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[ March 2015 AD /  October 130 BC ]

Deluxified Supra-Venerial Infra-Edition

THE " TOLD YOU SO " UPDATE -- Nostradamus re : Jihad

NEO-Keshe Plasma Reactor Generator

Michael TRIANTAFYLLOU, et al. : Octopus Propulsion

Sung Kwon CHO : Meniscus Propulsion

David SINCLAIR, et al. : Sirtuins vs Ageing

Copper vs MRSA

Shell Oil Scientist Admits 1,000 mpg Barrier Broken in 70s !

Male Circumcision Alters the Brains of Its Victims

Glycine Pills to keep you Warm

Steve HENGSPERGER : Ozone Water Treatment

Geoff HATTON : Coanda Effect Aircraft

Andre LAMSTAES, et al. : eCube Refrigerator Control

Dr BAGNALL : Nano Metamaterial Anti-Semitic Light Polarizer

Vicki COLVIN, et al. : Nano-Rust Water Purification

Thomas ROSS : Twin-Gear Bicycle

Alan LEVINE, et al. : Tire Recycling

Ganapathiraman RAMANATH, et al. : Nano-SuperGlue

IAUS : Fresnel Lens Solar Panels

Neldon JOHNSON : Flash-Steam Bladeless Turbine

MICROLON Engine Metal Treatment

Nanoptek : Nano-Titania Solar Electrolysis

Video : The Golden Web

100 University Libraries Online

Moo-Tinkle vs Cancer

Coal Ash Chemtrails

GDAS Technologies : Water-Powered Generator

Flow Boiler Electrical Cogeneration

Larry FULLERTON, et. al. : Programable Magnets

Randy ZIESENIS : Water-Charging Machine

Rainmaker Water Treatment

GlassesOff Vision Training

Milan JECKLE  : Ultraviolet Fish / Bird Lure

Diary of a Plagiarist : Smoking Crack with Ptoee the Pleiadian

Welcome Back to Medieval Dark Ages

Dmitry ORLOV : Extinct — Extincter — Extinctest

Images, Graphics, Pictures, Photos & Illustrations

THE " TOLD YOU SO " NEWS UPDATE --

Excerpt :

Wreck for the fleet near the Adriatic Sea:
The land trembles stirred up upon the air placed on land:
Egypt trembles Mahometan augment,
The Herald surrenders himself, to cry is commissioned. (C.2:86)

Nostradamus has predicted a great naval battle in the Adriatic Sea. Line two indicates an earthquake. Egypt is threatened by Muslims, as also is prophesied in line 3 of C.5:27 ("to tremble Pharos") and in the following quatrain. Line 4 suggests that a new prophet will arise, or that a diplomat or religious leader will taken hostage.

The Arab prince Mars, Sun, Venus, Lion
The reign of the Church will succumb to the sea
Toward Persia well near a million
Byzantium, Egypt will resist the temptation. (C.5:25)

Mars, Sol and Venus conjoin in Leo in August 2015, and  in August 2019.

One whom the gods of infernal Hannibal
Will bear to be reborn, terror of humans
Never more of horror nor worse days
In the past than will come by Babel to Romans. (C.2:30)

The ancient Carthaginian conqueror Hannibal will reincarnate and attack Rome again. Carthage in North Africa was founded by the Phoenicians. This suggests that Libya (Carthage) will attack Italy first. Babel (line 4) is now Iraq; apparently Libya and Iraq will join forces under the aegis of ISIS, the CIA-Mossad-MI6 proxy army.

How many times will you be taken, Solar City.
Changing the Barbarian and vain laws,
Your end approaches: you will be more tributary,

The "Solar City" probably is Rome, since it is mentioned in relation to "the great Adria" (Adriatic Sea).

From the Orient will come the Punic heart
To vex Adria and the heirs of Romulus,
Accompanied by the Libyan fleet
Malta to tremble and nearby islands empty. (C.1:9)

"The Punic heart" refers to the Carthaginian Hannibal of C.2:30, attacking Italy ("the heirs of Romulus") with the Libyan fleet in the Adriatic Sea. Italy will be invaded by sea (C. 2: 43). The islands of the Mediterranean Sea will be pillaged:

Naples, Palermo, and all Sicily
The entire coast will remain desolated:
There will remain no suburb, city or town
Not pillaged and robbed by the Barbarians. (C.7:6)

The chief of Persia will occupy great Olchades
The trireme fleet against the Mahometan people
From Parthia, and Media: and the Cyclades pillaged:
Long rest at the Ionian port. (C.3:64)

The Muslims will invade southwest Spain (Olchades). The Cyclades are islands in the Aegean Sea. Parthia and Media were located in what is now Iran. "The Ionian port" is either Venice or Trieste.

From Monaco to near Sicily
The entire coast will remain desolated:
There will remain no suburb, city or town
Not pillaged and robbed by the Barbarians. (C.2:4)

The legion in the marine fleet
Will burn lime, lodestone, sulfur and pitch:
The long rest in the secure place:
Port Selyn and Monaco, fire will consume them. (C.4:23)

Greater calamity of blood and famine,
Seven times it approaches the marine shore:
Monaco from hunger, place captured, captivity,
The great one led crunched in an iron cage. (C.3:10)

These quatrains are reasonably clear, spelling doom for the inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast of Europe. A ruler or military commander will be captured and put in a cage or armored vehicle. ISIS is fond of cages, as shown in their propaganda videos.

In the country of Arabia Felix
There will be born one powerful in the law of Mahomet
To vex Spain, to conquer Granada,
And more by sea against the Ligurian people. (C.5:55)

Arabia Felix is the area between Yemen and Aden. Liguria is now Genoa, Italy.

The year that Saturn and Mars are equally fiery
The air hot, dry, long trajectory
From secret fire, the great heat burns the place to ashes
Little rain, hot, arid, wars, incursions. (C.4:67)

The strange nation will divide spoils,
Saturn in Mars his aspect furious:
Horrible slaughter of Tuscans and Latins,
Greeks, who will desire to strike. (C.1:83)

This quatrain repeats the schedule of C.4:67 above. "The strange nation" ( the new Muslim Caliphate ) will pillage and slaughter the Italians and Greeks, who will continue to resist the invaders. The French too will be attacked by the Muslims.  "Saturn in Mars" is meaningless per se, unless a conjunction is meant. Both planets will be in Leo in the summer of 2019 and 2023. Nostradamus repeatedly warned the French navy not to overextend itself in the Mediterranean Sea, but the advice will be ignored:

If France you pass beyond the Ligurian Sea,
You will see yourself in the isles and seas enclosed:
Mahomet contrary, more so the Adriatic Sea:
Of horses and asses you will gnaw the bones. (C.3:23)

Gallic fleet, do not approach Corsica,
Less Sardinia, you will repent of it:
Every single one will die frustrated of the end of the cape:
You will swim in blood: captive you will not believe me. (C.3:87)

The great Satyr and Tiger of Hyrcania
Gift presented to those of the Ocean:
A chief of the fleet will come from Carmania
Who will take land at Tyrren Phocaean. (C.3:90)

In this quatrain, a naval commander who hails from Hyrcania (now part of Iran) will attack Marseilles ("Tyrren Phocaean"). These quatrains may have been fulfilled in 1655, when the French fleet was sunk in the Gulf of Lyon, or in 1940 when the British navy destroyed the French fleet off the coast of Algiers.

Because of Gallic discord and negligence
A passage will be open to Mahomet
Blood soaks the land and sea of Senois
The Phoenician port covered with sails and ships. (C.1:18)

"The Phoenician port" is Marseilles, where the Muslims will enter France, which will be weakened by subversive immigrants and civil disorder, and will be unable to repel the invaders. The Senois (line 3) are the Senons, an ancient Gallic tribe. Venice will be captured.

France because of Negligence assailed on five sides,
Tunis, Algiers stirred up by Persians:
Leon, Seville, Barcelona having failed,
For the Venetians there will be no fleet. (C.1:73)

The inhabitants of Marseilles completely changed,
Flight and pursuit up to near Lyon,
Narbonne, Toulouse wronged by Bordeaux
Killed and captive nearly a million. (C.1:72)

According to the apparent interpretation of these clear visions, the Muslims will penetrate deep into France. Nearly a million persons will be killed or captured as they flee or fight. See also C.1:92.

&c... ad nauseum ... And now :

www.dailymail.co.uk
2015-02-19

ISIS threatens to send 500,000 migrants to Europe as a ’psychological weapon'
in chilling echo of Gaddafi's prophecy that the Mediterranean ’will become a sea of chaos’

by

Hannah Roberts

Comment: Be aware that it's become clear that ISIS is supported, supplied and funded by AIPAC - who is ran by the US/Israel as well as the other powers that seeks to create the chaos that we are now seeing. This manufactured threat has real life consequences, such as what will come from tens of thousands of migrants seeking to get into Italy and other European countries.

ISIS has threatened to flood Europe with half a million migrants from Libya in a 'psychological' attack against the West, it was claimed today.

Transcripts of telephone intercepts published in Italy claim to provide evidence that ISIS is threatening to send 500,000 migrants simultaneously out to sea in hundreds of boats in a 'psychological weapon' against Europe if there is military intervention against them in Libya.

Many would be at risk of drowning with rescue services unable to cope. But authorities fear that if numbers on this scale arrived, European cities could witness riots.

Separately, the militants hope to cement their control of Libya then cross the Mediterranean disguised as refugees, according to letters seen by Quilliam the anti-terror group, reported by the Telegraph.

Italian Minister for the Interior Angelino Alfano said on Monday that Libya was the 'absolute priority' and insisted there was 'not a minute to lose' for the international community.

He said: 'If the militias of the Caliphate advance faster than the decisions of the international community how can we put out the fire in Libya and stem the migration flows? We are at risk of an exodus without precedent.'

More than 170,000 migrants arrived in Italy by boat last year. Since last Friday almost 4,000 have been rescued.

The spread of militancy across Libya was predicted by the country's deceased leader Muammar Gaddafi, who warned the Mediterranean would become 'a sea of chaos'.

But the Arab Spring uprising that year sparked a civil war in Libya and opposition forces - backed by NATO - deposed Gaddafi in violent coup just five months after his ominous prediction.

In October 2011, forces loyal to the country's transitional government found the ousted leader hiding in a culvert in Sirte and killed him.

Four years later, Islamic State kidnapped 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians in Sirte - Gaddafi's birthplace - before releasing gruesome footage of their beheading on the shores of the Mediterranean, just 220 miles south of Italy. In it the terrorists warned that they 'will conquer Rome'.

In response, Italian security chiefs have approved plans to put 4,800 soldiers on the country's streets to help prevent terrorist attacks.

The statement from the Interior Ministry said they would guard 'sensitive sites' until at least June and reports claim 500 will be deployed in Rome - where soldiers are already guarding diplomatic residences, synagogues and Jewish schools.

The troops are also expected to be deployed at tourist venues such as archaeological sites and monuments.

A treaty between Gaddafi and the Italian premier provided for joint boat patrols which curtailed the departure of migrant boats from Libya.

But, as the Libyan despot predicted back in 2011, if the Gaddafis were brought down, Islamists would exploit the power vacuum.

Still holding court in a Bedoin tent while holed up in the fortified citadel of Bab Al Azizya, Gaddafi warned: 'If, instead of a stable government that guarantees security, these militias linked to Bin Laden take control, the Africans will move en mass towards Europe.'

He added: 'The Mediterranean will become a sea of chaos.'

That very sea ran red with blood when Islamic State brutally executed 21 Egyptian Christians on its shores.

The accompanying video, released on Sunday, showed the men dressed in orange jumpsuits and shackled - kneeling in the sand before the militants slit their throats and watched them bleed to death.

Egypt retaliated furiously by launching coordinated airstrikes on ISIS targets in Libya.

The European powers were putting their own security at risk by helping the rebels, Gaddafi pointed out.

He told Il Giornale, the Italian newspaper owned by his former friend Silvio Berlusconi he was saddened by the attitude of his friend. They no longer spoke.

'I am shocked at the attitude of my European friends. They have endangered and damaged a series of great security treaties in their own interest.'

Without his harsh, but effective, regime, the entire North African Mahgreb 'would become another Gaza,' he claimed.

Overrun: The majority of Libya's coastal cities have surrendered control to Islamic State and other rebel extremist groups created to oppose the NATO-led invasion which removed Gaddafi from power

The telephone transcripts, seen by Il Messaggero newspaper claimed to provide evidence 'that IS will use the migrants as a "psychological weapon" against countries that say they want to intervene in Libya, in particular, against Italy.'

'As soon as our country mentioned armed intervention on Libya the jihadists suggested they let drift, bound for Italy, hundreds of boats full of migrants. The figure discussed is five hundred thousand, most of the 700,000 that are on the coast waiting to board,' the newspaper reported.

Following the dire threat Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi immediately backtracked from his government's previous rhetoric saying that 'it was not the time for military intervention'.

Foreign Minister Paolo Gentiloni said this morning that Italy does not want to embark on 'adventures, never mind Crusades' in Libya.

But former President Giorgio Napolitano said that the 'biggest error' in the post-Gaddafi's period was the European Unions 'lack of involvement' in the country.

Meanwhile following direct threats on Rome, the commander of Vatican City's 110-man Swiss Guard said his forces are ready to defend Pope Francis if ISIS attempt a strike .

Colonel Christoph Graf said 'Following the terrorists' threats, we're asking the guards to be more attentive and observe peoples' movements closely. If something happens we're ready, as are the men of the Gendarmerie.'

NEO-Keshe Plasma Reactor Generator

From: Jerry Decker <jdecker@keelynet.com>
Subject: headsup! - NEO Keshe generators for sale
Date: Feb 23, 2015

Hola Folks!

You might want to check into this;

NEO Keshe based plasma reactor generator;

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/KeelyNet_Interact/conversations/messages/2220

NEO main page;

http://neo.sx/index-neo3.html

The NEO device is based on the Keshe plasma reaction patents you can download at;

http://neo.sx/patentes-neo.html

Claimed to last 35 years, power comes from 'the atmosphere' with no batteries or panels of any kind.

Claims to use the Keshe plasma reactor to capture 'radiant' energy, the reason theirs works is the use an element that deteriorates over time. no moving parts. Even when turned off, it will produce energy. The units can be parallel connected for more power.

What makes them special is they claim to have a unique element used in the reactor which decays over time but can be refurbished.

(This is kind of like LENR cold fusion claims where the materials become corroded over time due to internal transmuatuions, thus requiring replacement. Currently Rossi is claiming over 1MW of heat tested over a one month period, yet they still aren't testing them in the real world of homes or businesses. Piantelli has prior patents and his group is working on 1kw, 5kw, 10kw, 20kw, 100kw and higher models...much more logical)

3500 watts for 1.980 euros - $2,244.23 US Dollar 6500 watts for 2.860 euros -$3,241.67 US Dollar

CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE:
- The delivery of the order is 5-7 business days.
- The unit price includes shipping to the customer.
- The price include customs tax and administrative expenses in the country of the customer.
- All units are guaranteed for 5 years against failure of faricacion. In case of drive failure in warranty period is NEO who is responsible for removing the unit and replace it with a new one without any cost to the customer. Check warranty conditions here

For the purchase of 5 or more units will automatically apply the discount wholesale 20%.

Telephone contacts;

Panamá - +507 8339964
México - +52 5585263329
USA - +1 7864058854

They accept visa, mastercard, american or bank withdrawal through paypal and claim 100% guaranty.

Now both Paypal and these credit card companies allow you to reverse charges for a fraudulent claim. We saw something similar with the Canadian claim of a water generator where they too accepted credit cards, but they seem to have fallen off the map.

So it would seem you are protected UNLESS there is some trick description in the claims for what you are actually buying that can be disputed for them to keep the money.

