A Lexicon of Alchemy
Martin RULAND the Elder
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BACAR --- Weight, ponderosity.
BACILLUM --- A short stick.
BACILLUM FERREUM FOSSORUM TERES --- Iron rod, with which a passage is forced.
BACILLA EX ACIE FACTA --- A punch; otherwise, spike.
BACILLA FERREA SUCULA INCLUSA --- A rod used in raising a winch, windlass, or capstan.
BACILLUM FERREUM --- A nail, or push-pick.
BACILLA FERREA --- Merchant-iron.
BACULUS FERREUS --- is an iron instrument for the support of a super-imposed vessel.
BACILLA MAJORA FERREA UNCINATA --- The same, but larger, and furnished with iron hooks.
BACILLUS TERES STRIATUS --- A long hollow stick.
BAGEDIA --- A pound of 12 ounces.
BAIAC --- is Wax.
BALZIAM --- is a kind of pulse.
BALASIUS --- Burns and glows with a red colour, and is by some called Placidus. Some think it to be the Carbuncle diminished in colour and virtue, in the same proportion that the strength of the female differs from that of the male. Some have ascertained that the outer portion of one and the same stone belongs to the Balasius, the interior to the Carbuncle, and thus the Balasius is said to be the house of the Carbuncle. The potency of the Balasius consists in arresting and restraining impurity and evil thoughts, conciliating differences between friends, and conducing to the health of the human body. When preserved and drunk with water, it assists weakness of the eyes, is serviceable in diseases of the liver, and, what I conceive to be more wonderful, if the four angles of a house, garden, or vineyard, be touched with a Balasius, it will enjoy immunity from lightning, storms, and worms.
BALITISTERA --- Red Earth.
BALNEUM MARIAE --- Warm Water.
BALNEUM, ALUID MARIS, ALUID RORIS --- A bath of sea water, or dew.
BALNEUM MARIS or MARIAE --- is the dissolution of a substance in a suitable vessel of warm water, after which it is placed in the copper vessel belonging to it, and therein the operation is completed.
BALNEUM RORIS --- is so called when a vessel does not touch the water, but is heated by the ascending vapour of hot water, and the matter in the vessel is dissolved thereby.
BALNEUM MARIAE, and BALNEUM MARIS --- As it is called by many, is a distillatory furnace containing water, into which, when hot, a chemical vessel is placed for the putrefaction of the substance contained in it, for the separation of its component parts, and completing the process of that kind of humid evaporation.
BALNEUM RORIS or RORITUM --- Bath of Dew or Dewy Bath is a furnace in which the distillatory vase is suspended only over the steam of water, in such a manner that the waters do not touch the body. We call this bath also by the name of Vapour Bath --- Balneum vaporosum or vaporarium.
BALSAM --- Pitch, the moisture which remains.
BALSAMUM --- Balsam is a substance which preserves bodies from putrefaction. It is internal and external. In man the internal is a certain very moderating substance neither bitter nor sweet, neither acid nor mineral salt, but a fluidic salt which most effectually prevents putrefaction. It is also called a most tempered gluten of the nature of any body to which it belongs. Briefly, it is the liquor of an interior salt most carefully and naturally preserving its body from corruption. The external is Terebinth, which, according to Paracelsus, suffers nothing but digestion from the operation of fire.
In German, the term Baldzamen, i.e., quickly joined, is applied in chirurgery to anything which effects a speedy cure. It is also a distilled oil of the highest purity, and any principle which preserves a body, whether dead or alive, from putrefaction. (A preserver of all bodies from destruction and putrefaction. Of two kindsinternal and external. The internal is tempered or moderate, neither sour nor sweet ; a resolved salt or juice of the salt in man. Externally a balsam which prevents decay.)
BALSUM OF MUMMIES --- is Balsam extracted from flesh.
BALSAMUS ELEMENTORUM EXTERNUS --- External Balsam of the Elements is Liquor of External Mercury, i.e., Mummy of the Exterior Elements, one of the three
Principles of all Things, the Firmamental Essence of Existences, the Quintessence.
BARACH PANIS --- Saltpetre.
BARCATA --- The Way of Fire.
BARDADIA --- A Pound.
