGULARIS --- Hand-barrow.
ASSERCULI or PALI --- Small Planks, or Poles, on
miners sit for working the mine.
ASSERES --- Boards joined by their sides.
ASSERES --- An outside plank or slab.
ASSOS --- An artificial alum of the appearance of the
i.e., white. See Morien.
ASTERITES --- Quartz.
1. Astroites Mas, male Astroites, shaped like half a globe. An
full of stars.
2. The female variety, without the stars of the male, but having
of caterpillars, in which way the stars are thickly compacted by
3. Little Globules of Asterite, on which prayers, like the Lord's
were told formerly (Rosary Beads).
ASTRUM SYNUS --- The Sidereal Celestial Star. Here star
virtue and potency of things, obtained by preparations, as for example,
the star of sulphur is the augmentation of sulphur, whereby it is
into a most notable oil. Note. The star of salt is its resolution into
a water or oil, by which it is endowed with more than its normal
In like manner, the star of mercury is its sublimation, by which it
a wonderful increase of virtue and power, far exceeding, and far more
than, what it naturally possesses. (German version : Astrum.) But in
chemical art, it signifies the nature and power of a thing, which it
from preparation, as when mercury is sublimed, sulphur lighted with a
of fire, salt dissolved, and dissipated by itself. Then they become
starry, and are called the Star of Mercury, Sulphur, or Salt. The Star
is the Alkol or Quintessence, the sheer and clear power, the extract,
cream, and the property of the thing, says Bacchus.
ASUB --- is Galaxia, Constellation.
ASUBEVEGI --- is a stone which cuts other stones.
ASULCI, or LASURD --- is Azulite.
ASUOLI --- is Atrament. Called also Soot.
ATACK --- is Talc or Nitre.
ATANOR --- is a perforated vessel.
ATEBRAS --- A hook (literally); Uncus Aquinus, is a vessel
ATHANOR --- Called both philosophical and arcane, is an
adapted for composing the stone of the philosophers. The fire does not
touch the base, and the required heat is suitably and uniformly
Many vain things have been imagined by many persons concerning the
of constructing this oven. But the one of our invention, even as it
all the other ovens which have been described by its superiority over
requires to be minutely treated of in this place, as much on account of
the contiguity of the fire as of the equable nature of the same. A
wall is erected of the height of one foot. On either side of this wall
a vacant space, with a small door, is left. This is for the removal of
the ashes. Above this structure there is placed a small iron gridiron,
and above the said gridiron we erect another small door, which is
at the bottom than at the top, and is an aperture through which the
can be stirred with a poker. When this turret has been set in an
position in the manner described, and has been filled with coals to the
top we cover it with a covering of clay. But at the same time, in the
part of the wall, and in that portion of it which is nearest to the
we leave a small hole open, through which the heat may be able to
the Athanor, and we stop this aperture with a spatula (a long
for stirring), or with an iron bar (some term it a register), which can
be raised and lowered. We make also at the top of the turret, of the
of five inches, beneath the cover, a small aperture, through which the
index finger shall just be able to pass, by which the fire may draw the
air, as if a fuel, to itself. Over against the turret constructed in
manner described, there is set another oven, which is the Athanor
After the same manner, a circular wall, one foot and a half in
is constructed, which completely fits with its sides the posterior
of the first turret. On this wall we erect an oven, leaving on the top
of the furnace a small aperture, like an imperial thaler, whereby the
in this part, to some extent pressing upon the furnace, can pass upward
to the next nearest furnace. Then we again build an eighteen-inch wall
by the place where we commenced the furnace ; we cover the same with a
lid, again leaving a small aperture at the top, as in the case of the
one. However, it is necessary that in one side of this part there
be left a clear space where the matter can be put in and taken out. For
in this middle part is the workshop where the matter is prepared in its
proper vessel, placed over a tripod. In order to fill up the clear
and close it up lest any air should be produced, a wellfitting lid is
to.cover it. Finally, with a third lid, we cover the whole of this
furnace, leaving, however, at the base four air-holes, which also have
covers, whereby the heat may be increased or diminished. This is the
distillatory oven, the Turba Clibanus, or Reverberatory Oven of the
ATINCAR, or ATINKAR --- is Rock Borax.
ATRAMENTUM ALBUM --- is White Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM CITRINUM --- is fixed Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM HISPANICUM --- is, I believe, Vitriol.
ATRAMENTUM RUBEUM --- Red Atrament, is called Asaric or
ATRAMENTARUM --- is Akata; another variety is Alfrein;
Kalkadis; another, Chalcanthum, is Egythian Atrament.
ATRAMENT --- is variously classified.
1. Scrivener's Atrament, Writing Ink.
2. Printers' Ink, Oily Atrament.
3. Shoemakers' Ink, or Tanners' Atrament, Shoemakers' Wax,
Hydride of Copper, Cobblers' Black, Copper Ore, or Vitriol, red inside
and having red stripes.
4. Atramentum Rubeum, Red Burnt Vitriol.
5. Atramentum Tectorium, Vel Pictorium, Soot, Painters' Black.
6. Atramentum Album Tenue, soft, white Atrament, Hydrate of Copper
7. Atramentum Fossile, Native Copper-stone (apparently from which
ore has been extracted).
