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Alchemy Index


A Lexicon of Alchemy

by

Martin RULANDUS







A ~ B ~ C ~ D ~ E ~ F ~ G ~ H ~ I ~ J ~ K ~ L ~ M ~ N ~ O ~ P ~ Q ~ R ~ S ~ T ~ U ~ V ~ W ~ X ~ Y ~ Z ~ Supplement


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MACHA --- i.e., a Flying Beetle.

MACHAL --- i.e., Fastened.

MACHINA --- Axle-tree. Called also Axis and Axis Strata.

MACHINA AQUAS TRAHENTIUM OMNIUM MAXIMA --- A Wheel that can be turned in any direction.

MACHINA QUA RES GRAVES DEMITTUNTUR IN POTEUM --- A kind of Crane used for wells.

MACHINAE SPIRITALES --- A Vent.

MACHINA TRACTORIA --- A Windlass.

MACRA --- Red Chalk.

MACULA OCULI --- A Disease of the Eye, Cataract, etc. Called also Hyposchysis and Hyposchyma.

MADIC --- i.e., Butter Milk.

MAGIA, or MAGIC --- is a Persian word; in Latin it is Sapientia, i.e., Wisdom. It is twofold. The first is natural and permissible, the mother of true medicine, the secret lore of nature, hidden and concealed in the very centre, and compared with which all human reason is sheer foolishness. It is truly the gift of God, displaying to us the knowledge of things supernatural, and not proceeding from the inspiration of demons, wherein is no perfection or instruction. The other magic is unlawful, superstitious, and forbidden by the whole Church of Christ. It has the name of Necromancy; it is accursed, and nowhere to be tolerated. Consequently Wisdom has hidden her head.

MAGIA METAPHYSICA --- Metaphysical Magic is neither concerned with sorcery nor with superstition, but it is a supernatural art, by means of which any hidden secrets desired are revealed, just as a manual teaches a mechanical operation.

MAGISTER --- A Handicraftsman. Clerk of the Kitchen.

MAGISTER EXCOQUENS FERRUM --- A Smelter.

MAGISTERIUM --- is a Chemical State which follows the process of extraction, and in which a matter is developed and exalted by the separation of its external impurities. In this manner are all the parts of natural and homogenous concretion preserved. But they are so exalted that they almost attain the nobility of essences. Whence also there is left almost the same mass or quantity which nature gave. It is, however, impossible to prevent at all times the loss of a certain proportion of the essential matter along with the foreign matter which is removed, and a small percentage of such loss may in certain cases be overlooked. From which you may understand that we find what the chemists call alteration is here of great use.

There is a Magisterium of Quality and a Magisterium of Substance.

The Magisterium of Consistency is when the essence being preserved the consistency is changed into a nobler kind, This is performed in various ways, not so much that the nobility of the matter is itself increased, but that it is made adaptable to more numerous and better purposes.

The Magisterium of Fixed Substances is when volatile and spiritual bodies are reduced to a fixed state. The fixed is opposed to the inconstant and the volatile, and fire is the standard of comparison. That which resists fire is fixed ; that which yields to it is volatile; indeed it flies from fire and escapes in the form of a spirit or a smoke. That which reduces matters from a soft to a hard state is a kindred process, and comes under the same name.

The Magisterium of Odour is when a matter is exalted by odour. And this artists preferably use in those operations in the course of which an offensive smell is developed, as in the treatment of oils and waters by fire, as also in those substances which have naturally an offensive odour, or no odour at all. Even when the smell is not offensive, it is capable of improvement.

The Magisterium of Paracelsus is that which is extracted from natural things, without separation of the elements, by means of addition of other substances, whereby that which is extracted is separated.

The Magisterium of Weight is when the substance is exalted in weight. This is chiefly required in gold and silver, and it is one of the notes of perfection, since among metals gold is heaviest, and the weight increases its value as a coin. If there be any deficiency, it is compensated by art. A mass of gold or silver which is lighter than it should be is excocted in urine with precipitated coral ; or artificial quicksilver is rubbed into a homogeneous mass with the gold or silver, until it becomes of a uniform colour; or, gold and silver are cooked in a paste formed of sulphur and living calx; or, they are cemented with sulphur, or with fixed precipitate; or again, mix half an ounce of pulverised salt of Saturn, or the same quantity of powdered brick dust, with three ounces of fixed vitriol. Smear thin shavings of gold with albumen, sprinkle calx of silver, which has been previously dried with powder. Arrange them in layers one over the other, and cement them in a pyx, or between tiles. Then the gold begins generally to become white. Add colouring matter and hold with pincers in the fire, until red hot, afterwards extinguish in urine.

The Magisterium of Colour is when the colour of a substance is educed to the highest perfection in its own degree. The colour is simply brought out from potentiality into manifestation. Sometimes a foreign colour is given to it which is excellent in its own way. If the colour be at once fixed and constant, the magisterium is more noble.

The Magisterium of Powders is the reduction of matters into a uniform consistence by making them into a powder. It is chiefly performed by calcination, and is vulgarly called Calx or Alcool. The end in view is to overcome the tenacity of any given substance.

The Magisterium of Principles is when a composite substance is again resolved into its constituents.

The Magisterium of Quality is when the matter, elaborated by certain forms, is exalted. It is performed in two ways, either in accordance with the secret or the manifest qualities.

The Magisterium of an Occult Quality is concerned with that which permeates the nature of a given substance, and is known by the effects it produces and not by an outward appearance, as for example the perfect exaltation of an essence which may have no outward difference from the same essence in a lower state of exaltation. If such a quality be hurtful, it is altogether abolished, though some of the substance may be destroyed in this process. Thus the perfection of a substance consists not in the thing itself, but in the use of the thing. In things healthful there is perfection both in the matter and in the use of the matter. If it be impossible to abolish altogether what is hurtful, it is restricted or restrained, so that it can be used without any injury resulting.

The Magisterium of a Manifest Quality is when a substance is elaborated by means of its outward forms. There are as many magisteries of this kind as there are outward qualities appealing to the different senses, and chemistry is concerned with the exaltation of each of them. Some of them are connected with the nature of the body and some with the forms thereof.

The Magisterium of Savour is when there is an exaltation or increase of flavour. The process concerns both the kitchen and the apothecary's shop. Chemically, it is chiefly used in correcting acidities, and in toning down what is too pungent or highly spiced.

The Magisterium of Sensitives is when a substance is exalted in its own sensible qualities, as for example in those which appeal to the sense of touch, namely, heat, cold, moisture, dryness, etc., of which the magisterium is developed.

The Magisterium of Sound is that process in which the sound is corrected by the chemist. This takes place chiefly in minerals, the sound being regarded as a proof of excellence; or those things which are dangerous in fire by reason of their explosive nature, which is obviated by this process.

