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Alchemy Index


A Lexicon of Alchemy

by

Martin RULANDUS







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I I I


ICTERITIA RUBEA --- Erysipelas.

IDAM --- Victuals, Food.

IDIOTAE --- are the Despisers of the True Arts, although they may be most able professors of false ones.

IDROAGIRA --- Alkaline Water.

IDRAOGIROS --- A Dung-hill used as a Furnace.

IFFIDES --- White Lead, Ashes of Lead.

IGNIS --- is, according to some opinions, the Oil which comes to the surface in distillation.

IGNIS --- Fire for the Stone of the Philosophers.

1. Bernhard says he would have preferred to reveal it; they say it should be made with dung, lamps, or coals. The first degree takes place in water, the second in ashes, the third in sand, the fourth in iron, or in the flame.

2. Rosarius says: The heat of dung operates in digestion; the bath is useless. Some will have it that ashes should be put into the bath, and if the fire is to be increased, sand must be put therein.

3. They compare the rule of the fire to the four seasons of the year. Aurora says: Make a dampish fire; digest and coct it steadily, without letting it flicker or boil over; skilfully enclose all round with air, so that nothing may burn, alter, or penetrate. So also says Trevisan.

4. The first grade of the fire lasts until the white appears, and takes place with one lamp in three months. The next takes place until the white breaks up, with two wicks in the space of three months. The third until the white is fixed; the fourth until the end of three months.

5. The flame must not touch the cask.

6. The glass must not be taken out until all is ready. Let not others deceive you.

7. When you have decided to put in the matter, the glass and the matter must he warm; then shake the whole effectually together, so that it may sink to the bottom; then seal it.

8. In the distillation the alembic must be of glass, and covered at all joints.

9. Trevisan says: Cook it so that the elements may remain, and regulate it so that the water may not be destroyed. Regulate the earth 5o that the air may not be destroyed. The ash is a dead thing and cannot be raised up. But the calx can be raised up.

IGNIS ALGIR --- is a very powerful Fire.

IGNIS CALOR --- Caloric is either natural or artificial.

IGNIS CLARE ARDENS --- Clear burning Fire, is Sulphur.

IGNIS ELEMENTARIS --- is Sulphur, but not vulgar sulphur.

IGNIS EXSTINCTUS --- Extinguished Fire, is Sulphur deprived of its virtue.

IGNIS PERSICUS --- Persian Fire, is an Ulcer torturing with a fiery heat.

IGNIS PRUINUS ADEPTUS --- Adeptic Frozen Fire, is Quintessence of Wine, Spirit of Wine, rectified with Tartar.

IGNIS LEONIS --- Fire of the Lion, Elemental Fire, Aether, called also Pyr, Ethos, Jupiter Argos, names for the element of fire.

The four grades of fire must be studied by operators, for so is fire distributed, there being not one grade merely at the crowd conceive ; so also the beginning, middle, and end of these stages must be considered, as they were observed by the primeval philosophers. They must be appreciated, however, not by the senses only, but by their effect in their proper subjects, and by judgment joined to the perceptions of sense, and chiefly of sight and touch. The first grade is very slow, and is like an inactive lukewarmness; it is called the heat of a tepid bath, of excrement, of digestion, of circulation, etc. This grade is shown to the touch when the finger of a sensitive man can stand it without begetting any acute feeling of heat. Of this nature is the vapourous fire of the philosophers which is likened to the warmth generated by a fowl when hatching its young, or of a man rightly constituted by nature. It is generally as follows: such as is yielded by a furnace of a gently kindled vapour-bath, or such as is that of an earthenware melting-pot placed on a furnace, or of a vapour-bath placed in a sound vessel over a moderate heat. The second grade is fiercer, yet such that it is safe to touch, nor does it injure the hand. They call it the heat of the ashes, because it is produced by a fire kindled under a cinder-pan. Cinders on account of their fineness do not produce much air. The third grade will burn the hand, and is compared to boiling sand or iron filings; it is called the fire of sand or of iron plates. The fourth is the highest grade, and is generally the most destructive. It is the reverberatory fire, and a living flame is produced from wood or coals easily influenced by the bellows. These grades when we refer to their effects in certain cases differ very much. The grade which is last in that of vegetables is first in antimony; but the first grade may be understood as the heat of a bath. Nevertheless, in the operation of the bath, there may be all four grades; the first when heat is produced with a little water, the second when it is very fierce, the third when it rages, the fourth when it destroys by extreme ebullition.

