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Alchemy Index


A Lexicon of Alchemy

by

Martin RULAND







A ~ B ~ C ~ D ~ E ~ F ~ G ~ H ~ I ~ J ~ K ~ L ~ M ~ N ~ O ~ P ~ Q ~ R ~ S ~ T ~ U ~ V ~ W ~ X ~ Y ~ Z ~ Supplement


L L L





LABOR SOPHIAE --- i.e., Paradisus, the other world.

LABRUM --- Fan, Winnowing Basket, Tub.

LAC PAPAVERIS --- i.e., Opium.

LAC VIRGINIS --- is Mercurial Water, the Dragon's Tail; it washes and coagulates without any manual labour; it is the Mercury of the Philosophers, Lunar and Solar Sap, out of catholic earth and water.

LACERTA CARNIS CORPORISQUE CAVITAS --- A Skin Disease. Also a Fleshly Protuberance or Muscular Growth, a Cavity made by disease in the body.

LACERTA RUBRA or COLCOTAR --- i.e., Red Vitriol, Hungarian Vitirol. The Alchemical Green Lizard.

LACUNA --- A Marsh, Pit, or Cavity.

LACUNE --- i.e., Embossed or Wrought Earth.

LACUSCULUS --- A small Pit.

LACUS --- Washing-tray, or Trough.

LAMAC --- i.e., Gum Arabic.

LAMARE --- is Sulphur.

LAMARE LAMPE --- The same.

LAMINA --- Plate.

LAMINA --- i.e., Orpiment.

LAMINA CURVATA EXCOCTORUM --- A Smelting Plate.

LAMINA FERREA, UTRINQUE CAVATA --- An Iron Scraping Instrument.

LAMINA FERREA CRASSA --- A Coarse Iron Plate.

LAMINA FERREX PARS --- A Part of an Iron Plate.

LAMINAE AEREAE --- A Pan of Brass or Copper.

LAMINAE FORAMINE PLENAE --- Perforated Plates.

LAN --- i.e., Dead Silver.

LANX --- i.e., Bitter Almond. Item, a dish.

LAOS --- i.e., Tin.

LAPIDES:

1. Dense, iron-coloured, masculine, Misnensian Magnet, mined at Swartzburg.

2. Female, black, from Suarceburg.

3. A species of Theamedes from the same place; on one side it attracts, and on the other repels, iron.

4. Theamedes, the Stone which repels iron.

5. Sterile or adulterated Magnet, which neither attracts nor repels iron. Item: tin ore dispersed throughout the rider.

6. White, the sixth species of Pliny.

7. A Burnt Magnet-stone.

8. Cloddy, iron-coloured Hematite of Misnensis.

9. Black, cloddy Stones of Hercynius.

10. A Black Bloodstone which exudes a black sap.

11. A black Stone from iron mines which exudes a yellowish black sap.

12. A black Stone of Hercynius, shaped like a head.

13. A Crustaceous Stone, like cinnabar or red lead.

14. A Bloodstone like burnt coal.

15. Burnt.

16. An iron-colour Schist or Bloodstone, easily divided into long sections.

17. Wedge-shaped, iron-coloured Bohemian Bloodstone.

18. A Stone of Hercynius, with an internal glittering like minium.

19. A species of Schist or Hematite from Anneberg, the size of a walnut, very hard, and when struck, causing the hammer to rebound.

20. Burnt.

21. A Red Rock containing Schist and Hematite.

22. A hard greyish Stone with an outer surface of iron-colour.

23. A red Earth like Rubrica, containing Hematite.

Stones that emit sap when struck:

1. Morochtus, or Leucogia, or Leucographia, a soft variety from Saxony.

2. The same, from the same place, but of hard texture.

3. A hard Galactite, exuding a milky sap when struck. From the copper mines of Hildesheimer.

4. Ash-coloured Galactite.

5. Black Hematite, emitting a yellowish black sap.

Other Stones of divers kinds:

1. Stelechites, found in a clay near Misena.

2. A Pentagonal Stone.

3. A Stone having thirteen angles; white; found at Hildesheimer.

4. Armenian Stone; slimy; found in true Armenian bolus, as the Samius is found in Saurian earth.

5. Emery, iron-coloured, and harder than iron.

6. A Stone found in flint, shaped like the almond nut.

7. The Stone Menoides, or Moonstone, or Pharmacite.

8. A white, heavy, cuprine Stone, composed of little pipes, like a honeycomb.

9. A yellowish Stone, light, like the gravel-stone Tofus; also of honeycomb nature; mined at Rabsich, above Misena. Sometimes its surface is smooth, sometimes excrescent.

10. A white, hard, round Stone, having on one side a number of small circles described round the same centre, and on the other side having the appearance of beams of ash.

11. Very hard black Zeblician stone, with a preponderance of granite.

Rough Stones:

1. A rude, green Stone, like unpolished jasper.

2. A rude Stone, like pyrites.

3. A sterile Stone, like lead.

Stones which are liquefied by fire. Of these there are three genera:

1. Similar to a translucid fluor.

2. Opaque, soft, as is the first also, and fire cannot be struck from it.

3. Hard; gives out sparks when struck ; it is a flint of which glass is made.

Watery or Aqueous Stones:

1. The lesser Ammonite, like the egg of a fish.

2. Greater Ammonite.

3. Lepidolite, like the scales of fish, having many hues.

4. Long Strombites, like the aquatic snail, whorl shaped.

5. The short Strombites.

6. Ctenites, greyish, striated, something like a comb; a scallop.

7. White, sandy, in which Ctenites is imbedded.

8. A hard, grey Stone, found in Lusatia, and containing Ctenites.

9. A grey Stone, covered with gold-coloured armature, containing a kind of lynx stone.

10. Onychites, like sweet-smelling nails.

11. Ostracites, like oysters.

12. Another, made up of six oyster shells.

13. Tellinite, in every way like Tellinus (unknown), covered with gold-coloured armature.

14. Hildesheimer Conchites, like a bivalve shell, with a gold-coloured armature.

Lightning Stones:

1. Black Ceraunea, i.e., Lightning Stone, large, heavy, almost wedge-shaped, perforated on its broad side. Its length is nine fingers, its breadth four, its weight three and a half pounds. In the year 1544 this stone was cast on a house in Vienna, and penetrated through the wine-cellar, being driven twelve cubits into the earth.