The Magisterium of Volatiles is when the volatile is produced from the fixed. It has affinity with that process by which a tractable, ductile, or even fluid quality is produced out of the hard, rigid, and inflexible. It is performed by extinctions, macerations, incerations, sublimations, solutions, etc. Commonly we seek here the restoration of the moisture which has been removed, or the increase of a deficient moisture, or the removal of an objectionable asperity, etc. The process concerns volatile substances; its end is that they should put on the nature of spirits.

MAGNA CAPSA LIGNEA --- A Great Wooden Box.

MAGNALIA, OPERA DEI --- God's Works.

MAGNES --- i.e., Mercury.

MAGNES --- The Magnet is so called after its discoverer. See Pliny, 1. 36, c. 16. It is also called the Herculean Stone. Hence the Greek proverb about Herculean stones. It is so called from the city of Heraclea in Lydia (or, as some say, in Magnesia) where there is a most admirable magnet. Lucretius says: The magnet which the Greeks name after its origin, because it originated in its native mountains of magnets. The magnet is also called the Sidereal Stone because it attracts iron. For the Greek word Sideris signifies iron, although Sideritis is different from iron scoria, and is a remarkable gem, mentioned by Pliny, 1. 37, c. 10. By the Germans the magnet is called, after the Latin, Magneth. By the Saxons it is termed the Sailor's Stone, because of its use in navigation, it being its nature always to turn to the north. According to the testimony of Dioscorides (1.5, c. 93), its colour inclines to dark blue. The best is always dark blue. It is thick, not heavy, and attracts iron by a congenital property, as it were, just as the gem Sagda attracts wood, or as amber and gagates attract straws and feathers. Even iron, which is most obstinate in its property of resistance, is overcome by the magnet; and, what is more, when iron is touched by the magnet it will draw along with it another piece of iron. Thus iron, the mistress of all things, is held and remains in the grasp of the magnet. On the other hand (whereat I greatly marvel), garlic and onion are quite contrary to the magnet, and if the magnet be smeared with their sap, it by no means attracts iron. However, it recovers its properties when dipped in the blood of a goat.

The magnetic gem is also found in veins of iron, and in our mines --- for example, in the territories of Bohemia, by Schwartzberg; and certainly at Sualvedia in ancient iron mines; also at Goslaria, in an old mine half covered over by rubbish, the magnet is to be seen in a vein of its own. This also is said to be the case in Spain and in other places. It is affirmed that the magnet possesses a great affinity with hematite. For hematite is called a magnet by Pliny, the reference being to an Ethiopian species of hematite, and a magnet burnt, whether by the heat of the earth or by artificial fire, becomes hematite, and is sold for it. Pliny also enumerates five genera, according to Sotacus, and states that it derives its name from Magnes Armentarius.

MAGNES, MAGNETH:

1. The Ethiopian, which is most praised, and is found in Ethiopia, in a sandy region, together with the Hematite Magnet, which is of a bloody colour, and of which more above. This Ethiopian Magnet not only attracts iron but also a magnet of another genus. Hence those lines of Sinesius: The Ethiopians, a people not unknown to the Nile, who cut the magnet: their only boast is the magnet. They attract uncooked stone.

2. The Red and Black Magnesiacus of Macedonia.

3. In Echium of Boeotia, which is more ruddy than black.

4. A Magnet found about Alexander and Troas. It is black, of the feminine sex, and totally useless.

5. In Asiatic Magnesia, white, useless, does not attract iron.

The difference in the various kinds of magnet is according as they are male or female, and also in the matter of colour. Concerning the affinity which exists between iron and the magnet, consult Pliny (1. 34, c. 24), who describes the Cantabrian Magnet, found with freckled bubbles. He also informs us that in the same part of Ethiopia where the magnet abounds there is a stone called Themanides, which repels all pieces of iron, and rejects them, being of an antagonisticc nature to the magnet. He further testifies that the magnet has another property, namely, that of attracting to itself the liquor of glass. Just as the magnet by its natural potency and power attracts iron and the liquor just named, and has affinity with them, so conversely it disagrees with garlic and onions, and has so little sympathy with adamant that in its neighbourhood it ceases to grasp or to attract iron. Consult also Serapion (lib. Agg. c. Hager Abnantes, or Almagritos). He refers to the abundance of the magnet on the shores of the Indian Ocean, and says that all ships in those parts are put together with wooden nails, as those of iron would be torn away by the force of the attraction. The Magi assert that the magnet having such great agreement with iron, has also the property of producing and maintaining peace among men. As to the further medicinal use of the magnet, consult Dioscorides, Pliny, and others already cited. Evax states that there is a kind of magnet which attracts flesh, especially human flesh. But possibly this statement is borrowed from Aristotle. Albertus states that the magnet is found in France, and there has the appearance of rusty iron, burnt with pitch. Would that the French would seek for these things! Doubtless it would be found in Thuringia, which borders on France, if any one were to look for it. Moreover, the same Albertus states that in his day a magnet was discovered which at one end attracted iron, and at the other repelled it. Aristotle, if I mistake not, also mentions this species. If this be the case, we can understand Pliny's statement concerning the stone Themanides. Thirdly, Albertus adds that the Emperor Frederick possessed a magnet which did not attract iron, but was attracted by the iron itself.

MAGNESIA --- i.e., Seafoam Stone, or Sulphul. Also, Tortoise and Tortoiseshell. Magnesia generally stands for Marcasite. Artificial magnesia is melted tin when mercury has been injected into it, and the two have been mingled together until they form a brittle substance, and a white mass. It is also silver mixed with mercury, an extremely fusible metallic compound which is liquefied as easily as wax, is of a wonderful whiteness, and is called the magnesia of the philosophers. Magnesia is produced when silver and quicksilver are united together so as to form a heavy fluid metal. It is also the matter of the philosopher's stone. Magnesia is further the mixed water congealed in air which offers resistance to the fire, the earth of the stone, our mercury, mixtures of substances. The whole therein is mercury.

Magnesia is a Stone having the virtue of marcasite. Or, it is a Stone like hematite.

MAGNESIA --- The Woman.

MAGNESIA --- Bismuth, or Barren Earth.

MAGNETINUS TARTARUS --- A very hard and Spongy Stone in Men.

MAGNUS CLAVUS FERREUS OSTUSUS --- A Big Blunt Piece of Iron.

MAGRA --- i.e., Red Earth.

MAGRA --- i.e., Cornelian.

MALECK --- The Arabic Term for Salt.

MALLEI SPECIES --- A Hammer for Splitting.

MALLEO PERCUSSUM DILATARE --- To Extend, to Flatten.

MALTHEORUM --- i.e., Sal Gemmae, which see.

MANBRUCK --- i.e., Silver.