8. Atramentum Candidum, Durum, Stalacticum, native Stalactical
9. Reddish and spongy native Hydride of Copper.
10. Red Stalactical Vitriol, of good quality, native in white
11. Hard green Copper Stone washings, native in Goslaria.
12. Native porous Green Atrament.
13. Green hard Stalactical Atrament of Goslaria.
14. Grey Stalactical Atrament in a white earth, natural grey
15. Grey hard native Copperas.
16. Green hard prepared Copperas or Vitriol of Goslar. Green hard
17. Green hard porous prepared Copperas of Goslaria.
18. Grey native Neapolitan, with a pure yellow Sulphur.
19. Very beautiful cerulean prepared Copperas from Cyprus.
20. Green bluish prepared Copperas from Goslaria.
21. Blue Roman prepared Copperas.
22. Blue Hungarian prepared Copperas.
23. Blue Hungarian Copperas combined with a very white Alum.
24. Blue prepared Copperas from Radeberg, similar to Pannonian.
25. Radeberg Copperas combined with Sulphur.
26. Blue prepared Silesian Copperas combined with Alum.
27. White hard transparent sublimed Vitriol or Copperas.
28. Distilled Copperas or Oil of Vitriol.
29. Burnt Vitriol.
30. Burnt Cyprian Copperas.
31. Recrement of Atrament, Salt, Nitre, and Alum after
The dead body of Aqua Fortis.
32. Recrement of Atrament from which Sulphur of Radeberg is
ATRAMENTUM --- i.e., Duenec, Malagislaca, Black Chalk,
ATRAMENTUM SUTORIUM --- is nothing else but Vitriol, i.e.,
i.e., a sort of Flower of Copper. It is not however Kalkou Anthos, or
Flower of Copper, as we have before stated. Chalcanthus, or Vitriol, or
Atramentum Sutorium, is one thing; the ancient Flower of Copper is
and was obtained, among other ways, from the washings of copper ore,
Flower of Copper has in modern times been given as an alternative name
of Verdigris, or Copper-Rust. Once again then Atramentum Sutorium is
formerly used in leather tanning. But because it is corrosive to shoes,
another kind was devised by shoemakers, which is in fact our present
Black. But with the ancients Atramentum meant Vitriol, that metallic
which is simply a congealed water, having a quality of copper, but
in its form and nature with the stone to which it adheres. In a
upon springs and rivers, Seneca tells us that the earth contains
humours, and a spirit like that of the human body where there are also
various humours, of which some are vital, some corruptible, some more
and some which in time become dried or hardened. Of this substance are
all metals which are melted out of the moisture in stone. Such also, in
like manner, are those metals which chemists have not inappropriately
spirit, and which are different from things which flow. Dioscorides (1.
5, c. 64) says that soft and hard Atrament are both Sutorium, or
Atrament, but that there are three species:
i. That which is concreted from humours which are collected by
mines, and is called Stillatic Vitriol. The best quality is furnished
copperine metals. This species is also called Pinarion and Distillatic.
It is the German native Distillatic Vitriol.
2. That which is termed Pecton, i.e., concreted and congealed
which forms in caves and grottos, and brought afterwards by a simple
into excavated trenches, assumes a concrete form.
Now, these two species are natural, and differ in shape and manner
formation. This is the German Copper-smoke, or Soot of Copper, or
concreted or congelated in the mines. Both species have their medical
they are astringent, healing, and induce the formation of skin.
according to colour, there are three species of Shoemakers' Black or
White Vitriol, not mentioned by Dioscorides, but which Pliny describes
(1. 34, c. 12). On account of its white colour, or similitude of
he tells us that it was called Leucoion (white violet), and is used by
fullers in their trade. Shoemakers' Wax and Sory are akin to this
For the rest, the white violet Leucoion of Theophrastus and Dioscorides
is well known in physics. (But this probably refers to the herb called
Leucoion. Some editions of Pliny read Lonchoton, following Dioscorides,
instead of Leucoion in the passage cited above).
The second species of Atrament is green. The third is blue, and is
by Dioscorides to be the best stillatic atrament; it is heavy,
and translucent. By others it is called Lonchoton (see above), because
it forms in the figure of a javelin. The method of operating upon this
species by fire is taught by Dioscorides: And a great thing verily is
knowledge of the virtues of Flower of Copper, i.e., of Verdigris,
to the moderns, and of Chrysocolla, and of the Vitriols.
Manufactured Atrament is made in Spain, and the mode of its
will be also found in Dioscorides, who further informs us that it is of
high service in dyeing and colouring. By the Germans it is called
of Copper, which is manufactured either simple or in clusters; that is
reputed to be the best which is of a blue colour.
Pliny (1. 94, c, 12) divides Chalcanthum, i.e., Vitriol and
Black, into Native Mined and into Manufactured. Of the first there are
1. That which is dug up in trenches, or obtained from caves.
2. That which comes from mines in the rocks.
3. That which is obtained from sea-water, on admitting sweet
and by means of violent heat.
The manufactured species is made from materials found in those
and pools of Spain where there is the same kind of water from which
Atrament is derived.
The Metamorphosis, transmutation, or transfiguration of these
by the Artifice of Nature alone.
Great is the Knowledge of Flower of Copper, the Verdigris of the
of Chrysocol, of the Vitriols, and other species of Atrament.
I. Green Zeg, or Shoemakers’ Black, or Vitriol, or Chalcanthum
or changed or passes into:
1. Misy, very easily.
2. After a long time into Chalchitis, as regards outward
internally it is still Shoemakers’ Black.
3. Filaments, when it is old. Manufactured Chalchitis is then
from it. Also Chalcanthum changed into Chachitis can then be made into
II. Chalcitis, or honey-yellow Zeg, according to Pliny; brass
according to Diosorides (Zeg is the name given by the Arabs, who also
it Colcothar), has a middle position between marchasite (i.e., Black
or Pyrites, or Black Atrament), and Vitriol (i.e., Green Zeg, or
and when old can be changed, and passes into:
Sory, very easily;
Sory and Melateria pass on the other hand into:
Chalcanthum Leucoion, i.e., White.
