Alchemy Index

A Lexicon of Alchemy



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SABON or SABENA --- Saponaceous Matter, Slime, or Alkali, from which soap is made.

SACCUS --- A Bag of Leather.

SACTIM ---Vitriol.

SADIR --- i.e., Refuse.

SAFFRATUM --- A species of Salt.

SAGANI --- Spirits of the Four Elements.

SAGDA or SAGDO --- A Gem of the colour of Chrysoprase, is mentioned by Albertus, Evax, and Solinus. It has the virtue possessed by Gagates, of attracting threads and straws, as the magnet does iron. It is found adhering strongly to the bottom of ships. I have seen a specimen, which was however devoid of virtue, and was not of true Chrysoprase colour. Solinus says that the gem was common in Chaldea. Pliny speaks of a variety from Samothrace, which was black, like wood in appearance, and of no weight.

SAGIMEN VITRI --- Vitreous Salt, or Salt of Alkali.

SALAMANDRI or SALDINI --- Fiery Men or Spirits, Beings sustained by the influence and nourished by the element of fire, as was the case with that gentle lady, by name Zifer, who when ill was made whole by casting herself upon the fire, and sitting thereon, enjoying it as though it were a bath.


SALEFUR --- i.e., Garden Saffron.

SALINAE --- An Excavated Gallery in which Salt is made.

SALLENA --- A kind of Rock Salt.

SALSA --- Potters' Clay.


SALTABARI --- i.e., Sal Alembrot or Philosophical Salt.

SAL --- In the Greek, Alas ; in the Arabic, Melech or Selenipum, is Brine or Muriate of Salt, from salt melted by cold or damp. Or it is the Terrene Principle, powerfully restricting, coagulating, and so also preserving. Thus it is closely related to Nature, and works well therewith. It is also Mercury.

The Salt of the Philosophers is the Stone of the Philosophers. Some would extract the Salt from all metals, and make the art to consist in doing so, which is wholly unnecessary, as Hermes says:

1. Every Salt is present in this art, that one alone excepted whereby the souls are extracted from the metals.

2. The First Matter is everywhere, and in all houses ; it grows in the sea and in all men.

3. There is another Salt of Vegetables, another of Animals, a third of Metals, which is the most acrid of all.

4. It is the best Balsam, purges, acts as an astringent, makes thin, cleanses, separates, alters, and stimulates the power of the seed. Therefore we say that Venus is born out of the sea.

5. Senior and Gratian state that Lime and Salt can be made out of all things-Salt out of Ashes, Water out of Ashes, Gold out of Mercury. Therefore have they sought for Gold in all things.

6. Everything which you would elevate and alter you must reduce to Salt and Alum, and this is the secret of preparing the Calcined Salt.

7. Everything that is capable of dissolution absorbs the nature of Salt and Alum, and after corruption assumes the Stone.

8. Salt which is fixed is used for holding the body together, and is extracted from calcinated things by means of putrefaction, until the whole composition alters its nature and assumes another.

9. Reinmund says: The Art requires Lime, that is, its proper earth, which, of all Minerals, possesses the greatest power of hardening the Mercury.

10. The Salt of the Metals dissolves the Mercury into a clear water in dung, and the same is mixed up and coagulates till the perfect medium is produced. Therefore, he that understands the Salt and its solution possesses the wisdom of the ancients. Therefore, place your whole reliance on the Salt. Count nothing else of importance. For Salt by itself is the most important secret which all the Wise have thought proper to conceal. Gebir says: You must know that this is a Salt, although at first it has by no means the appearance of a Salt, but it becomes like it during operation. It is white, bright, clear, and excellent. Then it becomes impure, and then pure again; it dissolves and coagulates; also it expands and it contracts.

Paracelsus in Paramiro affirms as follows: Salt produces coagulation ; it causes the given matter to thicken and to coagulate, till it assumes such a consistency that it can be touched, for nothing can be tangible without the presence of Salt. Now, there are many species of Salt, just as there are many kinds of Sulphur, and many kinds of Mercury.

SAL ALABROT --- Salt, Black Nitre, is made out of three Vegetable Juices. It is called the Master of all Things. It effects the following marvel, namely, it transmutes the Mercury into true Moon and Sun. It is also called Sal Boroch.

SAL ALBUS --- i.e., Borax.

SAL ALLOCAPH --- i.e., Sal Ammoniac.

SAL ALKALI --- i.e., Glass Salt, made from the Ashes of Cali. Item, Salt of Bitterness, Menstruation of Bitterness, Oil of Philosophers, Salt of Wisdom, causing the Spirit to enter properly into Bodies and permeate them.

SAL ALUMINOSUM --- Derived from Fibrous Gypsum.

SAL AMARUM --- Bitter Salt, Alkali, Nitre.

SAL ANATHRON or ANATRON --- i.e., Nitric Salt.

SAL ARMONIACUS --- i.e., Sal Saparicius, i.e., Arabian Salt, is the Dissolved Stone.

SAL ATRUM or SAL THABER --- Black Salt.


SAL CONGELATUM --- Congealed Salt, originates in Thermal Springs, Fountains, and Medicinal Waters.

SAL CRISTALLINUM --- Derived from Human Urine.

SAL DE UNGARIA --- i.e., Salt of Nitre.

SAL ENIXUM --- Dissolved Salt.

SAL ENTALI --- A kind of Fixed Saltpetre.

SAL EX HERBARUM SALSARUM CINERE FACTUS --- i.e., Sal Alkali, made from the Ash of Salted Herbs.

SAL GEMMA --- i.e., Cappadocius.

SAL GEMMA --- i.e., Salt Adrom, Sendaro Sabachi, Metalline Salt, Hungarian Salt, Sparkling Salt.

SAL GRAECUM --- Alum from Alap or from Lacaph.

SAL INDICUM --- Called from the place of its origin; Red in Colour.

SAL I NDICUS --- Mercury, Resolved and Coagulated.

SAL LOTII --- Salt of Urine.

SAL MARINUS --- Gem or Metalline Salt.

SAL MERCURII --- Intoxicating Spirit of Wine.

SAL FACTITIUM --- Salt Artificially Cooked or Produced. It is of two kinds.

1. Marine Salt, which Dioscorides mentions, and states that it is white, dense, and a native of Cyprus. It is deposited in ponds that have been dried up by heat ; both rain water and sweet water enter into its composition. No Salt can be made without sweet water, as Pliny affirms.

Those who prepare Salt mix sweet or fresh water with it, so as to remove its intense acridity, and this is still done in certain localities of Spain and France, in the Tarentine Lake, and in Sicily by the Lake Cocanicus. (See Pliny, l. 31, c. 3.)

2. That which is artificially cooked from the Native Brine of Fountains, just as our Salt is at Halle in Saxony, and at some places in Thuringia. The quality varies according to the nature of the water; that which is made in Marchia is exceedingly variable.

In the districts adjoining what is now called the Sea of Lisbon there are extensive marshes in many places quite stagnant, and containing salt water. The sailors call them havens. This is the Pond Salt of the sea-shore; it is carried in by the tides, and dried by the sun, which cooks the sea water into Salt. The poverty-stricken inhabitants of the place construct boxes of somewhat ingenious make, and collect the Salt therein, lest it should be carried away again by the tide. They pile them in great heaps on the shore, where the cooking takes place gradually on the dry sand, and the Salt is congealed into lumps --- as of Alum or Ice, except that they are of a pale green or black, and are not transparent. This Salt is then conveyed in ships to various nations on the coast, and is pounded till it becomes like fine sand. It is used for salting many kinds of fish, including whales, seals, sea-dogs, flat-fish, etc,