MANDELLA --- Black Hellebore.

MANDIBULARUM LIQUOR --- Liquid from the jaws. Oil from the jaws or jaw Bone.

MANGONASIA --- Art of lifting heavy things without difficulty.

MANNA, or MAMMA --- That Substance with which Vessels are Annealed.

MANNA --- i.e., Dew Fallen from Heaven. A Species of Balsam, the Product of the Air. Also a Sweetness Extracted from many Substances. Otherwise, Honey Dew, Dosomeli, Pure Honey, Melligo, Saliva of the Constellations.

MANHEB --- i.e., Scoria.

MARCASITA PLUMBEA --- Leaden Marcasite, i.e., Antimony.

MARCASITA ALBA --- White Marcasite, i.e., White Arsenical Pyrites.

MARCASITA --- Marcasite, i.e., Incrustations of Ore, such as Climia --- Incrustations of Gold and Antimony --- Incrustations of Lead.

MARCASITE --- is an Imperfect Metallic Substance of as many Species as there are Solid Metals. Thus, there is Golden, Silver, Tin, Iron, Leaden, and Copper Marcasite.
The last mentioned is Pyrites, or Stone of Light, Fire-stone, a Brazen Stone abundant in Ruddy Sulphur, and sending forth many sparks. Pyrites contains much Red Sulphur, Flint-stone, Copper Ore, and Metal Regulus of Copper.

MARCELLUS --- i.e., a big Mallet.

MARCHED --- i.e., Litharge.

MARGARITA --- The Indian Ocean yields us precious pearls, also the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, about Arabia, and nowadays, the British waters. Now, a pearl is nothing else than the production and offspring of a pearl-oyster. For these shell-fish, at that particular time of the year when they are stimulated by the season to giving birth, expand, and, as it were, gape. They thirst for the dew, as if it were a husband; it is in consequence of desire that they gape, and long to be filled with a dew-developed foetus. When the lunar dews have melted away, they drink in the dew, absorbing the desired moisture as into a gaping womb. Thus impregnated, they bring forth pearls, according to the quality of the dew absorbed. Should pure dew have been imbibed, pearls of a marvellous whiteness are produced. But if, on the other hand, muddy dew has been drunk in, the foetus will also be muddy. Moreover, pearls grow pale if the sky threatens tempest at the time of conception. If the shells obtain their desire by gaping at the seasonable moment, the pearls become large. If, at the time of conception, lightning flashes, the shells close up, and yield pearls only in a meager fashion. Should it thunder, the shells close in terror, and then those abortions are produced which are called Physemata. It is also alleged that if, subsequent to conception, many peals of thunder are heard, the shells cast forth the pearls into the rivers, where they are found in large quantities, as, for example, in the Moselle, among the sands. Should a ray of sunlight have fallen into the gaping shell, together with the dew, then the pearls are tinged with red, as we sometimes see them to be. For this reason, when the sun rises, the shells dive, for they feel, as it were, that they are going to produce ruddy offspring. Finally, the pearl is produced in a more magnificent manner if the shells receive the seed of the morning air, i.e., the dew, rather than the seed of the evening air. Thus there is a wonderful affinity between the pearl and the shell in its copulation with dew, the seed, so to speak, of the air. Not without reason are pearls ascribed to Venus, on account of their marvelous copulation. The pearl is also called unio, because two have never been found together. Its value consists in its whiteness, size, weight, rotundity and polish. In the water all pearls are soft like coral. When removed therefrom, they immediately harden and become stones. But Pliny (1. 9, c. 35) should be consulted concerning pearls and the nature of their shells. Serapion and Solinus assert that they are cold and dry. They are good for heartburn or stomach ache, for syncope, diarrhoea, preservation of sight, etc. They retain the menses, cleanse the teeth, purify the blood, etc.

MARICH --- In German Shacken.

MARCKASITA --- i.e., Calcithes.

MARMORA CANDIDA --- White Marbles.

1. White Lunensian Marble in. Etruria.

2. White Cartariensian Marble.

3. Patavian Marble cut with iron.

4. Italian Marble with ashen veins.

5. Marble from Ratisbon, out of which the slabs of tables are made. From this the altar of Anneberg was constructed, consisting of one solid block of stone, and there is not a more elegant altar to be found in Italy.

6. Very white Marble, of which the Caroline baths are built.

7. Ivory-like Marble from Hildesheim.

8. Ivory-like Arabian Marble.

9. Annebergian Marble, found in a spar, or in mud.

10. Marble from Hildesheim, having ash-coloured markings upon white ground, and smelling like burnt horn.

MARMORA CINEREA --- Marbles of ashen hue.

1. From Hildesheim, smelling like burnt horn.

2. Zeblician, with white lines and spots. Called by the natives Serpentine.

3. Zeblician, ingrained with Carbuncles, which show up admirably when the Marble is polished.

4. Rochlician, having black marks which resemble the claws of crows.

5. Rochlician, with muddy spots.

6. Italian, with black spots, resembling serpents.

MARMORA FLAVA --- Marbles of yellow hue.

1. A yellow Spar, found among metals.

2. Dull, opaque Belgian.

MARMORA NIGRA --- Marbles of black hue.

1. Belgian, from which was hewn the tomb of the most illustrious Duke Maurice the Elector, and especially those slabs upon which inscriptions are carved. Item: Black Netherland Marble.

2. Marble from Anneberg.

3. From Ratisbon.

4. Belgian, which smells of sulphur.

5. Another variety, quarried in the same place, and smelling like burnt horn.

6. Andegavensian, polished, very black, quarried near the city.

7. Stolpensian, having the colour and hardness of iron. Agricola calls it Bisalt, and we call it Basalt.

MARMORA RUBRA --- Marbles of red colour:

1. Egyptian Porphyry, uniform.

2. A beautiful red Marble.

3. Red Marble from Ratisbon.

4. A brilliant Marble with white spots, from Ratisbon.

5. Bohemian Marble, black on red ground.

6. Belgian, white upon red ground, distinguished by various spots.

7. Annebergian, found among metals.

8. Red on white ground, found amongst all metals.

MARMORA VIRIDIA --- Marbles of green colour.

1. Laconian, quarried by the Venetians.

2. Light green, with markings of brilliant green.

3. Another from Laconia, with black marks upon green.

MARMOREUS TARTARUS --- A very hard Stone, found in man, like marble in hardness.

MARS --- i.e., Iron.

MARTACH, or MARTATH --- is Litharge, Silver Litharge.

MARTEGON --- Silphium.

MARUCH --- Oil.

MARUCH --- Oli.