The Arabs call Atrament Zeg simply, and distinguish these species
1. Black Zeg, i.e., Black Atrament, i.e., Marchasite, i.e.,
For Marchasite, or dissolved Pyrites, makes Ink, which Serapion calls
Zeg, which mixed with wine and vine garis resolved into a black colour;
Avicenna calls it (De Atramento, 1. 2) White Atrament, because
it is dissolved it is white.
2. Zeg Colcotar, or Chalcitis, or Zegi, of a citron hue, or copper
according to Dioscorides. Also called Citrine Atrament. There are in
four varieties: Red Zeg, or Ruby Zeg, or Ruby Atrament, or Red
It is called Asuria.
3. Green Zeg, or Green Atrament, which is Chalcanthum or Vitriol,
described. And this is Shoemakers' Black.
Serapion in his chapter on Zeg affirms that he has himself seen in
mines Black Zeg, i.e., Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, and afterwards
i.e., Chalcitis, and Green Zeg, i.e., Vitriol, or Chalcanthum, in
And he says that these three species differ in subtlety, and
For out of them is derived the grosser kind, i.e., Black Zeg, i.e.,
; and also the finer, i.e., Green Zeg, i.e., Chalcanthum, or
Black. But Colcotar is a middle species between the two others. This is
also called Chalcitis. Moreover, Green Zeg and Colcotar are liquefied
fire, but Black Zeg is not easily melted.
Green Zeg, Chalcanthum, or Shoemakers' Black, more especially the
kind, is solid, though it is the finer species of Atrament, and it is
changed into Misy. Outwardly also it becomes Chalcitis, though inwardly
it is still Shoemakers' Black. This transformation is very beautiful.
these are natural metals, namely, white, green, or blue Chalcanthum ;
Chalcitis, which is copper-colour ; also Misy, which is gold-colour ;
Sory, which is almost the hue of Melanteria (Shoemakers' wax) ; and
all are mentioned by Galenus, and were used by him in plasters; nor
they less valued by others of the ancients, for they were held in high
respect of old, and were used universally in Cyprus. I do not know
they are found in our silver mines, but I do not deny that they might
if they were diligently sought. They are met with in the copper mines
Goslaria and in other places, though but rarely, it must be allowed. It
is a remarkable thing that wherever Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, exists
also are all the others, namely, Chalcanthum, Chalcitis, Misy, Sory.
these species blacken, and hence are called Atramen. Chalcanthum is hot
and dry in the fourth degree, according to Paulus.
We have treated of Shoemakers' Black from the ancient and the
We must now briefly consider with Dioscorides the subject of
Black, or Writing Ink. The methods of its manufacture which are
by Dioscorides, are, however, quite obsolete. We now compound ink for
in a very different way, namely, from Vitriol, Gall, Gum, and in other
fashions, as our clerks have reason to know, seeing how inks vary with
the ingredients that compose them. It would be permissible to classify
writing ink into natural and manufactured. The first is an extract well
known to all scriveners, namely, Sepia, derived from the Cuttle-fish,
which consult Dioscorides, Pliny, and Nicander. It is also obtained
Eruca, a kind of plant which some call white Mustard, on which also
Dioscorides in his 1. 2. The manufactured species, according to the
writer, are these:
1. From the Resin of Pine Trees.
2. From the Soot of other Resins, and Corrosives of Painters.
But among us manufactured ink is obtained:
1. From Stone, which we shall treat of in the section De Paigite.
2. ? From burnt Bark (ex carta combusta --- but there is no
word as Carta).
3. From the Seed of the Alder.
4. From Milk and Curds [? the text reads cate, but there
no such word in Latin].
5. From the Soot of oily or fat substances.
6. From Vitriol, Gall, and Gum. Pliny (1.35. c. 6.) gives other
--- as from Sulphur-coloured Earth, from Coals, Soot, etc.
ATTAGAR --- i.e., Stone.
ATTINGAT --- i.e., Flower of Copper.
ATTINGIR --- i.e., a small clay Coffer.
ATTRACTIVA --- is a name given to some Medicaments, also
Magnetite, which have an attractive power.
ATUREB, or AZAZEZE --- is Glass.
AURANCUM, or AURANTUM --- Signifies Egg-shells.
AURARIC, or AZOCH, AZOG, AZET, BESECH, BESEC ---
AURUM COCTUM --- is Gold-leaf.
AURUM COTICULA EXPERIRI --- To test gold with touchstone.
AVIS HERMETIS --- is that Red Lead in the middle of the egg
rises above itself, which flies on high, and again descends to earth
its nourishment, for earth gives nourishment to all things. It is also
the Soil in the Matrix, and is called otherwise the Goose.
AURIPIGMENTUM --- is Orpiment, Arsenical Earth, the
Yellow Gold, of the Germans, and is used by painters. It is a native
substance, and is found in combination with Sandarac (Dioscorides, 1.
c. 70). It is covered with a crust, and glitters with a gold colour. In
its fundamental nature it is a certain kind of sulphur, and is, so to
a terrestrial excrement in the caverns of the earth, which in the long
process of time is turned into Orpiment. There is also a fissile
of scaly character, found in Mysia Minor on the Hellespont. Another
is pallid, cloddy and granular, having the colour of Sandarac; it comes
from Pontus and Cappadocia. The Arabs say that Orpiment is similar to
Specularis (which see), but the latter has no unguent quality. The
however, confound Sandarac with Arsenic, and, in fact, give the name of
Arsenic indiscriminately both to Sandarac and Orpiment, distinguishing
only their variety according to colour. Chemists as well as physicians
call our Sandarac Red Arsenic; and Arsenical Earth what we call
Avicenna speaks of White Arsenic, but true White Arsenic is never found
in mines, and his description may possibly refer to certain
species, one of which is mud-colour and the other white, which are
chemically, and are both at the present day known only by the general
Concerning all these species see Serapion (lib. Agg. cap. Harmech)
Avicenna (cap. on Arsenic), who treat of its good and evil qualities.