We have a long description of the properties of Salt in Dioscorides and Pliny, as also in the Book of Aggregations by Serapion, under the name of Malk. Dioscorides furnishes a description of the process for burning Salt, whether natural or artificial. He describes Salt as a sort of residue of Sea-foam, which coagulates on the low rocks of the seashore. Pliny includes this Spume of Salt among the native species, and says that it is thickened by dew. The interpreter of Nicander, in the Book of Antidotes, defines Spume of Salt to be produced by the artificial mixture of salt and fresh water, which removes the natural acridity. The product was called by the Greeks Halos Achne, the Froth of Salt. In this case, we may distinguish two kinds of Salt Spume-that mentioned by Dioscorides as produced from the sea, and which Pliny calls a native Salt ; while the other is the manufactured Salt of Nicander's interpreter. Salt and Spume of Salt are evidently interchangeable terms, as Nitre and Spume of Nitre. It should also be observed that there are innumerable species of Salt; if their native place, locality, quality, and the mineral in which they are found were to be regarded, the catalogue would be longer than the Iliad. We will briefly treat of some species: Cappadocian Salt, Lump Salt, Rock Salt, Common Salt, are the same. There is also Salt of Sodom, which comes from the Dead Sea, where the water is very bitter. It looks like a species of Sea-spume, or Solidified Salt. There is also a kind of Salt called Sal Alkali or Alkal, which is manufactured, and is produced from the herb Kali, or by the calcination of a plant called Anthyllis in a pit. Then there is the bright Salt called Nitre, Alexandrine Salt, Salt of Anderena, Baurach, Salt of Nitre, Coarse Soda or Potassa, Aphronitum, etc., for Nitre is a species of Salt. There is Sacerdotal Salt, which is included in the list of powerful antidotes. There is Tragesian Salt, Arsenical Salt, or Sublimated Arsenic; Alebrach, or Alebroth Salt, which is the Salt of chemists, on which consult the chemists.

SALIS FLOS, ALOSANTHUS --- Flower of Salt, a species of Zoophyte, which comes from the sea, and is an efflorescence of the sea. In the laboratories it is called Sperma, Seed of Whale or Sea Monster, Pale Amber, Spermaceti, or Cetine, possibly from its efficacy in certain diseases. The ancients did not call it Spermaceti, but Flower of Salt.

The same substance is found in the sea, as sailors and merchants have told me, and in the Nile, if their reports be true; also in marshes by the sea. In the Nile Dioscorides says that it assumes the colour of the crocus, and it is purged to replace the red with a white colour. It is redolent of rank poison, and is very unpleasant. It dissolves in oil, but not in water. Dioscorides states whence it comes, describes its qualities, also the adulterated variety. He enlightens us on its medicinal uses. See also Cassius Felix on Alosachne. Pliny regards it as a substance of divers natures, and says that it smells differently both from Salt and Sea-spume. It is found in Egypt, is carried by the Nile, and floated about thereon. It is so well known in Saxony that it enters into medicines for almost every disease. I know of a most excellent lady who perished by excessive use of it.

1. Very fine Yellow and White Salt.

2. Spermaceti or Cetine.

SAL NITRI --- Saltpetre or Sal Nitri, smelted out of earth which has been drenched in urine --- for example, such earth as forms the floors of stables.

Native Salt, in Arabic Malk, is a most excellent condiment or spice. It is of two kinds --- native and artificial. Native, Mined, or Mineral Salt may either be dug up from the mines, or obtained from lakes, springs, or rivers, the surface of which hardens or thickens into Salt. (See Pliny, l. 31, c. 7.) There are four varieties of Mined Salt:

1. Sal Ammoniac or Sagaraic Salt, Scissile. Dioscorides says that it is white, free from pebbles, clear, like alum in colour, and called Schist. Ovid mentions it when treating of medicaments for the complexion, and calls it Ammoniac, which others write as Armoniac, because it is found in Armenia. Others again affirm that it is made from the herb Salmoniac, growing on the mountains of Spain, and resembling the Anethus mentioned by Avicenna. Serapion distinguishes red, white, black, dust-colour, and transparent kinds, and says that it is warm and dry in the fourth degree.

2. Rock Salt from India and Africa, also Cappadocian, like the Mirror Stone, or Sal Gemma.

3. Black, from the mines of Poland ; also sometimes white and blue. It is dug up in blocks like mill-stones. It is called Naphthic, and is found in c9mbination with Naphtha. It is also called Black Salt, Indian Salt, the last on account of its colour.

4. A green, crystalline Salt is mined in Transylvania, which is Sal Gemmae, and is also called Cappadocian, Costum, Metalline, and Taburen. It is called Sal Gemmaa, because it is clear as a gem. It is a vein of Earth, and has the properties of Sal Ammoniac.

All these species are called by the Germans Rock Salt, and are akin to Alum. They are corrosive and desiccating.

SAL NAPTAE --- Salt of Naptha, extracted from Petroleum.

SAL NOMINIS --- Nominal Salt, i.e., Sal Gemma.

SAL PANIS --- Common Salt.

SAL PETRAE --- A product of Dissolved Lime or Spume of Salt.

SAL PETRAE --- To sublimate is called Contracting Salt.

SAL PLUMOSUM --- Shadow of Mercury.

SAL RESOLUTUM EXTERNUM --- When a person deems what he eats to be Salt.


SAL SAPIENTIUM --- Salt of the Wise, Sal Ammoniac; a certain measure of Salt.

SAL SCISSUM or SAL ENTALI --- Split Alum, Spar-like Gypsum.

SAL TABARZET --- The whitest species of Tartar.

SAL TARTARI --- White Calcined Tartar.

SAL TRIPOLLINUS --- Syrian Salt, Salt of Tabor, Metallic Salt.

SAL TARTARI --- White Calcinated Tartar.

SANDARACA, otherwise ERYTHACE --- A Food for Bees. As to its production, see Pliny (1. 11, c. 7). But in this place we are dealing with a native metallic substance, which the Germans call Orpiment, Realgar, Arsenical Orpiment, Red Sulphur, Fire Sulphur, Red Orpiment. It is hot and dry in the second grade. It is not rude Red Silver, as some fancy.

Sandarac is a Metal and a Purple Earth. It is found in the same metals as Native Orpiment, of which there is a species resembling this in smell, substance, and properties, though it differs in colour, corresponding therein to Cinnabar, which is red. Hence Pliny says that Arsenic is a compound of the same matter as Sandarach, meaning Orpiment by Arsenic.

Alchemists try to establish a distinction between this Orpiment and Sandarac, but they are mistaken. They are one and the same, and are produced from naturally weak Sulphur and Quicksilver. Finally, Sandarac is a Metallic Earth, either red, purple, or fiery, and exhaling a sulphureous smell. Sometimes red or fiery Clods are found among Orpiment. And, when properly considered, true Sandarac may be discovered in Orpiment. Pliny says that Sandarac is found in mines of Gold and Silver; it is red and has a strong smell. It is also pure and friable. Such a substance is frequently found in our mines; it is something like Fine Sand. Theophrastus writes that Orpiment and Sandarac are Sand and Powder. This substance of ours might be called Sandarac from the similarity of appearance and colour, in the same way that Vitruvius calls something made out of Ceruse Sandarac, while Dioscorides calls it Sandix. Sandix, according to Pliny, is differently produced. So also our adulterated Minium, made from Lead, is a kind of artificial Sandarac. Our Sandarac may be called the Sandarac of Pliny, which is found in Gold and Silver Mines. It may also be called that of Theophrastus, because it is a Fine Sand. Whether it has the same virtues, I do not know. Possibly an excellent pigment might be extracted from it, were experiment made. I doubt whether the strong-smelling Sandarac of Dioscorides exists in our mines. There is a wide gulf between ours and that of Dioscorides. Sometimes the unlearned imagine that Sandarac is a Medicinal Gum, and almost all the Laboratories identify it with the Resin of the Juniper Tree. Sandarac is a Metallic Substance. The confusion began with the Arabs, who call Sandarac Varnish Resin, or juniper Resin, while Sandaraca they called Red Metallic Orpiment. Some have even gone so far as to believe that common Painters' Varnish was true Metallic Sandarac. Metallic Sandarac is not found in our Laboratories. Concerning it, or concerning Red Orpiment, which is the same, see Serapion and Avicenna. Pliny states that Native Sandarac is produced in the Island of Topazo in the Red Sea, but that it is not exported.

SAL VITRI --- Sagimen of Glass.