2. Another, hammer-shaped, bluish-black, perforated at the narrower end. In the year 1560, this stone fell at Torga with great force.

3. Another, greenish-black, quite wedge-shaped, perforated in the middle. About the size of the bluish-black one first mentioned.

4. A pointed ruddy Ceraunea, long, round, and somewhat smooth, driven into a tree at Torganus. About the size and density of the first one.

5. These Ceraunea are the product of lightning or thunderbolts, and stones of a similar kind are found at Epirus.

Glossopetrse, or precious Stones resembling the human tongue:

1. White, with blue lines on the surface.

2. White, and sharp as a saw on either side.

3. Prussian grey, like the tongue of the woodpecker.

4. Grey, like the tongue of the wren.

5. Dark brown.

6. Bluish grey, found at Tungros. Sometimes covered with iron, sometimes not.

7. Black, from Prussia.

Selenite Stones:

1. Selenite which shines like the moon, and hence its name, shaped like the specular stone, or Mary's ice,

2. Transparent and scissile, used for window glass in Thuringia, Saxony, etc.

3. Mesoselenus, greyish, small, striated, curved like a horn, having the appearance of a crescent moon.

4. Another, like the third, with a gold-coloured armature.

Stones formed of petrified wood:

1. Elatites of fir-trees.

2. Oaks turned into Stone.

3. Beeches turned into Stone.

4. Alders turned into Stone.

5. Sometimes these trees are found, on the other hand, to contain a white fluor, and sometimes a yellow pyrites.

6. A Stone is made of the alder-wood as follows: A piece of that wood is selected of the size required, and is placed in the vessel of brass in which hops are boiled to make beer. When the hops have been well boiled, the alder-wood is taken out along with them, and is then placed in the hop cellars, or beer cellars, and is covered with sand or gravel for the space of three years. After this time, it is taken up, and is found to have become Stone, and can be used for sharpening knives.

Stones called from living things-heavy and pointed:

1. Hieraclites, in colour like the wings of the hawk.

2. Perdicites, coloured like the breast of the partridge.

Thunder Stones:

1. Brownish, hemispherical, with ten lines on the surface, not radiating from a single point. A grey Thunder Stone, marked with ten lines distributed in pairs. Full of small holes.

2. Another, mud-coloured, twice the size of an egg, with twenty lines, grouped by fours. Full of small holes.

3. Of the same colour, having ten lines without holes.

4. Reddish, hemispherical, having ten unpunctured lines.

5. Brownish, with semi-circular lines, unpunctured.

6. Yellow and smooth on the surface, the lower part being perforated.

Heavy Stones:

1. Belemnites Major, ash-coloured, has a white earth, and when rubbed smells like burnt horn of oxen.

2. A smaller species, of the same colour, containing grey earth.

3. A large Stone, containing sand, without smell when rubbed.

4. A small Stone, containing sand, without smell. All these are found at Hildesheimer.

5. A Prussian Stone, reddish black, transparent, containing earth.

6. Another, but wax-colour, also transparent, and containing earth.

7. White, as if burnt, found in Hildesheimer earth. Contains a black hard stone. The best colour. Does not much differ from the smell of white sap.

LAPIDES, etc. --- Stones like bones and shells, called Osteodes and Ostracodes :

1. Enosteos, a Stony Concretion found on fallen trees.

2. Osteocollus, white or grey, porous ; when taken into the body it joins broken bones in a wonderful manner.

3. A variety from Misnia, found in a clay, clay-coloured, hard and solid.

4. Lithostracus, a shell-coloured stalactite.

LAPIDES AB ANIMALIBUS, etc.:

1. Thuringian Myites, superficially full and round, and like a seated mouse in appearance. There is another mentioned by Georgius Agricola, which is like a mussel shell.

2. Grey, oblong Hessian Myites.

3. Onyx, or Onydrite, like the human nail.

4. The Stone Enorchis, like testicles.

5. Triorchis, like three testicles, found in rivers.

LAPIDES COLORATI:

1. Ashen, Violet, Aldeberg Iolite.

2. Red Aldenberg Iolite.

3. Laurenstein, found by chance; when moistened and exposed to the sun it exhales a smell of violets.

4. Marieberg Iolite; when struck with a mallet it gives forth an odour of musk.

5. Thuringian Iolite, which exhales an odour of wild thyme.

6. Zeblicius Ophites, of which some have no smell, and others a musty scent.

7. Solinum Echites, having a fragrance of wine, and therefore a kind of wine stone (Tartar).

8. Hildesheimer Iolite ; when struck with another stone, or with a mallet, it smells like horn.

LAPIDES GEODES --- A Stone containing Earth, of oblong shape, filled with a hard ochrine sand, and rattling when shaken; the Stone Chemnicensis, of a ruddy colour, like iron-stone, and containing a moist clay.

LAPIDES JUDAICI :

1. Like the stone of an olive, striated, and still called Olive Stones in Palestine.

2. Another, also striate.

LAPIDES TROCHITlAE ET ENTROCHI:

1. White Spangeberg Trochites, called by us Wheel Stone.

2. Grey Wheel Stone.

3. Subashen Wheel Stone.

4. Slimy.

5. Equally long, White Hildesheimer Entrochus, consisting of fourteen Trochites.

6. Another of slimy quality, consisting of ten Trochites.

7. Grey, consisting of three Trochites.

8. A smooth Trochite, puffed up in the middle, and having zones, or encircling lines.

9. A rude Grey Stone of Spangenberg, in which there are Trochites. Found on a lofty mountain, mountain and citadel thereof being perhaps named after it.

LAPILLI --- Pebbles:

1. Alectorius, said to be found in the gizzard of a cock.

2. Chelidonia, said to be taken from the swallow.

3. Crabstone.

4. Perch Stone.

5. Impure Pearls.

6. Indian Pearl.

7. Adulterated Pearl, made of very white glass.

8. Another, made of bone, tinged with spume of silver.

9. Another, round, and of Oriental origin.

LAPILLI COLLECTI EX MATERIA, QUAE LAVATUR --- i.e., Soapstone.