Arsenic, or Arsenical Salt, destroys life, and White Arsenic in its
state is also fatal. They are all poisonous. (See Diosc., 1. 6.)
Orpiment is also the Blood of the Stone. The Turba calls it the
which we use to colour the Sun and to cook with Mercury. It is,
genuine Sulphur. Quicksilver Orpiment is Sulphur which rises from the
There is also Auripigmentum Lempinas, which is Lily-water, Crusty
Cloddy Orpiment, dry Yellow, Cloddy Orpiment, mixed with Sandarac, Ruby
Orpiment, or Realgar, white Sublimated Orpiment, differing from that of
the mines, and Sublimed Orpiment from black, ruddy, and mud-coloured
AURUM --- Gold, called Sol by chemists, and dedicated to
Sun, is the most tempered of all the metals; it is said to be warm and
dry in the second grade, and red in the third grade. It is a metallic
of citrine colour, effulgent, heavy, equably digested in the womb of
washed with mineral water during a very long time. It is composed of
living Silver, fixed, and of a clear red; also of a clean, fixed, red,
incombustible Sulphur. In fine, it is the most subtle substance of
Truly we have beheld Quicksilver absorbing gold which it receives most
willingly, even as a mother receives her son. Further, Gold consists of
a small quantity of clean Sulphur and of a pure redness; the greater
quantity of Vivific Silver, the more does it derive from the mother
from the father. Purest Sulphur copulating as father with Quicksilver
mother, generates finest Gold as a son. Briefly, coagulate Quicksilver,
together with Sulphur, like a pure fire, yet not burning, produces
This is that beloved son which Nature ever intends to beget, after
she ever strives ; but various accidents intervene and procreate the
metals. Now Gold is duplex-native and prepared by fire.
Pure Native Gold, which is naturally pure, whose lumps or masses
called in Spain Palacrae (ingots), and by the Germans Solid Gold, this
1. In rivers, such as the Tagus, Elbe, Saale, Schwartza, etc., as
may learn from the gold washers.
2. In Arabian mountains, in mines, and wells; in part pure, in
with its grains cleaving to a certain species of white stone which the
Germans call Quartz. Found plentifully at Cottenheyd.
3. In the heads of fish which we call trout.
Gold prepared by fire or by melting:
1.Out of Pyrites, of the colour of ashes and leaden ore or dross.
2. Out of a certain purple Earth, so tempered and effected by the
and breath of the earth, that it is fruitful of gold, and in many
gold is melted out of it in the furnace.
3. Out of Borax, or Antiphane. Out of Cerulean (Jasulis), of which
shall speak in its proper place. Situation, however, as we have
had reason to see, is serviceable to the quality of gold. There are
in distinct grades between Arabian, Spanish, Hungarian, and German
Gold is the substance and ferment in the philosophical gold which
ascend into the height. For the Mercury of the Sun is a seed, according
to Bernard. It is the Soul and the Red Knight who takes the White Lady
in marriage. It is then he is robed in his kingly apparel, even the
gold, wherein is no metal but only gold. It must, however, be purified
by means of Cement, through the repository of ashes, and very carefully
cleansed by means of Salt and Brickdust. When it is dissolved with
it is made into a spirit by the intervention of Chrysolite. Mix Gold
Gold, then Gold cannot become Silver unless it be corrupted,
and black; and when even it becomes Silver, then does it become Gold.
then we must apply processes. Says the adept Senior: The Sun rises when
the Moon increases, and is hidden in the same; it is next drawn out
thence. The Body of the Sun and Water of the Sun is Mercury of the
Yes, it is threefold, being black, white, and red. It is called the
because it cannot be destroyed. The Moon makes the Sun soft, spongy,
fluid, and it refines it from impurity. It is the Mother and the Field
wherein Gold should be sown. Otherwise we need it not, except in Sun
Moon. Says Theophrastus in his ninth book of Archidoxes : The essential
being of Gold is devoid of Salt that congeals, therefore it penetrates
and dyes the metals. The ordinary Gold is dead, but the philosophical
alive, and is a true nutriment. The common Gold goes out of men as it
them. These are the words of Rupecissa in his third chapter. But
in his book on Minerals has this concerning the Generation of Gold.
that there is a Sulphur which is in the highest degree sublimated by
and cleansed from all its blackness and refuse, and so highly
that there can be nothing among metals which is, or could be, higher in
the bodily order. This also is the Sulphur which is the first matter of
Gold, one of the three principles. If the alchemists might find it ---
(it is a gold tree and it is possible to discover it by its roots) ---
then would they have cause to rejoice. For it is the Mercury of the
which is produced from Gold, not that other which is made from Mars and
Venus; it is the Scrupulus (i.e., the Rough Stone), the Universal
Now the Mercury, by a metallic art, is separated to the greatest
extent from all terrestrial matters and accidents; it is transformed
into a pure mineral body, in every respect transparent. This is the
of the Philosophers, which generates Gold, and is the second part of
First Matter. Afterwards comes the Salt, which is the third of the
principles of Sol and of the Tree out of which Gold grows; it is
to the greatest possible extent, and so perfectly separated and
from all its sharpness, acidity, and flavour of alum and vitriol, that
it is said to have no beginning, but is free in itself, to the greatest
extent disengaged, and in the highest degree diaphanised. Now are the
Gold is the Microcosmos, a small world. It has three principles
four elements; it is a heavenly substance, heaven, and the rays of the
Sun. Therefore it withstands fire, and is the most eminent medicine. It
has in itself all the stars of heaven and all the fruits of earth. It
called Incombustible Sulphur, Italian Antimony, Metallic Glass,
Vegetable Iron (? the labiate plant called Siderite), Marcasite,
Auri, Gold-Spiral, Purple Gold (i.e., Powder of Cassius), Chrysocolla
also a precious stone), Gold Stone, i.e., Chrysites, a precious stone
the colour of gold, the Green Mountain, Borax, Chrysocome (another name
of Chrysites, but it may also mean Flax-Weed, or Beard of Jupiter),
Grain, Chalcedony. There are, however, several species of Gold:
1. Pure gold, which has not been tried by fire, such as is washed
from sand in the Elbe, and in many rivers of Misena. Solid washed gold,
liquid gold, gold grains, etc.