SAL UXUM --- Salt is one of the three principles which form the bodies of all things and unite them together.

SAL USUALE or SAL MASSAE --- Block Salt.

SAMECH --- Salt of Tartar, or Tartar itself --- a remedy for all wounds.

SAMEN --- Barley.

SAN --- Same as Solatium [no reference].

SANDARACHA --- Orpiment, Crystalline Arsenic, Yellow Orpiment.. There are four species.

1. Native Sandarac, Yellow Orpiment.

2. The artificial product named by Vitruvius, the Sandix of the Greeks,
Minium, Red Lead.

3. Imperfectly Cooked, Pale Minium.

4. Native, mixed with Orpiment --- Realgar, mixed with Orpiment.

SANDARACH, SANDARACA in Arabic --- Resin, Sap, Resin of Sandaros.

SANDERICH --- Lunar Spittle, White Ore, White Magnet which attracts Iron, Yellow Orpiment --- the thing we seek --- Realgar, Minium, Spirit which makes Red, also a White Sandarach.

SANDIX --- A Wild Herb, Red Earth, Philosophical Paul, Red Orpiment.

SANGUIS --- Blood is Orpiment, that is, the Stone which is not yet perfect, the Philosophical Water which gives life and unites, according to Morien. It has great strength, which must be sapped by means of stinking water to render it innocuous, but this is after dealbation.

SANGUINEA --- Saltpetre.

SANGUIFUCA --- Slimy, Muddy Ore.

SANGUIS CALCETUS --- Sharp, Acrid, White Blood.

SANGUIS DUORUM FRATRUM --- Dragon's Blood --- a Vein of Earth.

SANGUIS HOMINIS --- The Red Man's Blood, Sulphur out of a Gold Pyrites, Mercury of the Sun, and its precipitate, for blood is not always fluid, but coagulates and

SAPHIRUS --- The Gem Sapphire, closely allied to jasper (see Dioscorides and Pliny). It is a stone glistening with Gold points. Some species are blue, some mixed with purple. The best are those of the Medes. Some are useless by reason of their crystalline spots. Some are dark blue, and these are thought to be the male kind. Albertus states that the Sapphire is called Sirites. He considers the Indian and Oriental varieties to be the best, and says there is a variety of a colour like the bright and cloudless sky, with yet a prevalent ruddy hue. Another sort has dark blue markings. The virtue of the Sapphire is to render men chaste, dutiful, and stable-minded. It is even now used for soothing the heart and cooling the interior of the body. Hence the old lines: The Sapphire cools the internal heat of the body, and abates the strength of the desires of love..

SAPO SAPIENTIAE --- Common Salt, Soaked in Water.

SARAFFI --- Gypsum.


SARDA --- A gem from Sardes, which is also called the Sardian Stone, and Darneolus, as Pliny states.. At one time it was used for drinking-vessels, and the gem changed names with Sardonyx. Its name is derived from Sardes, where it was first found. The best quality is at the heart of the stone in Babylon, Epirus, and Assus. There are three kinds in India. Albertus states that Sard sharpens the intellect, and makes men cheerful, because it purifies the blood, and imparts thus good spirits. Consult Solinus concerning Sardonyx. The various species of Sard are enumerated as follows:

1. Transparent Indian Sard, pellucid Cornelian, the male kind.

2. Pellucid, not so ruddy.

3. Pellucid, like human flesh in colour.

4. Pellucid, like human flesh in colour, full of red spots.

5. Opaque, flesh-coloured.

6. Opaque, with lines of brown, red, yellow, or white colour.

7. Opaque, on one side brown, on the other flesh-colour.

8. Flesh-colour, relieved by brown lines and circles.

9. Transparent, flesh-colour.

10. Opaque, flesh-colour.

11. Flesh-colour, with red, yellow, and white parallel lines and circles.

12. Transparent, showing somewhat ruddy in white.

13. Red, varied by white lines.

14. Red, varied by brown lines.

15. Transparent, ruddy gold-colour.

16. Transparent, honey-colour.

17. Transparent, yellow, like amber.

18. Opaque, ruddy.

19. Opaque, brown.

20. Opaque, brown, full of yellow lines.

21. Brown, with black and red spots and lines.

SARDONYX RUBER PELLUCIDUS --- Red, Transparent Sardonyx, shaped like a
Human Nail; one side is like Onyx, the other like Sard.


SARFAR --- Iron.

SATURNUS --- Lead.

SAURA --- The Lacertus of the Latins, the Lizard of the Germans. We have many species. One has a brilliant belly, and is otherwise green. It dwells in thickets and hedges. If its belly be opened with a reed, the gem Saurites is discovered, which is said to be potent against poisons.. The bones of the Green Lizard are useful in epilepsy and falling sickness, if collected as follows. Place a Green Lizard, just caught alive, in a closed vessel, filled with the best quality of Salt, which in a few days will consume flesh and entrails, and then the bones will be easily collected.

SAXA --- The following species of Rocks are dug up from the earth:

1. Fissile, of Bluish Colour, a species of Pyrites and Lythanthtax.

2. A very White Rock, with sparkles of Gold, sometimes of a soft and slimy

3. The German Spath, denser and more polished than the rest.

4. Flint, of a Horn Colour, very hard.

5. Sandy, Concreted from Salt. When it is of great size it is used for Millstones. There are several specimens --- White, Blue, Ruddy, Yellow, and approaching Black.

SAXA ARENARIA --- Sandy Rocks:

1. Pirnensian Sandstone.

2. Clayey Fribergian.

3. Red Rochlician.

4. Grey Querfurdian.

5. Saxony Black in Red.

SAXA CALCARIA --- Calcareous Rocks.

1. White Pirnesian.

2. Blue Pirnesian.

3. Grey Pirnsian.

4. Grey Pirnesian with White Veins.

5. Black, containing Granite, mined at Jeblicus.

6. Dyed with a Red Colour by a Metallic Moisture, not far from Friberg; it is combined wit Veins of Stibium and Schist.

SAXA FISSILIA --- Fissile Rocks:

1. Black, Sterile, easily split up.

2. Hard, Sterile, can only be broken by the skill of a good artificer.

3. White in Grey.

4. Grey.

5. White.

6. Greyish.

7. Blue in Grey.

8. Red.

9. Muddy Colour.

10. Black Mansfield, having Imprints of Fishes.

11. Black, containing Twigs of Trees, like the Olive Branch.

12. Black Andegrave, used for the Roofs and Walls of Houses, and also for Tables, Counters, etc.

13. Black Rhenish, of which Towers, Steeples, and Gables are built.

SARA GRAVIDA --- Heavy Rocks.

1. Hard Grey Rocks, in which Sea Shells are imbedded and petrified.

2. Grey, in which Bivalves are found in the Sands of Lusatia.

3. White, Sandy, containing Mussel Shells.

SARA QUADRANGULA --- Hewn Stone Blocks; Square Stones.

SAXUM --- Foundation Stone.

SAXUM INVERSUM --- An Inverted Stone.

SAXI SPECIES --- Fast Rock, Shelf, Lattice Work.

SAXUM TERMINALE --- Sandstone.

SAXA TINCTA AB EHALATIONIBUS --- Rocks coloured by Exhalations.

1. Rock coloured Red by the action of damp.

2. Iron-coloured.

3. Yellow.

4. Brown.

5. Black.

SAXA VILIA --- Common Composite Rock.

SAXIFRAGIS --- Pallid Crystal, a Herb.

SAXIFRAGIA --- Anything which expels Sand and Gravel from the Body.

SAXIFRAGIUM --- A Stone which is supposed to produce the above result.

SBESTEN --- That is Calx Viva, or Living Calx.

SCACURCULAI --- Spirit extracted from the Bones of a Stag's Heart.

SCAIOLAE --- are Spiritual Powers of the Mind, its properties and virtues, which are fourfold, according to the number of the elements, and the four wheels of fire which were part of the Chariot in which Elias was taken up to Heaven. They emanate from the soul in man. Fancy, imagination, speculative faculty, etc., are included under the term. It also embraces, in a special sense, the Articles of our Christian Faith in Jesus Christ, Baptism, partaking of the Eucharist, Charity towards our neighbour, manifesting the perfect Fruits of Faith, whereby we attain not merely prolonged but eternal life.