BARNABUS, BARNAAS --- Wine of Saltpetre is a very acid vinegar.
BASILICUS MINOR --- A kind of Lizard, Newt, or Eft.
BARURAC --- Glass.
BASURA --- Semen.
BASED, or BESED --- is Coral.
BATITURA AERIS --- Cubelatas. See Infra.
BATILLUM --- A Shovel or Chafing-dish.
BATTITURA RAMI --- is Copper Slag.
BATTITURA AERIS --- is Metallic Slag; in Greek, Lepidos; in Arabic, Cubel, or Tubel, or Fuligo (smoke, soot); in German, Haneerschlag.
BAUL --- is Urine.
BAURACH --- is Conglomerate Salt.
BAURAC --- A substance obtained from the scum of glass, or nitre --- is Bores (untranslatable) --- is Metallic Salt ; also a blemish in gems --- is bleached Litharge of Sapphires, white Litharge Composition --- is a kind of Salt, Sal Abzedi ; and Diabesis, i.e., covering of Quicksilver --- is Vitreous Salt, Vitreous Refuse, Vitreous Spume, Vitreous Gall --- is Attinckar, i.e., Rock Borax --- is a certain species of Brine --- Acurum is Baurac prepared by fire --- is a Plaster with which fissures are covered. Also Goldsmith's Meal --- is also Saltpetre, Armenian and Sulphureous.
BAYDA --- is a vessel over which distillation takes place.
BELESON --- is Balsam.
BERCOS --- is Circular.
BERNA, or BIRMINA --- is a Transparent Vessel.
BERILLISTICA --- is the art of perceiving visions in the Berillus.
BERILLUS --- is a Crystal Mirror superstitiously consecrated to auguries.
BERRIONIS, or COLOPHONIA --- A dark-coloured Resin obtained from Turpentine. The Gum of the Juniper. Called also Bernix. Also a preparation of Linseed Oil.
BERYLLUS --- This stone has much the same nature as the emerald; Beryls are indigenous to India and are rarely found elsewhere. They are all embellished with six angles, and their colour does not change, but is increased when the angles are struck. The varieties of Beryl are as follow:
1. The best and most esteemed are those which excel the green of the deep sea, or are otherwise of a middle colour between sea-green and cerulean.
2. Next to this species are the Chrysoberylli, a little paler, exhibiting an effulgence in a gold colour. They glitter more faintly, and are surrounded by a cloudy golden.
3. Chrysoprasus, more pallid than the last. They have a composite lustre of gold and leek-green. They are regarded as a species of Prasius on account of their gold-coloured spots, which seem, as it were, coagulated in the sap of a leek, as before stated.
4. Hyacinthizontes, which properly should be classified with the Hyacinthus, as their appearance demonstrates.
6. Cerini, i.e., wax-coloured Beryls.
7. Oleagini, i.e., of the colour of oil.
8. Similar to crystals. These have blemishes, cloudy spots, speckles, filaments, etc.
Beryls are found about the Pontus. The Indians who, more than any other nation, delight in Beryls, have falsified them by operating on crystals. For the rest, the Beryl is supposed to compel love, to cure complaints of the eye and liver, and to diminish the violence of vomiting ; exposed to the sun, it is said that it will kindle a fire. See Pliny, 1. 37, c. 5; Solinus (Polychist, c. 55) and Albertus (Lapid.)
BESACHAR --- Fungus, Sponge.
BESONNA, BEZONNAR --- Toadstool.
BEZAAR or BESAR --- Green Stone, Diabase.
BIARCHETUNSIM, PYTHIUM --- Names of White Lead.
BILADEN --- is Calips, Calybs, or Steel.
BISEMATUM --- is the lightest, palest, and poorest species of Lead.
BITRINATI --- Coeruleum Montanum. Glazed.
BITUMEN --- Jews' Pitch, Fossil Tar, Dry Coal.