2 Gold in an unmixed state, mined in a mountain of Carpathos.
3. Gold obtained in a small quantity from a ferraceous ore in the
4. Solid gold in a hard white flint, from the same mountain.
5. Solid gold from the same mountain, found in a stone called
Solid gold in pot-stone.
6. Thin plates and dust of purest gold, in a hard white flint,
the borders of the province of Pannonia in Hungary.
7. Yellow, argentiferous gold in an ore containing Quicksilver.
8. Gold mixed with silver in an ashen flint, obtained from
between the Danube and the Alps, or from Styria, and called Electrum,
is gold with a fifth part of silver.
9. Gold combined with silver after purification by fire.
10. Gold prepared by fire and separated from other metals. Fine
called by the Greeks, Obrussa, Assayed Gold.
11. Gold which is combined with silver, equal or clean gold.
12. Gold coloured by copper.
13. Gold beaten into wire.
14. Gold beaten into plates.
15. Pellets, found in streams, near the bridge of Honstein, and
of which gold is extracted.
16. Pellets or shavings of gold from the same place. Solid gold
17. Veins rich in gold, found in the mountain of Carpathos.
18. Light pellets of gold from the same place.
19. Gold filings, collected, cleansed, and made into pellets.
20. Froth of gold.
21. Refuse of gold.
AURIGA --- Fuse-Mallet.
AURIA MASSULA --- Small mass of Gold. Queen.
AURICHALCUM --- Brass, or Ore. Copper Ore, etc.
AURUM LATUS --- is gold in a weak tincture or colouring,
dyes those substances with which it is combined.
AURUM OBRIZUM --- is Gold Filings.
AURUM PHILOSOPHORUM --- Gold of the Philosophers, i.e.,
AURUM POTABILE --- Potable Gold, devoid of corrosive
known to very few, and, among these, they who prepare it at the present
day do so rather to the destruction than salvation of men.
AURUM VITAE --- Gold of Life, is Precipitated Gold, or
precipitated with Gold, and reverberated to a deep red. A precipitate
with gold, and brought by means of fire to an intense redness.
AURUM VIVUM --- Living Gold is Quicksilver.
AUSTROMANTIA --- is another superstition which some have
from observation of the winds, in such fashion that when the stars
govern the winds cause more violence in them than is common, thence
more idle than curious, draw an omen of the future.
AUVER --- is Pure or Limpid Water.
AXICULUS --- a small axle-tree, beam, pole, or roller.
AXICULUS FERREUS --- Axle-pin.
AXUNGIA DE MUMIA --- Fat of a dead body, sometimes written
of Marrow, is the marrow of bones.
AYCOPHOS, or ALECOFOC --- is Burnt Copper.
AZAA, or MAGRA --- is Red Earth.
AZAGOR, or AZRAGAR --- is Verdigris.
AZAMO, CALOR INDUS --- Unknown.
AZANEC --- Ammoniac.
AZARNET --- Orpiment.
AZCI --- Atrament.
AZEC --- Green Atramant.
AZEFF --- Broken Alum.
AZEDEGIM --- Hematite.
AZEG, AZEZI, AZEGI --- Names of Vitriol.
AZEGI AREC --- Water of Atrament, Ink, Blacking Water.
AZEM --- is melted butter.
AZEMASOR --- is Red Lead, or Cinnabar.
AZENSALI --- is a black stone found in gold ore. It is also
which grows on the
AZERNEC --- is Burnt Copper, or Plates of Copper.
AZIUS --- is a stone on which Salt is encrusted.
AZIMAR --- is Flower of Copper, or Burnt Copper.
AZOCH --- is our Mercury. It is a double Mercury of the
Stone. Therefore they say: Azoch and fire are enough to whiten the
and to prepare the whole work. In the first work it appears white. Then
the woman overcomes the man, who thereupon becomes black. According to
Braccesca, when Azoch turns into Salt, then it washes the Laton, or the
metallic Sulphur. When it does not part with the red and become white,
then it is useless. This Sulphur is called the Male. At first it is
and when this red, or the sap which causes the redness, departs, then
is said that the Sulphur has departed.
AZOG --- is Sweet Alum.
AZOTH --- is Quicksilver, drawn out of any metallic body,
properly the corporeal Mercury, the Mercury of the metallic body. With
Paracelsus especially, it is the universal medicine, to which all
are alike, uncovering every species of substance, and imparting an
strength, and catholic central virtue. It includes in itself all other
medicines as well as the first principle of all other substances, their
accidents excluded. Enclosed in the pommel of a sword, great exploits
be performed by the wearer into whatever place he goes. For the rest,
is extracted out of metal. But Theophrastus celebrates one Azoth for
eminent medicinal virtue. Some think it to be the philosophical stone.