I've not been a Keshe fan from day one, but these guys seem to have put a lot of time into this and claim working products available within 2 weeks of purchase.

Maybe we could do a crowdfunding project to buy one and test it??? Or someone with extra bucks buy and test it and let us know.

At any rate, it is a most interesting claim with more details than normal for such devices. Thanks to Michael J for sharing this.

Jerry @ Keelynet

Followup :

From: Jerry Decker <jdecker@keelynet.com>
Subject: Re: Headsup! - NEO Keshe generators for sale
Date: Feb 26, 2015

I've not found anyone who has bought one of the NEO devices or gone through the buying process...I did find this on youtube;

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/KeelyNet_Interact/conversations/messages/2221

I did a search on youtube and found this video where the guy is really pissed even though he hasn't bought one but is guessing as to what is inside, saying it is a ripoff and more;

but it doesn't look like he has actually purchased one that I can tell. He postulates how they could trick people and explains his version of how they would do it.

I see no changes on the NEO homepage;
http://neo.sx/index-neo3.html

You'd think their website would post testimonials to encourage sales. Something fishy here.

Might be like that idiot Alek using ultracaps to hold charges and claiming free energy and electric bikes that run forever, etc...he's on some weird ego trip so I give him no oxygen. Checkered past with claims and all...

NEO claims to use a special material (unspecified) for the plasma electrode saying once you start the thing, it will generate power continually even if you remove all loads and as a result of it burning all the time, it will burn out in about 5 years at which point you can refurbish it.

Sounds like every LENR project I've ever read...exotic batteries...the transmutation that occurs from the heat generation process pollutes the elements and 'electrolyte' over time so the heat slowly dies.

However, you can refurbish it just we do with lead acid batteries. Rossi makes these outrageous power claims of 1MW and more...lab queens so far, not tested powering a house or business...but Piantelli and his group claim the generators will be in the 100 watt to seven kilowatt range...much is way more rational and comparing Piantellis granted patent to Rossis application and it looks like a university professor compared to a plumber.

How many free energy claimants have you heard over the years spouting super high power output using 18-26 gauge wire...<lol>...like that idiot Don Smith who might be dead by now.

And yet NONE of them can meet Hal Puthoffs' One Watt Challenge;

http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1144

Just ONE WATT...surely they can scrape that out of their 100kw free energy machine! But no, not to my knowledge.

Here is the Rossi and Piantelli info;

11/09/14 - European Patent Granted for Francesco Piantelli’s LENR Process
http://www.keelynet.com/news/110914a.html

11/09/14 - Surprising Rossi (Industrial Heat) Patent Application: COP 11!
http://www.keelynet.com/news/110914b.html
---
My point being that NEO appears like LENR becuase you can REFURBISH the consumed electrode in the NEO unit...which makes sense, burning matter
in another form than wood or gas...seems like there would be some radiation associated with its operation.

But no one has a unit to test that I can find...it LOOKS like the buyer is protected by using a credit card...if it doesn't work as you were told, return it and file a charge reversal.

The water generator guy from Canada had a similar scheme but he has gone off the map. George Wiseman sent a guy out to the guys location and it was an empty building...

10/27/14 - Portable Generator Runs on Water!!
http://www.keelynet.com/news/102714a.html

and some history about the guys earlier failed venture;

11/03/14 - GDS Water Generator in Mexico
http://www.keelynet.com/news/110314b.html

But I think their contract might be tricked up so they can dispute it and win to keep the money if you try to reverse the charges as a defrauded or item misrepresented customer...

Here is one plasma reactor with no reference to Keshe;

and this one;

Keshe plasma reactor

but I couldn't find any NEO youtubes.

Here is one on facebook for $257 and it says its NEO and produces 400w; https://es-es.facebook.com/EnergiasLibresMdz/posts/498716383596286 Free Energy Mdz? Posted July 19, 2014 Dollar Price:$ 257
NEO Energy Units
Energy NEO Units are small in size and appearance is practically the same as a UPS, or common and similar in size UPS.

Our innovative system allows the sum of all units that have connected. Each unit provides an output power of 400W, if required 4000W, simply interconnect 10 units each other.

HOW LONG DOES A GENERATOR?
All generators are NEO designer to provide energy continuously guaranteed for 35 years.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE 35 YEARS pass?
Once this period of time has elapsed, the generator starts to produce energy with very low power, then the generator must recycle new one.

WHAT FUEL USED?
NEO Energy Generators are designed and manufactured to not need fossil fuels of any kind.

WHERE DID TAKE THE POWER?
All generators extract energy from the atmosphere as does a solar panel sun, but in the case of our generators, must not have batteries or panels of any kind. You can view our website the documentation section where you will find some of the patents that NEO was inspired to make the generators.

HOW DOES INTERNALLY?
Our optimized system collects the abundant radiant energy from the atmosphere and is excited the system using a plasma reactor also NEO manufacturing. The ensemble performs the operation to capture the radiant and is magnified by the reactor. The part or key element of our system is the reactor and is the element that after life deteriorates and disables the system.

IS THERE TO DO ANY INVESTMENT BUY AFTER THE GENERATOR?
When you buy a generator NEO should not perform any additional investment if you want to install an electrician at home the cost is extremely low, because the installation is very simple.

HOW MUCH DOES NOISE?
All NEO generators are soundproofed and the noise is very similar to that can produce a new refrigerator.

GASES does it make?
By not consuming any fossil fuel no combustion occurs and therefore there is no smoke and exhaust gases, so that you can have the generator inside a home, that if, with ventilation to capture the radiant energy atmosphere.

DOES THE GENERATOR VIBRA?
No, no moving parts inside no vibration occur.

WHAT HAS WARRANTY?
All NEO generators have 2 years warranty against manufacturing defects Total. In case of problems with a unit under warranty our after-sales service it is replaced free of charge and sent him to the country where you made the purchase.

CAN PUT in the open?
Our generators can be installed on the outside and work without problems in extreme weather conditions, withstanding rain or snow.

CAN CONNECT MORE OF A GENERATOR IN PARALLEL?
Yes, the XT102 Moledos can be interconnected to add the power of all generators who wants to have connected simultaneously.

HOW IS IN OPERATION?
The entire range of Generators NEO have a button on and off. The drive is manual, so if the user wishes not produce energy must turn it off manually, it will continue producing energy while not being exploited.

And this NEOTEC page from 2008 that appears to be a true atomic reactor with a similar name;

http://www.neoteo.com/los-reactores-domesticos-a-la-venta-14057/

Our nuclear tower is the size of a residential jacuzzi, ie about 1.5 meters wide. Capable of generating 25 MWe, ie, enough to supply a population of 20,000 households electricity. This portable reactor is based on a new nuclear fission technology patented by Otis Peterson, scientist Los Alamos National Laboratory (ANLL) in 2003 and was later made ??available to Hyperion Power Generation for manufacturing. It can be transported by truck, plane or boat.

The reactor is interred at a considerable depth and does not emit any gas harmful to the atmosphere and above all, no residual radiation emitted. A nuclear reactor that does not generate radiation ? That would be like saying a rain that wets or a tax not bugs. It really seems a challenge but the company explains claiming that they use a fuel that is unlike anything used in nuclear weapons. This reactor consumes only a reactive uranium enriched to 10% while that of military use is around 98%. They also sell the completely sealed and ready to be buried caldera. And if accidentally opened, the fuel will cool quickly without harming anything that is outside. And the stack is able to generate power without stopping for five years. Sounds good right?

The downside (as I said) is that the finished cell fission, leaves a cake of radioactive material the size of an orange that to see who is the handsome guard in his garden.

And where's the scoop? Well, they already have 3 factories producing reactors by 2013 are expected to be 4,000 HPG but for now have received a firm order for 100 units to a few industries in remote areas. The device costs $25 million (20 million euros) and considering that provides power to 20,000 homes a very favorable monetary amount (about 1000 euros per household) is obtained. That's all I've been able to find so far... Good luck! Jerry @ Keelynet y mas (and more) Michael TRIANTAFYLLOU, et al. : Octopus Propulsion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05dVbuRiqvI http://www.southampton.ac.uk/mediacentre/news/2015/Feb/15_21.shtml#.VNN7WXbIx3k VIDEO : Balloon Rocket *** http://www.southampton.ac.uk/mediacentre/news/2015/Feb/15_21.shtml#.VNN7WXbIx3k 05 February 2015 Octopus robot makes waves with ultra-fast propulsion Scientists have developed an octopus-like robot, which can zoom through water with ultra-fast propulsion and acceleration never before seen in man-made underwater vehicles. Most fast aquatic animals are sleek and slender to help them move easily through the water but cephalopods, such as the octopus, are capable of high-speed escapes by filling their bodies with water and then quickly expelling it to dart away. Inspired by this, scientists from the University of Southampton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology built a deformable octopus-like robot with a 3D printed skeleton with no moving parts and no energy storage device other than a thin elastic outer hull. The 30cm long self-propelling robot is inflated with water and then rapidly deflates by shooting the water out through its base to power its outstanding propulsion and acceleration, despite starting from a non-streamlined shape. As the rocket contracts, it can achieve more than 2.6 times the thrust of a rigid rocket doing the same manoeuvre. It works like blowing up a balloon and then releasing it to fly around the room. However, the 3D printed polycarbonate skeleton inside keeps the balloon tight and the final shape streamlined, while fins on the back keep it going straight. The robot is capable of accelerating up to ten body lengths in less than a second. In recent laboratory tests, the robot accelerated a one kilogram payload up to 6mph in less than a second. This is comparable to a mini-cooper carrying an additional 350kg of weight (bringing the total weight of the car to 1,000kg) accelerating from a standstill to 60mph in one second – underwater. This performance is unprecedented in man-made underwater vehicles. Dr Gabriel Weymouth, Lecturer for the Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute at the University of Southampton and lead author of the study, says: “Man-made underwater vehicle are designed to be as streamlined as possible, but with the exception of torpedoes, which use massive amounts of propellent, none of these vehicles achieve speeds of even a single body length per second or accelerations of 0.1g, despite significant mechanical complexity. “Rigid bodies always lose energy to the surrounding water, but the rapidly shrinking form of the robot actually uses the water to help propel its ultra-fast escape, resulting in 53 per cent energy efficiency, which is better than the upper estimates for fast-starting fish.” The researchers calculate that making the robot bigger would improve its fast-starting performance, which could have applications in the development of artificial underwater vehicles that can match the speed, manoeuvrability and efficiency of their biological inspirations. The understanding this study provides could also have an impact in other engineering fields where drag is critical, such as airplane wing design, and to the study of different shape-changing biological systems. The study, which is published in Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, was funded with support from the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology and from the MIT Sea Grant program. http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-3190/10/1/016016/article Bioinspiration & Biomimetics Volume 10 Number 1 2 February 2015. doi:10.1088/1748-3190/10/1/016016 Ultra-fast escape maneuver of an octopus-inspired robot G D Weymouth, V Subramaniam and M S Triantafyllou Abstract We design and test an octopus-inspired flexible hull robot that demonstrates outstanding fast-starting performance. The robot is hyper-inflated with water, and then rapidly deflates to expel the fluid so as to power the escape maneuver. Using this robot we verify for the first time in laboratory testing that rapid size-change can substantially reduce separation in bluff bodies traveling several body lengths, and recover fluid energy which can be employed to improve the propulsive performance. The robot is found to experience speeds over ten body lengths per second, exceeding that of a similarly propelled optimally streamlined rigid rocket. The peak net thrust force on the robot is more than 2.6 times that on an optimal rigid body performing the same maneuver, experimentally demonstrating large energy recovery and enabling acceleration greater than 14 body lengths per second squared. Finally, over 53% of the available energy is converted into payload kinetic energy, a performance that exceeds the estimated energy conversion efficiency of fast-starting fish. The Reynolds number based on final speed and robot length is *** . We use the experimental data to establish a fundamental deflation scaling parameter$\sigma *$which characterizes the mechanisms of flow control via shape change. Based on this scaling parameter, we find that the fast-starting performance improves with increasing size. *** US5997369 / US5740750 Method and apparatus for reducing drag on a moving body Inventor(s): TRIANTAFYLLOU MICHAEL ; BARRETT DAVID A method and apparatus for providing reduced drag on a body moving in a direction D through a selected fluid medium at a speed U which is normally sufficient to cause turbulence. Reduced drag is generally accomplished by flexing at least the outer surface of at least the rear third of the body to produce a wave-like motion of the body having a wavelength of between 0.5 and 2.0 times the length of the body, a reduced frequency value OMEGA between 0.1 and 0.5 and a time delay between successive points on the body reaching peaks for their flex motion which is directly proportional to the distance xi in the direction D of the point from a reference point on the body and inversely proportional to the phase speed cp of the wave. A variety of techniques are described for achieving the desired wave-like motion. via : http://www.keelynet.com/indexjan109.htm http://tech.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=09/01/21/2322205 Jan 21, 2009 How to move a boat without an engine, paddles or sails Researchers say technology they have developed would let boats or small aquatic robots glide through the water without the need for an engine, sails or paddles. A University of Pittsburgh research team has designed a propulsion system that uses the natural surface tension that is present on the water's surface and an electric pulse to move the boat or robot, researchers said. The Pitt system has no moving parts and the low-energy electrode that emits the pulse could be powered by batteries, radio waves, or solar power, researchers said in a statement. The system bio-mimics the propelling skill of some insects that float on the water and move by leaning one way or the other. For example, researchers said they were inspired by the way beetle larvae move on water. Like any floating object, larva resting in the water causes the surface tension to pull equally on both sides. To move forward, the larva bends its back downward to change the tension direction behind it. The forward tension then pulls the larva through the water, said Sung Kwon Cho, senior researcher and a professor of mechanical engineering and materials science in Pitt's Swanson School of Engineering. One of the system's primary applications could be as a cheap, environment-friendly robot that could traverse the world's oceans, gathering research data, Cho said. Pitt researchers said that in their experiments, an electrode attached to a 2-centimeter-long "mini-boat" emitted a surge that changed the rear surface tension direction and propelled the boat at roughly 4 millimeters per second. A second electrode attached to the boat's front side served as the rudder. The Pitt system is similar to the MIT developed robot known as a Robostrider. *** http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16393-mini-boat-travels-by-bending-water.html 14 January 2009 Tiny boat skims over water like a bug by David Robson WATCHING Sung Kwon Cho's model boat glide silently across the still water with no propellers or sails, you'd be forgiven for thinking a phantom hand was drawing the vessel forward. The boat is actually being driven by water surface tension, the same force that allows some insects to skate across the surface of a pond. The design is inspired by Pyrrhalta beetle larvae, which also use surface tension to propel themselves. Since it requires no moving parts, the method should be more robust than those involving propellers and may use just a hundredth of the power. This could be ideal for extending the working life of cheap, environment-sensing robots that roam the world's oceans, says Cho, who is at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Normally, the surface tension of the water surrounding a floating object is equal on every side. To upset this balance and create a forward thrust, Cho's team attached an electrode to the back of the boat that alters the curve of the water's meniscus. The electrode is coated in an insulating polymer and Teflon, which is normally hydrophobic. Applying a potential to the electrode changes the insulating layer's charge distribution and makes the electrode more attractive to water - a process called electrowetting. This extra attraction changes the shape of the water's meniscus so that it curves upwards rather than downwards at the back of the boat, changing the balance of forces and pushing the boat forward (see diagram). In tests to be presented later this month at the MEMS 2009 conference in Sorrento, Italy, the team propelled a 2-centimetre-long prototype at roughly 4 millimetres per second. "By streamlining the boat and optimising the electrodes, we could achieve speeds of 10 centimetres per second," says Cho (a video of the boat in action is at www.snipurl.com/9ut8wMovie Camera). Ramin Golestanian from the University of Sheffield in the UK is impressed with the work. "It's a very clever trick that puts fundamental physics into practice," he says. He thinks it should be simple to manufacture robots with a series of these electrodes along their side to provide very precise motion control. David SINCLAIR, et al. : Sirtuins vs Ageing [ See also : SINCLAIR, D. : Rejuvenation : Nicotinamide ( NAM ) & NAM-MonoNucleotide (NMN) vs Ageing ] http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-11/hms-ria111908.php Researchers identify a potentially universal mechanism of aging by David Cameron BOSTON, Mass. (Nov. 26, 2008)--Like our current financial crisis, the aging process might also be a product excessive deregulation. Researchers have discovered that DNA damage decreases a cell's ability to regulate which genes are turned on and off in particular settings. This mechanism, which applies both to fungus and to us, might represent a universal culprit for aging. "This is the first potentially fundamental, root cause of aging that we've found," says Harvard Medical School professor of pathology David Sinclair. "There may very well be others, but our finding that aging in a simple yeast cell is directly relevant to aging in mammals comes as a surprise." These findings appear in the November 28 issue of the journal Cell. For some time, scientists have know that a group of genes called sirtuins are involved in the aging process. These genes, when stimulated by either the red-wine chemical resveratrol Nearly a decade ago, Sinclair and colleagues in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology lab of Leonard Guarente found that a particular sirtuin in yeast affected the aging process in two specific ways -- it helped regulate gene activity in cells and repair breaks in DNA. As DNA damage accumulated over time, however, the sirtuin became too distracted to properly regulate gene activity, and as a result, characteristics of aging set in. "For ten years, this entire phenomenon in yeast was considered to be relevant only to yeast," says Sinclair. "But we decided to test of this same process occurs in mammals." Philipp Oberdoerffer, a postdoctoral scientist in Sinclair's Harvard Medical School lab, used a sophisticated microarray platform to probe the mammalian version of the yeast sirtuin gene in mouse cells. The results in mice corroborated what Sinclair, Guarente, and colleagues had found in yeast ten years earlier. Oberdoerffer found that a primary function of sirtuin in the mammalian system was to oversee patterns of gene expression (which genes are switch on and which are switch off). While all genes are present in all cells, only a select few need to be active at any given time. If the wrong genes are switched on, this can harm the cell. (In a kidney cell, for example, all liver genes are present, but switched off. If these genes were to become active, that could damage the kidney.) As a protective measure, sirtuins guard genes that should be off and ensure that they remain silent. To do this, they help preserve the molecular packaging -- called chromatin -- that shrink-wraps these genes tight and keeps them idle. The problem for the cell, however, is that the sirtuin has another important job. When DNA is damaged by UV light or free radicals, sirtuins act as volunteer emergency responders. They leave their genomic guardian posts and aid the DNA repair mechanism at the site of damage. During this unguarded interval, the chromatin wrapping may start to unravel, and the genes that are meant to stay silent may in fact come to life. For the most part, sirtuins are able to return to their post and wrap the genes back in their packaging, before they cause permanent damage. As mice age, however, rates of DNA damage (typically caused by degrading mitochondria) increase. The authors found that this damage pulls sirtuins away from their posts more frequently. As a result, deregulation of gene expression becomes chronic. Chromatin unwraps in places where it shouldn't, as sirtuin guardians work overtime putting out fires around the genome, and the unwrapped genes never return to their silent state. In fact, many of these haplessly activated genes are directly linked with aging phenotypes. The researchers found that a number of such unregulated mouse genes were persistently active in older mice. "We then began wondering what would happen if we put more of the sirtuin back into the mice," says Oberdoerffer. "Our hypothesis was that with more sirtuins, DNA repair would be more efficient, and the mouse would maintain a youthful pattern gene expression into old age." That's precisely what happened. Using a mouse genetically altered to model lymphoma, Oberdoerffer administered extra copies of the sirtuin gene, or fed them the sirtuin activator resveratrol, which in turn extended their mean lifespan by 24 to 46 percent. "It is remarkable that an aging mechanism found in yeast a decade ago, in which sirtuins redistribute with damage or aging, is also applicable to mammals," says Leonard Guarente, Novartis Professor of Biology at MIT, who is not an author on the paper. "This should lead to new approaches to protect cells against the ravages of aging by finding drugs that can stabilize this redistribution of sirtuins over time." Both Sinclair and Oberdoerffer agree with Guarente's sentiment that these findings may have therapeutic relevance. "According to this specific mechanism, while DNA damage exacerbates aging, the actual cause is not the DNA damage itself but the lack of gene regulation that results," says Oberdoerffer. "Lots of research has shown that this particular process of regulating gene activity, otherwise known as epigenetics, can be reversed--unlike actual mutations in DNA. We see here, through a proof-of-principal demonstration, that elements of aging can be reversed." Recent findings by Chu-Xia Deng of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, has also found that mice that lack sirtuin are susceptible to DNA damage and cancer, reinforcing Sinclair's and Oberdoerffer's data. Cell, November 28, 2008 Volume 135, Issue 6 "SIRT1 Redistribution on Chromatin Promotes Genome Stability but Alters Gene Expression during Aging" Philipp Oberdoerffer, et al. *** Patents COMPOSITIONS FOR MANIPULATING LIFESPAN AND STRESS RESPONSE OF CELLS AND ORGANISMS JP2014159448 Nicotinamide riboside and analogues thereof EP2805719 Compositions for treating or preventing obesity and insulin resistance disorders AU2013211529 Sirt1 modulators for manipulating cells/organism lifespan/stress response AU2013201279 COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING OR PREVENTING OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE DISORDERS US8846724 SIRTUIN BASED METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING BETA-CATENIN-RELATED CONDITIONS US2011009474 (A1) COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING OR PREVENTING OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE DISORDERS US8242171 Diagnostic method for neurodegenerative diseases based on measurement of SIRT1 levels or activity EP2362226 Sirtuin Inhibiting Compounds US2009137681 METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INDUCING SIRTUINS US2009117543 ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE BASED METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS WO2008021048 IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE WITH SIRTUIN ACTIVATORS WO2006138418 METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING FLUSHING AND DRUG INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN WO2006079021 Copper vs MRSA http://uk.reuters.com/article/2008/11/15/oukoe-uk-chile-copper-fungus-fighter-idUKTRE4AE1EJ20081115?rpc=401&&pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0 Plagued by fungus? Bacteria? Try copper socks by Manuel Farias SANTIAGO Sat Nov 15, 2008 (Reuters) - Copper socks? Copper towels? How about copper subway poles? These are only a few of the ways Chile, the world's biggest copper producer, is utilizing the red metal which is more commonly found in the construction and auto sectors. Used since ancient times to make tools, weapons and plumbing systems, Chilean innovators are experimenting with ways to exploit copper's bacteria- and fungus-fighting characteristics. "Public transport systems, where germs can be transmitted and there are large numbers of people, are a potential market for applications for surface-metal copper," said Jurgen Leibbrandt, head of market development for the Chilean state copper giant Codelco. "In clothes there is another venue ... where it has excellent anti-fungus qualities," he said. Scientists say the power of copper to fight germs lies in the fact that copper ions separate on contact with bacteria and cause irreversible damage to the bacteria's cells. Codelco is already working with the private sector to market socks, towels, pillow cases and underwear sewn with copper fibresthat fight fungi and even help combat acne. And the private sector is in a drive to join Chile's leading export, copper, with another major exporter, the salmon industry, to cut disease in fish stocks. Chile is the world's second largest salmon producer after Norway, but the industry has high costs because of expensive solutions to controlling infections. "Joining these two industries to finding a solution that is economically viable is certainly viable," said Leibbrandt. One Chilean entrepreneur, Joaquin Ruiz, has invented copper sponge filters to purify water on salmon farms, eliminating disease and fungi and reducing the large amounts of costly antibiotics currently employed to do the same job. "That means huge savings. Instead of using large quantities of antibiotics and germ killing agents, with this you are just putting up a simple sanitary barrier," Ruiz, the developer of the Metal Foam sponges, told Reuters. Codelco is experimenting with bacteria-repellent cages for the industry. Investigators are also looking into where they can use the metal to reduce levels of infection in hospitals. They have found the metal helps to kill Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a bacterium responsible for difficult-to-treat infections in humans. "If you prevent one MRSA infection, you save$21,000, so your return on investment will be very very short, perhaps one patient," said Michael Schmidt, of the University of South Carolina medical school.