LAPILLI MINUTI, etc. --- Pebbles washed up by waves.

LAPILLI NIGRI MAGNI --- Very large black Stones.

LAPILLI NIGRI MAJUSCULI --- Small fragments of Ore.

LAPILLI NIGRI MEDIOCRES --- A Bed of Hardened Mud over a vein containing ore.

LAPILLI NIGRI PARVI --- Small black Stones.

LAPILLUS --- is a Coagulation of Extracted Humour, which is crumbling and vitreous. The humour is of a middle quality. The lapillus also coagulates into moisture. Sometimes it is thicker and like slime, sometimes thinner. It is not often as large as hailstones, but it is frequently like grains of salt or particles of snow.

LAPILLUS FISSILI AEROSUS --- i.e., Slate.

LAPIS --- Stone, in chemistry is any fixed substance which does not evaporate.

LAPIS --- or Stone, from which black lead is obtained.

LAPIS ADIZ --- i.e., Sal Ammoniac.

LAPIS ANIMALIS --- The Animal Stone, is Human Blood. Item, Curenta, the turtle, who carries his house on his back.

LAPIS ARABICUS --- is similar to masculine ivory on the authority of Dioscorides and Pliny. It is chiefly useful in dentistry and in stopping hemorrhage. But such is the quality of this stone that many learned men have disputed about it and still do so. But if the subject be properly considered, Arabian Stone is nothing but the Moonstone or Mary's Ice, or Spar. Windows were formerly made of it, with thin wooden frames instead of lead. The best Gypsum is also made from it, as Pliny witnesses. It is according to Albertus the extreme part of Gypsum, and he calls it Aphroselinum, because at night it reflects the likeness of the moon, or because it is made from dew by the foam of the moon. Some dispute whether Selenite is the Moonstone which Dioscordes calls Aphroselinum. But of this elsewhere. This true Moonstone is called Lapis Arabicus, because first found in Arabia, though Albertus affirms that it was at first discovered at Saguntia in Spain, and that more abundantly than elsewhere; afterwards in many places in Germany. If the subject be considered, there are many species of this stone. There is first the small stone, of spotted appearance, found at Bononia in Italy, according to Pliny; it is like a blemished ebony, and Dioscorides calls it Lapis Arabicus. A second is found among us; it is blackish, and deficient in brightness. We have also one which is very transparent, and was formerly used as windowglass. This is the Selenite mentioned in Scripture. There is a fourth in Saxony, which is like ebony, and is the Arabicus of Pliny. There is a fifth with black or red blemishes, which may also be the Lapis Arabicus of Dioscorides. Albertus distinguishes three species of Moonstone-one clear as glass, of which windows are made; another black like atrament; a third of citrine colour, which he calls Orpiment or Arsenic. It should be noted that the Arabians speak of arsenic or native Orpiment as similar to Moonstone, having regard to its outward crust. But although the Moonstone is citrine it is not merely orpiment, and Albertus errs. It has not the same fatty nature, and a comparison which is founded only on the outward crust is exceedingly foolish. The Moonstone is a precious gem, and, as it were, a concreted humour of the earth, petrified or congealed into a crystal and hardened stone, and is hence called Mary's Ice. Some say that it is the dew of heaven coagulated under the rays of the moon into a species of stone, especially the clearest kind, called Aphroselinum. The Moonstone is found in our mines, and in many other places. The Elbe brings this stone down with it as well as gypsum when inundations occur. For a more perfect knowledge of the subject consult Pliny (l, 36, c. 22), as we omit much on account of brevity. Finally, this should be noted : Whatsoever may be the affinity between Moonstone and gypsum, it is certain that the former has great use in healing, while the latter is poisonous. A piece of Moonstone the size of a filbert is often used for dysentery. It also stops hemorrhage, and is a good dentifrice. Consult Dioscorides and Avicenna.

LAPIS ASIUS --- The best kind is, according to Dioscorides, that which is like pumice stone in colour, fungous, crumbling, scissile, and with mud-coloured lines inside. It is called a Stone because of its colour and nature, but its texture is ot that of a stone, for it is light and fungous. It has been called the Asian Stone because it comes from Mount Troas of Asios, and not alone in Asia. Its virtue is astringent, removing, and slightly corrosive. It is also called sarcophagus. Pliny says that sucking this stone is a speedy cure for gout and all kinds of shin complaints, which indeed is a quality of all metallic substances. When placed in coffins containing the bodies of the dead, it will consume them all except the teeth in the space of forty days. What this stone actually is, few now know. Yet it exists in Germany on the surface of the earth. Underneath and around it an efflorescence appears, a kind of false flower of nitre, which is called flower of Asian rock, which according to Dioscorides is sometimes of yellowish colour, sometimes white, sometimes like pumice stone. It approaches the consistency of slime, is harsh to the tongue, has stronger qualities than the stone it comes from, is drying and cleansing, and has many medical uses. It will be seen that Aphronitrum, or Spume of Nitre, Flower of Rock, and Flower of Asian Rock, are very similar to one another. They differ somewhat in substance, for Flower of Asian Rock is melted by fire, and is therefore not burnt, whereas Spume of Nitre is not so melted. A very beautiful species of Aphronitrum is found at Jena, which in many ways corresponds to the Flower of Asian Rock described by Dioscorides. And the latter is no doubt a species of Flower of Asian Rock. Adarca, already described (see A), is similar in colour to the Flower of Asian Rock. For the rest, consult Pliny, who says that Flower of Asian Rock is like red pumice stone. Consult Serapion, who calls it a Sap, or juice, and distinguishes several species, some being white like that of Jena, some red or ruddy, and some approaching yellow. Others say that this substance originates from marine dew.

LAPIS AUREUS --- Urine itself; otherwise the Golden Stone. Also Hair, and the Blood of Beasts.