Azoth is drawn from bodies by means of Mercury, and is called a living
spirit, a spirit endowed with a soul, our Water, Vinegar. Mary of Egypt
says: When the Laton is whitened, it is called Azoth. Therefore men say
Azoth whitens the Laton, then the Laton again whitens other things, and
when again red, it re-assumes the name of Laton. Gebir says Azoth is
Mercury which is drawn from substances through the Mercury of the
Therefore it is, and it becomes, an elixir, i.e., a substance dissolved
in Mercurial Water. It is called in Arabic Azoth, a dissolved silver;
is also the metallic earth in the mines, and is called Vitrefied or
Azoth. It is white and shining, but red internally; also it is black
green to look at, and it has a colour like a poisonous earth. It is
related to the metals.
AZUBAR, or BEDIGAR --- is the chemical vase.
AZUC --- is Red Coral.
AZUMEN --- is weight; also berry-covered, pearl-covered.
AZUR --- See Turba, fol. 30.
AZURIC --- is Red Vitriol.
AZUS --- is the Arabic for Alum. Called also Azel.
AZYMAR, or AZAMAR --- is Vermilion or Red Lead.
BACAR --- Weight, ponderosity.
BACILLUM --- A short stick.
BACILLUM FERREUM FOSSORUM TERES --- Iron rod, with which a
BACILLA EX ACIE FACTA --- A punch; otherwise, spike.
BACILLA FERREA SUCULA INCLUSA --- A rod used in raising a
windlass, or capstan.
BACILLUM FERREUM --- A nail, or push-pick.
BACILLA FERREA --- Merchant-iron.
BACULUS FERREUS --- is an iron instrument for the support
a super-imposed vessel.
BACILLA MAJORA FERREA UNCINATA --- The same, but larger,
furnished with iron hooks.
BACILLUS TERES STRIATUS --- A long hollow stick.
BAGEDIA --- A pound of 12 ounces.
BAIAC --- is Wax.
BALZIAM --- is a kind of pulse.
BALASIUS --- Burns and glows with a red colour, and is by
called Placidus. Some think it to be the Carbuncle diminished in colour
and virtue, in the same proportion that the strength of the female
from that of the male. Some have ascertained that the outer portion of
one and the same stone belongs to the Balasius, the interior to the
and thus the Balasius is said to be the house of the Carbuncle. The
of the Balasius consists in arresting and restraining impurity and evil
thoughts, conciliating differences between friends, and conducing to
health of the human body. When preserved and drunk with water, it
weakness of the eyes, is serviceable in diseases of the liver, and,
I conceive to be more wonderful, if the four angles of a house, garden,
or vineyard, be touched with a Balasius, it will enjoy immunity from
storms, and worms.
BALITISTERA --- Red Earth.
BALNEUM MARIAE --- Warm Water.
BALNEUM, ALUID MARIS, ALUID RORIS --- A bath of sea water,
BALNEUM MARIS or MARIAE --- is the dissolution of a
in a suitable vessel of warm water, after which it is placed in the
vessel belonging to it, and therein the operation is completed.
BALNEUM RORIS --- is so called when a vessel does not touch
water, but is heated by the ascending vapour of hot water, and the
in the vessel is dissolved thereby.
BALNEUM MARIAE, and BALNEUM MARIS --- As it is
by many, is a distillatory furnace containing water, into which, when
a chemical vessel is placed for the putrefaction of the substance
in it, for the separation of its component parts, and completing the
of that kind of humid evaporation.
BALNEUM RORIS or RORITUM --- Bath of Dew or Dewy
is a furnace in which the distillatory vase is suspended only over the
steam of water, in such a manner that the waters do not touch the body.
We call this bath also by the name of Vapour Bath --- Balneum vaporosum
BALSAM --- Pitch, the moisture which remains.
BALSAMUM --- Balsam is a substance which preserves bodies
putrefaction. It is internal and external. In man the internal is a
very moderating substance neither bitter nor sweet, neither acid nor
salt, but a fluidic salt which most effectually prevents putrefaction.
It is also called a most tempered gluten of the nature of any body to
it belongs. Briefly, it is the liquor of an interior salt most
and naturally preserving its body from corruption. The external is
which, according to Paracelsus, suffers nothing but digestion from the
operation of fire.
In German, the term Baldzamen, i.e., quickly joined, is applied in
chirurgery to anything which effects a speedy cure. It is also a
oil of the highest purity, and any principle which preserves a body,
dead or alive, from putrefaction. (A preserver of all bodies from
and putrefaction. Of two kindsinternal and external. The internal is
or moderate, neither sour nor sweet ; a resolved salt or juice of the
in man. Externally a balsam which prevents decay.)
BALSUM OF MUMMIES --- is Balsam extracted from flesh.
BALSAMUS ELEMENTORUM EXTERNUS --- External Balsam of the
is Liquor of External Mercury, i.e., Mummy of the Exterior Elements,
of the three
Principles of all Things, the Firmamental Essence of Existences, the
BARACH PANIS --- Saltpetre.
BARCATA --- The Way of Fire.
BARDADIA --- A Pound.
BARNABUS, BARNAAS --- Wine of Saltpetre is a very acid
BASILICUS MINOR --- A kind of Lizard, Newt, or Eft.
BARURAC --- Glass.
BASURA --- Semen.
BASED, or BESED --- is Coral.
BATITURA AERIS --- Cubelatas. See Infra.
BATILLUM --- A Shovel or Chafing-dish.
BATTITURA RAMI --- is Copper Slag.
BATTITURA AERIS --- is Metallic Slag; in Greek, Lepidos; in
Cubel, or Tubel, or Fuligo (smoke, soot); in German, Haneerschlag.
BAUL --- is Urine.
BAURACH --- is Conglomerate Salt.
BAURAC --- A substance obtained from the scum of glass, or
--- is Bores (untranslatable) --- is Metallic Salt ; also a blemish in
gems --- is bleached Litharge of Sapphires, white Litharge Composition
--- is a kind of Salt, Sal Abzedi ; and Diabesis, i.e., covering of
--- is Vitreous Salt, Vitreous Refuse, Vitreous Spume, Vitreous Gall
is Attinckar, i.e., Rock Borax --- is a certain species of Brine ---
is Baurac prepared by fire --- is a Plaster with which fissures are
Also Goldsmith's Meal --- is also Saltpetre, Armenian and Sulphureous.