IGNIS SAPIENTUM --- Fire of the Wise, is warm Horse Dung.

IGNITIO --- is Calcination, the Reduction of Bodies by the powerful action of fire into Calx. It is also Combustion and Reverberation.

ILECH CRUDUM --- Crude Ilech, is a composition of the first matter of the three prime principles --- Mercury, Salt and Sulphur --- whereof all things are composed.

ILECH MAGNUM --- is the Ascendant or Star of Medicine, which we receive with the medicine, wherein it is concealed ; as the superior stars in the firmament, so the inferior in man. It is given in medicine, but it is also implanted in man.

ILECH PRIMUM --- is Principle or Beginning. Called also Ileias and Ileadus.

ILECH SUPRA NATURALE --- Supernatural Ilech, or Primal Ilech of the Stars, is a supercelestial conjunction and union of the stars of the firmament with the stars of inferior things.

ILEIDOS --- is Elemental Air, the Firmament, Heaven. In man, it is the Spirit which permeates every member.

ILIASTER --- signifies in general the Occult Virtue of Nature, by which all thing increase, are nourished, multiply and quicken, concerning which consult Paracelsus in his book of Meteoric Generation. But it is understood variously concerning the elements and concerning man. In the elements it is the Vegetative Essences of Nature, which are fourfold, according to the number of the elements, and it is called Chaos.

ILIASTER, ELIASTER, or ILIADUM --- is the first chaos of the matter of all things, constituted of Sulphur, Salt and Mercury. There is nothing in the wide nature of things which does not consist of this triplicity, and these are the three principles of Theophrastus which are discovered by spagyric analysis. We find nothing outside this triad which exists in each of its three components in each element. Fernelius comments on them in his Medicine of Inherent Moisture. Of these also the ancients treated, and they were not therefore discovered by Theophrastus, but he recalled them when they were forgotten from darkness into light. It is quadruple, we have seen, in the four elements. There is the chaos of earth, the chaos of water, the chaos of air, and the chaos of fire. There are also four Iliastri of men, constituting long life. The first, or implanted, is the span of life, even life itself or its balsam in man.

The second Iliaster, prepared Iliaster, is the span of life, and the life itself, which we derive from the elements or from elementary things.

The third Iliaster is the prepared span of the balsam which we derive from the quintessence of things.

The fourth, or great, Iliaster is the passage of the mind or soul into the other world, as took place with Enoch, Elias, and others.

IMAGINATIO --- is the Star in Man, the Celestial or Supercelestial Body.

IMAGINES --- Images, are Effigies in Wax or Metal, wherein the celestial virtues operate.

IMBIBERE --- To Imbibe, is to thicken by rubbing, polishing, etc.

IMBIBITIO --- is Ablution, when a liquid joined to a body is made light, and, finding no exit retreats into the body, and washes it so long with frequent lustrations, until it is wholly coagulate therewith, and is unable to rise further, but the whole remains fixed. This assuredly is a philosophical operation, nor does it yield its secret to the vulgar.

IMMERSIVA CORROSIO --- takes place when bodies are plunged in other substances, and reduced to a calx. It is either humid or dry.

IMPRESSIONES --- Impressions, Seals, or Signatures are invisible fruits of the stars of inferiors, not of sun and moots.

IMPURUM ALCALI --- is Froth of Alcali, which is carried off in repurging after building up.

IMPURUM TARTARI --- A Rough Salt, Dregs of Tartar.

IN GLOBULOS DISSOLVERE --- To Melt into Globules.

IN MARMORE VEL IN MARMARIO TERERE --- To Rub upon a Marble Slab.

INANIMATI --- are the Pygmies.

INCARNATIVA --- of Surgeons are Medicaments for contracting the skin over wounds, or Flesh Astringents.

INCERATIO --- is the combination of moisture with a dry matter to the consistence of soft wax by a gradual blending. It is hence called a waxing over. There is also an imbibition performed by irrigation, the dry substance absorbing the moist. This is also the nutrition of physicians, in which the gum sarcocolla, litharge, and other things are absorbed by moisture, and become suitable for use.

INCIBIA --- Graves walled over or covered with stones.

INCINERATIO --- is an Ignition converting bodies into ashes by means of a powerful fire. We speak of vegetables or animals as incinerated, but the same operation performed on minerals we describe (in chemical language) as reduction to a calx.