1. White, fatty, soft, fluid Targatta.

2. White Juliacensian.

3. White Crustaceous Marl.

4. White, stony, hard Hallensian Marl.

5. Light ash-coloured Marl, found between Dresden and Meissen.

6. Ash-coloured Stony Marl.

7. Ash-coloured Stony Marl from Hallee, used by artificers in producing pictures.

8. Yellow Crustaceous Marl from Radeberg, found in sandy earth.

9. Hard, yellow, sandy Belgian Marl, from a more elevated region, used by the natives, as in other places, for manuring fields. A kind of Marl from Mxstricht.

10. White sandy and crumbling Marl, from Hildesheim.

MASAREA, or MYOSOTIS --- Mouse's Ear.

MASELLUM, MOSEL --- i..e., Jupiter.

MASCULINUM ET FOEMINUM SEMEN --- Masculine and Feminine Seed, the substance of Mercury and Sulphur. For the Mercury is transformed into Sulphur; it is a spirit which possesses both natures, and is called Mercury. Out of one pound of Matter, scarcely half an ounce can be extracted. It is also called Ore, Penny, Lead, Albor Aeris; Turba, folio 16, calls the Female Magnesia. The white is red Sulphur. When the two are again united, they are still called Magnesia, until the end of the cooking. It is the medium between fixed and not fixed.

MASCULUS --- i.e., Quicksilver.

MASSA EX CANCELLIS FORMATA --- (?) A Mass of Ore formed of transverse bars like a lattice.

MASSALIS, MOSEL, or MASSERIUM --- The Mother, i.e., Mercury.

MATER METALLORUM --- Mother of the Metals, i.e., Living Silver.

MATERIA DISPERSA --- Ore distributed for treatment.

MATERIA LAPILLORUM EXPERS --- Metallic Ore devoid of petrine matter.

MATERIA METALLICA --- Metallic Ore. Also an alloy of Copper, Lead, and Silver.

MATERIAM METALLICAM DISCERNERE A TERRIS --- To Separate the Ore.

MATERIA PRIMA ET HUJUS VOCABULA --- The philosophers have so greatly admired the Creature of God which is called the Primal Matter, especially concerning its efficacy and mystery, that they have given to it many names, and almost every possible description, for they have not known how to sufficiently praise it.

1. They originally called it Microcosmos, a small world, wherein heaven, earth, fire, water, and all elements exist, also birth, sickness, death, and dissolution, the creation, the resurrection, etc.

2. Afterwards it was called the Philosophical Stone, because it was made of one thing. Even at first it is truly a Stone. Also because it is dry and hard, and can be triturated like a stone. But it is more capable of resistance and more solid. No fire or other element can destroy it. It is also no stone, because it is fluid, can be smelted and melted.

They further call it the Eagle Stone, because it has stone within it, according to Rosinus.

3. It is also called Water of Life, for it causes the King, who is dead, to awake into a better mode of being and life. It is the best and most excellent medicine for the life of mankind.

4. Venom, Poison, Chamber, because it kills and destroys the King, and there is no stronger poison in the world.

5. Spirit --- because it flies heavenward, illuminates the bodies of the King, and of the metals, and gives them life.

6. Medicine --- the one most excellent medicine, for it speedily and marvellously heals all the maladies and infirmities of mankind and of metals.

7. Heaven --- for it is light and bright, indestructible, and is Heaven in operation.

8. Clouds --- for it gives celestial water and rain upon its own earth.

9. Nebula, or Fog --- for it ascends from the earth and makes the air dark.

10. Dew --- for it falls from the air and stimulates the soil, together with that which grows upon it.

11. Shade --- for it casts a shadow over the earth and the elements, and causes darkness.

12. Moon --- for she is in her nature and quality cold and moist; her influence extends to the Under World; she receives her light from the Sun; hence she ministers to the time of darkness, by means of the shade of the earth.

13. Stella Signata and Lucifer --- the pre-eminent and morning star, for she gives the sign in operations, she shines first, then comes the sun, both evening and morning, which is a marvel to behold.

14. Permanent Water --- metallic water of life, leafy water. It remains in fire, air, and earth, and cannot be destroyed by any element.

15. Fiery and Burning Water --- for it is exceeding hot, melts up all metals more quickly than fuel and flame, yea, melts that which resists fire.

16. Salt of Nitre and Saltpetre for it possesses their nature and kind. It also rises with greater strength and violence than any saltpetre whatever. It is, moreover, extracted from the earth.

17. Lye --- for it washes and cleans the metals, and the garments of the King.

18. Bride, Spouse, Mother, Eve --- from her royal children are born to the King.

19. Pure and Uncontaminated Virgin --- for she remains pure and unimpregnated, notwithstanding that she bears children. She is a most extraordinary mother, who slays her husband and offspring, and revivifies them by means of her breasts. Assiduous says: The Mother of our Stone, which is now perfected, is still a Virgin, never having reclined in the nuptial couch, because this hermaphrodite and universal matter of the Sun and Moon has intercourse only with itself, and is not yet impregnated in any special manner, such as the golden, silver, or mercurial process, etc. Consequently, it is a pure, virginal birth.

20. Milk of Virgin, or of the Fig --- for it renders things sweet, white, delicious, and wholesome.

21. Boiling Milk --- for it warms, cooks, whitens, and matures.

22. Honey --- for it sweetens, confers a pleasant smell, and renders things delicious and wholesome.

23. A Spiritual Blood --- for it is like blood, and so remains; it reddens, vivifies, and has the spirit therein.

24. Bath --- for it washes and cleanses the King, and metals, and causes them to perspire.

25. A Syrup --- for it is acid, and produces strength and courage.

26. Vinegar --- for it macerates, makes spicy, pickles, renders savoury, strengthens, preserves, corrodes, and yields a tincture.

27. Lead, for it is heavy, and is at first impure; gives colour and weight.

28. Tin --- on account of its whiteness.

29. Sulphur of Nature. Lime Alum --- for it consumes and burns up.

30. Spittle of the Moon, incombustible saliva.

31. Burnt Copper, Black Copper, Flower of Copper, i.e., Ore --- as also Ore of Hermes.

32. The Serpent, the Dragon --- for he devours and destroys.

33. Marble, Crystal, Glass --- which is all clear and intelligible.

34. Scottish gem.

35. Urine of boys, urine of the white calf --- on account of its acrid nature.

36. White Magnesia, a Magnet --- because it attracts gold, or the King, unto itself.

37. White Ethesia, a white Moisture.

38. Dung --- for it manures the earth, which it renders moist, fat, and fruitful.

39. White Smoke --- for it renders white and glistening.

40. Metallic Entity --- for it is the true Essence and Quintessence of Metals.

41. The virtue of mineral Mercury.

42. The Soul and Heaven of the Elements.

43. The Matter of all Forms.

44. Tartar of the Philosophers.

45. Dissolved Refuse.

46. The Rainbow --- on account of its colours.

47. Indian Gold, Heart of the Sun, Shade of the Sun, Heart and Shade of Gold --- for it is stronger than gold; it holds the gold in its heart, and is itself Gold.