SCALE EXCOCTORUM --- A Miner's Balance.

SCIDEN --- White Lead.

SCIRONA --- Autumn Dew, a Herb.

SCHEHENDENEGI --- The Herb Cannabis, or its Seed.

SCHISTUM --- of the kind we treat here-is a Precious Stone, of the Hematite order, and is included among this genus by Pliny. However, it differs from true Hematite, being paler, crocus-like in colour, friable, and eminently scissile. It is full of Veins which resemble Sal Ammoniac, whereas Hematite has red veins like blood. Nevertheless, the properties of the two things are similar, although Schist is less powerful. As far as I know, we have no genuine Schist. But we have a substance that resembles it. Dioscorides states that it is native in Iberia. Pliny mentions an African species. Evax, in his Lapidary, states that it is dark or pale red, with long feathery streaks like fissile alum, and that it is a strong astringent. Such a Stone occurs in the Iron Mines of Salvedia, but its astringent power is slight. Consult Pliny as to the burning of Schist with Iron.

SCOSS --- Alkali.

SCOBES --- Refuse of any Metal.

SCORAX --- Gum of the Olive Tree.

SCOPIA STILLA --- An Exudation.

SCORITH --- Sulphur.

SCORIA --- Slag, Refuse, the Coarse Matter which is separated from the rest of the composition. Also the foundation of Mercury.


SCRIBA FODINARUM --- Clerk of the Works.

SCUMA --- Iron or other Metallic Scale.

SCUTA TABESI --- A Tortoise.

SCHWELEN --- A species of Rock.

SES --- Gold, or Alum. Also called Salt.


SEBEL --- A Poisoned Swelling of the Eye.

SECARE IN PARTES --- Gradual Drying.

SECERNERE METALLA --- To Separate Metals.

SECRETOR --- Separator of Ore and Metal.

SECUR --- Gold.

SEDAFF --- A Marine Shell.

SEDATIVA, etc. --- Medical Preparations given to allay pain; they are also curative and health-giving.

SEDEN --- The Cask.

SEDENEGI --- Hemp Seed.

SEDHE --- i.e., Cinnabar.

SEDILIA FOLLIUM --- The lower part of the Bellows.

SEDINA or SEDEN --- Dragons' Blood.

SEDMA or SCEDUNE --- Hematite.

SEGAX --- Dragons' Blood.

SEGITH, SERNECH, or SAGITH --- i.e., Vitriol.

SEGREGATIO --- Separation of a Composite Substance into its Elements. It is also Distraction and Extraction. By this process the resolved or separated portions remain intact one from another, and do not flow together as in the operation of melting.

SEL --- A Military Engine used in Sieges (Sambucus).

SELATUS --- Called also Satir, Saic, and Solat --- i.e., Quicksilver.

SEGREGATIO --- is the Dissolution of a Whole into its Parts.

SELINITIS or MOONSTONE --- Is a Transparent Stone of the Mica Genus, as we stated in dealing with the Arabian Stone, which we then affirmed to be properly transparent, especially that species which Pliny says is similar to Ivory, and is the Spotted Ivory of Dioscorides. But my own opinion is as follows If Selenite be a transparent stone, the extremely white quality, of which windows are made, is the true species. For Moonstone has many species. Thus I maintain that White Moonstone is true Selenite, and the ivorine variety is --- Arabian Stone. Dioscorides calls Selenite Aphroselium, because at night it reflects the moon. This is true of the white stone, for the moon in her splendour is reflected therein as in a mirror. Whether it waxes and wanes with the moon I know not. The stone itself seems a solidified moisture. See Pliny, who differs slightly from Dioscorides, and writes fables according to his wont. See also Solinus in his Polyhistory. Albertus appears to confuse Selenite with Chelonite.

SELLA --- A Block of Brass.

SELLA AENEA --- A Saddle of Brass.

SELSAS or SILIX --- A Fern.

SEMAFOR or SEMAR --- A kind of Fig.

SEMEN VENERIS --- Scale of Copper.

SEMPERVIVO --- Winter Green, the herb Pyrola.

SENDANEGUM or SENDANEGI --- i.e., Hematite.

SEPARATORIUM --- An oblong Vessel for transmitting liquid in a uniform manner. It has an open mouth, the bore being the size of the little finger; through this the matter is passed. The base narrows off like a needle, and through this the matter is again removed.

SEPARATIO ELEMENTORUM --- Much has been said about the Separation of the Elements, yet no such thing takes place. There is simply an alteration which separates the pure from the impure, as when an Alkol is constructed, and the pure Essence is preserved. Then the Separation of the Elements has been accomplished.

SEPARATIO PER ABSCESSUM --- Separation by Removal is when parts of diverse nature mutually break away from their conjunction, and depart in opposite directions. It is either a discession or dilution.

SEPARATIO PER ABSTRACTIONEM --- Separation by Abstraction is when heterogeneous parts are separated mutually one from another. It is either Ablation or Subduction, accordingly as the matter is liquid or solid.

SEPARATIO PER DILATIONEM --- Separation by Dilation at one side is accomplished by means of a trough with a low edge. The trough is oblong, and narrows off on one side to a point, by which it can be turned in the hands, and shaken in various directions. It is called a Running Basin by the Germans.

SEPARATIO PER DILUTIONEM --- Separation by Dilution is when the earth is drenched to such an extent that the parts are separated, so that the heavy ones sink and the light float, while those of medium weight occupy a middle place. In the case of muddy, earthy matters, or others reduced to consistency by means of pulverisation, calcination, and kindred processes, this manner of washing was called by the ancients Geopelusia. Abstraction, depletion, occasionally filtration, and similar operations, contribute to separation by dilation. The matters, being dissolved, stirred up, and dilated to their places, are poured through a sieve, as otherwise they will again conjoin.

SEPES --- A Sloping Fence, Frame-work of Wood, Balcony.

SEPHIROS --- A Hard, Dry, Imposthumous Sore.

SEPTIMEN --- Gum-arabic.

SEPTENTRIO --- The German Vort, Aqua Fortis.

SEPTUM --- A Sluice.

SERAPHIN --- A Vast Chorus or Host of the Angelical Powers of Heaven.

SEREX --- Sour Milk.

SERICON --- Minium.

SERICIACUM --- Arsenic.

SERITIS or SIDERITIS --- The Herb whose Sap is called Dragons' Blood.

SERAPINUS --- Gum-arabic.

SERPENS --- Serpent, Spirit of Chastity, Mercury.

SERPENTINA --- A Powerful Herb for Healing Wounds.

SERPHETA --- A Medicine which Dissolves Stone.

SERVUS FUGITIVUS --- The Runaway Slave, Mercury. Hermes gives it this name on account of the escaping moisture.

SEULO --- Lead.

SIBAR --- Quicksilver.

SIBEDATA HIRUNDINARIA --- Swallows' Root. Also a Miner's Braying or Pounding Hammer.

SICCARE --- To Dry.

SIDIA --- A Scale.

SIFANTIS or SIMPHUS --- Silver Earth.

SIDIA --- Liquid Storax.

SIGILLIREN --- To Seal Up.

SIGILLUM HERMETIS --- A. The mouth of the glass is melted by the heat of a coal fire, and is so sealed. Some make this the Seal of Hermes.

B. To whiten Venetian Glass. Triturate. Have a glass stopper at hand, placed upon the chemical vessel, so that there is no fear of it falling off. Strew powder thereupon to the thickness of a knife. Bury the vessel in the earth, so that it protrudes only to the extent of two fingers' breadth. Make a ring of fire round it. Raise gradually till the powder begins to glow, when the stopper will descend. Remove the coals quickly. Clap a glowing pan upon it. Let it grow cold, or make another, accordingly as it may please you. There is also the ordinary process.