INCINERATIO and SCOURING --- When the black begins to yield, and the matter to whiten like ashes, then fire and water, or earth and water, combine; the water disappears, earth increases, till all is parched, dry, and like powder.

INCLINATIO --- Inclination is the bent of Nature, or the disposition which indicates the nature of a man.

INCORPORATIO --- Incorporation is Commingling, in which things moist are immediately blended with things dry into a conglomerate mass. But this is not done by a slow imbibing, but the whole fluid is at once poured on in sufficient quantity to produce a paste, whence the operation is called impacting, or kneading, or by others subaction and pounding. Incorporated substances are, however, left for digestion by means of heat, so that by mutual action and passion a common mingling may obtain.

INCUBA --- is the Bride of the Sun.

INCUBUS --- is a Nocturnal Demon which tempts and deceives women in sleep, as if they had carnal intercourse therewith.

INDICUM SAL, SAL GEMMAE --- is Cappadocia Gemma, a Precious Stone found in Phrygia and polished in Cappadocia.

INDICUM --- Indigo, is a Spume of two species, namely, Native Indigo, which is found to exist spontaneously in certain Indian reeds. It is called Indigo Stone by painters, but erroneously, for it is not a stone. Adarca, a thick salt scum which collects about reeds in marshy places, is very similar to indigo, but it is afterwards treated by art, whereas indigo is natural. There is, however, a second species made by dyers ; it is of purple colour, and is manufactured in caldrons. This is the better kind. It has a blue appearance, and is called by the Germans Woadflower, or Indian colour. It i slightly astringent, bursts, purges, and reduces ulcers. Pliny (1. 35, c. 6) remarks that natural indigo is as to its nature and constituents undetermined. The manufactured is produced from the black scum which adheres to brazen or copper caldrons. Others affirm that it is simply the sap of herbs, with which clothes are dyed, that they call indigo, that is woad, which is otherwise domestically familiar in Thuringia, where it is much used in dyes. This is properly a manufactured indigo, but there is also a wild woad. Consult Dioscorides, 1. 2.

INDICUS COLOR --- Indigo Blue.

INFLUENTIA --- Influx; when by thought and imagination we attract to us the virtues and natures of the planets and superior stars. It is two-fold, that which derives to us through the medium of created things, such as the influx of heaven through the firmament, and that which is given to us immediately, that is, by God alone ; the second is supernatural as the first is artificial, natural, and moral.

INFLUENTIA NATURALIS, or NATURAL INFLUX --- is that which is poured down by the superior stars of the firmament, in accordance with natural law, into or upon inferior things, whereby they govern and rule through inclination in men, animals, etc., and through potencies and efficacies in insentient things. Hence we learn that this inclination is a certain brute force and magnetic attraction, which i easy to resist and withstand by moral influence; being assisted by the divine inspiration in any cases of special difficulty.

INFUNDIBULUM, or FUNNEL --- is a Metallic Vessel of oblong shape, having a handle, hollow within, for the reception of molten metal, Its configuration is like that of a staff or rod. The Germans call it a Gutter or Dunghill.

INFUNDIRIN --- To Soak or Moisten.

INGESTORES --- A Carrier on the Mountains.

INHUMATIO --- Humectation in a Dung-bath.

INHUMARE --- To Bury under the Earth, to Putrefy, or also to Reduce into Earth. When the solution takes place, the old man is buried in a bath; then he is covered with blackness, and remains hidden without any lustre. The sun has entered a gloomy grave.

INSIDERE IN BACILLO --- To Set on a Cross-beam secured by a rope.

INSIDERE IN CORIO --- To Sit down on Leather.

INSTRUMENTUM CUM INDICE MENSORUM ALPINORUM --- An Indicating Compass.

INSTRUMENTUM FERREUM, QUOD MACHINE FOLLES COMPRIMIT --- An Iron Instrument which works the bellows.

INSTRUMENTUM FERREUM, QUO TERRA VERBATUR --- An Iron Instrument with which the earth is beaten.

INSTRUMENTUM METALLICUM, SIGNIFICANS MUNDI PARTES --- The Metallic Instrument which shows the quarters of the world, i.e., the Compass.

INTERIOR MURUS FORNACIS --- The Inner Wall of the Furnace; Lining.

INTER VENIUM --- A Wedge-shaped Rock.

IOS --- is a Poison, or Drug.