48. Chaos --- as it is in the beginning.

49. Venus --- On account of the fruitfulness of Nature.

50. Microcosmos --- because it is a likeness of the great world, through heaven, the sea, and all elements.

Other Names, not mentioned by Rulandus:

1. Adarner.

2. A Drop.

3. Asrob.

4. Agnean.

5. Eagle.

6. Alartar.

7. Albar lEvis.

8. Alkaest.

9. Alcharit.

10. Alembroth.

11. Alinagra.

12. Almisada.

13. Aludel.

14. Alun.

15. Abzernad.

16. Amalgra.

17. Anatron.

18. Androgyne.

19. Antimony.

20. Aremaros.

21. Arnec.

22. Arsenic.

23. Asmarcech.

24. Azoth.

25. Borax.

26. Boritis.

27. Caduceus.

28. Cain.

27. Chyle.

28. Cock (The).

29. Dragon.

30. Ebisemeth.

31. Embryo.

32. Euphrates.

33. Eve.

34. Feces.

35. Flower of the Sun.

36. Hermaphrodite.

37. Hyle.

38. Infinite.

39. Isis.

40. Kibrish.

41. Laton.

42. Lion.

43. Magnes.

44. Magnesia.

45. Mars.

46. Menstruum.

47. Mother.

48. Orient.

49. Salamander.

50. Sonig.

51. Sulphur.

52. Tincture of Metals.

53. Vapour.

54. Lord of the Stones.

55. The Bull.

56. The Sea.

57. The West.

58. Bird of Hermes.

59. Shadow of the Sun.

60. Philosophical Stone.

61. Animal Stone.

62. Lead.

63. Spring.

64. Vegetable Liquor.

65. The Moon.

66. The Garden.

67. The Spouse.

68. Summer.

69. The Woman.

70. The Son of the Water of Life.

71. Water of Gold.

72. The Belly of the Ostrich.

73. Anger.

74. Butter.

75. May Blossom.

76. Golden Wood.

77. The Tree.

78. Silver.

79. Whiteness.

80. Soul of Saturn.

81. The Lamb.

82. Sun and the Moon.

The matter of the Magnum Opus is the subject on which the philosophers exercised their practical science. All who have written on the art have concealed the true name of this matter, as the chief key of chemistry. Having potentially all the qualities and properties of elementary things, they have given it the names of all kinds of things. It is a fifth element, a quintessence, the material beginning and end of all things. It is the matter of which the Heavens are composed, says the Hermetic author. It is the quintessence of our sublunary matter, the soul of the elements, which preserves all things sublunary from destruction, and from corruption. It is the bird of Hermes, which descends continually from heaven to earth, and as continually ascends and goes back from earth to heaven. It is even as the mysterious ladder of the vision of Jacob the prophet, whereon the angels of God forever came and went between earth and the world which is above the earth. It is also the seeds of bodies, even the seminal life of all things, whether vegetable, animal, or mineral, which do propagate and continue their species by means of seminal generation. Now the seed of bodies is the first matter of the chemists; and this matter is found only in the seed of bodies. But each seed is to be found after its own kind, in its own species. There is a seed of individuals according to the three Kingdoms of Nature, and this seed is diverse in each. In the mineral kingdom, it is called a Sperm, and this sperm is the Sulphur of Metals --- an unctuous, sulphureous and mecurial vapour, says Aristotle.

MATERIA SAPPHIREA --- A Liquid wherein there is no noxious matter.

MATHEDORUM --- i.e., Sal Gemmae.

MATHEMATICA --- Consists of many Arts and Sciences-Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry, Geomancy, Physiognomy, Chiromancy --- Perspective.

MATRICES RERUM OMNIUM --- Matrices of all Things, i.e., the Elements.

MATURATIO --- is the Elevation from a Coarse and Rough Condition to Maturity and Perfection. There are four kinds of Maturation, each of which is accomplished by a moderate heat of the first grade, or near it, it mud, in a bath, in scum of olive oil, in fine cut straw, in a dry stone, with damp hay, with grape stones, by sunshine, the moon, etc, The four kinds are called--Digestion, Circulation, Fermentation, and Projection.

MATURATIVA --- Maturatives are Surgeons' Medicines, which bring any Abscesses or Ulcers to Maturity.

MECHANICAE ARTES --- Mechanical Arts, Manual Operations.

MECHANO PEOTICA --- Inventions for Managing Water, such as artificial fountains, drawing up water by means of syringes, by pipes, bellows, and the
like.

MEDEAE GEMMA --- Medea's Gem, from the black Median Stone, which is brought from the Land of the Medes. But the Medean Gem, or Medea, is so called, because it was first discovered by the poisoner Medea. It is black, having veins of a golden colour; it yields a saffron sap, with a vinous flavour, and is extremely efficacious against drunkenness, and useful in the cultivation of friendship, as the Magi assert. It is, without any doubt, a species of the Median Stone, or Black Hematite, which yields a saffron sap. It is found in Cherussia, where there is also Black Hematite, although the veins are not of so golden a hue. Consult Pliny concerning Medea's gem.

MEDITATIO --- The name of an Internal Talk of one person with another who is invisible, as in the invocation of the Deity, or communion with one's self, or with one's good angel.

MEDIUM COELI --- Middle of the Heaven --- the Mid Day --- Noon --- the Zenith --- White, also Margesia.

MEDULLA CANDIDA --- White Marrow of the Stones of Targensae, white soft Lithomarge.

2. White thick Marrow of Targensian Stones.

3. White and soft Marrow of Rochlicensian Stones.

4. White hard Marrow from the same.

5. White Metallic Marrow, growing in veins of silver, which, when first extracted, yield a liquid like cheese in colour. In the air this immediately hardens, and yet it will melt like butter in the mouth.

6. Extremely white Metallic Marrow, thick and soft. Found in veins of iron at Sachsenfeld. Its touch resembles that of saponaceous earth.

7. White Metallic Marrow from the same place. Found in iron stones.

8. Hard yellow Lithomarge.

9. Yellow friable Lithomarge, found at Meissen on the floor of storehouses.

10. Red soft Lithomarge which is medically used with great success in place of the Armenian Bolus.

11. Lithomarge, flesh-colour or white.

12. Black Pirnensian Lithomarge, resembling pitch.

13. Greenish Lithomarge, from Chemnitz, above Hilberdorf.

MEHELUM --- A Glass with a long neck, a Retort.

MELA --- i.e., Lead.

MELANTER --- i.e., Opium.