SILEX LAPIS --- The German Pebble-stone, commonly used to obtain fire. Hence it is called Silex, because flame springs forth from it. Its general name is Fire stone, though the latter suits Pyrites, as already shown, and with Pliny Pyrites is not a species but a genus; it is indeed every stone from which fire can be struck. Therefore with him a Flint is a Pyrites on account of this property. True Silex is of two kinds:

1. A Pebble, so called by the Germans. It is found by river-sides, on banks of sand, in torrents, etc. It is sometimes white in colour. It is employed for other purposes besides producing fire. Sometimes it is of an impure yellow, sometimes of crocus colour, sometimes very gracefully ornamented with white lines.

2. The Horned Rock or Stone of the Germans, called HornBtone on account of its colour, or perhaps of its hard quality. It is indeed so close grained that its parts cannot be distinguished, though there are varieties which differ in this point, the component parts of the stone being distinct even to the eye. This also is called a Firestone by the Germans, and is used as such. It is found in mines, by rivers like the Elbe, and in the fields of Saxony.

The species are various:

1. Of a white colour.

2. Of a black colour.

3. Of a blue colour.

4. Of a red colour.

5. Of a purple colour.

6. Like Horn in colour.

7. Yellow.

8. Crocus colour.

9. Of livid appearance.

10. White externally and black

The varieties, moreover, have inside different dimensions: long, broad, large, small, forked like coral, etc. Some have the shape of horns. I myself found a flint of this appearance along the Elbe. It was like the head of a serpent, having a serpent's mouth, fangs, eyes, and crown. I also found another like a fortified citadel with towers, and yet a third, which was like a mountain. Natural objects also make impressions on these stones in spite of their hardness. I came across a flint in the same place whereon appeared the impress of a wolf or lion in alto relievo on the surface, looking like the work of a skilled artist. Sometimes faces or limbs of other animals appear, also stars and letters are visible, so far is Nature from idleness. There are, moreover, opaque flints.

1. Metallic, white, Marieburg, combined with white Mica.

2. Found in the river of Treves, containing white fluors within it, and tinged with the hue of Amethyst.

3. Containing a kind of Clay or Chalk.

4. Like Polished Horn.

5. Honey-coloured.

6. Like Purple Jasper.

7. Black with a White Cross.

8. Black with many White Lines.

9. A Small Stone about the size of a Nut, marked with innumerable lines.

10. A variety from Misnia, having lines like an amphitheatre.

11. Another from the same place --- Cynocephalous Flints, large and small.

12. Cheese-like.

13. Like a Dutch Cheese, divided down the middle. The surface is of the colour of Cheese; in the middle there are solid Fluors.

14. A poor quality, native in Persia.

15. Of chestnut colour, round, having the appearance of a Calf's Liver.

16. White, from which Glass is manufactured.

SILICES PELLUCIDI --- Transparent Flints: ---

1. White Transparent Flint.

2. Honey-coloured Transparent Flint.

3. Sand-coloured Transparent Flint.

SILO --- Earth.

SILIPIT --- Copper.

SILIQUA --- A Pod or Husk; a weight of Five Grains. .

SIMMITIUM --- Ceruse.

SIMILITUDINES --- Similitudes, heavenly Figures which correspond with things that are visible.

SIMUS --- A kind of Clay.

SINAPISIS --- An Armenian Bolus.

SINOIVIA --- A Fatty Substance surrounding the joints of the Body.

SINOPIS --- Minium from the City of Sinope.

SINOPIDA --- Sinople.

SIPHONS --- Pumps.

SIPHINCULUS ORICHALCUS --- A Brazen Fire-engine.

SIRA --- Orpiment.

SIRICON DE PLUMBO --- Burnt Recrement, or Cinders, of Lead.

SIRONES --- Scabby, Irritant Pimples, generally appearing on the hands.

SIRINGAE --- Lime.

SIRZA, ESCHARA --- An Edge, or Parapet, of Walls.

SITULA --- Pails or Water-cans.

SMARAGDUS --- The Emerald. It holds the third place among Gems, and does so for many reasons, among others because of its pleasing negative colour. It has a Green Tint which surpasses every Herb and Leaf. It is the only Gem which completely absorbs the ocular rays. It refreshes the sight when this has been obscured by looking at other objects. Pliny and Solinus distinguish twelve species.

1. The Scythian Stone, moat excellent of all, the least subject to imperfections, and the hardest, for nothing can cause a flaw in it. It is said to be guarded by Griffins.

2. The Bactrian, deposited in fissures and seams of rocks by the Etesian winds. They are also found on the sea-shore when the sand has been disturbed by the wind.

3. The Egyptian, mined on the Hills and Rocks of the Thebaid.

4. Cyprian, Variegated and Bluish Grey.

5. Attic, more brilliant than others at a distance. Found also in Silver

6. Ethiopian, of which there are several varieties.

7. Medicinal --- Very Green, found in Silver Mines.

8. Carchedonius --- Called also Chalcedony and Smaragdites.

9. A Species from Tanos.

10. A Flinty Species.

11. Laconian Flinty.

12. Chalcosmaragdus --- From Cyprian Copper Veins. There are also false specimens. Sometimes we find a Stone which is half Emerald and half jasper. It is in course of transformation. Emeralds are also made from Crystal by washing in undiluted Acid Wine and soaking in Green Oil. There are certain genera of Emeralds which are found in our own Copper Mines. Albertus states that the Stone exists in Scotland and Britain ; it is produced in Veins of Copper, and sometimes in Submarine Rocks. There are, moreover, dull or blind Emeralds, and others of an opaque quality. Some are clouded ; others have capillary markings, and various flaws and blemishes. The most excellent quality does not alter either in light or shade. The virtue of the Emerald is to counteract poison. They say that if a venomous animal should look at it, it will become blinded. The gem also acts as a preservative against epilepsy ; it cures leprosy, strengthens sight and memory, checks copulation, during which act it will break, if worn at the time on the finger. The old astronomers dedicated the Emerald to Mercury. Chrysoprase, which has golden spots, and Prase, which sometimes has red and white spots, are said to be the mother or palace of the Emerald. But Pliny and Solinus regard Chrysoprase as a species of Beryl.

SMIRIUS or SANDARCITAS --- The Smyris Stone. Extremely hard and rough. Called by the Germans Emery. The makers of rings, and other artificers, split Stones by concussion against it. Dioscorides enumerates several of its useful qualities. It is a good dentrifice, and heals ulcerated gums.

SOL --- The Sun, i.e., Gold; Sonir is another name. It also stands for a day. Lastly, it is the Sun in man, an invisible fiery influence from the celestial Sun, nourishing the innate fire of man.

SOLARIUM --- A Gallery.

SOLATER --- Quicksilver.

SOLEAE ---- Sandals.

SOLELASAR --- Alkali.

SOLUTUM --- Dissolved.

SOLUTIO DIAKRISIS --- The first part of Practical Chemistry, whereby the bonds of coagulated substances are dissolved and attenuated. There are several distinct species, but among artists the term is applied more commonly to one process. Sometimes each particular species takes the generic name. Solution is of two kinds: Melting or Liquation, and Segregation or Separation, otherwise, Calcination and Dissolution.

SOLSEQUIUM --- Sulphur.

SOMNIA --- Dreams; Operations taking place during sleep, and proceeding from the stars.

SOPHIA --- Golden Wisdom, whether on account of its Flowers or its Virtues. The noblest of our solidified substances. It is most common among the Illyrians and Liburnians. If a leaf of it be eaten, it causes contraction of the lips. It may be bruised and torn, yet it will reconstruct itself. It abounds in the most excellent sweetness and balm.

SORORES --- Sister and Brother, Sun and Moon.

SORTILEGIUM --- A Prophecy of Spirits.