"So this is going to be a fairly efficient and inexpensive solution to combat infections."

Some hospitals in the United States are testing copper as a germ-resistant surface material in place of stainless steel. A British study several years ago showed that drug-resistant staph germs survived for three days on stainless steel surfaces but were not detectable on copper surfaces after 90 minutes.

Patents

Antibacterial layer acting against pathogenic bacteria, especially against MRSA bacterial strain and method of making such layer
CZ303861

Antibacterial layer acting against pathogenic bacteria, especially against bacterial strain MRSA and method of making such layer
CZ303250

ANTI-MICROBIAL PRODUCTS
WO2012007723

Composition containing epoxy resin and copper
GB2491596

Antibacterial composition and method of production
US2009148540

Anti-microbial cleaning aid
GB2455413

ANTIMICROBIAL AND DEGERMING AGENT
JP2005002033

BACTERICIDAL AGENT FOR MRSA
JPH0782110

PRODUCTION OF STERILIZING WATER AND ASEPTIC WATER
JPH0910772

MIXED BACTERICIDAL FLUID
WO9817117

Shell Oil Scientist Admits 1,000 mpg Barrier Broken in 70s!

Male Circumcision Alters the Brains of Its Victims

http://www.zengardner.com/male-circumcision-alters-brain-victims/
http://www.halfpasthuman.com/wujo/wujo3242012peniscon.mp3

Those males that don't have foreskins have brains that are not maturing the way nature intended . . .

Men without foreskins cannot bond to women and will not sacrifice themselves for women the way that men with foreskins will do. Period. Men with foreskins with bond with women from the vaginal secretions triggering a reaction within the sensory apparatus of the male foreskin that triggers a growth pattern within the male mind that will not exist without it. These men will bond with women in a way that men without foreskins will not.

Hey, Kids ! Try this at home !

Mo' sez : " Yummy, Yummy, Yummy, I've got Love in my Tummy ! "

I've tried this -- it works ...

http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2008/09/07/pills-to-keep-you-warm/

Pills to keep you Warm

The pill contains glycine, an amino-acid that causes the body to generate more heat than it can otherwise produce. It is hoped the pill might enable men to stay alive longer in icy water, and hasten the warming of a man who has been chilled to a critical point of exposure. At the laboratory, operated by the Air Force at Ladd Air Force Base, volunteers are taking the pills with no evidence of ill effect. If the tests are successful the pills could be included in survival kits.

keelynet.com/indexapr407.htm

http://www.citynews.ca/news/news_10290.aspx

Does Miracle Germ Killing Product Live Up To Its Hype?

A cleaning agent that not only kills potentially harmful bacteria, germs, mold and mildew, but removes odours and stains as well. The secret lies in the machine that puts ozone into the H20 from your kitchen tap.

"We're taking the oxygen in that water and just converting it to super oxygen," explains inventor Steve Hengsperger. "So we're taking the O2 and converting it to O3."

He calls ozone a "natural sanitizer" that's 50 percent stronger than bleach and works 3,000 times faster. And he maintains that not even mutated germs can survive its power.

Water that's treated with the substance is harmless to kids, pets and plants and doesn't hurt the environment, unlike some cleaners laced with ammonia or other chemicals. It breaks down completely after about 15 minutes and is always potable. Researchers say you can spray it on a diaper pail or a laundry hamper as a disinfectant.

You can use it to kill invisible nasties lurking on stove and kitchen countertops. And scientists swear you can even spray it on food to kill any microorganisms lurking there.

The invention comes with a variety of different models, including one for your kitchen and food and even one for your toothbrush. Treating the water requires buying the unit and that involves a not so minor monetary outlay, although the manufacturers believe you'll make it back by not having to purchase any other clearing products at your store.

It costs around Cdn.$200 to get it into your home, but once you've got one, it's supposed to last for years. E. coli reductions - Tomato: 99.9% Grapes: 99.9% Snow Pea: 99.8% Kumquat: 99.8% Listeria reductions - Tomato: 99.9% Grapes: 99.0% Snow Pea: 99.6% Kumquat: 97.5% Salmonella reductions - Tomato: 99.9% Grapes: 99.9% Snow Pea: 99.5% Kumquat: 99.2% Patents US8894750 HOLDING TANK-LESS WATER OZONATING SYSTEM Inventor: HENGSPERGER STEVE / NAMESPETRA JUSTIN L [CA] TREATMENT OF WATER TO EXTEND HALF-LIFE OF OZONE. MX2014001968 HOLDING TANK-LESS WATER OZONATING SYSTEM USING ELECTROLYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF WATER US2013206704 HOLDING TANK-LESS WATER OZONATING SYSTEM CA2775898 SYSTEM AND DEVICE FOR WATER FILTRATION AND PURIFICATION US7959872 SANITIZATION SYSTEM AND SYSTEM COMPONENTS PRODUCING OZONATED LIQUID HK1086247 Ozonated Water Dispenser US2008237368 Water Sanitazation System Having Safety Features and Removable Filter US7713336 Sanitization system and system components US7767168 Filter housing for a drinking water pitcher US2006163148 Drinking water pitcher having a removable upper reservoir US7513278 Sanitization system and system components CN1723175 SYSTEM AND CONTAINERS FOR WATER FILTRATION AND ITEM SANITIZATION WO2004113232 PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD SANITIZATION SYSTEM AND SYSTEM COMPONENTS WO2004063098 (A3) SYSTEM AND CONTAINERS FOR WATER FILTRATION AND ITEM SANITIZATION CA2530456 Geoff HATTON : Coanda Effect Aircraft Thrust Generating Apparatus US7857256 Craft having aerofoil surface for controlling its spin GB2424400 Vehicle steering control GB2424463 COANDA EFFECT AIR VEHICLE WO2009027742 http://jlnlabs.imars.com/gfsuav/ Jean-L. Naudin's R&D The GFS-UAV, propelled by an electric engine, uses the Coanda effect to take off vertically, fly, hover and land vertically ( VTOL ). There is no big rotor like on an helicopter and the flight is very stable and safe for the surrounding. The design of the GFS-UAV N-01A is based on the Geoff Hatton' flying saucer from GFS Project limited. Andre LAMSTAES, et al. : eCube via keelynet.com ( 04/08/07 ) http://environment.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,,2036183,00.html £25 fridge gadget that could slash greenhouse emissions It is made of wax, is barely three inches across and comes in any colour you like, as long as it's black. And it could save more greenhouse gas emissions than taxes on gas guzzling cars, low energy light bulbs and wind turbines on houses combined. It is the e-cube, and it is coming soon to a fridge near you. Invented by British engineers, the £25 ($49USD) gadget significantly reduces the amount of energy used by fridges and freezers, which are estimated to consume about a fifth of all domestic electricity in the UK.

The patented cube mimics food and is designed to fit around a fridge's temperature sensor, which usually measures the temperature of the circulating air. Because air heats up much more quickly than yoghurt, milk or whatever else is stored inside, this makes the fridge work harder than necessary.

With the cube fitted, the fridge responds only to the temperature of the food, which means it clicks on and off less often as the door is open and closed. Trials are under way with supermarkets, breweries and hotels.

One of the largest, the Riverbank Park Plaza hotel in London, fitted the device to each of the hotel's 140 major fridges and freezers. David Bell, chief engineer, says energy use decreased by about 30% on average - enough to slash the hotel's annual electricity bill by £17,000

http://www.integratedgreensolutions.com/ecube.htm

eCube: Energy Savings in Commercial Refrigeration

How Refrigeration Works

Refrigeration units work in a series of cycles. This is when the unit starts and stops to maintain the required storage temperature. Air cycles (on/off) typically produce a minimum of 12 cycles per hour and, in some open display cases, 20 cycles per hour.