MELANTERIA METALLICUM CHALCANTI --- A species of Copperas Water, or maker's Black, a species of Vitriol. Its colour is blue and grey, depending upon the different earths in which it is produced. According to Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 67), it has a twofold origin. Some of it solidifies and accumulates like salt in the cavities of mines, whence copper is obtained. Sometimes the same species is found upon the copper itself, and (if I mistake not) is called Maltira by Serapion, and by others Melatria. Secondly, Melanteria is found on the surface of mines, like earth, salt, etc. The Arabs call it Bitriant. It is sometimes found by digging in Cilicia, and other districts. Dioscorides affirms that the mined species is the best, especially that which has the colour of sulphur, and is light, pure and equable. According to the Arabs, on contact with sufficient moisture to moisten the finger, it immediately hardens. It also possesses a caustic virtue. This quality is scarcely to be found in our mines, although we have two species of it, which the Arabs maintain to be a kind of Colcothar, i.e., Fixed Vitriol, because its properties are the same. Also Melanteria is the rust of old iron nails, or Shoemaker's Black, being almost the same as is now produced by our shoemakers.

MELAONES, or MELONES --- Black Insects, sending forth a good odour when crushed. They are found during May in the meadows --- a kind of Green Beetle, shining with a muddled yellow hue.

MELCELHON --- i.e., Mulbra.

MELECH --- i.e., Salt.

MELIBOCUM, MELIBCEUM --- i.e., Copper.

MELISEA, MOTHERWORT, MELISION --- Is used for Manna or Balsam, being obtained from the higher vegetables by means of the Magistery.

MELITITES --- A Stone now almost unknown, especially in laboratories. Dioscorides asserts that it resembles Galactite, and possesses the same virtues and potencies, only that it has a sweeter sap. Pliny (1. 36, c. 19) states that Melitite, when pounded, yields a sweet and honey-like juice, or sap, and that when mixed with wax, it is a medicine for excessive phlegm, spots on the body, ulceration of the jaws, and the pain of wounds.

MELLISODIUM --- Burnt Lead.

MELUSI --- i.e., Mercury --- Albach, Messalis.

MELUSINA and MELIORA --- were Kings' daughters in France, snatched away by Satan because they were hopelessly sinful, and transformed into spectres horrible to behold, and monstrous ghosts. The preceding is not a fictitious account. They are thought to exist with a rational soul, but a merely brute-like body, of a visionary kind, nourished by the elements and, like them, destined to pass away at the last day unless they contract a marriage with a man. Then the man himself may, perish by a natural death, while they live naturally by this nuptial union.

MEMPHITES LAPIS --- Memphite Stone, found near Memphis, in Egypt, and deriving its name from the locality, and the size of the pebbles. It is thick, of the colour of the worm, according to the description of Dioscorides and I'liny. In fact, however, its nature is now unknown.

MENFRICE --- i.e., Mastich.

MENSIS PHILOSOPHICUS --- The Philosophical Period of Digestion, a space of homy Days. It is the time of putrefaction, the period which follows, or imitates, the movements of the Moon, which is in some cases thirty, and in others forty days. The space occupied in the composition of the Philosopher's Stone is also known by this name, but fewer days compose this month, which must be determined solely by the nature of the matter, and by the completion of the work.

MENSOR --- A Measurer, a Mathematician. A Measurer of Mines, a Surveyor.

MENSTRUUM --- is that from which all metals are derived. It is of two kinds. One is like unto whey, and this is useless. The other is mercurial, and this is of good account. It is the Mercury wherein gold is dissolved. The whey is the superfluous moisture which comes from the matrix and cannot be dried. Consequently, when the solution is obtained it appears in the form of a menstruous blood. Our Water is a Fire, a Salt, Fire, the true universal Menstruum of Vegetables, stronger than the fire of wood, since it transmutes the physical gold into a spirit, the Fontin Vinum Aminaeum, Vinegar, the Water of the King of the Philosophers, the Genuine Extracting Solvent and Universal Vegetative Menstruum, without which the Sun and the Moon cannot be prepared, neither black nor white.

MERCURIUS --- i.e., Sulphur.

MERCURY --- is mentioned everywhere, in every alchemical work, and is supposed to perform everything. Everybody wastes his brain and his money in endeavouring to produce a quantity of it. Now, Mercury is a thick gluey liquid, yet it does not stick, for it is of a dry nature, Moist and Warm Water, almost inseparably mixed with Earth, so that they either remain together, or depart together.

2. Speculum Alchimiae states that Mercury is Living Gold, and kills or makes alive, moistens and drys, warms and cools, becoming opposite things according to the measure of its regimen.

3. It is also called Vinegar, Oli, a Father of all Wonders, and the Chief Medicine; also Living Silver because it possesses a soul; also Bath, a continually Stagnant Water, Water of Sulphur, Burning Water, Water of Life, of Gold, of Saltpetre, Pure Water, White Karo, Vapour, Seed, Shade, Fiery, Poison, Fire, Ore, Lime, Azot, Gold, Orpiment, Lunar Saliva, Strftarna Boletorunr, Citronat, Juice, Wine of Souls, Brightness of the Sea, Heart of Salt, Kanderich, Colla Auriborites, Alum from Apples, Kuhul, Esbuit, Stomach, juice from Metallic Roots.

4. An essential of all metals, as it is in itself a poison to them all. It cleanses gold.

5. It is of the nature of silver, and of the spirit of the same, the White Stone, the Disappearing Water, Virgin's Milk, the Proud Lady.

6. When he conquers, he is white; when overcome, he is red; he is a Powerful Water.

7. Mercury of the Body is White Earth.

8. Exuberatus is Earth of the Body, which, along with the Menstruum, has arisen over the bright part of the body.

9. Mercury of Mars is red yellow, even as Mercury of Venus.

10. Crude Mercury dissolves the bodies, but Mercury of the bodies effects nothing.

11. The Earth wherein to sow the grain. It is incombustible, whether it sustains the brightness of the fire, or whether it flows right away. It is an index of perfection that nothing should remain in the fire.

12. Trenes --- Mercury is the Subject and Matter of the Stone. When you have amalgamated with it the calx of the perfected body, press it through a linen cloth, and again through a hare's bladder. If it passes clean through, then all is well.

13. Rosin. Our Stone consists of fixed Mercury, which possesses in itself Soul, Spirit, and Body.

14. Lully says: Ordinary Mercury cannot be the Mercury of the Philosophers, no matter however prepared.

15. Bernard states that Mercury is in some fashion reckoned among the Metals, but it is the Medium for Uniting the Tincture; it is not itself the medicine, but an aid thereto; it is purified through sublimation, washed with salt and vinegar.

16. Mercury is the bane of all metals, even of all things, for he eats away and devours the vessels; all things immersed in him swim to the surface, except gold which, however, he attracts to himself and purifies. He conducts the feces with himself through the strainer, and leaves the gold pure.