BITUMEN --- Called by the Greeks Asphalt, possibly on account of the asphalt lake in Judea, which is now called the Red Sea, where once stood Sodom and Gomorrah. Out of this lake a viscous asphalt is obtained which is useful to man when everything else near it is utterly barren. Bitumen is also said to exist in large quantities in Assyria and Chaldea, where it was used as mortar for walls. Indeed Semiramis is said to have built the walls of Babylon entirely with bitumen. Bitumen is said to be plentiful in Babylon because lightning is so frequent in that place. Bitumen is nothing but a lime of water, very slowly extracted, similar to pitch, and, as it were, an earthy pitch. On this account Dioscorides, in his first book, makes mention of Bitumen immediately after treating of pitch, and enumerates the species which are brought from Xtolia, Babylon, Zacynthos, and Sicily. He states that it is of good quality when it is of purple colour, or has a purplish brilliancy ; it is, on the contrary, bad and corrupt when it is black. For the rest, as to its nature, Bitumen is twofold, viscous, hard, earthy, and fluidic; in water also and in springs, as Curtius testifies, in which state some use it instead of oil, calling it erroneously Sicilian Oil. Pliny affirms that Bitumen is either Lime or an Earth; it is obtained in the form of lime from the Judean lake. In Babylon it is found both white and liquid, and this is Pissasphaltus (a mixture of pitch and resin), more liquid and nearer to the nature of pitch. A beautiful passage in the ninth metamorphosis of Ovid refers to the Bitumen derived from the earth: "As the tenacious bitumen flows on the bountiful earth ". The best quality is that, however, which comes from Judea. It is undoubtedly a species of naphtha, but not naphtha proper, as some will have it. See Serapion in his chapter of Brafalendus.
Naphtha is Petroleum, and a liquid oil. But Bitumen is Asphalt-hard, tenacious; can be often reduced to powder, but is not soluble, and has the offensive smell of naphtha. I am surprised that it should at times be found in water, and is thus occasionally a substance in an element which is hostile to fire, and again in an element which is friendly to fire; it burns more fiercely when cast into running waters.
Nicander, in his Antidotes against Poison, affirms that Bitumen drives away venomous animals. When drunk with wine, it certainly cures epilepsy. Its vehement and sharp spirit expels the quartan ague. It is not incredible, therefore, that it drives away venomous animals. It was used formerly in colouring statues and hardening iron. See the Arabian writers on this subject, also Dioscorides, Pliny, Solinus, Strabo, and others. A word may be added concerning Pissasphalt. It is lighter than bitumen, and has its name from picth and bitumen ; perhaps it exhales a mixed odour of both. It is of two kinds --- that which is produced naturally, and that which is manufactured by art from pitch and bitumen. The one is described by Dioscorides (1. 1, c. 18), the other by Pliny (1. 24 c. 7), (when bitumen and pitch are melted together). That passage in the Third Georgics about the pitch of Ida and black bitumen must be understood as referring to a cure for scab in sheep, unless we are to understand the sordid and evil black Bitumen, or liquid Sicilian Bitumen. For the rest, natural Pissasphalton is obtained from the neighbourhood of Epidaurus. Other varieties of Bitumen are considered below.
BITUMEN PERVERSUM --- is a liquid of uncertain nature, a kind of lime, or juice.
BITUMEN SULPHUREA TERRA --- is a fatty sap or exudition; Brimstone, Copper Ore containing Quartz, etc.
There are many species of Bitumen: Liquid, like oil in appearance, and petroleum. There is the odorous liquid Bitumen of Saxony, cleansing, and with a smell of natural camphor. There is the gross, black Bitumen, which takes its name from the Lake of Sodom; with this the Moors embalm dead bodies. There is the black, gross Palestine Bitumen, which is dug up like coal from the earth.
BLANCA MULIERUM, and BLACTARA MULIERUM --- are names of White Lead.
BLICARE --- is prepared Presil (unknown).
BLINCTA --- Red Earth.
BODAGI --- is a kind of vessel.
BODID, OVUM --- Egg.
BOF --- Living Calx.
BOLESIS --- Coral:
BOLUS --- Slime, clay, devoid of any mineral substance.
BOLUS --- is, in metallurgy, ore decayed by the weather; in mineralogy, a substance formed in small crystals on the surface of a stone.
BOLUS --- is a specific coagulate, which is essential and chemical, a certain essence freed from impurities and foreign matters by coagulation, which is necessarily preceded by solution; it is a separation and solidification such as that which is seen in boli, to give them a fixity and homogeneous shape like the Bolaris, but it makes little difference to the essence. [N.B. --- This passage almost defies translation.]