Refrigeration units usually monitor circulating air temperature in order to decide when to switch on and off. However, circulating air temperature tends to rise quickly, far more quickly than food temperature and, as a result, refrigeration works harder than necessary to maintain stored products at the right temperature. This in turn leads to excessive electricity consumption and undue wear and tear on the equipment.
How the eCube Works

The eCube consists of a food stimulant contained in a double-skinned enclosure. The food simulant mimics food temperature at around 10mm below the surface. It is like having your thermostat regulating the temperature by the temperature of the yogurt, instead of the air temperature. Due to its specific design, the eCube ensures that refrigeration keeps food at the correct temperature.

When fitted to the thermostat sensor, which controls the compressor, the eCube significantly reduces the frequency of the refrigeration cycles as they are now based on food temperature rather than fluctuating air temperature.

By using the eCube as a cycle control mechanism, refrigeration cycles last longer but can be reduced by as much as 80%.

For example, a Dairy Case air cycles 3 minutes on, 2 minutes off = 12 cycles per hour. With an eCube fitted, the cycles change to 8 minutes on, 7 minutes off = 4 cycles per hour. This equates to a 66.7% reduction in starts.

As the start-up of a refrigerator compressor uses 3 times more power (i.e. start-up 12 amps, run 4 amps) considerable energy savings are achieved. In addition, the more efficient refrigeration cycle leads to a more efficient unit, which then leads to a colder storage area. Consequently, by re-adjusting the thermostat back to its normal temperature settings, there are further substantial energy savings, without compromising food safety and quality.

Method and apparatus for controlling refrigeration
US6976368

[ Excerpt ]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for controlling refrigeration apparatus. An example of the application of the invention is to a method and apparatus for controlling the operation of domestic and commercial food storage refrigeration apparatus including deep freeze apparatus. However, the invention also provides, as such, the apparatus which operates in accordance with the aforesaid method for controlling such refrigeration apparatus, and provides temperature sensing apparatus.

Further aspects of the invention relate to the use of the method and apparatus for the control of apparatus for raising the temperature of food and the like, for example microwave cooking apparatus. Further aspects of the invention relate to a method and apparatus for conducting thermal tests and calibration in relation to refrigeration and heating apparatus.

There is disclosed in WO 94/10546 (reference P51957WO) a method and apparatus applicable to temperature sensing in relation to refrigeration equipment in which provision is made for a means to enable visual inspection, of temperature sensing apparatus (for example a conventional bulb and meniscus column-type thermometer) which has been stored in a refrigerator and then removed for inspection, without the attendant inaccuracy of temperature measurement arising from immediate response of the thermometer to the raised air temperature outside the refrigerator or, if such inspection is effected without removal from the refrigerator, the effect of the ingress of external warm air into the refrigerator.

For this purpose, the apparatus of the WO 546 specification provides for the thermometer to be entirely encased within a transparent capsule containing ethylene glycol.

In this way the WO 546 apparatus seeks to offset the effect of sudden changes of air temperature on temperature sensing apparatus used in relation to refrigeration equipment.

In a similar way, the disclosure in DE 30 32 684 A1 provides for the use of a thermal barrier material to surround the temperature sensor in a refrigerator in order that the effect of opening the door of the refrigerator will be cushioned.

In the references cited against the WO 546 specification there are related disclosures concerning the use of thermal inertia and barrier systems for similar or related reasons.

We have discovered that the technical approach adopted in these prior proposals to the sensing of temperatures in refrigeration apparatus and to the control of such apparatus, is technically subject to significant shortcomings in terms of seeking to alleviate the symptoms of the mallaise (inaccurate temperature sensing) without looking to see what is the actual technical step needed for the purpose in terms of the real function of the temperature sensing system.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the principles of our discovery, the proper basis for evaluating the only temperature of interest within a refrigerator (namely the temperature of the food therein enclosed) is to, in essence, sample the food temperature therein. Now, while invasive food temperature sampling by use of inserted probes and the like is fraught with practical difficulties and liberally fenced-around with food hygiene regulations, (so that actual food internal temperature sensing becomes a practical impossibility), we have discovered that there is a practical alternative approach which is not foreshadowed in the prior art, and in accordance with this principle the proper approach to the sensing of such temperatures is by internal sensing within a simulated body of food. Thus, in accordance with this approach, the method and apparatus of the invention provides the means whereby temperature can effectively be sensed from within food stored within the refrigerator, or in the case of a heating system (such as a microwave oven) from within food being heated in such a heating appliance.

By adopting an approach in which, instead of seeking to damp out the effect of incoming warm air and providing instead the means to sense temperature from within the food itself, yet without the hygiene and related problems of invasive probes, there is provided a method and apparatus which has the capability of providing the user with that which he or she actually wants namely the temperature of the food in question.

This latter factor is of great relevance, we have discovered, since although (as the prior art teaches) the air temperature within a refrigerator or deep freeze rises rapidly when the door is opened, the actual effect of the air temperature on the stored food is often quite marginal and there can be a temperature difference between the air and the stored food of 10[deg.] C. or more while an unmodified air temperature sensing system in a refrigerator (as is conventionally provided in domestic appliances) will react relatively wildly to such fluctuations, and such is obviously undesirable for energy conservation reasons. Equally there is the converse situation where the approach has been taken that such over-reaction of the temperature control system is ineffective and wasteful, but it is equally true that mere damping of the system is not the effective answer either because damping merely lowers the amplitude of the reactive peaks of the system without addressing the underlying problem or question.

The method and apparatus of the embodiments of the present invention does address that underlying question and provides the means for addressing it in a repeatable and scientifically based manner which avoids the hygiene implications of invasive probes yet addresses the question to be answered directly without merely seeking to ameliorate the technical consequences of the problems which arise in practice with existing apparatus.

Thus in the embodiments of the present invention the temperature sensor is located within a body of food simulant and at a distance from the surface thereof which corresponds to an average stored food article size, with the result that the sensed temperature corresponds closely to that of an article of food located alongside the food-simulant article within the refrigerator.

Of course, in the case of a food article placed in the refrigerator a relatively short time previously, there will be the potential for temperature inaccuracy, but such temperature divergences are inherent in any temperature changing system of the refrigeration or heating kind, and the question to be addressed is how does the system respond (after newly-added articles have temperature-adjusted) to fluctuations caused by door-opening or automatic defrosting or the like?

An important aspect of the embodiments of the present invention concerns the nature of the food simulant material itself, and in the principal embodiments described below the food simulant simulates food by being a material adapted for repetitive use over a significant period (whereby repetitious unacceptable servicing replacement in a regularly used domestic article of this kind is avoided), but which is capable of simultaneously responding thermally in the manner of a foodstuff by being such a material itself. Thus, the embodiments of the present invention as described below provide an exact simulation of the thermal properties of a foodstuff by providing for the selective use of a such a material itself to model the thermal characteristics required to be sensed. In this manner the embodiments enable the apparatus and method to provide a signal which can be used either for controlling refrigeration apparatus or for indicating food temperature, or indeed both, so as accurately to reflect the thermal behaviour of an item of foodstuff place alongside the temperature-sensing and food-simulating article. Actual examples of the materials to be employed are described below. These materials are usually in gel or wax-like format and thus require suitable encasement for practical handling in the refrigeration and/or heating appliance environment. Accordingly, the food simulant material is provided with a casing which typically may comprise a plastic moulding corresponding in size to a typical food article for refrigerational storage in the envisaged use environment, and which may additionally be provided with one or more further layers of material to simulate the thermal effects of packaging which is conventionally employed in relation to articles stored in refrigerators or deep freezers. This latter aspect of the thermal characteristics of the simulated article of food may be incorporated into the overall thermal package without the need for providing specific physical counterparts of the packaging as such. For example, the effect of such packaging might be reasonably closely approximated to by adopting a somewhat larger size for the overall simulated food article. However, such an approach is not strictly in accordance with the principles of some of the embodiments of the present invention, for which the approach is to adopt, for temperature sensing purposes, a simulated food article of a size corresponding to a typical stored food article and having within it not only simulated food with the temperature sensing device therein, but also simulated packaging to correspond with the conventional packaging, but not of course overlooking the requirement for durability in terms of the intended use of the device within the refrigeration or other apparatus over a period of years.

In relation to the temperature sensing devices used in the embodiments of the invention themselves, conventional hardware may be employed and such will usually be in the form of electrically-responsive thermosensor means as employed in known refrigeration apparatus. From such a thermosensor, the output emf may be fed to the control port or input gate of the refrigeration apparatus control system and/or the corresponding connection of a digital or analogue thermal readout.

Thus, using presently available technology, there will usually be a requirement for a hard-wired connection to the thermal sensing device within the food-simulating article and for this purpose suitable convenient and durable means may be provided. For example, in the case where the method and apparatus is employed for the control of the temperature of a refrigerator or deep freeze various approaches may be adopted to the positioning of the sensing article. In one approach the article may be a single article and chosen for placement within the refrigeration cabinet at a suitable location corresponding reasonably closely with that of the food article which will be most likely to affected by the thermal change (such as door opening) with which the system is intended to cope. Alternatively, a series of food-simulating articles may be provided within the thermal cabinet for placement amongst the food articles and with suitable hard-wiring connections, for example disconnectable plug-in connectors, though such is not deemed to be commercially attractive practical option for conventional domestic use, despite the fact that the hard wiring transmits voltages only of the order of millivolts. Alternative technical solutions to the signal transmission question may be evolved including wireless transmission or other transmission systems not requiring the physical use of hard wiring loose connectors. One option might be to provide a series of food-simulating articles plugged into the cabinet of the apparatus at suitable locations and from which the signals would be monitored and evaluated on an overall assessment basis.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the use of the food-simulating article and the contained thermal sensor therein in relation to a method for controlling the operation of refrigeration or deep freeze apparatus so as to achieve significant energy savings in relation to power consumption for driving the pump of conventional refrigeration apparatus. In accordance with this aspect of the invention the control method and apparatus are adapted to provide a degree of control of the refrigerant pump (or other driveable thermal transfer apparatus) such that the extent of operation of the pump matches to a close approximation that which is actually required to produce the desired level of refrigeration of the food, avoiding the peaks and troughs associated with conventional control systems which sense air temperature only and the corresponding thermally damped peaks and troughs of the prior art apparatus discussed above. Thus, these embodiments of the invention provide improved refrigeration unit response pattern (in terms of pump drive periods and/or formal heat transfer quantum per unit time). This result is achieved by providing in accordance with the principles of the invention a refrigerant drive system control signal which is generated on the basis of a food-originating temperature-dependent control signal. This has the result that the power consumption of the refrigerant system matches the actual requirements of the apparatus and its enclosing cabinet instead of being related to relatively irrelevant factors such as the air temperature in the cabinet and/or a perceived requirement to damp the responsiveness of the control system. In this manner there are achieved significant energy savings which tests have indicated will frequently amount to as much as 33% of overall consumption.

Accordingly, the embodiments of this aspect of the invention provide method and apparatus whereby energy conservation is achieved by driving the heat-transfer refrigeration apparatus in accordance with control signals derived from a sensor system providing control based upon signals effectively emanating from the very food within the temperature control cabinet which is to be temperature controlled, such signals being based upon a food simulant, which may indeed be a foodstuff itself, approximating in physical characteristics (including size and heat transfer properties) to an average or typical foodstuff to be stored. In this way there is provided a system in which the power consumption characteristics are based upon a model closely approximating to that which heat transfer theory would devise to conform with the objective of minimisation of fuel consumption for actual food refrigeration purposes.

CA2696059
THE CHILL BILL

Inventor(s):     PHILLIPS MELANEY [CA] +

A thermal sensor located in the centre of a food simulant composition encased in a polycarbonate storage device linked to a remote measuring indicating and/or regulating device. The temperature of the food simulant changes in the same way as food stored in its vicinity and is unaffected by the movement of the ambient air which varies in temperature dramatically. This allows an accurate reading and recording of stored food temperature and the regulation of the temperature within an enclosed refrigerated space by a thermostat. Its uses are mainly for frozen, chilled and refrigerated food, but can extend to any refrigerated item that is concerned with staying at a constant temperature by desire or necessity. The important byproduct of this food safety devise is that it will decrease the amount of electrical energy used by the enclosed refrigeration unit by decreasing the average number of times the compressor/motor starts and stops due to an increase in ambient air temperature when the sealed unit is opened.

Anti-Semitic Light Polarizer

via www.keelynet.com (11/14/06 )
http://www.igeawagu.com/de/index/magnetenergie/1161189967.html

Nano Swastikas rotate Light

The geometric arrangement of lines most commonly known as the swastika, has found a new application in photonics.

Researchers at Southampton University have produced tens of thousands of gold swastika’s on a square millimetre to form new optical “metamaterials” that can artificially change the polarisation state of light.

The swastika has number of special features, it is entirely made up of vertical and horizontal straight lines, it is square and yet can still provide the feeling of left-handed or right-handed rotation known as chirality.

Dr Bagnall of Electronics and Computer Science at Southampton University says, “when we started to consider which chiral geometries would be most suitable for our experiments it was impossible for us to ignore the swastika, it's squareness equates to an absence of optical birefringence at normal incidence, and the straight horizontal and vertical lines can be readily drawn at nanolength scales using electron beam lithography.”

The team at Southampton have found that the interaction between light and their two dimensional chiral metamaterials, can cause changes in the polarization state that were only previously observed as a result of interactions with three dimensional materials. The group are continuing to experiment with the wide range of chiral geometries,

“Triskella (such as the symbol that represents the Isle of man), spirals and some chiral fractals can gain us additional functionality, and while we are still at an early stage in our experiments we can already anticipate applications in optoelectronics, laser physics and optical communications”, says Dr Bagnall.

This is especially true, as technologists are increasingly using the polarization state as a means of carrying information in applications such as quantum cryptography…

Vicki COLVIN, et al. : Nano-Rust Water Purification

via www.keelynet.com (11/11/06 )
http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/dn10496-cooking-up-nanorust-could-purify-water.html

Nanorust could purify water

A new recipe for "nanorust" could give developing nations a cheap tool for removing arsenic from drinking water. Arsenic contamination is linked to bladder cancer and is a big problem in many places, especially in Bangladesh and the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal.

Chemists know that arsenic binds particularly well to iron oxides, including rust, but practical techniques for doing this have been slow and laborious.

Vicki Colvin and colleagues at Rice University in Houston, Texas, realised that the efficiency of this process could be improved by reducing the size of the iron oxide particles employed. This is because a given weight of smaller particles has more surface area available for binding than the same weight of larger particles.

"One kilogram of nanorust has the same surface area as a football field," says Colvin. "Basically, you can treat a whole lot more arsenic with less material."

The team added nanoscale iron oxide to contaminated water, where it clumped together with the arsenic. They then magnetised the nanoparticles with an electromagnet and pulled them out.

"We only needed a surprisingly weak magnetic field," says Colvin. "In fact, we could pull then out with just a hand-held magnet, making this a very practical method."

They believe that only a small field was needed because the magnetised nanoparticles line up to form a single giant magnet and drag each other along.

US7938969
Magnetic Purification of a Sample

Methods for separating magnetic nanoparticles are provided. In certain embodiments, a method is provided for separating magnetic nanoparticles comprising: providing a sample comprising a plurality of magnetic nanoparticles; passing the sample through a first magnetic field; at least partially isolating nanoparticles of the first nanoparticle size desired; altering the strength of the first magnetic field to produce a second magnetic field; and at least partially isolating nanoparticles of the second nanoparticle size desired.