17. Adam of Mercury is the Essence of Sulphur and Earth.

18. Theophrastic Mercury is hardened by the Sulphur of Metals, and is transformed into the nature of the sulphur of that metal with which it is hardened.

19.Mercury is extracted from the body by means of solution, distillation, sublimation, and subtilisation: it becomes a Tincture of Mercury of the Sun; it is volatile, nevertheless, has the property of fixing, and does not blacken like the ordinary Mercury.

20. You must always be careful to distinguish what is generally and particularly stated concerning Mercury, as to whether it be about ordinary Mercury, or about our Mercury. Do not make a mistake; otherwise, the information will be useless.

MERCURIUS --- Mercury naturally coagulated is a solid Metal, but we coagulate it artificially either with Metals or with Minerals; or without the aid of these either by itself or by other substances, not Minerals.

MERCURIUS --- Mercury is the material principle, gaseous, of a watery nature, subject to generation; by its virtue shape is formed or impressed upon all things, and all things receive their perfection.

MERCURIUS --- Mercury is one of the three principles in which the property of things is contained.

MERCURIUS --- Quicksilver, C.C., S.Z.

MERCURIUS ARGENTIPIGMENTUM --- Mercury of Silver Pigment is Sulphur, Vitriol, Alum, Salt, because it dissolves bodies.

MERCURIUS CHAMBAR --- Magnesia, Fluid Body and Water.

MERCURIUS CORALLINUS --- Mercury reduced to Red Coral by passing through the oil of eggs and other liquids.

MERCURIUS CRUDUS --- Mercury which is crude remains unseparated from the oil.

MERCURIUS CRYSTALLINUS --- is often sublimated into the form of Crystal until it assumes the transparency of the latter.

MERCURIUM EXSUPERANTEM, etc. --- Mercury Triumphant is, according to Lully, when they bring to the King a white banner, with a picture of the moon on the increase, out of which pearls are made.

MERCURIUS LAXUS --- is Mineral Turbith.

MERCURIUS METALLORUM --- Mercury of Metals is that from which the nature of the bodies is derived, the Quintessence and Permanent Water, Spirit, Seed of Passive Female, the Bath and Mother of the King, who draws the King to herself because they are one and love each other.

MERCURIUS METALLORIUM --- Mercury of Metals is precipitated Mercury of the body, physical Mercury, when metals are reduced to their first matter and precipitated into Mercury.

MERCURIUS MINERALIUM --- Mercury of Minerals, the Oil or Grease extracted from Minerals, Gold and Silver, or Gold and Silver Ore.

MERCURIUS REGENERATUS --- The First Entity of Mercury.

MERCURIALIS SIEVA, MERCURIAL CRUDENESS --- Water of Alum Wherein Mercury is generated. It is also a Purging Salt of a golden colour, found in salt caves, best known to diggers. It is often drunk for pneumonia, a disease of the lungs.

MERDASENGI --- i.e., Powder from Burnt Lead.

MERGEN BASSEC --- i.e., Coral.

MESBRA --- i.e., Alexandrine Tutty.

MESEL, MOSEL --- i.e., Tin.

MEST, MISAL, MASAL --- i.e., Sour Milk.

METALLUM --- i.e., Vein, Ore.

METALLUM --- i.e., Melted Silver.

METALLUM CURRENS --- i.e., Living Mercury.

METALLUM RUDE, A TERRIS ET SAXIS SECERNERE --- Separation of Metal from Earth and Stones.

METALLUM FERRAMENTO FORFICIS SIMILI CONCIDERE --- The Cutting of Metallic Substances by means of Shears.

METALLUM MALLEO PERCUSSUMM DILATARE --- Extension and Flattening of Metallic Substance by means of a Hammer.

METAS, MECAL, MEKAL --- i.e., Weight.

MEZ --- The Son of the Servant of Red Copper.

MICHA --- i.e., Venus. Passive Female, the Bath and Mother of the King, who draws the King to herself because they are one and love each other.

MICHACH --- i.e., Copper.

MICROCOSMUS --- A Small and Intermediate World placed between the Firmamental World and that of the Elements, as is only natural, since it, namely man, participates in both. Whatsoever is actually and visibly contained in them is in like manner spiritually and potentially held in man. Hence it results that thence there can and ought to be one philosophical classification, living, not dead as of a corpse, true, equally essential, and manifest.

MIFRES --- i.e., Asphalt.

MINERA --- i.e., Iron.

MINERA, VENA TERRA --- i.e., Vein of Ore.

MINERA --- An Iron Hooked Stick, or Pick.

MINERALE VAS --- A Vessel of Mineral Substance, either Metallic or Earthenware.

MINERALIA --- The Place of Minerals.

MINISTER --- An Assistant, a Servant who brings Coal or Ore.

MINIUM --- Mercury of Saturn precipitated, or Saffron of Minium.

MINIUM --- Ordinary Red Paint and Burnt Lead.

MISADIR or MIXADIR --- i.e., Sal Ammoniac.

MISSADAN --- i.e., Quicksilver.

MISSERASSI --- i.e., Gypsum.

MISTIO --- Composition. There are four kinds --- Inceration, Incorporation, Smelting and Melting.

MISTURA --- A Pallid Kind of Paint.

MISTURA EX AERE ET ARGENTO EQUALIS --- Cobalt.

MISY --- According to some writers, is a Genus of Myrrh. Otherwise it is something derived from swellings (See Pliny, 1. 19, c. 3). But in this place, according to our judgment, it is a metallic substance like Rock Alum, being a coagulated moisture out of a species of Copperas. Now, Misy and Sory have an affinity with the genus Chalcitis, being produced from the same source. Misy is the more delicate, Sory the coarser substance. Nowadays, Misy is altogether unknown, and has fallen out of use for many centuries. Misy, like Rock Alum, is of two kinds, native and manufactured. Native Misy, produced spontaneously in mines, is coagulated with water. It is found in the copper mines of Goslaria, and resembles gold according to the descriptions of Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 66). It is hard and when polished assumes a golden hue, shining like a star. Some imagine that it is dyed by water which flows from ochre. Pliny, however, states that it is accumulated and collected by the stone itself, and that the best quality is found in the laboratories of the Cypriotes. Some call it Red Vitriol or Red Zegi. The metallurgists themselves are ignorant of the German name; the wisest of them think that Misy is Mountain Vitriol. This name, however, seems properly to belong to Native Vitriol. Chalcanthum easily changes into Misy. But Misy, according to Dioscorides, is burnt like Rock Alum itself. Sporicon is made of it.

Manufactured Misy is produced when Chalcanthum is changed into Chalcitis, a fact mentioned by Galen.