LAPIS BEZAAR --- According to Serapion, the term Hagar Bezaar signifies, in the first place, every Medicament which is an Antidote to Poison, and, secondly, that Stone which forms in the eyes of stags, just as the eye of the hyena is said to petrify, and the stone so produced is called Hyxnia by Pliny. It is said to be a solidification of the tears of the stag after it has contracted snake poison. The poison passes from the animal through its tears, and although its foundation is venom, it is a great antidote to poison. There are species of various colours-citrine, dust-colour, pale green, and white. Some say that they are found in Syria, India, and the East. But we also have a substance of the same nature, which is an ossification of the eyes of our stags, and is collected by stag hunters as an antidote to poison, a good stomachic, and an enlivener of the spirits. In appearance like a bone found in the head of the pike, is that species of bezaar which is in reality a bone from the heart of the stag. It is good in parturition, and quickens pregnancy. The same virtue is attributed to a stone found in the intestines of the same animal. While speaking of the stag, it may be said that its marrow is serviceable in all inflammations, especially those of the womb. Its genital part is good for nervous afliictions; its blood strengthens the womb. Its horns promote good fellowship at festivals. Its lungs are excellent for consumption.

LAPIS CALAMINARIS --- i.e., Tutia.

LAPIS CALCIS --- i.e., Recrement of Copper, Copper Filing, or Slag.

LAPIS CARPIONIS --- A Triangular Bone, found in the hinder part of a carp's jowl, and said to be a Gem, or Stone. Its size varies with that of the fish ; it is white outside, and yellow inside. It is good for the gravel and biliousness. It is also a safeguard against colic.

LAPIS DE MONTANIS --- i.e., Rebis, Tortoise.

LAPIS EX CANCRO --- is the Stone called Crab's Eye, which is white and round. It is said to be found in the stomach and intestines of hares, and is supposed to break up stone in the bladder. Some say that it is of a frigid and humid nature, others that it is dry.

LAPIS EX PERCA --- A Gem or Stone of the Perch. It is found in the head. There re generally two in one fish, and they are really very white Bones. Nothing is better for breaking up stone in the bladder, and it is therefore eagerly collected by fishermen. A certain part of the gut of the same fish possesses similar virtue.

LAPIS FACILE IGNI LIQUESCENS --- i.e., Flux.

LAPIS FAMOSUS --- Salt of Urine.

LAPIS FOSSILIS AEROSUS --- Cuprine Slate.

LAPIS JUDAICUS --- Hornstone, the stone Agapis.

LAPIS JUDAICUS --- This is a name of the stone Thecolithos, because it is found in Palestine and Judea. There are two species, of which the larger is like the Phenicite stone of Dioscorides, and the acorn stone of Pliny. It has a variety of names, a fact which deceived the author last cited, who imagined that there were as many species. The stone in question is found in Germany, near Tangra on the Elbe. The smaller species, which is cylindrical (whereas the other is round), sparkles when broken. It was evidently unknown to Dioscorides. It is found in Saxony, and at Tangra on the banks of the Elbe; it has wonderful virtue in all difficulties of passing urine, and in stone in the bladder. Consult Dioscorides and Serapion.

LAPIS MAGNETIS:

1. The Livonian, silver-coloured, sparkling magnetic Stone, which can be broken into thin scales.

2. Misnenian in a scissile Stone.

3. Opaque, lead-coloured, in which there are many hard, round, heavy pebbles.

4. Cloddy, like impure carbuncles. A beautiful silver white Stone containing pebbles.

5. Onolsbach, crustaceous, iron-coloured, of which leaves of tables are made.

6. Bohemian, iron-coloured, mixed with brass, which appears like minute scales.

7. Pitch-coloured, in a metallic flint, full of fissures both on the surface and within.

8. Dust-colour, embedded in rock, which is heavy as lead. It is sometimes, but rarely, like that sterile metallic matter which we call our excrement of geese.

9. Round red Stones, found in a silver-coloured magnetic clod.

10. White Mica on the surface of the rocks.

11. Black Mica, like a block of white lead, but scarcer and softer.

12. Cloddy, silver-coloured, Marieberg Mica, in crustaceous flints, i.e., Hornstone.

13. Soft or crumbling Ammochrysos, out of which a dust like gold is made; used by clerks instead of sand. The Roman Janiculensis is called mountain of gold because it abounds in this sand.

14. The stone Hoplites, called Armature by the metallurgists.

15. Shining Armature, like polished iron.

16. Another, like brass.

17. Another, with which Hildesheimer conchites is covered, as with a single layer.

18. Armature, like scales over a pyrites.

LAPIS MAJOR --- is composed out of the four elements, and is called the Sun of One Day. According to some opinions, the Calcined and Purified Body.

LAPIS MAJOR --- i.e., the spirit extracted from the four bodies.

LAPIS NIGRI MEDIOCRES --- Medium-Sized Pebbles.

LAPIS NON LAPIS --- The Stone which is not a stone is a substance which is petrine as regards its efficacy and virtue but not as regards its substance. According, however, to Avicenna and Kodar, the Stone which is not a stone is the Elixir, and is called the Stone because it is tinged 6r coloured, and not a stone for the reason that it is melted.

LAPIS OCCULTUS --- i.e., Blessed, i.e., Egg.

LAPIS PHILOSOPHICUS --- Elixir.

LAPIS PHILOSOPHICUS --- is the most potent virtue concentrated by art in the centre. Outwardly, it is a Tincture. Or it is that Universal Medicine by which age is renewed in youth, metals are transmuted, and all diseases cured. It was made by Theophrastus. It is the Stone of the Wise whereby the imperfect metals are improved.

The augmentation of the Philosophical Stone takes place in two ways: firstly, by repeating solution and coagulation; secondly, by projection upon the white or red body in such a way that itself becomes elixir. They must then be laid each in its menstruum and water to dissolve. Thus the first elixir is produced in the ferment of the tincture.

Grind the medicine, and dissolve it again into its mercury; coagulate it gently, and liquefy it again like wax, whereby the body will be doubled. If you dissolve and cook it again, then you will have multiplied it one hundredfold, and so on, the oftener the better. Take care how much gravity is obtained by your medicine; for the more powerful it is, the more mercury must you add to it in augmentation. When it has doubled the power that it had at the first multiplication, then add double the amount of mercury. But if the power have tripled, and you desire to increase the potency and strength still further, then take water. If, on the other hand, you wish to increase the substance and the quantity, then take sulphur, or the first matter of the stone, and cook it with the elixir. Thomas Tolet says: To twenty parts of the elixir allow four parts of mercury; seal it, and cook it for eighteen days in a fire of the first grade; in the second grade for twelve days; then put it again into the mercury, and cook it as before. You will complete the process in thirty days. Then take as much as a third or even a seventh part of the elixir of Thomas Aquinas; mix it with virgin's milk; add thereto seven parts of purifying mercury ; mix it, and wash it as before. Dry it by means of a cloth or leather, so that only the seventh part of it shall be fixed. Thus you will have increased its virtue sevenfold. Take a part of this second powder; add thereto a seventh part of mercury; wash it and dry it thoroughly, and fix it. Make it seven times more, and so forth.