SORUS or SORY --- is of the same genus as Melanteria, and almost of the same colour as Black Atrament. Hence the ancients believed that Sory and Melanteria were the same, and that each became the Copperas Water used by Fullers. But Sory contains so strong a venom that it produces nausea, while Melanteria has no such effect. Dioscorides says that it is found in Egypt, Lybia, Spain, and Cyprus, but the best is Egyptian. This appears blacker when rubbed. It is full of holes, is slightly coarse, astringent, and yields a strong odour when smelt or tasted. But because, when rubbed, it does not emit sparks like Misy, we must reckon it of another genus. Dioscorides also enumerates its potencies and the manner of burning it. See also Pliny. Consult Paulus on Burnt Sory, and on the Fleshy Growth upon the Toes and Fingers. Almost all these substances are produced when Pyrites is generated, and the raw substances are superior to those which have been completely burnt, while Salt, Wine-lees, Nitre, Lime, etc., profit by the operation of fire. In the ruined Copper Mines of Thuringia, near Obernitz, where dwells the noble family of Thun, with its immense genealogy, a nauseating substance is found, which, in my judgment, is certainly a species of Sory.

SPAGIRIA --- The Spagyric Art, is that which treats of the separation of the pure from the impure, so that after the refuse matter has been rejected, the virtue which remains can operate. It is the Art of Distilling and Separating.

SPAGIRUS --- Any man who can separate the true from the false, set the good apart from the bad, and the pure from the impure, rejecting duality and cleaving to unity.

SPARA --- The Mineral Virtue of the first substance from Ilech, i.e., from the greater minerals.

SPARALLIUM --- Uterine Bag.

SPATHA --- Any Instrument for Pounding.

SPATHA EXCISORIA --- A Scrapel, Scraper.

SPATA LIGNEA --- A Wooden Paddle for Melted Substances.

SPATULA --- A Broad Instrument used in compound furnaces for increasing and diminishing heat.

SPAUL --- Blood.

SPECIFICUM FORMALE --- That which restores a species by means of its formal properties. Should it then possess the material virtues as well, it is excellent, and such specifics are sought above all for developing processes. There is both a Tincture and an Oil.

SPECULUM CITRINUM --- Citrine Arsenic.

SPECULUM ALBUM --- Precipitated Arsenic.

SPECULUM INDICUM --- Iron Scaling.

SPECULAR --- According to some it is Moonstone, since it is called Affroselenum, or Moon-froth. Others say it is Talc or Gypsum.

SPERMA AQUAE FORTIS --- The Sperm of Aqua Fortis.

SPERNIOLUM or SPERNIOLA --- Blood, Moisture, or Spawn of a Frog, a Slimy and Mucilaginous Matter in Congealed Water --- Tadpoles' Poringles.

SPHIERA SOLIS, etc. --- According to Senior, it is the Mixed Matter of Two Seeds, out of which the Stone is made. According to Theophrastus, it is Heaven or the Quintessence.

SPINAE --- Thorns of four kinds, like Foam or Spume.

SPIRITUS --- A Solvent Water produced from a simple and acrid substance, having the nature of a fiery breath, which is the chief part, though it is combined with a gaseous substance. It acquires an aqueous consistence, and possesses a specific virtue. The spirit fluctuates between an aqueous and oleaginous state, and is nearer to the aqueous. In the case of minerals especially, it is sometimes called an Oil. Some spirits are more oleaginous, some more aqueous than others. Their exhalations are also called Spirits, as, e.g., Metallic Smoke, Antimony, Tin, Flower of Salt, Wine, etc.

1. Clangor Buccinae says: Spirit is the name of the internal power wherein the powers of Metals lie hidden-the first and highest matter, the Mediator, a vaporous product from Mercury and Sulphur which becomes as tears. Therein lies the Essence.

2. It is a warmth which gives life to and tinges the earth, which is moistened with it and becomes like the coarse part of wood. That which remains in the Ash, and is fixed, is called Mercurial Water, Wind, Life and Soul, Water and Blood, Collars of Gold, Red Gum, Olives, the Cock, the Ox, Crocus, Burnt Ore, the Composite.

3. The Spirit draws the Mercury from the earth, and is still a solid ; when it is fluid, it is called a Spirit. Subsequently, it is called a Body.

4. It is of two kinds-preparatory and tinging. The first prepares, dissolves, and purifies the bodies. This is the Egyptian physician of the parable, and it is derived from Minerals. That which tinges is the Mercury of the Philosophers, extracted from the perfect Body. This is the Alexandrian physic which the Alchemists conceal.

5. Mineral Spirits are of no use for the true Tincture, but only for Sophistication.

6. The Spirit is in the water. It drives and conducts the philosophical clouds as the wind drives clouds and rain. Without the air everything is dead and corrupt. Therefore must the Spirit return to the bodies, and therefore Hermes says the wind bears it in its belly. The hidden air, which dwells in water, takes it along and conducts the water through the Alembic. This cannot take place without the Spirit.

7. The air bears our Stone out, and improves it by ascent and descent, just as the common air improves and nourishes all things, conducting the clouds, and preparing dews and rain, the fire being concealed therein, which the rain has received from the earth and from the shining of the sun during his ascent in the heavens.

If the Spirit were not restored to its body, the body would not return to strength and life.

SPIRITUS CHYMICAE --- The Spirits of Chemistry are seven in number:

1. Black Quicksilver.

2. Red Sulphur.

3. Yellow Orpiment.

4 Green Sal Ammoniac.

These four are living as they come from the ore, or dead when they are melted. Marcasite, Bismuth, and Tutty (out of Venus and Mercury) complete the list, and are called Spirits, because they admit of elevation, and because they escape fire.

SPIRITUS ANIMALIS --- An Animal Spirit is the Strength of the Soul, by means of which it approaches the Body, having acquired a likeness to the corresponding
and stable symmetry of the Heavens.

SPIRITUS FOETENS --- Stinking Spirit, that is, Sulphur.

SPODIUS --- A species of Tutty; also called Succudus, i.e., Sappy, Juicy.

SPODION --- Rust of Copper; also Ios.

SPODIUM --- Ash of Gold, Stone of Gold.


1. Ash-coloured Soot, heavier than Pompholix. A greyish-black, Crystalline Arsenic.

2. Yellow Crystalline Arsenic, from the refining furnaces of metals.

3. Subterranean Smoke.

4. Black Subterranean Smoke.

5. Green Subterranean Smoke.

SPONGIA or MARINE FUNGUS --- Attracts and Absorbs Water. It is a Zoophyte, neither Animal nor Vegetable, but having a third nature which is composed of both. Avicenna defines it as a marine body of loose, yielding texture, holding firmly to the matter it adheres to. It is warm in the first, and dry in the second grade. Dioscorides defines a masculine and feminine genus. The first has strong but thin internal pores, of white colour, while the feminine usually has large pores. Some writers add a third species, containing hard stones internally. According to Avicenna, these stones are not so warm as the Sponge itself. Pliny terms them Cystic, or Bladder Stones, because they are good for this urinary complaint. Certain Nuclei are also found in masculine and feminine Sponges. They are like an almond deprived of its husk, and are most important in medicine, especially for worms in children. Concerning the calcination of Sponges, and their medicinal value, as well as the process of their albification, consult Dioscorides and others. Serapion affirms that Sponges are found at Affengara. Pliny enumerates three genera of Sponges:

1. Thick, very hard, and rough.

2. Less thick and softer; these are called Nanos, from a Greek word, which signifies Necklace.

3. Thin and compact, called Achilleum, the name of a Cake of fine Barley. Serapion says that all Sponges are generated in rocks, in dead shells, small fishes' lime, etc. They are also said to have a certain rational quality, because they contract at the approach of the tide, resist being removed from their places, etc. Pliny seeks to prove that they are nourished by eating shells, that when torn from their rocks they give forth bloody moisture, and that they can be reproduced from the root.

There is the marine and there is the ordinary Sponge which shopkeepers exhibit for sale.

1. Male.

2. Female, which contains Nuclei.

3. The German Sponge, partly marine and partly nourished by the moisture of the meadows. It is called Pofist.

SPONSUS --- Mercury.

SPONTUM --- Ashes Sprinkled with Water and strewed at the bottom of the Furnace.

SPUMA --- Ashes.

SPUMA ARGENTI --- Silver Litharge.

SPUMA --- Sea Foam or Halcyon. There are five species.

SPUMA NITRI --- A kind of coarse Soda or Potass-Affronitum-in Arabic, Baurach.