1. The white Julian Bolus, made of the yoke of eggs, approaching red in colour. The Armenian variety is not dissimilar.
2. The true Pannonian Bolus.
3. The Yolk of Theophrastus.
4. The Bohemian Bolus, white or red, invented by Paracelsus.
5. Bolus of Anneberg; mountain Bolus.
6. The true Armenian Bolus, prized by the Turkish Sultan, and used by the Turks against fever, plague, and quinsy.
The Armenian Bolus, Cartwrights' Earth.
The Armenian Bolus, found in abundance at Villacum and Halberstadt; it is hard and like Pumice Stone in colour when first removed from the earth. Some term it Hematite, Blood-stone, Red Earth, or Chalk.
BOLUS INDIACUS --- is Al (unknown).
BONATI --- That is pellucid.
BORADES --- Fit for polishing.
BORAX --- is Chrysocolla (Borax), or Ranunculus.
BORAX --- is a gum with which gold and silver are combined. And it is called natural Attinckar.
BORACO --- is also called a band of gold.
BORERS, or CARBAS --- East by North.
BORITIS --- is the White Stone after the Black Slate. It reduces earth to water.
BOTAMUM --- is votive lead.
BOTUS, BOTIA, BOTUS BARBATUS, or BARBOTUS --- is a vessel called Cucurbite, which see.
BOTUS BARBATUS --- is a vessel imposed on another vessel into which gold is melted.
BONUS BARBOTUS --- Vessel for melting --- Vessel into which liquids are poured from above --- Vessel for mixing --- joined for the operation of fusion.
BOTIN, or BUTIMO --- is Turpentine. Item. Balsam of Turpentine is the essence
concentrated therefrom, according to the law of balsamic influence, a state when it is thought to have drawn more virtues from the heavens.
BOTHOR --- is a pimply, postulous, tuberculous eruption on the skin, generally white; abscesses. Called also Box, Cezesmata, Pyrhedones.
BOTIUM --- An abscess without excrescence in the gullet, like a wen. Boxus-Misletoe.
BRACTIA --- A thin plate or scale of metal.
BRACTEAE LAMINAE --- Larger plates of metal; an instrument like the sole of a shoe.
BRACTEAE FERREAE --- Plates of iron.
BRACTEAE SIMUL JUNCTAE --- Plates locked together.
BRACIUM --- Copper.
BRARICIA --- Glass.
BRASATELLA, BRASADELLA, OPHIOGLOSSUM, LINGUAR SERPENTINA, LANCEOLA, LINGULACA, and LANCER CHRISTI --- terms for the most part signifying sharp pointed instruments like lances --- are found frequently near Strasburg, and are natural objects.
BRASE --- Coals, charcoal.
BRELISIS --- That is, Katanos (unexplained).
BRUMATI TERREUM --- A transparent vessel.
BRUNUS, BRIMIS --- St. Anthony's Fire, Erysipelas. Called also Erythopelas and
BRUTA --- is a certain virtue of the celestial influence which is manifested to reasonable beings through the brute creation, as in the Chelidonia by the swallow, and in Salt by the stork. (The celandine is said to be used by swallows to restore sight to their young). N.B.--- There is also a stone called Chelidonius, which was said to be found in the maws of young swallows.
BUCCELLARE --- To feed, or fatten.
BUCCELLARE --- To cut in small pieces.
BULBUS BULBI --- Probably the Sea-Onion or Sea-Leek. Officinal Squill.
BUCCATUM --- Transparent.
BUGA --- Leathern bottle in which running water is poured through a pipe.
BULGA PE SE HAURIENS AQUAS --- A leathern bottle for drawing up water.
BULGARUM GUBERNATOR --- Overseer of the workshops.
BURINA --- Pitch.
BURAC --- Any species of Salt, called also by other names, such as Baurac Barago, Borax, Uritar, Angar.
BUSTA --- Oiled with poison.
BUTIGA --- Red spots or swellings, is an eruption of the whole face.
BUTYRUM SATURNI --- Cheese of Saturn, i.e., Altheus of Lead.
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