The solution of the Philosopher's Stone is a revelation of the hidden; it makes that which is coarse to be clean and fine, the hard and dry to be fluid. Then if the matters are to be united by their least parts, they must become water.

Calcination takes place by means of the first water, but solution does not take place with violence; it is better in its raw state than cooked; it is better moist than dry, mild, bright, clear ; it alters nature, breaks and divides; is better black than red.

All ordinary solution and sublimation are of no use; everything must take place by means of water and without hands. This is called the acute vegetable water; it is the mortar and the stone for grinding with.

Roger Bacon says: The first destruction of the world took place by means of water ; the second will take place by means of fire ; therefore it is already here. The Turba says: Take iron; beat it into thin plates ; sprinkle it with poison ; put it into the vessel ; stop it well ; by means of this cooking the third part of the water is destroyed; the rest turns into air, which carries the Chambar (unknown) in its own body.

The Senior says: At first it is dissolved with its water, but ultimately with fire, even as fruit in spring requires moisture, and afterwards warmth to mature it. The first solution is recognised when the body, together with the water, becomes completely yellow, or an intermediate colour between yellow and white.

The time of the Philosophic Stone: The times which belong to the greatly desired stone. Kalid says: Prepare the stone into the white stage for 130 or 140 days.

Trevisan says: Macerate unto the red stage for nine and a half months; and, says the King, look at yourself in the fountain after 130 days. Go out again after 282 days. Clanga Buccinarum [Clangor Buccinae] says: It requires 280 days, that is, forty days, until the white stage, ninety till the red, and 150 till the ferment appears. Lilium says: Some have prepared it in nine months, some in twelve, some in three, some even in eight days. Maria the prophetess is said to have "dissolved" in three days. This is the three labours. Night follows day, and the imperfect work must reach its perfection. On the sixth day a solution appears ; it is afterwards like an island when it is properly regulated. For the black there are twenty-one days, and the half of the work. Should you find that twenty-one weeks have now already gone by, do not make a mistake, for to them a day, a night, and a month are alike. The different length of the time counteracts the differences of weight, for he that takes much water must cook it all the longer. When it will not get black in forty or fifty days then increase the fire, wherein the metal shows itself as a hyacinthine liquid.

1. Grade Fire. Saturn clothes the King in black in forty days, and Jupiter with a grey coat in twenty or twenty-four days.

2. Grade Fire. Luna clothes in white linen in forty days. Venus clothes with yellow in twenty days.

3. Grade Fire. Mars clothes him in red in forty days.

4. Grade Fire. The Sun completes it in forty days. Then he perspires for three days in a potter's oven, and is perfected.

Compendium of the Confection of the Stone. Rosaries says: Take gold-coloured Olitet, and therewith dissolve your Stone after the first fixation two or three times three or four days, in order that we may excuse you much solution and coagulation, so that you may have done in thirty days.

2. Cook the white Magnesia with a strong fire, until it is blood-red; then take the King out, and to his three parts, add one part of polished gold, and gold water two parts ; mix it until the body is concealed, and cook it equably until it is red. Then increase it with gold water.

Corruption Stone: It belongs to the digestion as a chief part of the work, whereof all chemical books are full. It is a true dissolution of natures, and of that which connects them, both as to the form and the substance, in order that a new form may be introduced, for without putrefaction nothing can grow. It takes place therefore in the shade of the purifying fire in forty or forty-six nights. Then takes place the union by those things which are least, and lasts about five months, or 156 days, etc. That which is coarse perishes in the fruits, and makes the black, shutting the door on the volatilised. Then he goes out of the purifying fire into Paradise. There is life, light, and glory.

The Weight for making the Stone:

1. Some take 10 parts of the water and 1 part of the body.

2. Of the water 12 parts. Sol 1 part.

3. Of the water 4 parts. Sol 3 parts.

4. Lully takes equal proportions of each.

5. Water 4 parts. Sol 1 part.

6. Termis. takes 12 parts with X 1 part.

7. Theophrastus 2 parts with 7 parts.

8. Zenon takes 1 part and 3, saying that it does not much matter about the weight, so that the cooking takes places in such a manner as the instructions direct.

9. Of salt, 3 parts; of mercury, 2 parts; of sulphur, 1 part.

The Fermentation, Libation, or Nourishment of the Stone: Then is the Sun caught in the plated white earth, and is called our gold. They feed the moist at first with very little water or milk, and it gradually gets stronger and stronger. At first divide the water into two parts, in accordance with the process. Afterwards imbibe the dry parts, or ashes, earth, and rust, with another part, not once, but seven times, so that the matter may not be drowned. This takes place in fifty days; thereby it becomes sweet and large; treat everything with mild fire, so that the soul may not depart until it fixes itself. Then roast it.

The Scale of the Stone: The ash is the ferment of the gold, and the gold is its water. Body and ferment shall afterwards be a clean powder; dissolve them both in water before they are united. The ferment shall be the fourth part of our ore, i.e., four parts of ore and one part of ferment. But Rhasis speaks of 19 parts, another of 3 parts of gold and 7 of water, because the ferment is manifold, so also is the process. Sometimes the ferment is the Stone, and sometimes gold and silver, alone or both together.

Ablution of the Stone: Ablution is used to increase it in power.

1. It cannot take place in one process, although it is one operation and one matter.

2. It is first called Ablution of Water, because the matter, in comparison with its future perfection, is still moist and cold.

3. Ablution of Earth, because it is dry and stiff, or almost reaching the white stage.

4. Washing of the Fire is the Red Medicine, is the Golden Fiery Nature which penetrates; some call it Separation of the Elements, also the Washing.

The nature comes out of it, calcines, etc.