WO2008136855
METAL OXIDE NANOCRYSTAL COMPOSITION AND METHODS

Improved methods of making magnetic nanocrystals are provided. According to certain embodiments, a method of making magnetic nanocrystals is provided, the method comprising: providing a metal component comprising at least one metal component selected from the group consisting of: a metal oxide; a metal hydroxide; a metal hydrate; and any combination thereof; providing an oil comprising a free acid; and reacting the metal component and the oil comprising a free acid at a temperature sufficient to form metal oxide nanocrystals.

Thomas ROSS : Twin-Gear Bicycle

http://www.keelynet.com/indexnov1107.htm ( 11/20/07 )
http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=68361

Three sprocket bike, half a turn for half a block

Chicago First Black Inventors Entrepreneurs now has 127 members in 21 states. The organization is black-run and based in Chicago, but Flowers said that should not deter inventors of all stripes from contacting them. “We target people with limited resources,” said Daniels, who is now secretary of the company. Inventors have been vocally responsive, often calling the organization a godsend. At any given time, they have 100 patents or patents pending that members would likely not have pursued if they had been working alone. Thomas Ross invented a bike with three sprockets, making one half-turn of the pedal sufficient to power the bike for a half a city block.

Twin gear drive assembly for a bicycle
US5577749

A twin gear drive assembly for a bicycle comprising a front gear assembly with a plurality of gears for driving the rear gear; for driving the frontal wheel with an associated front derailleur; an intermediate gear with a shaft coupled to the front gear for concurrent rotation; a drive gear or the frame beneath the front gear assembly with pedals for the rotation thereof with a chain retainer for the drive gear; a lower gear with a larger number of teeth located beneath the drive gear of the second assembly with an associated chain coupling the upper and lower gears of the supplemental gear assembly and pebbles secured to the lower gear of the second assembly for rotating the lower gear directly, the upper gear through the second chain and the first driven gear through the axle therebetween; first control means for controlling the derailleur of the first gear assembly and a second control assembly for controlling the chain in its position with regard to the gears of the second assembly at the discretion of the operator.

Alan LEVINE, et al. : Tire Recycling

http://www.keelynet.com/indexnov1107.htm
http://www.kxmc.com/News/180264.asp

Tire Recycling Could Be Big Breakthrough

A Berthold-area farmer and his crew are ready to take their invention into production.

Their invention feeds discarded rubber tires into one end, and spits energy out the other end - in a process that the inventors say recovers almost every bit of energy expended to produce the tires.

What's the big attraction? It seems Delta Energy has answered a question that scientists have been trying to answer for decades.

What they've accomplished is a system to take one of the world's biggest pollution problems - discarded tires - some 300-million of them each year - and turn them into usable fuel.

Alan Lee of Delta Energy say, "Each tire produces about 2.8, or the equivalent of 2.8 gallons of oil."

Lee says 99 percent of the original tire is turned into something useful, from natural gas to diesel fuel to carbon that can be reused in the rubber and plastics industry.

"It's energy friendly because we're returning fuel."

But it's not a process that was arrived at easily - this gadget - Lee says it doesn't really have a name - they call it "the reactor" - was five years in the making - with many bumps along the road.

Lee and Erickson say they're very close to getting the major financial support from a big-name company they need to spread out this technology across the nation.

It's a technology that was made possible by a secret chemical compound that unlocked the door that was keeping rubber recycling from being clean and profitable.

Duane Erickson of Delta Energy says, "That's our magic powder."

US8512643
Method of Devolatilizing Recycled Carbon Black and Associated Apparatus

Inventor(s):  STEINMEYER DANIEL / LEVINE ALAN /  ERICKSON DUANE

A method for controlling volatiles in recycled carbon black, such as from pyrolysis of tires, includes deagglomerating the recycled carbon black to substantially reduce the carbon black particle size and impinging an air current on the carbon black particles, preferably in a countercurrent direction, to increase the processing temperature and thereby enhance the release of volatiles. Associated apparatus is disclosed.

Ganapathiraman RAMANATH, et al. : Nano-Glue

http://www.physorg.com/news98540556.html

Inexpensive 'nanoglue' can bond nearly anything together

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a new method to bond materials that don’t normally stick together. The team’s adhesive, which is based on self-assembling nanoscale chains, could impact everything from next-generation computer chip manufacturing to energy production.

Less than a nanometer – or one billionth of a meter – thick, the nanoglue is inexpensive to make and can withstand temperatures far higher than what was previously envisioned. In fact, the adhesive’s molecular bonds strengthen when exposed to heat.

The glue material is already commercially available, but the research team’s method of treating the glue to dramatically enhance its “stickiness” and heat resistance is completely new. The project, led by Rensselaer materials science and engineering professor Ganapathiraman Ramanath, is featured in the May 17 issue of the journal Nature.

Like many key scientific discoveries, Ramanath and his team happened upon the novel, heat-hardened nanoglue by accident.

For years Ramanath has investigated ways of assembling layers of molecular chains between two different materials to enhance the structural integrity, efficiency, and reliability of semiconductor devices in computer chips. His team has shown that molecular chains with a carbon backbone – ending with appropriate elements such as silicon, oxygen, or sulfur – can improve adhesion and prevent heat-triggered mixing of atoms of the adjoining substances. Recently, Ramanath’s group and other researchers have found these nanolayers to be useful for creating adhesives, lubricants, and protective surface coatings.

The nanolayers, however, are extremely susceptible to heat and begin to degrade or simply detach from a surface when exposed to temperatures above 400 degrees Celsius. This severe limitation has precluded more widespread use of the nanolayers.

Ramanath’s team decided to sandwich a nanolayer between a thin film of copper and silica, thinking the extra support would help strengthen the nanolayer’s bonds and boost its adhesive properties. It proved to be an insightful venture, and the research team found more than it bargained for.

When exposed to heat, the middle layer of the “nanosandwich” did not break down or fall off – as it had nowhere to go. But that was not the only good news. The nanolayer’s bonds grew stronger and more adhesive when exposed to temperatures above 400 degrees Celsius. Constrained between the copper and silica, the nanolayer’s molecules hooked onto an adjoining surface with unexpectedly strong chemical bonds.

“The higher you heat it, the stronger the bonds are,” Ramanath said. “When we first started out, I had not imagined the molecules behaving this way.”

To make sure it wasn’t a fluke, his team recreated the test more than 50 times over the past two years. The results have been consistent, and show heating up the sandwiched nanolayer increases its interface toughness – or “stickiness” – by five to seven times. Similar toughness has been demonstrated using micrometer-thick layers, but never before with a nanometer-thick layer. A nanometer is 1,000 times smaller than a micrometer.

Because of their small size, these enhanced nanolayers will likely be useful as adhesives in a wide assortment of micro- and nanoelectronic devices where thicker adhesive layers just won’t fit.

Another unprecedented aspect of Ramanath’s discovery is that the sandwiched nanolayers continue to strengthen up to temperatures as high as 700 degrees Celsius. The ability of these adhesive nanolayers to withstand and grow stronger with heat could have novel industrial uses, such as holding paint on hot surfaces like the inside of a jet engine or a huge power plant turbine.

Along with nanoscale and high heat situations, Ramanath is confident the new nanoglue will have other unforeseen uses.

“This could be a versatile and inexpensive solution to connect any two materials that don’t bond well with each other,” Ramanath said. “Although the concept is not intuitive at first, it is simple, and could be implemented for a wide variety of potential commercial applications.

“The molecular glue is inexpensive – 100 grams cost about $35 – and already commercially available, which makes our method well-suited to today’s marketplace. Our method can definitely be scaled up to meet the low-cost demands of a large manufacturer,” he said. Ramanath and his team have filed a disclosure on their findings and are moving forward toward a patent, which will complement the robust portfolio of other intellectual property they hold in this field. The team is also exploring what happens when certain variables of the nanoglue are tweaked, such as making taller nanolayers or sandwiching the layers between substances other than copper and silica. Along with Ramanath, Rensselaer materials science and engineering graduate students Darshan Gandhi and Amit Singh contributed to the paper. Other co-authors include Rensselaer physics professor Saroj Nayak and graduate student Yu Zhou, IBM researcher Michael Lane at the T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., and Ulrike Tisch and Moshe Eizenberg of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Ramanath’s ongoing research is supported by the National Science Foundation, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, and New York state through the Interconnect Focus Center. LaVerne Hess, the NSF program official most familiar with Ramanath’s work, applauded the interdisciplinary nature and strong technical relevance of the nanoglue project. “It’s a good example of basic materials science research motivated by an understanding of engineering needs in the electronics field, and involving fundamental chemistry concepts to create new materials capabilities to enable progress in a field important to U.S. competitiveness,” Hess said. US2010159236 INTERFACIAL STRENGTHENING AND TOUGHENING USING A MOLECULAR NANOLAYER An article includes a first surface, a second surface, and a molecular nanolayer located at an interface between the first and the second surface, where an interface toughness is a higher than 20 J m-2. Just another old breakthrough ... Nothing to see here, folks, keep moving, don't read this ... Fresnel Lens Solar Panels http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2518 August 24, 2007 IAUS Believes New Breakthrough Solar Panel Can Change the World SALEM, Utah--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Following a successful high-volume run of its new breakthrough solar panels, International Automated Systems, Inc. (OTCBB:IAUS) has been conducting tests to identify the parameters of its new product. The new panels have delivered an exciting performance that is in line with preliminary expectations. IAUS’s unique thin-film solar panels have a solar insolence transmittance efficiency of nearly 92%- virtually the highest transmittance physically possible of any material. These breakthrough solar panels have shown a conversion of solar energy from the sun into temperatures of over 1,300 degrees F. Initial IAUS data has demonstrated that IAUS’s new solar panels focus as high as 30% more solar energy onto its receiver than traditional solar power trough systems typically achieve. Recent advancements will likely increase this number again to more than 50%. IAUS’s solar panels have an estimated life-span of greater than fifty years when properly maintained, and are inexpensive to replace. IAUS’s unique thin-film solar panel can be produced at a fraction of the cost of today’s traditional photovoltaic solar panels. IAUS believes its new product is the first solar power technology with legitimate potential to compete with gas and other fossil fuels. Low-cost energy produced by IAUS’s new patented and patent-pending solar technology can be used to generate electricity or produce clean fuels such as hydrogen and green methanol (gasoline replacements) at a competitive price. Many experts had predicted that no solar power technology would likely accomplish this milestone before the year 2025. During its first high-volume run, nearly 1,000 Kilowatts of IAUS’s solar panels were manufactured in a short 24-hour period. On a 24/7 operating schedule, an estimated 350 Megawatts of IAUS panels can be produced annually. In comparison, a traditional photovoltaic (PV) solar module manufacturing plant with a yearly capacity equal to IAUS would cost an estimated$840 Million to construct.

http://www.iaus.com/home.html

Solar Panels- IAUS’s panel fabrication is a unique, patented, molding process never-before done with a radial Fresnel lens. This process allows for inexpensive, high-volume, mass production that can be expanded for ultra-high volumes in a comparatively short amount of time.

These thin solar panels focus the sun’s energy to a small, high-temperature point. The energy generated can be used for both electricity production and thermal heat for manufacturing, water purification, chemical refinement, and other heat-based processes.

Neldon JOHNSON : Flash-Steam Bladeless Turbine

Coal-fired steam plant turbines are costly, high maintenance, large, difficult to manufacture, extremely temperamental, and dangerous. IAUS’s patented, bladeless turbine has none of these issues. While maintaining similar efficiencies as today’s expensive steam turbines, IAUS’s turbine is small, low-cost, scalable, and operates minus most of the expensive surrounding components and maintenance issues.

Traditional turbine performance relies upon the environment within its blade chambers. Super-heated, high-velocity steam particles are continuously striking the titanium turbine blades to turn the shaft. If steam condenses on the blades, a sharp drop in efficiency and damage to the turbine can result. Traditional multi-stage turbines require dry, high-quality steam.

IAUS’s new turbine is structurally unaffected by low quality steam. It blows the energy away from its components instead of on them to turn the shaft. As mentioned, it is smaller than traditional turbines, less expensive, and requires very little maintenance, and because of its low-pressure working chamber, it is much less dangerous. Also, unlike traditional turbines, IAUS’s turbine can operate without corrosion or system failure on both high quality and low quality steam. It has bi-phase flow capability.

IAUS Turbine Eliminates Need for Boiler

IAUS’s proprietary turbine steam cycle does not need an expensive, sophisticated, high-maintenance boiler. Instead IAUS’s turbine operates on high-pressure, super heated water (supercritical fluid) from a series of high-pressure tubing, which is much safer, less expensive and easier to manage. The expansion or phase change (flashing) from water to steam happens right in the working chamber of IAUS’s turbine. This makes the Balance of Plant (BOP) steam production, and monitoring equipment less complicated. These are significant advantages over traditional boiler systems required by conventional turbines.

Modular

IAUS’s turbine can be custom designed for smaller to medium size applications. This allows for staging power in and out, and inexpensively segmenting a power plant into smaller sectors which improves issues of downtime while offering low-cost redundancy in on-site equipment.

PRESSURIZED GAS TURBINE ENGINE
US6533539

A pressurized gas turbine engine is disclosed which utilizes a new turbine design. Pressurized gas is supplied by nozzle gas ways in the turbine to gas nozzles affixed to the perimeter of the turbine. The gas nozzles may be recessed in the turbine perimeter or extend from the turbine perimeter. The gas nozzles may be equipped with gas exit cones to enhance the efficiency of the nozzles. The axis of the nozzles have an oblique angle with the direction of rotation of the turbine. Pressurized gas is supplied to the nozzle gas ways through one or more shaft gas ways in the turbine shaft, or is supplied through engine gas ports in the front wall of the turbine engine to gas supply zones which are hydraulically separated by seal rings on the front face of the turbine, each gas supply zone being hydraulically connected to one or more nozzle gas ways.

Pressurized gas turbine engine with electrothermodynamic enhancement
US6783320

Pressurized gas turbine engine with efficiency enhanced by an electrothermodynamic power convertor. The turbine has peripheral nozzles which are supplied with pressurized gas or pressurized liquid by internal nozzle gas ways. Pressurized liquid is flashed by the nozzles. The electrothermodynamic power convertor has a collector plate which envelopes the turbine engine expansion chamber and a charged screen which is positioned radially between the gas nozzles and the collector plate. Collector plate insulation is affixed between the collector plate and the walls of the expansion chamber.

Tesla Turbine Redux :

Frank GERMANO, et al : Bladeless Turbine

US2013213039

The bladeless turbine includes a case, three or more turbine discs disposed within the case. Each turbine disc has a center opening, and two or more of the turbine discs have a set of exhaust ports positioned annularly around the center opening. A drive shaft passes through the center openings of the turbine discs and is attached to the three or more turbine discs, wherein the drive shaft is positioned within the case along the centerline, free to rotate within the case, and extends through the case for connection to a generator. The one or more fluid/vapor inlets are attached to the main housing such that a fluid/vapor is directed at a specified angle onto the three or more turbine discs. The fluid/vapor outlet is aligned with the centerline. A set of exhaust holes proximate to and connected to the fluid/vapor outlet that are positioned annularly around the drive shaft.

Still waiting in the nano-now ...

http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1168067
2/25/2008

Nanoparticles could make hydrogen cheaper than gasoline

R. Colin Johnson

PORTLAND, Ore. — The hydrogen economy is getting a shot in the arm from a start-up that says its nanoparticle coatings could make hydrogen easy to produce at home from distilled water, and ultimately bring the cost of hydrogen fuel cells in line with that of fossil fuels.

QuantumSphere Inc. says it has perfected the manufacture of highly reactive catalytic nanoparticle coatings that could up the efficiency of electrolysis, the technique that generates hydrogen from water. Moreover, the coatings could also eliminate the need for expensive metals like platinum in hydrogen fuel cells.

Boasting 1,000 times the surface area of traditional materials, the coatings can be used to retrofit existing electrolysers to increase their efficiency to 85 percent -- exceeding the Department of Energy's goal for 2010 by 10 percent. The scheme holds the promise of 96 percent efficiency by the time cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells hit automobile showrooms, according to the Santa Ana, Calif., company.