IOTA, or IORA --- is a Green Branch.

IPACEDES --- Hairy Beard.

IRIS --- is a Stone similar to crystal, and according to some is the Root or Foundation of Crystal; the hexagonal Iris is found frequently in Arabia, and, according to Pliny (1. 37, c. 9), in a certain island of the Red Sea. It is found in our own country in the mountains and rivers of Westphalia between Treves and the Rhine. It is maintained to be the native Cadmia of Galen, which we have treated under its proper head. They also say that the latter is hexagonal, although a round one is sometimes found, even as the holes in the centre of a honeycomb are hexagonal, and at the edges round. It is an exceedingly dry stone and very fine in constitution. Some say that it is composed of the essential moisture of water, which laves the matter of the stone, the same being generated in a red slime. It is called Iris because in the middle there are defined, rainbow-like lines; or because when shone upon by the sun indoors, it sends forth the colours and appearance of the rainbow upon the nearest walls. So testifies Pliny, and he adds that there are certain rough sides and unequal corners, which, when exposed out of doors to the sun, send forth rays which are reflected upon each other, but some also illuminate surrounding objects. He says also that an Iris like wax, but very hard, is found in Persia, but it has not the quality of the gem which he calls Zeros, a crystal encircled by a line. Compare the Demon Stone of Albertus, which was of two colours like the Iris, was good in fevers, and an antidote to poison.

IVA ARTHETICA VEL MUSCATA --- A Medicine for Lame Limbs.

IVA POTABILIS --- A Draught that restores Soundness to Lame Limbs.


J J J





JACENS --- Base of the Mountain. Bottom of the Mountain.

JASPIS --- Hematite, Bloodstone. There is a green variety. The Jasp of the Germans is a stone of many species. Dioscorides enumerates seven:

1. Green jasper, like the emerald.

2. Jasper like crystal, similar to phlegm in colour.

3. Jasper not unlike copper.

4. Smoky jasper, called Capnias.

5. Assyrian jasper, encircled by white and lustrous lines.

6. Jasper like terebinth, called Terebinthizusa, being of the colour of turpentine.

7. Jasper, similar to the stone Callais.

All these species are amulets, and, according to Dioscorides, hasten parturition when applied to the thighs. Pliny (1. 37, c. 8 and 9) enumerates several species, according to colour, country, and quality, some of which may be added in this place:

1. Translucent green Jaspar, like the Indian emerald, worn by many people. It is regarded as an amulet in all the East, and when surrounded by a transverse white line it is called grammatias and polygrammos.

2. Green or grey-coated Cyprian jasper.

3. Persian Jasper like copper, and hence called aerizusa.

4. Cerulean jasper from the vicinity of Thermodon, a river of Pontus.

5. Purple Jasper of Phrygia.

6. Dull purple or cerulean Jasper of Cappodocia.

7. Thracian Jasper similar to Indian.

8. Dark Jasper of Chalcis.

9. Violet Jasper of Sardis.

10. Crystalline or phlegmatic Jasper.

But the best, according to Pliny, is purple, rose-coloured, or emerald. He also notes an onyx called Jasponyx, which is a spotted stone, clouded as with snow, and dotted as with bright sparkling stars, similar to Salt of Megara, and as if discoloured by smoke. This he calls Capnias, but it is included by Dioscorides among the varieties of jasper. Pliny, Theophrastus, and Dioscorides, do seem in a measure to disagree. But this we leave to be threshed out by more learned persons. The stone which we now call Turquoise is beyond doubt a species of jasper. Its hue inclines to cerulean, yet it is sometimes flaxen, glittering, white, shining, and as if milk had mingled in a yellow colour. It is supposed to have the virtue of strengthening sight, and preserving from many mischances. We also in Germany possess a most beautiful species of jasper, which has great efficacy. It is found in Bohemia, and is of green colour, glittering with red lines and spots, or otherwise of a brown colour, or chestnut. It is found in Thuringia, Misnia, and other places. I have found jasper highly efficacious against excessive menstruation. It helps parturition and protects the foetus.