SPUTA MARI --- Sea Spittle.

SPUTA BOLETORUM --- Spittle of Mushrooms.

SPUTUM --- A Confection of Sulphur and Magnesia. Also called Thickened Gold, and Sulphur Water.

STAG or STOAC --- Coagulation, Solidification.

STAKTI --- Sputum, Spittle, Spodos.

STANNUM --- Tin, which differs from White Lead. Many chemists state that Tin is a white metallic substance, not pure, livid, having something of an earthy nature, the product of a pure Quicksilver (fixed or not), clear and white, and of a Red Sulphur, of slight fixity, not pure, and unable to prevail over the Quicksilver. But what they thus predicate of Tin should be referred to White Lead. Stannum, according to Serapion, is mined in the earth, whence it is obtained in lumps. White Lead, on the other hand, is not mined, it is produced from Galena, Pyrites, etc. Pliny states plainly that Stannum is the first liquid to flow in furnaces, and that White Lead is smelted from Black Stones with White Markings. He says also that Stannum is adulterated with White Lead. Stannum among the Arabs is doubtless a more precious metal than White Lead.

STANNUM or ASEBUM --- The Pure Body. Called also Sand.

STANNUM DIVES --- Rich Lead.

STANNUM MEDIOCRE --- Raw, Workable Lead.

STANNUM PAUPER --- Uncalcined Lead.

STARMAR --- The Mother of the Metals-a hidden smoke whence they are generated.


1.Roman-Soft, Black, Crustaceous, like a Magnet. Roman Antimony.

2. Mined, Friable, like Polished Iron, from Ilea, an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

3. Bohemian, in a White Flint.

4. From Stolberg, containing White, Cubical, Transparent Fluors.

5. Isfeldian, inheres in a White Flint by means of its angular points.

6. Hungarian, containing Gold and Black Lead.

7. Vein of Antimony, like Barren Galena.

8. Silver-coloured, in a Stone, like a hard Pyrites.

9. Found in Ironstone.

10. From Friberg in Misnia, found near a Schist Stone.

11. Steel Wire.

12. Recrement of Steel.

13. Steel Needles.

STELLIO, ADUSTUS, or CINNOBRIUM --- The Burnt Lizard, i.e., Pulverised Cinnabar, or Calcined Vitriol.

STELLA OCCIDENS --- Sal Ammoniac.



STRATUM SUPER STRATUM, NOTUM CHYMICIS --- Layer Superposed upon Layer.

STRIDOR --- Preparation, Friction, Rattling of Machinery.

SQUAMA FERRI --- Iron Scales.

SQUILLA FIXA --- Officinal Squill.


SQUINANTIA --- An Abscess on the Neck.


SUBCISIVUM --- A Remainder.

SUBDUCTION --- A Downward Abstraction, which is of two kinds, by the Filter and the Clepsydria.

SUBLIMATION --- is of two kinds --- one is effected by means of Distance, the other by means of Surface. Sublimation does not always denote an ascension, but also a process by which substances become more precious, splendid, and excellent -yet is it true that the vapour ascends. Sublimation means improvement of quality and virtue, as when Sol is made out of Luna, and is called that which is elevated, that which is above on the heights; but that which is improved may be the highest or the lowest, for they are one.

SUBSOLANUS --- The East Wind.

SUBTILATIO, SUBTILATION --- A dissolving or separating of the subtle parts from the gross. There are two kinds --- long and short --- the first when the bodies are dissolved for a prolonged time; the second when they are dissolved in a short space.

SUBVESPERUS --- The South-west Wind.

SUCCU ALBUS --- Quicksilver.

SUCCUTERE --- To Trickle, to Extract.

SUCCUS --- Sap, an Essence having almost the consistency of an extract. Hence the sap is more akin to the magistery, and it carries some corporeity with it, so that if it be compared therewith it is a body, although it is insufficiently elaborated. It is coarser than an essence. It contains some moisture, more or less according to circumstances. As it is reducible to gas, it can easily be obtained. A somewhat liquid sap can be gradually thickened by digestion so as to solidify. It is then Concreted Sap. It is the Apochalismata of the ancients, Rob, Syrup, Must, New Wine, from the fermentation of which is produced a potential extract.

SUCCUBUS --- A Nocturnal Female Visitant, who causes sleeping men to fancy they
are enjoying the embraces of Venus. Incubus is the Male who plagues women.
These are nightmares, black nocturnal lemures, were wolves, etc.

SUCCINA GRAVIDA ---Solid Succinum.

1. Of a Yellow Colour, in which is a White Butterfly.

2. Of the same colour, in which is a Water Spider.

3. Of the same colour, wherein are Flies.

4. Of the same colour, containing Gnats.

5. Of the same colour, containing Ants.

6. Of the same colour, containing, as it were, a regular swarm of Gnats.

7. Of a Honey Colour, wherein is a Centipede.

SUCCINA LIQUINA --- Liquid or Transparent Succinum: ---

1. Falernian Succinum --- White, Clear Amber.

2. Falernian-colour, or White Amber, resembling Moonstone.

3. A Green Amber, mixed with White.

4. A Light Yellow Amber.

5. A Pale Yellow Amber.

6. Yellow Amber.

7. Like a Topaz --- Golden Yellow.

8. An Orange-coloured Amber.

9. Like a Hyacinth.

10. Saffron-colour.

11. Like a Chrysolite-Fire-colour.

12. Red, like Cornelian.

13. Like a Carbuncle-Red, Granite-colour.

SUCCINUM PRUSSICUM --- Very White, Precious Opaque, Prussian Succinum: ---

1. Whitest and Best Amber or Hornstone.

2. White.

3. Dull White.

4. Whitish Yellow.

5. Pale Yellow.

6. Yellow.

7. Wax-colour.

8. Yellow, having White Lines.

9. Honey-colour.

10. Orange-colour.

11. Dark Honey-colour.

SUCCINA MIXTA --- Succinum mixed with other Saps:

1. Succinum of Honey-colour, combined with Atrament which continually.

2. Of a Honey-colour, containing fragments of Wood and Bark.

3. Of a mixed Ashen and Honey-colour.

4. Mixed with many colours --- a newly-found variety.

5. An Adulterated Species from the Brandenburg Marsh, consolidated from Resin and sold for Myrrh. It does not differ in colour from true Succinum, and has the same smell when burnt.

6. Called Oriental Falernian by the Prussians, because, when burnt, it does not yield the odour of Succinum, but a sweet and aromatic odour like Mastic. An Oriental Succinum, clear as water.

7. Oil of Succinum is a powerful remedy in Epilepsy.

8. The Dross of Succinum.

9. The Salt of Succinum.

10. Native Manufactured Amber.

SUDOR --- Permanent Water.

SUFFO --- A Pig Nut.

SULPHUR --- In Arabic Chibur, Albusao, is a part of the Stone of the Philosophers, warm and dry in the fourth grade. It is the fat of the earth, thickened by a moderate cooking, until hardened and made dry. Rightly considered, it is produced from the purest, driest earth, wherein fire altogether prevails. It is a sort of warm and dry vapour, the cause and father of metals. To sum up, Sulphur is Earth Cooked by Heat, and changed by the watery, fiery, and earthy matters passing through it.

Sulphur is obtained in Germany from mountain mines and marshes. The latter is Apyron, or unforged Sulphur, because it has not come in contact with fire. This is also the simple, natural Sulphur, called, vulgarly, living Sulphur, because it produces Metals, and is one of their elements. Dioscorides praises Apyron, because it shines brilliantly, and is not stony. It abounds at Melon and Lipara. Its nature is heating, exciting, cooking. The species of Sulphur are as follows:

1. A Sulphur which solidifies into a cloddy earth. This is properly called living; it is the only genus employed by physicians; it is transparent, brilliant, compact, excellent.

2. Exceptionally fine.

3. Like to Goslarian Mica. Concerning all these, consult Pliny, Avicenna, and others. There is great affinity between Sulphur and Bitumen. In the Eolian Isles it is collected, and very readily kindles the fire. It is found in great abundance, and is exported to Italy, and thence to us. Concerning its sublimation, solution, and melting, consult the chemists, for these exceed my purpose.