The Calcination of the Philosophic Stone is the highest purification; it receives the inherent moisture, restores the natural warmth, and introduces dissolution.

Floresc. Angl. (unknown work) says: The unlearned confuse the bodies which are calcined with the ordinary species of calcination, and they err therein. For our calcination is not ordinary, but Sol and Luna are calcined, together with the first water, so that they may expand, become spongy and subtle; so that the other may begin to work. This is our true calcination.

It is turned into a fixed earth, and is called Coagulation and Incineration, Division of the Elements, Extraction and Quintessence. Then the body becomes ghostly, light, white, and dry. It is called Sublimation, Incineration, Solution. Then the refuse becomes sublimated, so that the Olitet may be obtained. It is also called the White Death, Understanding, Putrefaction, Disintegration, Cooking, etc.

The Sublimation of the Stone: Arnoldus says: Our Sun must be raised from the earth on to the cross in the air, so that he through suffering may become glorious. L. V. Venet. (unknown) says: Through one single Sublimation the whole work is accomplished and completed. Turba says: Sublimate Chambar of Mercury ; thus Sulphur becomes mixed with Sulphur, and is called Ethelia, Orpiment, Zendrio, Chulul, Magnesium, and under many other names is his white nature set forth. In him is no shadow. Therefore it is called White Lead, Martech, White Ore, and is an improvement.

But there is a three-fold Sublimation:

1. When the body becomes volatilised and united with the Mercury, even though he does not ascend.

2. When the Mercury is united with living Calx, and becomes nobler and improved.

3. In the colour and fixing. Bacchus says: By means of Sublimation are Soul and Spirit dissolved and expanded in the dissolved body of the Sun. This is the Arcanum, the Mystery, and the Power.

The Red Spirit in the first Sublimation, purified by the salted minerals, is no use to us. This purification effects nothing.

The Redness of the Stone: The white is the colour of life, and the red of immortality. Now perfection comes. When it is yellow like the yolk of an egg, then it is elevated, thin, and subtle, and is called Air, red Olitet, and by all the names of birds and spirits. When it is red, it is called Heaven, Gold, Red Sulphur, Carbuncle, and has the names of everything that is red and costly between heaven and earth, such as Red Gold, our Gold, Tinging Poison, Body of Magnesium, Treacle, the Pure Body, Ashes, Olixir, Kibric, Incombustible Sulphur, red and fixed Sulphur, ferment of the Sun, Gold of Coral, Superfluity, the Red, red Orpiment of the Philosophers, Ore, green Vitriol, Almagra, Laton, etc.

The Whiteness of the Stone: When the water covers the earth, then the white is over the black; but when the air comes above it is crocus colour, and when the fire rules it becomes red; but when the air arises, and the earth sinks to the floor, they denominate this Death of the Sun. Then Mercury conducts the Soul of the Sun into the height, and the body lies in the grave as a dead person. Therefore it is called the White, Water of Life, Continual, Permanent, Spirit, Soul, and is a Dissolved Earth, or like a blackberry leaf. It is also called Lead, Exebmich, white Bismuth, Martech, white Ore, white Stone, white Gold, the Full Moon, white fruitful Earth, Living Sulphur, Living Earth, clean pure Earth, white Lime, the Calcined Body, Metallic Salt, and by the names of all things that are white --- Salt, Alum, and Marble, Crystal, Ethelia Alba, white Silver Litharge, Arsenic, Nitre.

The Blackness of the Stone: Should you make the fire too strong the matter becomes red too soon, and perishes. It appears first a red, then a green colour, and afterwards assumes almost all colours before it becomes properly white. It coagulates and dissolves frequently; it twice becomes black and white. The blackness is a sign of corruption, consumption, or reception. Then there appears an island in the sea, which gradually becomes smaller, until the white prevails, and is called the Raven's Head, Pitch, Coals, Ethelia, black Ore, our Ore, Alkali Mortali, Penny, the Dragon who devours his tail; it is also called Earth, Lead, black Sulphur, the Husband, and by the name of every black thing upon earth.

The Digestion of the Stone, Cooking, Maturing, Dividing: Digestion renders the humours thin and spongy, matures them, and prepares them for their separation. They speak of it in an extraordinary manner.

Often, as in dealing with other things, the neglect to follow nature leads to error. They have four methods of separating the elements --- that of Olitet, of the Spirit. Of the Earth, of the Soul. It is all true, and everything is one. Take heed, dear reader; it is reserved for the understanding, but it is misleading to the wayfaring man. When the mixture is completed, it is called fermented Philosophical Tincture, Cor Suffle, Colla Auri, Poison, Brilliance of the Sea, Ethelia, Orpiment, Kanderich, Mercury out of Chamber, Thickened Gold, Zendria, Absemech, Magnesia, Bismuth, Chulut, Rust that adheres to Ore, a Leech, Ore, Rust, Stone (see folio No. 67). It is also important not to separate the water from the body in the glass, as in that case they would burn, and would perish.

See folio 67. Be careful not to open the door unto him that will not flee. See folio, No. 63. The water is wonderfully transformed into powder, while, on the other hand, the body is transmuted into water. It is, therefore, for this reason that they denominate the water Sand. The powder they call Gold Water.

LAPIS PHILOSOPHORUM --- Is the Hair of Men.

LAPIS PHRYGIUS --- The best species is pallid in colour, moderately heavy, not of great density, and is grained with white, like Cadmia. Dioscorides treats of its native place, its virtue, and of the mode of burning and cleansing it. It is called Phrygian, because formerly the fullers of that country used it in dyeing. We have several species : one is the glutinous sap which we call Fuller's Earth. Another is a porous glutinous Saxony Earth also used by Fullers. Pliny says that another name for it was glebous Pumice-Stone.

LAPIS QUIRIS --- The obscene hoopo is a bird with a folded crest extending the whole length of its head. In its nest there is found the stone called Quiris, which is said to betray secrets, and occasions dreams. The bird itself is one of omen and augury.

LAPIS REBIS --- is the Hair of choleric or sanguine men.

LAPIS REBUS --- i.e., Tortoise.