"Instead of switching 170,000 gas stations over to hydrogen, using our electrodes could enable consumers to make their own hydrogen, either in the garage or right on the vehicle," said Kevin Maloney, president, chief executive officer and co-founder of QuantumSphere. "Our nanoparticle-coated electrodes make electrolysers efficient enough to provide hydrogen on demand from a tank of distilled water in your car."

The first commercial product inspired by QuantumSphere's technology will debut later this year: a battery using a cathode coated with the startup's nanoparticles, thereby increasing its energy density 5x over alkaline cells and boosting power by 320 percent. The first commercial nonrechargeable batteries with this increased capacity will be announced by an as-yet-unnamed major U.S. battery maker in the second half of 2008.

QuantumSphere also claims to be able to improve rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride batteries to the point where they perform better than the less environmentally friendly lithium-ion batteries popular today.

QuantumSphere's plan is first to retrofit existing electrolysis equipment with its nanoparticle electrodes to boost efficiency. Next, it intends to partner with original equipment manufacturers to design at-home and on-vehicle electrolysers for making hydrogen from water for fuel cells. Finally, the company wants to work with fuel cell makers to replace their expensive platinum electrodes with inexpensive stainless-steel electrodes coated with nickel-iron nanoparticles.

QuantumSphere's nanoparticles are available in four formulations: nickel cobalt, iron cobalt, nickel iron and silver copper. According to the Freedonia Group Inc. (Cleveland), the nanoparticles can be sold directly into the catalyst metals market, which it predicts will edge up to $4.7 billion this year. QuantumSphere is also expected to have an impact on the battery market, which Freedonia estimates will grow to more than$5 billion by 2009. Portable fuel cells and direct hydrogen generation are markets that are growing even faster, with fuel cells estimated to top $11 billion by 2013, according to Wintergreen Research Inc. (Lexington, Mass.), and hydrogen generation to exceed$15 billion by 2016, according to Clean Edge Inc. (Portland, Ore.).