1. Jasper, on the one hand, similar to emerald, on the other, cerulean, obtained by mining.

2. Similar to emerald, ornamented with lines. Having blue bands.

3. Blue in green; bluish jasper.

4. Black in green; blackish green jasper.

5. Green, milky jasper. Whitish green jasper.

6. Jasper, called Borea, like a serene blue sky. Oriental Turquoise.

7. A variety of the former, but part green.

8. Another, shining white on blue.

9. Manufactured Borea jasper.

10. Jasponyx, part jasper, part Onyx, or Chalcedony.

11. Purple jasper, mixed with Chalcedony, and having white spots.

12. Purple jasper, full of spots and white blemishes. Also a similar species of flaxen colour.

13. Purple jasper, very strangely composed of Chalcedony and red and yellow jasper, in spots and lines.

14. Pure Purple jasper.

15. Corensian jasper, from Misnia; colour of red blood.

16. Black in red.

17. Pale yellow.

18. Beautiful reddish yellow jasper.

19. Yellow, with red spots.

20. Liver-coloured.

21. Dark liver-coloured jasper.

22. Islebian jasper, red in colour, with white, pellucid, sexangular fluors, like the stone geodes.

JASSA --- Herb of the Trinity, Pansy, or Heartsease.

JUDEX METALLICUS --- An Assaying Officer.

JUMNISUM, or JUMNIZUM --- is Ferment.

JUPITER --- is Tin.

JURATUS PARTIUM VENDITOR --- A sworn broker of mining shares.

JUSSA --- is Gyps; a kind of plaster.


K K K





KACHIMIA, or KAKIMIA --- is the Immature Minera of any Metal, otherwise an Imperfect Metal, still in its first state, like the child hidden in the womb of his mother. Thirty species are known.

KAIB --- Sour Milk.

KAL --- is Salt from a torrent.

KALD --- Vinegar.

KALI --- is Clavellated Ashes, i.e., Potash, Woad-Ash, or Pearl-Ash. A Salt, Vegetable, or Plant. Its ashes, if burnt, combine into a heap. It is Soda from which Glass is made. The Salt which flows out in melting during the process of Glass-making is Sal Alkali.

KALI --- The Arabian Usnen; Rhasis identifies it with Alumen Asfur.

KALNOS --- is Smoke.

KAMAR, CAMAR, or KYANA --- Names of Silver.

KAMIR --- is Ferment.

KANSOR --- is Tin.

KAPRILI --- is Sulphur.

KAR --- is a brilliant and fiery precious Stone.

KARABE --- is a Gum, like amber.

KARLINA --- is Dill or Anise.

KARTINA --- Wild Spice.

KASAM --- is Iron.

KATIMIA, GREEK CADMIA, LATIN CALAMINA, or CALAMINE STONE --- is Ore of Zinc. But Calamine is a Root of Tutty, and indeed Tutty itself, in a raw state. It is the Stone, whereby the ore is dyed into brass-colour. True Tutty cleaves to the top of the oven.

KAYL --- is Sour Milk.

KAYSIR --- is Pumice Stone.

KAZDIR, KASDIR, KACIR, KASSICEROS --- are names of Tin.

KIBRIC --- is the Father and the First Matter of Mercury and all Fluids. That from which Mercury comes. The Stone is also called Kibric.

KIBRITH --- is Sulphur.

KISES --- Salt from a Spring.

KOBOLTUM, KOBALTUM, or COLLETUM --- is a Metallic Substance, darker than lead or iron, sometimes of ashen hue, wanting in metallic tint or lustre. It can be melted and made into plates. It is not fixed, but takes away the higher metals with it in smoke. It is also Cadmia Stone, from which a useful medicine is made, Copperstone, Climia, Cathimia, Ore of Zinc. It is a pillaging Sulphur, which takes away the good ore in smoke.

KOMA or KOMARTOS --- is living Calx.

KONIS --- is Ash.

KOST --- is the Beech Tree.

KUHUL --- is Lead of the Philosophers. See Turba, Fol. 21.

KUMEN --- is Unity.

KURIA or KYMIA --- is Lump, Mass. The same art is called Alchimia, Alkymia.

KYBRIUS or KEBRICK --- is Arsenic.

KYMIT ELEVATUM --- is White Sublimed Cinnabar.

KYMUS --- is Lump, Mass.

KYMUM or KYMINUM --- is a joining or Uniting.

KYMIA --- is the Instrument or Cucurbit used for Distillation.

KYMENNA --- is a Vessel of Clay, narrow-necked and big-bellied.

KYMOLEA --- is Slime which collects under the whetstone, on which weapons are sharpened.

KYRAM --- is Snow.

KYVA --- is Opoponax, Gum-resin of Parsnip-root.


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