LAPIS SPECULARIS --- Mirror Stone --- a Transparent Stone that can be separated into thin leaves:

1. Thuringian, white, transparent.

2. Adulterated, white, flexible,, sexangular. Found at Hala in Saxony, and there called Salt without Savour.

3. Opaque.

4. White, Transparent Thuringian, with grey gypsum.

5. Mixed with gypsum, and also from Thuringia.

6. Burnt.

LAPIS THRACIAS, THRACIUS, or THREICIUS --- as it is called by Nicander, is found in that river of Scythia which is called Pontus. It has the quality of gagates; it burns in water, and is extinguished in oil, like bitumen. It is simply another species of Gagates, Agate, or Amber. It is composed of black Naphtha, or liquid black bitumen, even as yellow Gagates from Petroleum, i.e., white liquid Naphtha when it drops or forms in the sea. It is indurated into a stone by its own heat and that of the water. Lithanthrax is one of its species-a carbonaceous stone of variable density. Another is the fissile stone, Slate. That the Thracian stone is bituminous is shown by its smell, its substance, and its black colour. It is squalid, crusty, and light. In fine, it is of the same genus as Gagates, of the same material, but differing in colour. The black variety is more crusty than the yellow, on account of the impurer quality of its Naphtha, which is more terrene than the diluted white Naphtha. Nicander, from whom Dioscorides borrows, very well describes this stone when he says that when aflame it will burn and shine very brilliantly if water be thrown on it, but that a very little oil will extinguish it. The scholiast on Nicander says that the river of Threicius whence it comes is in Media and India. There is no information of value in the Lapidary of Evax. All the information in Pliny evinces its close affinity with Gagates. The Thracian stone is found in Lybia and Britain, and on the shores of the German Ocean. The images of St. James were made from it, and it is very serviceable in statuary. The magicians also made use of it in axinomancy.

LAPSUS DEMENTINUS --- is a Seizure more dangerous than apoplexy, and resulting in sudden death.

LATER LICTRO --- Quicksilver.

LATERES --- Iron Tiles.

LATERIUM, LIXIVIUM, or CAPITELLUM --- i.e., Lie or Ley.

LATON --- i.e., Brass.

LATON --- An Impure Red Body, says the Clangor. It is the first blackness when it leaves off being red and then becomes red again. Then it is again called Laton, and is composed out of the Sun and Moon. So there are two Latons. And if it does not become white, it is of no use. However, it is whitened by means of sal anatron. By means of the salt its blackness is removed, If you wash him until he shines like fishes' eyes, then there is a possibility of it being useful. They also call it Amalgam. Maria says: When the Laton is burned with Alzebric it is changed into gold.
Laton is Copper tinctured with Gold by means of the Stone Calamine, which by senseless chemists is called Electrum. It is composed from one metal, whereas electrum is made from many. Calamine is not a metal but a mineral matter which has not attained perfection, a caco-mineral body, which destroys rather than improves metals, even when it augments. True Electrum is made only by nature from gold and silver, and nothing is more prized for its wonderful virtues. Mixture of copper and gold.

LEBETEN --- A Trough, Frying-pan, etc.

LEFFA --- i.e., the Predestination of Herbs, or the use to which each is ordained.

LEFFAS --- is that Occult Vapour of the Earth by which plants are made to grow and flourish on the earth.

LEMPNIAS --- Some call this Orpiment, but wrongly, for it is a Red Sigillated Earth.

LEMPNIAS CALCIS --- i.e., Scale of Copper.

LEMPNIAS LEMPNIA --- i.e., Orpiment.

LEMPNIA --- A Soil wherein Gold Grows or Incrustates.

LEMURES --- Spirits of the element of Air. The Ethnics understood them to be the Shades of the Dead.

LENTISCUS ARBOR --- Ash Tree.

LEO VIRIDIS --- is the Ore of Hermes, Glass, and Vitriol, also the Blood from Sulphur, the First Mercury of Gold, altered by means of the Lunar Body. It is also Green Water which dissolves the living lime. The green is that which is perfect upon the stone, and can easily be made into gold. All growing things are green, as also our stone. It is called a plant. The stone cannot be prepared without green.

LEO RUBEUS --- The Red Lion, is Red Sulphur, which is dissolved in Mercury; Lion's Blood; Male Gold.

LEO VIRIDIS --- Gold according to some opinions.

LEO VIRIDIS --- Vitriol.

LEO CITRINUS FOLIATUS --- Orpiment.

LEO --- Gold.

LEPHANTE or LEPHANTEUS --- is a First Species or Bolus of Tartar ; it has a middle place between stones and clay, and it can be cut or broken.

LEPI FERREI --- Iron Scale.

LEPOS CALCIS --- i.e., Dust of Copper.

LETA --- A reddening or scorching Heat.

LEUCASIA --- Living Calx.

LEUX, AMYGDALA --- An Almond.

LEVIGATIO or ALCOLISMUS --- is Calcination, which educes the matter into Alcool by pulverisation. And it is also the reduction of some substances by glutination, of others again by fusion or fulmination.

LIBRA, LIBRA PENSILIS --- A Level.

LIBRA STATUTA --- A Legal Pound.

LIBONOTUS --- South-West.

LIGNEA BRACTEA ROTUNDATA --- A Wooden Plate.

LIGNA STATUTA --- A Small Door.

LIGNUNC FOSSUM --- Tool for Hammering.

LIGNUM CRUCIS --- Wood of the Cross.

LIGNA IN SARA --- Wood found in Rock.

1. Branches, Leaves, Bark, Pieces of Wood, Coals, Bones, Shells, incorporated into Rock, which occurs at Viadrum, not far from Frankfort.

2. Branches, Leaves, Bark, Wood, etc., incorporated into Rocks at Misnia.

3. Beams of Wood changed into Rock, found near Torga on the Elbe.

4. Subterranean Ebony combined with Shoemaker's Wax.

5. Beechwood incorporated into Stone, but half remaining Wood.

6. Manufactured Rock.

7. Manufactured Bricks.

8. Cement which holds under water.

9. Lithocolla.

LIGO --- Pick, Pickaxe.

LIGNEA --- A Little Tongue.

LIMBOS --- The Universal World, the Four Primal Elements of the World, and of all things, Seed and Matter.

LIMPIDUBI --- Pure, Purged.

LIMOS --- Mud.

LINTEA --- Made of Linen.