QuantumSphere was founded in 2002 with just 100,000 of private funding and still has not taken in any venture capital, although it did have a public funding round last year. The company's founding goal was to create a thimble full of the nanoparticles it invented. But now, just over five years later, it claims to have surpassed its original goal with a manufacturing plant capable of producing tons of nanoparticles per year. QuantumSphere claims its current manufacturing capacity is enough for both the battery and electrolysis markets. With an eye on future growth, however, the company has partnered with the OM Group Inc. (Cleveland) for mass-producing nanoparticles when QuantumSphere can no longer meet demand. After perfecting the original invention, for which QuantumSphere was awarded a patent last year, the company hired an engineering team to adapt the nanoparticles for particular applications. Leading that team was director of fuel cell research Kimberly McGrath, a protg of George Olah, the 1994 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry. Olah, inventor of the direct liquid-methanol fuel cell, serves as a scientific adviser to QuantumSphere. "We have formulated a nanoparticle coating that has a very high surface area, enabling inexpensive coated stainless-steel electrodes to exceed the performance of the expensive platinum electrodes used today," said McGrath. "We start with raw material that covers about the size of a sheet of paper, but after converting into nanoparticles, it covers a soccer field." The nanoparticles are perfect spheres, consisting of a couple hundred atoms measuring from 16 to 25 nanometers in diameter. They are formed by means of a vacuum-deposition process that uses vapor condensation to produce highly reactive catalytic nanoparticles, for which the engineering team has formulated several end-use applications. "Our biggest engineering challenge was finding a way to get the nanoparticles to stick to metal electrodes," McGrath said. The company has solved that problem, she said, "enabling existing electrolysis equipment to realize a 30 percent increase in hydrogen output just by retrofitting our coated electrodes." QuantumSphere projects that the efficiency of electrolysis using its nanoparticle-coated electrodes, now at 85 percent, can be increased to 96 percent by the time hydrogen fuel cell automobiles are in wide use. Adjusting for rising gasoline prices, QuantumSphere projects that performing electrolysis at home to power hydrogen fuel cells will then be less expensive than burning fossil fuels. The company has also made progress in its quest to eliminate the need for expensive platinum electrodes inside the fuel cell itself, claiming that today it can replace half a fuel cell's platinum with nanoparticle-coated stainless steel. QuantumSphere hopes to demonstrate fuel cells with no platinum at all in the coming years. US7282167 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING NANO-PARTICLES Inventor: CARPENTER DOUGLAs Applicant: QUANTUMSPHERE INC [US] US7897294 NANO-MATERIAL CATALYST DEVICE MICROLON ENGINE METAL TREATMENT http://www.keelynet.com/indexfeb208.htm http://www.prweb.com/releases/2008/2/prweb715793.htm The Best Kept Secret in Engine Protection Has Just Been Leaked Up and coming site http://www.gas-miser.com offers a rare and effective engine metal treatment that can provide vast improvements to a variety of vehicles. A revolutionary engine product is becoming more available to the public thanks to http://www.gas-miser.com. For years, specialized mechanics in the aircraft, racing and transport industries have been using a product called Microlon to increase their engine's performance and life. This remarkable invention helps reduce friction in all functions of the engine, making it more efficient and causing less overall wear. This promotes a list of benefits, like increased gas mileage, more horsepower and longer engine life. It's important to distinguish this treatment from oil or fuel additives. Microlon engine metal treatment gives more effective friction reduction than any lubricant on the market today, yet it works in conjunction with conventional lube to give optimal performance and protection. The treatment is so effective, it lasts the entire life of an engine and never wears out. In addition to improved gas mileage and horsepower, the more efficient engine will have reduced exhaust emissions, thus protecting the environment. In fact, studies show that engines treated with Microlon have reduced hydrocarbon emissions by 24 percent, carbon monoxide by 43 percent and nitrous oxide by 21 percent. An independent study by Porsche revealed that the treatment increased fuel economy by almost 10 percent. By that measure, the savings that a customer will experience will pay for the product in the first year alone. A motorcycle company reported an 11 percent increase in horsepower in one of their main models. Many other tests results show astonishing improvements in other factors of engine performance, all of which are available on the website. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, only 12 percent of the energy from the gasoline burned in an automobile engine goes to moving the tires; the remaining energy gets wasted in various ways. By far, the largest waste is due to engine friction, constituting 62 percent of the initial energy supply. Much of this friction is due to metal-on-metal contact. By adding Microlon, high quality resins embed themselves into the metal, making the surface contact points very slippery, thus allowing more energy to affect the drive train. Clearly, the benefits of this technology are extensive, and they apply to diesel and gas engines, aircraft, boat and snowmobile engines. On top of the performance benefits, the one-time use is only about twice as expensive as a regular oil change, and most consumers can do the installation themselves. To further entice its interested parties, the site is now offering Microlon at a 10 percent discount from the factory direct price, as well as free shipping on all orders. Visit http://www.gas-miser.com to get more information about engine protection with this revolutionary product. Contact: Doug Kelly Douglas Kelly and Associates, Inc. 417-882-3905 engineguy @ gas-miser.com http://www.gas-miser.com PERMANENTLY INCREASE YOUR GAS MILEAGE WITH MICROLON® ENGINE METAL TREATMENT .ONLY ONE TREATMENT LASTS THE LIFE OF YOUR ENGINE. Microlon Saves You Money By Permanently Reducing Energy Wasting Friction in your Engine. What every car and truck owner ought to know … that most mechanics don’t. Microlon Engine Treatment will increase your gas mileage up to 8 MPG, and increase your horsepower by up to 12%. Microlon Is Not An Oil Additive, It Is a Metal Treatment. Microlon is a Scientifically Advanced Metal Technology used By Aircraft and Race Car Mechanics, Fleet Mechanics, and even Metal Tooling, for More Than 30 Years ... Because It Works. The FAA has approved Microlon Since 1978, For Use In Aircraft Engines. Microlon was awarded the “Medaille De Vermeil” at the “Salon International des Techniques Nouvelles” in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1978, for being the first among its class of new product innovations. This was only the 7th time in 100 years the award has been made. It hasn’t been made since http://www.microlon.com/about_microlon.php About Us Microlon's first product, known then as WZ-127, was created in 1964 by Bill Williams, inventor of the Microlon Metal Treatment. At that time Mr. Williams was working as a gunsmith on weapons and sold modified .223 caliber ammunition to be used in .17 rifles. This bullet, which used a huge charge of powder, created a tremendous amount of heat due to friction where the bullet came in contact with the rifling of the barrel. This friction caused a considerable amount of wear and ruined new barrels after only a few hundred rounds. To solve this problem, he developed a liquid that combined a cleaning complex with a durable anti-friction resin. The compound was held in a powerful suspension agent to ensure even distribution down the length of the barrel. He garnered immediate success with this product as it extended the life of the .17 caliber barrels used in testing. Soon, he began to realize the potential of other applications. Viewing the gun barrel as a single-stroke engine, where the bullet acted as a piston and the inside of the barrel acted as a cylinder wall, he began developing and testing a formula that would treat automotive engines. In 1978 he entered this invention and won the coveted first place medal "Medaille de Vermeil" at the SALON INTERNATIONAL DES INVENTIONS DE GENEVE in Geneva, Switzerland. This noted win still stands unchallenged today! In 1979 he developed the CL-100 Aircraft Formulation for aircrafts and after exhaustive testing by the FAA was granted certification for usage. Over the years, Microlon has grown in reputation as the best one-time metal treatment to use for lubricating and reducing friction in everything from jet engines, machinery, car engines, firearms, bicycle chains to pocket knives. Today distribution is both national and international. The focus of the business remains the same today as it was 40 years ago; offer the finest products possible utilizing state-of-the-art treatment technology. Microlon believes in great customer service, old-fashioned hard work and continues to expand and improve their product lines through constant research and development. FAQ WHY SHOULD I USE MICROLON? Microlon works by reducing friction inside of your engine and helps it to operate more efficiently. An engine that has been Microlon-treated will save you real dollars by reducing wear and tear, increasing fuel economy, and cutting down on trips to the shop for unscheduled maintenance. An engine that operates more efficiently will feel more powerful. Since Microlon is a one-time treatment, you can enjoy the benefits of a smoother, WHY ISN'T MICROLON A MORE FAMOUS BRAND NAME? For over 40 years, Microlon has been successfully selling treatment products by word-of-mouth advertising from enthusiastic customers. Unlike the majority of our competitors, Microlon is a family-owned business and does not have the huge corporation funding needed to pay for advertising campaigns. However,from this grass-roots growth within the enthusiast and car buff communities, Microlon has become known as the only one-time metal treatment to use. About 20 years ago we expanded into the International market though KYOWA Developing and Materials, Inc., a distributor in Japan, where the Microlon brand has become a well-known household name. WHAT ABOUT OTHER PRODUCTS THAT MAKE SIMILAR CLAIMS? Microlon has been in business since 1964 and we have seen dozens of similar products come and go. Most of the other products are oils or oil treatments while Microlon is a one-time metal treatment. Microlon can be used to treat the top end of the engine through the fuel and the rest of the engine through the crankcase. Microlon CL-100 has been accepted for use in aircraft engines up to 1000 C.I.D. since May 1979. Microlon was entered into an invention competition and won the gold Medaille de Vermeille in Geneva in 1978. No one has been able to duplicate the formulation or its effects since it was invented in 1964. WILL MICROLON STOP AN ENGINE FROM BURNING OIL? Microlon will reduce oil consumption if the problem is caused by sticking rings. Rings stick if deposits of carbon and varnish form on the rings or ring grooves. These deposits slow down or stop normal ring action. The cleaning complex in Microlon attacks the bad deposits and leaves behind the Microlon film which helps your engine run smoothly and efficiently. DO I USE MICROLON ON EVERY OIL CHANGE? NO! Microlon is a ONE-TIME treatment of the metal inside of your engine,not an EVERY TIME treatment to the oil. Using Microlon treatment is a one time investment in the life of your car. DOES THE OIL HAVE TO BE CHANGED BEFORE TREATMENT? Due to the tremendous cleansing action of Microlon, deposits of carbon and varnish are put into suspension in the lubrication system. These by-products of imperfect combustion may put a burden on the filtering system. So it is advisable, especially in older engines, to change the oil before treating your engine with Microlon. HOW MUCH MICROLON DOES MY ENGINE NEED? Microlon treats the metal in your engine not the oil. Engines have various cubic inch displacement. Microlon treats each engine according to the total amount of surfaces that need friction reduction, different amounts of metal and different Microlon needs. Microlon engine treatments have two parts. The 4 ounce Fuel System treatment goes in with the fuel. Most of the Microlon liquid used to treat an engine goes into the crankcase. The chart below will help you get the right amount of Microlon for your car's engine. Diesel engines have different requirements. Please call (512) 295-9895 for diesel specifications. WHY DOES A DIESEL ENGINE REQUIRE ADDITIONAL PRODUCT? The Microlon resin is driven deeper into the pore structure of the metal by the higher compression found in diesel engines. Since the benefits of the Microlon film come from Microlon-to-Microlon contact inside of the engine, more product is required to adequately form the film. It is the Microlon film on the surface of the metal that protects the engine from wear. Turbo-charged and Super turbo-charged diesel engines have even higher than normal compression and require more Microlon liquid than an average diesel engine. HOW LONG DO I LEAVE MICROLON IN BEFORE CHANGING MY OIL? The Microlon film forms within 1,000 miles (1,600 km) in automobiles. This time is needed for the Microlon resin to get burnished into the pore structure of the metal and form the protective micro-thin film. At this point, you should check your oil. If the Microlon cleaning complex has removed deposits from your engine, the oil will be dirty and should be changed to prevent stress on your filtering system. Any resin that is unused will come out with the dirty oil. Microlon will not change tolerances or replace metal which had been worn away. WHY DO I PUT MICROLON IN THE FUEL? Unlike oil additives, Microlon is a metal treatment. Microlon is compatible with gasoline, diesel and oil. The fluids in the engine are used only to carry the Microlon resin to all of the bearing surfaces reached by those fluids. The Microlon added to the fuel treats the top end of the engine, while the Microlon added to the crankcase treats the rest of the engine. IS IT POSSIBLE TO OVERTREAT? When you treat your engine with Microlon the first time, the Microlon resin is forced into the pore structure of the metal. When the micro-thin film has formed and no more resin can be squeezed into the surface of the metal, the rest of the Microlon resin will hang in suspension until your next oil change when it goes out with the waste oil. Additional treatments will not form a better film than the first one, so continually re-treating an engine is a waste of money. HOW MUCH INCREASED FUEL ECONOMY WILL I GET? It is hard to state an exact amount of fuel savings coming from using the Microlon metal treatment because every engine is different. Typically, we give a benefit of 10% in fuel savings, but if you use the benefits of Microlon to get a little more power out of your engine, the horse power will go up and not the miles per gallon (or gallons per hour for aviation users). One of the other real benefits of the protective Microlon film is savings in the long term on maintenance and extended engine life. HOW LONG WILL THE MICROLON TREATMENT LAST? The Microlon film will last until removed. Microlon penetrates the pore structure of the metal and becomes an integral part of the metal. In a properly treated engine all wear happens at Microlon-to-Microlon surfaces instead of metal-to-metal surfaces, reducing friction. The micro-thin film can only be removed by machining it out or by heating the metal to 775 degrees Fahrenheit. If the film is damaged by anything that makes it past the air filter, the Microlon film has a self-healing property that will repair and thin spots or scuffs. There are millions of engines that are performing as well today as when they were first treated. HOW DOES MICROLON WORK IN A MOTORCYCLE WITH A WET CLUTCH? Forming the Microlon film is important in a wet clutch or a positraction limited slip rear differential, because they are high friction environments. The Microlon resin does not stick to the fiber in the wet clutch plates, but it does allow for easier action in the splines. Using Microlon reduces clutch hang up and reduces wear. CAN MICROLON HARM AN ENGINE? The Microlon engine treatment works in two stages. First, the Microlon cleaning complex clears the engine of the carbon, varnish, and sludge that can accumulate through normal use. After the engine is clean, the Microlon film forms on the bearing surfaces. None of that process is inherently harmful to any engine. There have been a couple of cases where we have recommended that an engine not be treated, and those cases dealt with very old engines that were essentially held together by the gunk that Microlon will remove. Microlon Incorporated has full faith in its products and is proud to offer their customers a three-year unconditional money back guarantee. WILL MICROLON VOID MY WARRANTY? No. To void a warranty the equipment manufacturer must prove that a particular product did damage to an engine. There is nothing in Microlon to damage an engine when properly used. Although many original equipment manufacturers threaten to 'void the warranty' if recommended lubricants are not used, none of them will put it in writing. The Microlon CL-100 aircraft engine treatment has been accepted for use in aircraft engines by the FAA since May 1979. In thirty-five years, there has never been a damage claim against any Microlon products. HOW LONG WILL MICROLON EXTEND THE LIFE OF AN ENGINE? We cannot state that definitely. Oil analysis reports consistently show wear at an average of 75% to 100% greater in an untreated engine. We can quote from the Aviation Consumer (June 1, 1978 issue) which reported on tests conducted by Caterpillar. These tests showed an estimated increase of expected engine life of between 20% and 40%. Since Microlon is a one-time treatment, the Microlon film will last the life of the engine, however long that may be. DOES MICROLON JUST WORK IN ENGINES? Microlon can be used anywhere it would be beneficial to reduce friction. Microlon Incorporated manufactures a product called Gun Juice which is formulated for use in firearms. Microlon can be used on bicycle chains, squeaky hinges and pocket knives to name a few of the places you want to reduce friction and preserve metal. Microlon should never be used anywhere friction is beneficial, such as automotive brake systems. CAN I SPLIT A LARGE CONTAINER OF MICROLON TO TREAT SEVERAL SMALL ENGINES? Yes. Just keep in mind, inexact measuring can result in an under treatment which might keep the Microlon film from forming, or over treatment which could result in wasted money. Microlon Incorporated suggests purchasing the recommended amount of product required to treat a specific engine or piece of equipment. Microlon packages its products in sizes from 1 ounce containers to 55 gallon drums. CAN I USE MICROLON IN TWO CYCLE ENGINES? Yes. The Microlon film reduces friction and enhances performance in all sizes and types of engines. Treating a two-cycle engine with Microlon is easier than treating other types of engines. Microlon treating a two-cycle engine does not require separate amounts in the oil and fuel since they are already combined. Just follow the instructions supplied by the Microlon Corporation. HOW MUCH DIFFERENCE CAN MICROLON MAKE ON A NEW ENGINE? In new engines, Microlon acts as a preventative maintenance measure. The durable Microlon film will increase efficiency, giving greater fuel economy or greater horse power. The longer an engine runs, the greater the chance for dramatic performance decay. The more problems and engine has, the bigger difference Microlon can make. DOES THE MICROLON FILM DETERIORATE FROM HIGH TEMPERATURES OR ACIDS FOUND IN THE ENGINE? No. The Microlon film is resistant to harmful chemicals and acids. The Microlon film will withstand continuous operating temperatures much higher than those present in an engine. WHY DOES AN ENGINE WITH AN ALUMINUM BLOCK REQUIRE ADDITIONAL PRODUCT? The Microlon resin fills in the pore structure of the metal inside of the engine. Since aluminum has a much more open pore structure, more of the Microlon resin is required to fill in the surface of the metal and form the Microlon film. The key to the Microlon effect is forming the film and it simply takes more product to fill in the pore structure of the metal in an aluminum block. HOW IS AN ENGINE TREATED IF IT HAS A FRANTZ TYPE OIL FILTER? The particles of the Microlon resin range in size and some of the larger particles may not pass through the Frantz type oil filter. This cartridge must be removed or by-passed during the treatment period to avoid a possible loss of some of the particulate. A Frantz type oil filter resembles a toilet paper roll, not a conventional oil filter. Nothing is bigger than 5 microns. http://www.microlonjohn.com/oiladd.html Microlon vs. Oil Additives In any discussion about Microlon it is interesting to note that this product was not developed as an automotive "additive" but as a lubricant for high velocity rifles. The engine and multitude of other uses and applications were only realized after the use of the product for many years in its' originally intended mode. Unlike oil "additives", Microlon does not attempt to increase the lubricity of the oil. Microlon treats the actual metal surfaces and simply uses the oil, fuel, water, grease, cutting fluids, etc., as a transportation medium. Most Oil Additives Have Shortcomings Oil additives usually come under the classifications of: chlorides sulfur compounds phopsphorus compounds nitrogen compounds They have the following disadvantages: Chlorine compounds: Oils blend with chlorine compounds show an increase in film strength. It is common for those selling chlorine based oil additives to demonstrate the high film strength on the Timken or similar bearing machine. However, the most stable of chlorine compounds, when burned on the cylinder surface or piston tops, form hydrochloric acid which is corrosive. It is also known that chlorides add to oil drag. Sulfur compounds: Sulfur compounds also add to film strength. However, in high temperatures and the presence of moisture they are apt to break down. They thus produce corrosion and high resistance to motion. Phosphorous compounds: Phosphorous compounds likewise breakdown with the result being corrosive phosphorous acid. Nitrogen compounds: At elevated temperatures the oil film will break down and the bearings seize. Invariably, the presence of the above materials which increase the extreme pressure (E.P.) qualities of lubricants cause it to have high drag and produce early bearing fatigue. Therefore some additives which are in common use could produce relatively rapid engine deterioration. Metal treatment: Metal treatments are supposed to treat the metal only and not change the characteristics of oils. Some oil additives claim to be metal treatments, but by using bearing test machines to demonstrate the immediate increase in film strength of oil and when having to be used regularly, it's apparent to see they are more of an oil additive than an actual metal treatment and probably fall into one of the above classifications. MICROLON Microlon is a one time metal treatment using oil and fuel only as a carrier for the Microlon resin. Results from using a bearing test machine to demonstrate Microlon usually turn out negative because Microlon is a true and proven metal treatment only. Just another breakthrough to here ... John GUERRA : Nano-Titania Solar Electrolysis http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/20134/ Cheap Hydrogen A new process uses sunlight and a nanostructured catalyst to inexpensively and efficiently generate hydrogen for fuel. Nanoptek, a startup based in Maynard, MA, has developed a new way to make hydrogen from water using solar energy. The company says that its process is cheap enough to compete with the cheapest approaches used now, which strip hydrogen from natural gas, and it has the further advantage of releasing no carbon dioxide. The technology uses titania, a cheap and abundant material, to capture energy from sunlight. The absorbed energy releases electrons, which split water to make hydrogen. Other researchers have used titania to split water in the past, but Nanoptek researchers found a way to modify titania to absorb more sunlight, which makes the process much cheaper and more efficient, says John Guerra, the company's founder and CEO. Guerra says that chip makers have long known that straining a material so that its atoms are slightly pressed together or pulled apart alters the material's electronic properties. He found that depositing a coating of titania on dome-like nanostructures caused the atoms to be pulled apart. "When you pull the atoms apart, less energy is required to knock the electrons out of orbit," he says. "That means you can use light with lower energy--which means visible light" rather than just ultraviolet light. The strain on the atoms also affects the way that electrons move through the material. Too much strain, and the electrons tend to be reabsorbed by the material before they split water. Guerra says that the company has had to find a balance between absorbing more sunlight and allowing the electrons to move freely out of the material. Nanoptek has also developed cheaper ways to manufacture the nanostructured materials. Solar gases: A parabolic trough can focus sunlight on nanostructured titania, improving the efficiency of a new system for generating hydrogen by splitting water US7995871 STRESS-INDUCED BANDGAP-SHIFTED SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTOELECTROLYTIC/PHOTOCATALYTIC/PHOTOVOLTAIC SURFACE Inventor: GUERRA JOHN Applicant: NANOPTEK CORPORATION Titania is a semiconductor and photocatalyst that is also chemically inert. With its bandgap of 3.0, to activate the photocatalytic property of titania requires light of about 390 nm wavelength, which is in the ultra-violet, where sunlight is very low in intensity. A method and devices are disclosed wherein stress is induced and managed in a thin film of titania in order to shift and lower the bandgap energy into the longer wavelengths that are more abundant in sunlight. Applications of this stress-induced bandgap-shifted titania photocatalytic surface include photoelectrolysis for production of hydrogen gas from water, photovoltaics for production of electricity, and photocatalysis for detoxification and disinfection. Let's Disintegrate the Moon with Antimatter / Antihydrogen / Positrons ! Free Humanity from the Archons ! Techno-Nihil uber Alles ! http://phys.org/news146160767.html Nov 17, 2008 Billions of Particles of Anti-matter Created in Laboratory Take a gold sample the size of the head of a push pin, shoot a laser through it, and suddenly ore than 100 billion particles of anti-matter appear. The anti-matter, also known as positrons, shoots out of the target in a cone-shaped plasma "jet." This new ability to create a large number of positrons in a small laboratory opens the door to several fresh avenues of anti-matter research, including an understanding of the physics underlying various astrophysical phenomena such as black holes and gamma ray bursts. Anti-matter research also could reveal why more matter than anti-matter survived the Big Bang at the start of the universe. "We've detected far more anti-matter than anyone else has ever measured in a laser experiment," said Hui Chen, a Livermore researcher who led the experiment. "We've demonstrated