BAYDA --- is a vessel over which distillation takes place.
BELESON --- is Balsam.
BERCOS --- is Circular.
BERNA, or BIRMINA --- is a Transparent Vessel.
BERILLISTICA --- is the art of perceiving visions in the
BERILLUS --- is a Crystal Mirror superstitiously
BERRIONIS, or COLOPHONIA --- A dark-coloured Resin
from Turpentine. The Gum of the Juniper. Called also Bernix. Also a
of Linseed Oil.
BERYLLUS --- This stone has much the same nature as the
Beryls are indigenous to India and are rarely found elsewhere. They are
all embellished with six angles, and their colour does not change, but
is increased when the angles are struck. The varieties of Beryl are as
1. The best and most esteemed are those which excel the green of
deep sea, or are otherwise of a middle colour between sea-green and
2. Next to this species are the Chrysoberylli, a little paler,
an effulgence in a gold colour. They glitter more faintly, and are
by a cloudy golden.
3. Chrysoprasus, more pallid than the last. They have a composite
of gold and leek-green. They are regarded as a species of Prasius on
of their gold-coloured spots, which seem, as it were, coagulated in the
sap of a leek, as before stated.
4. Hyacinthizontes, which properly should be classified with the
as their appearance demonstrates.
6. Cerini, i.e., wax-coloured Beryls.
7. Oleagini, i.e., of the colour of oil.
8. Similar to crystals. These have blemishes, cloudy spots,
Beryls are found about the Pontus. The Indians who, more than any
nation, delight in Beryls, have falsified them by operating on
For the rest, the Beryl is supposed to compel love, to cure complaints
of the eye and liver, and to diminish the violence of vomiting ;
to the sun, it is said that it will kindle a fire. See Pliny, 1. 37, c.
5; Solinus (Polychist, c. 55) and Albertus (Lapid.)
BESACHAR --- Fungus, Sponge.
BESONNA, BEZONNAR --- Toadstool.
BEZAAR or BESAR --- Green Stone, Diabase.
BIARCHETUNSIM, PYTHIUM --- Names of White Lead.
BILADEN --- is Calips, Calybs, or Steel.
BISEMATUM --- is the lightest, palest, and poorest species
BITRINATI --- Coeruleum Montanum. Glazed.
BITUMEN --- Jews' Pitch, Fossil Tar, Dry Coal.
BITUMEN --- Called by the Greeks Asphalt, possibly on
of the asphalt lake in Judea, which is now called the Red Sea, where
stood Sodom and Gomorrah. Out of this lake a viscous asphalt is
which is useful to man when everything else near it is utterly barren.
Bitumen is also said to exist in large quantities in Assyria and
where it was used as mortar for walls. Indeed Semiramis is said to have
built the walls of Babylon entirely with bitumen. Bitumen is said to be
plentiful in Babylon because lightning is so frequent in that place.
is nothing but a lime of water, very slowly extracted, similar to
and, as it were, an earthy pitch. On this account Dioscorides, in his
book, makes mention of Bitumen immediately after treating of pitch, and
enumerates the species which are brought from Xtolia, Babylon,
and Sicily. He states that it is of good quality when it is of purple
or has a purplish brilliancy ; it is, on the contrary, bad and corrupt
when it is black. For the rest, as to its nature, Bitumen is twofold,
hard, earthy, and fluidic; in water also and in springs, as Curtius
in which state some use it instead of oil, calling it erroneously
Oil. Pliny affirms that Bitumen is either Lime or an Earth; it is
in the form of lime from the Judean lake. In Babylon it is found both
and liquid, and this is Pissasphaltus (a mixture of pitch and resin),
liquid and nearer to the nature of pitch. A beautiful passage in the
metamorphosis of Ovid refers to the Bitumen derived from the earth: "As
the tenacious bitumen flows on the bountiful earth ". The best quality
is that, however, which comes from Judea. It is undoubtedly a species
naphtha, but not naphtha proper, as some will have it. See Serapion in
his chapter of Brafalendus.
Naphtha is Petroleum, and a liquid oil. But Bitumen is
tenacious; can be often reduced to powder, but is not soluble, and has
the offensive smell of naphtha. I am surprised that it should at times
be found in water, and is thus occasionally a substance in an element
is hostile to fire, and again in an element which is friendly to fire;
it burns more fiercely when cast into running waters.
Nicander, in his Antidotes against Poison, affirms that Bitumen
away venomous animals. When drunk with wine, it certainly cures
Its vehement and sharp spirit expels the quartan ague. It is not
therefore, that it drives away venomous animals. It was used formerly
colouring statues and hardening iron. See the Arabian writers on this
also Dioscorides, Pliny, Solinus, Strabo, and others. A word may be
concerning Pissasphalt. It is lighter than bitumen, and has its name
picth and bitumen ; perhaps it exhales a mixed odour of both. It is of
two kinds --- that which is produced naturally, and that which is
by art from pitch and bitumen. The one is described by Dioscorides (1.
1, c. 18), the other by Pliny (1. 24 c. 7), (when bitumen and pitch are
melted together). That passage in the Third Georgics about the pitch of
Ida and black bitumen must be understood as referring to a cure for
in sheep, unless we are to understand the sordid and evil black
or liquid Sicilian Bitumen. For the rest, natural Pissasphalton is
from the neighbourhood of Epidaurus. Other varieties of Bitumen are
BITUMEN PERVERSUM --- is a liquid of uncertain nature, a
of lime, or juice.