LILIUM --- Mercury and its Flowers. Also Tincture of the Philosophers, Quintessence of Sulphur, Fixed Flowers, Fixed Sulphur.

LIQUA MUMIA --- Human Grease.

LIQUATIO --- is when that which is solidified is melted by liquefying, so that it can flow.

LIQUATUM --- is that which assumes a fluid consistency.

LIQUEFACTIO --- is the Liquefying of a Mineral Body. It is either simple or testing. Simple Liquefaction is when a body is melted, and the process has no other object than to bring it into a flowing state.

Probatory Liquefaction is when the body is tested, and the imperfect part separated from the perfect, either by antimony or earth ashes.

LIQUATIO --- Liquation is Fusion or Melting.

LIQUINUM RESOLUTUM --- is the reduction of anything into its first matter by melting.

LIQUOR AQUILEGIUS --- Distilled Wine.

LIQUOR ESSENTIALIS --- is Essential Liquor extracted from the inward parts, and transmuted into Flesh and Blood.

LIQUOR HERBARUM --- is made from Herbs by pounding them entire, shutting them up in a glass vessel, cooking them in the water-bath, and straining the sap through a colander, etc., when it has attained the consistency of honey.

LIQUOR ET MULTARUM RERUM OLEUM --- The Liquor and Oil of many substances is obtained by the addition of the essence, which is their fundamental principle. The Liquor of Terebinth is the Oil of Terebinth.

LIQUOR MERCURII --- is the Balsam of All Things, wherein consists the strength of health. This Mercury is very potent in Tereniabin and Nostoch, which see.

LIQUOR MUMIAE DEGUMMI --- i.e., Oil of Gum.

LIQUOR SALIS --- is Balsam of Nature, whereby bodies are nourished, and putrefaction averted.

LIRAMENTUM --- Axle-tree.

LITHANTHRAX, PIT COAL, STONE COAL --- A species of Gagates, and nothing but Bitumen indurated and excocted by heat under the surface of the earth. There are two species of this Coal, one of which is light and of little density, while the other is heavy. It is said that the former will sometimes float upon the surface of water, and it is referred to by Theophrastus as an earthy or stony pit coal. The second species was known to the Greeks, but it is not mentioned by Pliny, and was in all probability unknown to him. It seems to have been described by Theophrastus as a sort of Bituminous Stone, and has therefore an affinity with the fissile slate, which has also a bituminous nature.

LITHARGYRUM --- These are the species of Litharge:

1. Argyrite, Silver Litharge, or Spume of Silver.

2. That which is made when Silver is separated from Lead.

3. Formed from the mixture of Silver and Lead.

4. From the mixture of Gold and Lead.

5. From the mixture of Gold and Silver.

6. From the mixture of Lead and Copper.

7. Potter's Slag, Blue Recrement of Litharge.

LITHARGYRUM, or LITHARGYROS --- Scum collected from Silver.

LITHARGYRUM OF PARACELSUS --- is Spume of Mercury, otherwise of Silver or Lead, otherwise Silver of Repurging.

LITHARGYRIUM, or ALMARACH --- The Ashes of any Metal.

LITHARGYRUS --- He who seeks and finds Ore.

LITIM --- A fourfold or eightfold Thread, completely drawn.

LIXIVIUM --- Lye.

LOCI DEVEXI ET CONCAVI --- Defiles or Recesses. Also Manufactured Ashes.

LOCUSTA --- signifies either a Locust or Grasshopper, namely, the well-known devastating Winged Insect, or else a species of Lobster, or else the Tops or Young Shoots on Trees and Herbs. It was these that were eaten by St. John in the desert, and not the poisonous winged insects as theologians once thought.

LORCHA --- The Whole Sweetness of Locusts, even to the centre of their substance.

LORINDT --- A Commotion of the Waters, accompanied by loud Sounds and Noises.

LORUS --- i.e., Mercury.

LOT --- Urine.

LOTIUM --- Urine of Infants.

LOTORES --- Washers, or Buddlers of Ore.

LOTORES --- Washers.

LUBAN, or LUBEN --- is Frankincense.

LUBRICUM --- A Moist Substance, one which is not solid.

LUDUS LAPIS --- A Stone Removed from the Bladder, a Remedy for all Species of Calculus.

LUMBRICI --- Worms are also found in man, every member having its own species. There are long and short and round intestinal worms, and various kinds of Ascarides. Worms are also found in water.

LUMBRICI NITRI --- Worms found either in the Earth or in Dung.

LUNA --- i.e., Silver. Sometimes a Month of Four Weeks.

LUNA COMPACTA --- Fixed Silver, or White Gold.

LUSTUM --- Fat, Flower, Cream of Milk, the Lower Cream, Cream-soot.

LUTIREN --- To plaster over.

LUTUM ARMENICUM --- i.e., Bolus.

LUTUM MAGISTERII --- Made of chalk, and of the burns of blisters.

LUTUM MAGRA --- Ruddle, Red Earth, or Chalk.

LUTUM SIGILLATUM --- Sealed or Stamped Earth.

LUTUM STELLAE --- Gypsum.

LYNCURIUS, or the STONE LYNCIS --- a precious Stone, or, as some suppose, Amber, which some of the ancients believed to be formed of the urine of the lynx, coagulated in woods and mountains. The yellow and bright shining variety is the product of the males. The white and pallid kind is produced by the females. It is to be noted that the opinion which identifies Lyncurius with amber is an error, albeit the male Lyncurius, it is true, will attract feathers. The gem is mentioned by Ovid, Solinus, Albertus, and Evax. It is said to be good for gravel, stone, some species of flux, and generally for pain in the stomach. Some would identify it with the Dactylus, or Dactylos, a kind of precious stone, called Idmus, because dug out of Mount Ida. For the rest it should be noted that the lynx is the only animal which has two little toes in the heel. From these talons are obtained which are of the greatest use in medicine. They are worn by children as a preservative against epilepsy, etc. It is not incredible that the urine of the lynx may be indurated into a stone by the heat of the earth. This is certainly the case with the wild boar, and also with the castrated domestic pig, whose urine is hardened into a stone which is itself a remedy for stone in the bladder. Why should not the same thing occur in the case of the urine of the lynx?


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