Misy:

1. Misy that can be pulverised; Yellow Atrament.

2. Hard Yellow Atrament.

3. Yellow Atrament mixed with Red Atrament or Rock Alum.

4. Hard Yellow Atrament mixed with Black Atrament.

5. Yellow Atrament, having delicate White Atrament on the surface.

6. Yellow Atrament with Red Hard Atrament and a delicate White Atrament on the surface.

MITIGATIVA --- Mitigating Medicants. Anodynes which soothe and diminish pain.

MODIOLUS ROTAE --- Nave of a Wheel.

MODULUS --- A Wooden Tub.

MOLA MATRICIS --- Abortion in the Womb.

MOLE --- Millstone.

MOLIBOTO, CHALCUM --- Ore of Lead.

MOLERE --- To Grind. There are several methods.

MOLIPDIDES --- Stone of Lead, Leaden Stone.

MOLIPDINA --- Incrustations of Silver and Gold. Pliny says it is the ordinary Vein of Silver or of Lead.

MOLOCHITES --- An Opaque Gem of a Deeper Green than Emerald. It derives its name from the colour of the mallow. It is of great efficacy against all infantile disorders. It comes from Arabia. Molochites of moderate size may be seen in a church at the mouth of the Tangra. (Consult Pliny, 1. 37, c. 8. Also Solinus, Albertus, Evax, etc.).

MOLYBDENA --- Hard Lead Incrustations found at the Bottom of the Furnace.

MOLYBDENA and PLUMBAGO:

1. Hard Lead, as above.

2. Produced from Lead and Copper.

3. From a Mixture of Lead and Gold.

4. From a Mixture of Lead and Silver.

5. Smelted from Plates of Lead.

6. Deposited in the Middle of the Vessel.

7. Ashes of Black Lead from the Incrustation of the Furnaces.

MONETARIORUM MAGISTER --- Master of the Mint.

MONETARIUS --- Minter, Coiner.

MONSTRA --- Monsters are certain Animals which have been originated outside the order of nature, and which heaven hatches in the egg of their putrefaction. The fruit of an unlawful and accursed copulation. They generate nothing in their turn, because they were born from the copulation of diverse seeds, as of a man and a brute, or from empoisoned parents. Thus the giants of old originated, and other monstrous men, contrary to nature, whose sight provokes horror and cursing. They are not produced by any honourable means, but by the guile of men who force animals of diverse kind to come together, as the horse and the ass, in order to produce beasts of burden. Such is the wisdom of this world. These Monstrosities are impotent and useless for breeding purposes, since nature absolutely shrinks from them.

MONTES --- Cucurbits, Retorts, Tops of Retorts, etc.

MORBILLI --- Smallpox, Measles, Discharges of Phlegm, Cutaneous Eruptions.

MORO, MORUS --- A Mulberry, an Abscess in the Flesh, a Swelling like Warts.

MOROCHTHUS --- A Stone called Galaxia and Leucograph by Dioscorides. In Egypt it is produced in such a soft state that lines can be drawn upon it; it is extremely white, easily fusible, useful for whitening garments, even as Galactite. Hence we see that Pliny errs in confounding Morochthum, Galaxia, or Leucograph with Galactite. Elsewhere, Pliny, so far as I know, has nothing about Morochthus, unless (in 1. 37, C. 10), we prefer to read Morochthus for Merocte, which exudes a milk-like juice. Nor is this now found in laboratories. However, it is produced excellently in Saxony, especially at Hildesheim. As to its medical value, see Dioscorides, 1. 5, c. 93.

MORPHEA --- A kind of Leprosy.

MORS --- is called Death or Corruption. The body dies when the soul departs. The colour goes, the spirit or water is extracted. When it returns to it, it awakes, becomes living, bright, henceforth immortal.

MORTARIOLUM --- is a small Model for forming Cinder Pans, generally constructed of Brass, in the shape of a wide circle or perforated pan. This model is furnished with a mortar, commonly called monachus, which is a pestle with a round protuberance, projecting from the centre of the broad base. The pit or hearth of the pan is constructed by means of this pestle. For larger pans, that is, for those which contain more matter for formation, we employ an iron circle and a proportionately large mortar.

MORTARIOLUM --- Brazen Figures, which are engraved upon a Chemical Cupel.

MOS --- i.e., Mycra.

MULCEDAR, or MULCODAR --- i.e., the Dragon.

MULE --- Blisters caused by Cold or Heat.

MUMIA --- Not only the name of Human Flesh preserved with Balm, but also of other things, not dead naturally but killed, and possessing healing virtues.

MUMIA ELEMENTORUM --- The Balsam of the External Elements.

MUMIA MEDULLE --- The Marrow of Bones.

MUMIA TRANSMARINA --- i.e., Manna.

MUMIA VERSA --- Liquor of Mummy.

MUNDIFICATIVA --- Medicines for Purifying Weak and Putrid Flesh, and separating it from the healthy and live flesh. Also Aperients, External Medicines, Cathartic Drugs.

MURIA --- Salt Liquor, has the efficacy of Salt and Marine Water. There are two kinds --- native, whence comes our ordinary salt; manufactured, when a little salt is mixed with rain from heaven. When the salt liquefies, we call it light salt; when it does not melt we call it hard salt. Note that garum is a salt liquor in which flesh and fish have been pickled. There is also sour brine, produced from vinegar and sea water. Pliny apppears to confound salt brine with garum.

MURIA --- Salt Water, Stinking Menstruum.

MURMENTUM --- Mountain Rat, Marmot.

MURUS --- Mouse.

MURUS NIGER --- Black Mouse; a Shrew.

MUSADI, MUZADIR, MISADIR, LIXANDRA --- Names of Sal Ammoniac.

MUSCILAGO --- Mucilage, a thick and slimy liquid of the consistence of Calamine.

MUSCULA SCIURUS --- Hedgehog.

MUSTUM --- Dark Blue Must.

MUSTUM IMMATURUM --- Must not perfected.

MUSTUS --- A White Lime of Urine; a kind of Fat; Water.

MYSI --- Yellow Atrament.

MYSTERIUM --- is the Essence of the Interior Nature, the sum of the whole substance in the subtle and withdrawn part of the given matter. Hence it differs greatly from sap, as much indeed as sap differs from the body. And because it is concealed in the most retired recesses of corporeal matter, and has an exceeding subtle nature, it is called a Mystery and an Arcanum. It is obtained immediately from the given thing, but after a certain necessary preparation. Also sometimes from a magistery and a sap. There are two varieties of this Mysterium or Essence, as it may be variously denominated. They are, namely, Quintessence and Specific Arcanum.

MYSTERIUM MAGNUM --- The First Matter of all Things, the Principle and Mother of all the Corruptible Creatures of God, the Chaos, dark and rude.


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