BITUMEN SULPHUREA TERRA --- is a fatty sap or exudition;
Copper Ore containing Quartz, etc.
There are many species of Bitumen: Liquid, like oil in appearance,
petroleum. There is the odorous liquid Bitumen of Saxony, cleansing,
with a smell of natural camphor. There is the gross, black Bitumen,
takes its name from the Lake of Sodom; with this the Moors embalm dead
bodies. There is the black, gross Palestine Bitumen, which is dug up
coal from the earth.
BLANCA MULIERUM, and BLACTARA MULIERUM --- are
BLICARE --- is prepared Presil (unknown).
BLINCTA --- Red Earth.
BODAGI --- is a kind of vessel.
BODID, OVUM --- Egg.
BOF --- Living Calx.
BOLESIS --- Coral:
BOLUS --- Slime, clay, devoid of any mineral substance.
BOLUS --- is, in metallurgy, ore decayed by the weather; in
a substance formed in small crystals on the surface of a stone.
BOLUS --- is a specific coagulate, which is essential and
a certain essence freed from impurities and foreign matters by
which is necessarily preceded by solution; it is a separation and
such as that which is seen in boli, to give them a fixity and
shape like the Bolaris, but it makes little difference to the essence.
[N.B. --- This passage almost defies translation.]
1. The white Julian Bolus, made of the yoke of eggs, approaching
in colour. The Armenian variety is not dissimilar.
2. The true Pannonian Bolus.
3. The Yolk of Theophrastus.
4. The Bohemian Bolus, white or red, invented by Paracelsus.
5. Bolus of Anneberg; mountain Bolus.
6. The true Armenian Bolus, prized by the Turkish Sultan, and used
the Turks against fever, plague, and quinsy.
The Armenian Bolus, Cartwrights' Earth.
The Armenian Bolus, found in abundance at Villacum and
it is hard and like Pumice Stone in colour when first removed from the
earth. Some term it Hematite, Blood-stone, Red Earth, or Chalk.
BOLUS INDIACUS --- is Al (unknown).
BONATI --- That is pellucid.
BORADES --- Fit for polishing.
BORAX --- is Chrysocolla (Borax), or Ranunculus.
BORAX --- is a gum with which gold and silver are combined.
it is called natural Attinckar.
BORACO --- is also called a band of gold.
BORERS, or CARBAS --- East by North.
BORITIS --- is the White Stone after the Black Slate. It
earth to water.
BOTAMUM --- is votive lead.
BOTUS, BOTIA, BOTUS BARBATUS, or BARBOTUS --- is a
called Cucurbite, which see.
BOTUS BARBATUS --- is a vessel imposed on another vessel
which gold is melted.
BONUS BARBOTUS --- Vessel for melting --- Vessel into which
are poured from above --- Vessel for mixing --- joined for the
BOTIN, or BUTIMO --- is Turpentine. Item. Balsam of
is the essence
concentrated therefrom, according to the law of balsamic influence,
a state when it is thought to have drawn more virtues from the heavens.
BOTHOR --- is a pimply, postulous, tuberculous eruption on
skin, generally white; abscesses. Called also Box, Cezesmata,
BOTIUM --- An abscess without excrescence in the gullet,
a wen. Boxus-Misletoe.
BRACTIA --- A thin plate or scale of metal.
BRACTEAE LAMINAE --- Larger plates of metal; an instrument
the sole of a shoe.
BRACTEAE FERREAE --- Plates of iron.
BRACTEAE SIMUL JUNCTAE --- Plates locked together.
BRACIUM --- Copper.
BRARICIA --- Glass.
BRASATELLA, BRASADELLA, OPHIOGLOSSUM, LINGUAR SERPENTINA,
LINGULACA, and LANCER CHRISTI --- terms for the most part
sharp pointed instruments like lances --- are found frequently near
and are natural objects.
BRASE --- Coals, charcoal.
BRELISIS --- That is, Katanos (unexplained).
BRUMATI TERREUM --- A transparent vessel.
BRUNUS, BRIMIS --- St. Anthony's Fire, Erysipelas. Called
BRUTA --- is a certain virtue of the celestial influence
is manifested to reasonable beings through the brute creation, as in
Chelidonia by the swallow, and in Salt by the stork. (The celandine is
said to be used by swallows to restore sight to their young). N.B.---
is also a stone called Chelidonius, which was said to be found in the
of young swallows.
BUCCELLARE --- To feed, or fatten.
BUCCELLARE --- To cut in small pieces.
BULBUS BULBI --- Probably the Sea-Onion or Sea-Leek.
BUCCATUM --- Transparent.
BUGA --- Leathern bottle in which running water is poured
BULGARE SE HAURIENS AQUAS --- A leathern bottle for drawing
BULGARUM GUBERNATOR --- Overseer of the workshops.
BURINA --- Pitch.
BURAC --- Any species of Salt, called also by other names,
as Baurac Barago, Borax, Uritar, Angar.
BUSTA --- Oiled with poison.
BUTIGA --- Red spots or swellings, is an eruption of the
BUTYRUM SATURNI --- Cheese of Saturn, i.e., Altheus of
A ~ B ~ C
~ D ~ E ~ F
~ G ~ H ~ I
~ J ~ K ~ L
~ M ~ N ~ O
~ P ~ Q ~ R
~ S ~ T ~ U
~ V ~ W ~ X
~ Y ~ Z ~ Supplement
Your Support Maintains
this Service -- and Your Survival ...
Rex Research Civilization Kit
... It's Your Best Bet &
Investment in Sustainable
Humanity on Earth ...
Everything @ rexresearch.com,
plus the Bonus Files CD !
<< $13, Postpaid Anywhere >>
Rex Research, POB 19250, Jean, NV 89019