Manufactured Sulphur is that prepared and perfected by art, that which has been treated by fire, burning Sulphur, the substance used everywhere. It comes imperfect from the mines. There are three species --- Gleba, used by fullers; Ezula, employed in dyeing wool; while the third is Elychina.

Sulphur is a formative principle, partly gaseous, partly fiery, partaking of an ethereal nature; it is that whence strength proceeds, and life inheres in things. Hence it is called the Balm of Nature --- Sal Terminator, Sulphur Informator --- possessing plastic virtue. Mercury is an unctuous vapour. As for the essential form of Sulphur, chemists leave this to physicists. Although Mercury is a living, active, spiritual principle, which can be rarefied, it is a dry, acidulating, preservative Salt. Sulphur is strong-smelling, warm, and very pure. Note the peculiar significance of the term Mercury; it cannot be compared with liquid Quicksilver. The life of these elements is not Galenian or Aristotelian, but chemical. Consult Paracelsus.

Sulphur is the seed of the stone, and is of two kinds --- an external, whereby the internal is born in Mercury, which, being earthy, combustible, useless, is removed as menstrual water from a child. The internal Sulphur is the power which makes and prepares the body and cannot be separated from it, because it is inherent, congenital in its very heart and substance. It is originally white, becomes red by means of heat, just as food in the belly by means of the liver, and is the form of the matter, the soul and ferment of the stone, the husband, king, and bridegroom --- Red Arsenic, Burnt Ashes, our Gold, Philosophical Gold, Dry, Stony Water, Fire, Earth, Red Stone, Coagula, Mercury, Tincture.

Ordinary Sulphur, by whatever name we may call it, remains an enemy of all metals; consumes, blackens, and destroys; but Philosophical Sulphur is life-giving, matures, makes black, but destroys not, and is called Sulphur because it is never found in the perfect body.

Tercusculus in his Epistles says: Among metals there are two kinds of Sulphur --- one can be separated, the other cannot just as in man there are two kinds of blood --- one that becomes flesh, and another which departs by means of perspiration. Essential Sulphur is a real working of the air and of fire, which digests and cooks its proportioned and cognate earth and warm waters in a Mercury. The Mercurial Water is a Dissolved Gold; a Vitalising Water, Incombustible, Philosophic Gold, found in Sol and Luna.


SULPHUR --- one of the three principles of which all substances are composed of an Oily and Inflammable Matter.

The general species of Sulphur are as follows :

1. White Liquid Sulphur, not unmixed with Alum, obtained at certain seasons during the overflow or inundation of a lake, and deposited on the surface of the earth. From this Sulphur there is a Natural Oil extracted.

2. Clay-like Neapolitan, from the Forum Vulcanium, as Pliny terms the
place, naturally concreted into a fibrous or capillary mass.

3. Pure, Native, Neapolitan, Clay-like Sulphur, not tried by fire.

4. Fossile Neapolitan, of the natural colour, but combined with a Greyish

5. Clay-like, Neapolitan, Living Sulphur, in a Hard, Grey Atrament.

6. Living, Grey, Cloddy, Native Sulphur, in a White Earth.

7. Grey, Living, Native Sulphur, having a Grey, Petrine Cortex.

8. Living, Grey Sulphur, in a Grizzly-coloured Cortex.

9. Black, Living Sulphur, combined with a Soft and White Sulphur.

10. Black, Manufactured Sulphur, of poor quality.

11. Oil of Sulphur, similar to Liquid Bitumen, derived from Liquid Sulphur.

12. Oil of Sulphur, derived from Native Sulphur.

13. Elychnia --- a Preparation of Sulphur, by Clarifying or Straining.

14. Sulphureous Neapolitan Earth, from which Sulphur is excocted in large

15. A Stone of a Black and Ruddy Colour, which is the Parent of Sulphur. Sulphur-stone.

16. Sulphur, of Blue Colour, known to the people of Ausonia, and perchance to those of Spain.


1. Goslarian Pyrites, from which all species of Atrament are derived.

2. Radberg Pyrites, from which Misy, Melanteria, and thin White Atrament exude.

3. A Hard Vein of Silver-coloured Pyrites, vulgarly called Aquatic, like Sibana; when exposed in an open and sunny place, a thin, White Atrament and Alum exude. When exposure to the air continues too long, it degenerates into a crumbling and earthy condition.

4. Pyrites, native in that substance which is called Dryita, namely, the Wood of Oaks hardened into Stone. Atrament and Misy exude from these Pyrites.

Five species of Sulphur are excocted from Pyrites at Dresden:

1. Of the colour of Rude, Red, Transparent Silver --- Red Sulphur --- Red Golden Earth.

1a. Of the colour of Red, Transparent Quicksilver.

2. Of the colour of Quicksilver.

3. Of the colour of Native Sandarac.

4. Like that Mercury which is termed Sublimated and Pulverised.

5. Of black colour, like Black Pebbles, out of which White Lead is excocted. The four following species are derived from Moravian Pyrites, and are of a heavy and loathsome smell:

1. Green, having Lighter Green Zones.

2. Ochrine, like English Plumbaria.

3. Of various colours, having White, Black, Waxen, Yellow, and Honey
colour Zones; also frequently like to the Plumage of the Peacock.

4. Citrine, containing Honey-coloured Sulphur, like a Rude, Red Silver;
smooth on the outside.

Also: ---

1. Friberg Pyrites, combined with Sterile Plumbago, out of which Sulphur is
obtained, mined in large quantities at Scharfenberg.

2. Radberg Pyrites, from which various species of Sulphur are excocted, as
indeed is possible with all Pyrites, but the smell is more hurtful than
that of Native Sulphur, and quickly induces cold in the head.

3. Burnt Tartar.

4. Oil of Tartar.

5. Tartar from Wine Lees, the Bitter Recrement or Earthy Sediment which is found in the bottom and at the sides of jars or Flagons.

SULPHURIS AQUA, ATHICTES --- Alum made from Sulphur.

SULPHUR INCOMBUSTIBILE --- Incombustible Sulphur, the perfect work of Gold and Mercurial Water of the Perfect Body, the Soul of the Metals, which operates in the Mercury, and the masculine seed which has in itself the property of all Metals, and is their key. But it cannot tincture of itself without the spirit. It is an essential fire which surpasses the flames; it does not destroy the Mercury, but changes the lowest part of it with its qualities. When it is like a gum, it is called Mercury; when it is hard and white, it is called Sulphur. The Sulphur of Metals is Quintessence.

SULPHUR VITRIOLATUM --- Sulphur derived from Vitriol by decoction in water, upon which it floats.

SULPHUR VIVUM --- Unstrained Sulphur.

SUMA --- Tartar.

SUMBI --- Sour; also Saffron.

SUMMA OPERATIO SIDERUM IN HOMINE --- That Influence of the Stars on Man which descends during sleep in the night.

SUPERNUS --- North-east.

SUPERFICIES --- White of Egg.

SUPERNA MEDICINA CUM DURUM AB IMPURO --- Essential Virtue Separated from Substance.

SUPREMI PANES --- The top part of roasted ore.

SYDIA --- The Moon.

SYLO --- The Universal World.

SYLPHES --- Pigmies, Little Men.

SYLVESTRES or SYLVANS ---Are Men of the Air, Spirits of the Air, Aerial Spirits, which inhabit the woods and deserted places in the solitudes of the same. They are also called Fauns, and are much taller than ourselves, and also stronger, but they are incapable of speech. One such was captured by German traders, but was not treated in a severe manner, for they placed food and drink before him. He, however, refused all nourishment, and struck with a great fear, and being in a continual dread, he died on the third day. This race is said to be unable to live longer among men, being a monstrosity, unnaturally produced among natural animals.

SYMAR ---Verdigris.

SYNOPIS PONTICA ---Moisture. ? Pontic Water.

SYPHITA PRAVA ---St. Vitus's Dance.

SYPHITA STRICTA ---Somnambulism.

SYRENES --- Marine Monsters Born of Nymphs.

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