the creation of a significant number of positrons using a short-pulse laser." Chen and her colleagues used a short, ultra-intense laser to irradiate a millimeter-thick gold target. "Previously, we concentrated on making positrons using paper-thin targets," said Scott Wilks, who designed and modeled the experiment using computer codes. "But recent simulations showed that millimeter-thick gold would produce far more positrons. We were very excited to see so many of them." In the experiment, the laser ionizes and accelerates electrons, which are driven right through the gold target. On their way, the electrons interact with the gold nuclei, which serve as a catalyst to create positrons. The electrons give off packets of pure energy, which decays into matter and anti-matter, following the predictions by Einstein's famous equation that relates matter and energy. By concentrating the energy in space and time, the laser produces positrons more rapidly and in greater density than ever before in the laboratory. "By creating this much anti-matter, we can study in more detail whether anti-matter really is just like matter, and perhaps gain more clues as to why the universe we see has more matter than anti-matter," said Peter Beiersdorfer, a lead Livermore physicist working with Chen. Particles of anti-matter are almost immediately annihilated by contact with normal matter, and converted to pure energy (gamma rays). There is considerable speculation as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, whether other places are almost entirely anti-matter, and what might be possible if anti-matter could be harnessed. Normal matter and anti-matter are thought to have been in balance in the very early universe, but due to an "asymmetry" the anti-matter decayed or was annihilated, and today very little anti-matter is seen. Over the years, physicists have theorized about anti-matter, but it wasn't confirmed to exist experimentally until 1932. High-energy cosmic rays impacting Earth's atmosphere produce minute quantities of anti-matter in the resulting jets, and physicists have learned to produce modest amounts of anti-matter using traditional particle accelerators. Anti-matter similarly may be produced in regions like the center of the Milky Way and other galaxies, where very energetic celestial events occur. The presence of the resulting anti-matter is detectable by the gamma rays produced when positrons are destroyed when they come into contact with nearby matter. Laser production of anti-matter isn't entirely new either. Livermore researchers detected anti-matter about 10 years ago in experiments on the since-decommissioned Nova "petawatt" laser - about 100 particles. But with a better target and a more sensitive detector, this year's experiments directly detected more than 1 million particles. From that sample, the scientists infer that around 100 billion positron particles were produced in total. Until they annihilate, positrons (anti-electrons) behave much like electrons (just with an opposite charge), and that's how Chen and her colleagues detected them. They took a normal electron detector (a spectrometer) and equipped it to detect particles with opposite polarity as well. "We've entered a new era," Beiersdorfer said. "Now, that we've looked for it, it's almost like it hit us right on the head. We envision a center for antimatter research, using lasers as cheaper anti-matter factories." Chen will present her work at the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics meeting Nov. 17-21 at the Hyatt Regency Reunion in Dallas. S.C. Wilks, E. Liang, J. Myatt, K. Cone ,L. Elberson, D.D. Meyerhofer, M. Schneider, R. Shepherd, D. Stafford, R. Tommasini, P. Beiersdorfer are the collaborators on this project. Positron ( Antimatter ) Patents ADVANCED ANTIMATTER WEAPON TECHNOLOGIES US2013056651 Acceleration of particles beyond the speed of light and applications US2012168676 ANTIMATTER STORAGE ACCUMULATION DEVICE JP2010050073 APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE OF ANTIMATTER US2010012864 HIGH DENSITY STORAGE OF EXCITED POSITRONIUM USING PHOTONIC BANDGAP TRAPS WO2005013287 ION PROCESSING: CONTROL AND ANALYSIS US5206506 PHOTONIC ENGINE US2002002821 Antimatter engine US2004194445 Radio frequency trap for containment of plasmas in antimatter propulsion systems using rotating wall electric fields US6667487 Antimatter electrical generator US2007110208 Method for generating neutrally charged stable compound particles beyond the energy range of the first family of matter US2003226962 Interstellar transport vehicle engine US2003152183 "Electro-nucleo genesoids" unlimited energy by matter-antimatter... US2003215778 Method for generating neutrally charged stable compound particles... US2005242275 Process for preparing antihydrogen US4867939 CONTAINER FOR TRANSPORTING ANTIPROTONS AND REACTION TRAP WO2004004426 ANTIMATTER ENGINE. MXPA01004100 PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND PLATINUM BY ANTIMATTER JPS59157231 The Super-Techno Fly Swatter ... Randy CURRY : Toroidal Air Plasma http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/energy/nuclear/plasma-ring-experiment-offers-new-path-for-fusion-power 19 Apr 2013 Plasma Ring Experiment Offers New Path for Fusion Power by Jeremy Hsu Physicists usually rely on electromagnetic magnetic fields to harness the power of plasma, the fourth state of matter, in fusion power experiments. But University of Missouri researchers have managed to create rings of plasma that can hold their shape without the use of outside electromagnetic fields—possibly paving the way for a new age of practical fusion power and leading to the creation of new energy storage devices. Traditional efforts to achieve nuclear fusion have relied upon multi-billion-dollar fusion reactors, called tokamaks, which harness powerful electromagnetic fields to contain the super-heated plasmas resulting from the fusion reactions. The ability to create plasma with self-confining electromagnetic fields in the open air could eliminate the need for external electromagnetic fields in future fusion experiments, and with it, much of the expense. The researchers created plasma rings about 15 centimeters in diameter that flew through the air across distances up to 60 centimeters. The rings lasted just 10 milliseconds, but reached temperatures greater than the sun's fiery fusion core surface at around 6600 to 7700 degrees K (6327 to 7427 degrees C). Plasma physicists suspect that magnetic fields are still involved—but that the plasma rings create their own. "This plasma has a self-confining magnetic field," said Randy Curry, an engineer and physicist at the University of Missouri in Columbia. "If one can generate and contain it without large magnets involved, of course fusion energy would be an application." But the researchers' success in creating self-contained plasma rings came as a surprise. "We did not expect that," Curry says. The researchers had been working with exploding wires that vaporize when pulsed power is applied and release a cloud of plasma energy. They had previously only succeeded in making clouds of plasma that lasted less than a millisecond, Curry said. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5sIPJL_6F8 Plasma Device Developed at MU Could Revolutionize Energy Generation and Storage *** SYSTEMS AND METHODS TO GENERATE A SELF-CONFINED HIGH DENSITY AIR PLASMA WO2012173864 / US2013057151 This disclosure relates to methods and devices for generating electron dense air plasmas at atmospheric pressures. In particular, this disclosure relate to self-contained toroidal air plasmas. Methods and apparatuses have been developed for generating atmospheric toroidal air plasmas. The air plasmas are self-confining, can be projected, and do not require additional support equipment once formed. FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0003] The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for generating self-sustaining air plasmas at atmospheric pressures. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0004] An air plasma is an electrically conductive state of matter composed of ions, electrons, radicals, and other neutral species formed at atmospheric pressure that exist in an independent state. Air plasmas may be used in a variety of applications, such as nonlethal weapons, fusion, plasma processing, propulsion, disinfection applications, and Shockwave mitigation. [0005] However, current plasma sources have been unable to generate an air plasma with an electron density sufficient to protect against the consequences of the overpressure caused by a Shockwave at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, current plasma sources have been unable to generate self-containing or self-confining air plasmas that have lengthy lifetimes without the use of expensive and unwieldy support equipment or large magnets. Therefore, there remains a need for a versatile, scalable, and repeatable method and apparatus to generate air plasmas. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for generating self-confined and self-stabilized air plasmas at atmospheric pressures. In particular, the method and apparatus generate toroidal air plasmas (TAPs) at atmospheric pressure having an electron density sufficient for a number of applications. The method and apparatus may be configured to generate TAPs at a high repetition rate. [0007] The method includes generating a self-contained air plasma at an atmospheric pressure. The air plasma is generated in a first ignition region and restricted in radial expansion. The method also includes applying a high voltage pulse to the air plasma in a secondary ignition region to heat and accelerate the air plasma away from the second ignition region. Heating the air plasma causes the air plasma to expand and become self-contained. [0008] The apparatus for generating a self-contained air plasma at an atmospheric pressure includes a primary ignition region that includes a first shielding material defining a first cavity, that may be elongated or another configuration, to contain a plasma source. The apparatus also includes an ignition device to generate the air plasma from the plasma source and a secondary ignition region that includes a second shielding material defining a second region, that may be elongated or another configuration, wherein the second cavity is in fluid communication with the first cavity to receive the air plasma. In one embodiment, the second region is defined, at least in part, by a wire mesh that allows a current to be discharged through the air therein and form a plasma discharge. [0009] The apparatus includes a high voltage circuit that includes at least one capacitor and is in communication with a voltage source in order to apply a high voltage pulse to the air plasma. The high voltage pulse heats and accelerates the air plasma away from the apparatus to form the self-contained air plasma at the atmospheric pressure. In various other embodiments, the plasma source is at least one member of a group consisting of an exploding wire, an explosive, a puffed gas plasma, a hollow cathode plasma, a hypervelocity plasma source, a railgun, a microwave-driven plasma source, or other compact plasma source that can be directed into the second region. The plasma source may also be provided by a one or more laser-induced plasma channels. [0010] In another embodiment, a method for generating a self- contained air plasma at an atmospheric pressure includes applying a first high voltage pulse across a wire to explode the wire and generate the air plasma in a first ignition region located between an anode and a cathode. The method also includes restricting radial expansion of the air plasma, such that the air plasma travels parallel to a longitudinal axis of the wire to a second ignition region between the cathode and an accelerator electrode. A second high voltage pulse is applied across the cathode and the accelerator electrode to heat the air plasma, wherein heating the air plasma causes the air plasma to expand, accelerate, and form a toroidal structure. The method also includes discharging the self-contained toroidal air plasma from the second ignition region at the atmospheric pressure. [0011] The method further includes providing rigid electrically insulating materials between the anode and the cathode, as well as between the cathode and the accelerator electrode. The insulating materials define cavities, which may be elongated. The elongated cavity between the anode and the cathode receives the wire and restricts the radial expansion of the air plasma. The cavity between the cathode and the accelerator electrode allows the air plasma to expand. Both cavities may have generally cylindrical or spiral configurations. The cavities may have equal or different diameters and may be configured to increase or decrease the diameter of the toroidal plasma. In addition, the cavities may be configured to increase or decrease the velocity of the toroidal plasma. [0012] In another embodiment, a method for generating a self- contained air plasma at an atmospheric pressure includes generating the air plasma in a first ignition region, directing a velocity of expansion of the air plasma out of the first region, and imparting energy to the air plasma in a secondary ignition region, wherein the imparted energy causes the air plasma to expand, accelerate out of the second ignition region, and become self-contained. Alternately, the method may include restricting radial expansion of the air plasma. [0013] In various embodiments, the wire has a gauge in the range between 00 AWG and 80 AWG. In other embodiments, the first high voltage pulse is between 10kV and 50kV and has a duration between 0.1 s and 200 ms, while the second high voltage pulse is between 100V and 300V or up to many thousands of volts and has a duration between 1 ns and 1000 ms. [0014] In another embodiment, an apparatus for generating a self- contained air plasma at an atmospheric pressure includes a first shielding material positioned between an anode and a semi-permeable cathode in a primary ignition region. The first shielding material has a first longitudinal cavity to contain a conductive wire extended between and in communication with the anode and the cathode. The apparatus also includes a primary high voltage circuit with at least one voltage source and at least one capacitor. The primary high voltage circuit is in communication with the anode and the cathode to apply a first high voltage pulse across the wire causing it to explode and generate the air plasma. The first longitudinal cavity restricting radial expansion of the air plasma. [0015] The apparatus also includes a secondary ignition region defined by a second shielding material positioned between the cathode and a semi-permeable electrode. The second shielding material has a second longitudinal cavity extending between the cathode and the electrode wherein the second longitudinal cavity is in fluid communication with the first longitudinal cavity to receive the air plasma. The apparatus also includes a secondary high voltage circuit with at least one other capacitor that is in communication the voltage source. The secondary high voltage circuit further communicates with the cathode and the electrode to apply a second high voltage pulse across the gap between the cathode and the electrode, wherein the second high voltage pulse further heats and accelerates the air plasma as it traverses the electrode to form the self-contained air plasma at the atmospheric pressure. [0016] In various embodiments, the self-contained air plasma may be formed by a laser induced plasma and subsequently heated by a laser, a microwave pulse, or any means for imparting energy. The plasma formed in air is self-confined by electrostatic or electromagnetic fields and interactions. As such, the air plasma inherently has a long lifetime. The self-confined air plasma may have a lifetime on the order of milliseconds to multiple seconds or even minutes. [0017] The density of the plasma may be increased by using a pressurization system that may increase the pressure in the apparatus to a range between 1 ATM- 2000 ATM or higher. In addition, the air within and/or around the apparatus may be modified to optimize the size and electron density of the generated air plasmas. For example, the air within and/or around the apparatus may include one or more gas mixtures or gases seeded with nanoparticles or various chemical compounds. [0018] In various embodiments, the self-contained air plasmas have an electron density of at least 10<10>/cm<3> and may be as high as 10<19>/cm<3>. In addition, the geometry of the apparatus leads the air plasma to form a toroidal structure. DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES [0019] FIG. 1 depicts an embodiment of a toroidal air plasma generator. [0020] FIG. 2 is a photograph of one embodiment of the air plasma generation apparatus. [0021] FIG. 3 is a side-view photograph of one embodiment of the air plasma generation apparatus [0022] FIG. 4. is a schematic layout of a primary high-voltage circuit according to one embodiment. [0023] FIG. 5 is a high-speed image of a toroidal air plasma according to one embodiment. [0024] FIGS. 6A and 6B are photographs providing a cross sectional view of the formation of a toroidal air plasma according to one embodiment. [0025] FIG. 7 is a flowchart depicting a method to form a toroidal air plasma according to one embodiment. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0026] The present invention relates to the generation of high- density air plasmas at atmospheric pressure that are sustainable for a sufficient duration and have an electron density sufficient to be used in a variety of applications. As used herein, an air plasma at atmospheric pressure refers to an air plasma having pressures substantially equal to the surrounding atmosphere. In addition, air plasmas at atmospheric pressure do not require specialized high- pressure or low-pressure vessels. In one aspect, the geometry of the air plasma generating apparatus gives rise to the shape and the self-containing nature of the air plasma. Once formed, the air plasmas are self-containing and do not require additional support equipment. For example, the air plasma generator may be configured to generate a toroidal air plasma (TAP). A TAP is an air plasma having a substantially toroidal shape. [0027] For example, the generated air plasmas may be used for shock wave mitigation, used as fusion sources for Tritium-Tritium or Deuterium- Tritium reactions or any other advanced fusion cycle, or plasma capacitors. In addition, the generated air plasmas may be used in nonlethal applications, including but not limited to electroshock weapons, such as a Taser. The air plasmas may also be used for a number of industrial applications, including but not limited to: plasma surface modification including semiconductor processing, polymer modification, directed energy applications, microwave generation, energy storage and generation, UV generation for semiconductor manufacturing, plasma chaff, surface disinfection, and microwave channeling at a distance. The air plasmas may also be used as an ignition source for turbines, combustion engines, and rocket engines. The generated plasmas may also be used in other applications, for example, the generated air plasmas may be precursors to ball lightning. The Air Plasma Generator Apparatus [0028] An embodiment of an air plasma generation apparatus 100 that generates a toroidal air plasma (TAP) is shown in FIGS. 1 -3. The apparatus 100 includes an TAP generator 102 that is in electrical communication with a primary high-voltage circuit 104 and a secondary circuit 106. [0029] The TAP generator 102 is capable of generating a TAP discharge, generally indicated as 130, that has a finite duration. According to one embodiment, the TAP generator 102 uses an exploding wire 108 to form the TAP discharge 130. [0030] As shown, the exploding wire 108 may be formed of a single strand of wire positioned within the TAP generator 102. Alternately, the exploding wire 108 may consist of a single stand of wire that is woven or looped back and forth within the TAP generator 102, such that multiple lengths of the wire may be exploded simultaneously. In various other embodiments, the exploding wire 108 may consist of multiple stands of distinct or looped wires. [0031] By way of example and not limitation, the exploding wire 106 may be a 40-gauge copper wire; however, any suitable wire that heats and vaporizes in air may be used. In other examples, the exploding wire 108 may be any gauge of wire ranging from 00 AWG to 80 AWG. In addition, the exploding wire 108 may be a solid wire, a plated wire, a wire that is doped with other materials, or a wire-clad in another material. The exploding wire 108 is suspended between an anode 1 10 and a cathode 1 12. To ignite the exploding wire 108, a high voltage current is applied across the anode 1 10 and a cathode 1 12 and through the wire 108. In various embodiments, the high voltage current superheats at least a portion of the exploding wire 108, thereby causing it to expand explosively. [0032] The anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12 define a primary ignition region 1 14 in which the exploding wire 108 is ignited. The primary ignition region 1 14 also includes a non-conductive primary shielding material 1 16 that fills a portion of the space between the anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12. The primary shielding material 1 16 has a thickness equal to the spacing between the anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12. In one example, the primary shielding material 1 16 may have a thickness between 5 cm and 20 cm; however, other thickness and spacing distances may be used. In one embodiment, the primary shielding material 1 16 defines an primary elongated cavity 1 18 that receives the exploding wire 108. The diameter of the elongated cavity is larger than the diameter of the exploding wire, such that the exploding wire 108 does not contact the primary shielding material 1 16, thereby allowing the exploding wire 1 14 to ignite in air at atmospheric pressure. The primary elongated cavity 1 18 restricts the radial expansion of air, as indicated by 120, within the elongated cavity following the explosion from the exploding wire 108. Restriction the radial expansion 120 of the air, along with the momentum from the explosion directs the velocity of expanding air out of the primary ignition region 1 14. [0033] The composition of the exploding wire 108 may also contribute to the formation of the air plasma. By way of example and not limitation, the explosion of the wire 108 generates Shockwaves of electrons, ions, plasmas, UV waves and/or metal particles, as well as a number of other conditions, which may augment the formation of the TAP discharge 130. The exploding wire 108 also generates a pressure pulse that imparts momentum to the gas molecules in a secondary ignition region 122 of the TAP generator 102. Similarly, the exploding wire 108 imparts energy and momentum to the TAP discharge 130 within the secondary ignition region 122. [0034] In one embodiment, the primary elongated cavity 1 18 is generally cylindrical. In another embodiment, the primary elongated cavity 1 18 has a spiral configuration. Similarly, other configurations of the primary elongated cavity 1 18 may be used; however, in all embodiments, the TAP discharge 130 from the exploding wire 108 is substantially restricted to axial acceleration along the axis of the central axis of the elongated cavity in order to generate boundary conditions that help form and shape the TAP discharge 130 in the secondary ignition region 122. [0035] The secondary ignition region 122 is defined, in part, by the cathode 1 12 and an accelerator electrode 124. In one embodiment, the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124 are a semi-permeable materials, such as but not limited to a mesh or screen, such that the TAP discharge 130 may traverse the cathode and the accelerator electrode. By way of example and not limitation, the accelerator electrode 124 may be composed of stainless steel or any other semi-permeable conductive material. [0036] The secondary ignition region 122 includes a secondary shielding material 126. The secondary shielding material 126 is non-conductive and may have the same composition as the primary shielding material 1 16. Alternately, the secondary shielding material 126 may have a different composition than the primary shielding material 1 16. [0037] In one embodiment, secondary shielding material 126 has a thickness equal to the spacing between the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124. In one example, the secondary shielding material 126 has a thickness ranging between approximately 2 mm and 2 cm depending upon the distance between the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124; however other thickness and spacing distances may be used. The secondary shielding material 126 also defines a secondary cavity 128 that is axially aligned with the primary elongated cavity 1 18 of the primary shielding material 1 16. [0038] In one embodiment, the diameter of the secondary cavity 128 is greater than the diameter of the primary elongated cavity 1 18 to allow the TAP discharge 130 to expand as it travels through or, alternately, is formed in and by the secondary ignition region 122. In another embodiment, the diameter of the secondary cavity 128 may be equal to or less than the diameter of the primary elongated cavity 1 18. Similarly, the length of the secondary cavity may be greater than, equal to, or less than the length of the first elongated cavity. In various other embodiments, the secondary ignition region 122 has multiple cavities that, optionally, may be aligned in parallel to one another and the primary elongated cavity 1 18. [0039] While a single primary ignition region 1 14 and a single secondary ignition region 122 are shown in FIGS. 1 -3, in other embodiments multiple ignition regions may be used to further amplify the effects of the TAP discharge 130. For example, multiple plasma sources may be ignited in multiple primary ignition regions and/or multiple secondary ignition regions may be used to amplify, accelerate, augment, and/or shape the TAP discharge 130. [0040] In various embodiments, the diameters of the primary and secondary cavities can be formed or otherwise configured to increase or decrease the diameter of the air plasma and to increase or decrease the velocity of the air plasma. The geometry of the self-contained air plasmas may also be enhanced through optimization of the air plasma generation apparatus 100 and the surrounding environment. For example, the TAP generator may be configured to generate stable plasmoids or spheres of plasma similar to ball lightning. [0041] The TAP generator 102 is electrically connected to a primary high voltage circuit 106 that is configured to deliver a high-voltage pulse to the anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12. The TAP generator 102 is also electrically connected to a secondary circuit 106 configured to discharge energy through the plasma in the secondary ignition region 122. [0042] The primary high voltage circuit 106 includes one or more capacitor banks, one or more high voltage power sources, and one or more high- voltage switches, and suitable pulse generating circuitry to deliver a high-voltage pulse across the anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12. In one embodiment, the primary high voltage circuit 106 includes a capacitor bank energized to between approximately 2 kV and approximately 100 kV to deliver a high voltage pulse having a duration between about 10 ns and 200 ms pulse through the anode 1 10 and the cathode 1 12 to the exploding wire 108. In this embodiment, the anode 1 10 is solid or a semi-permeable conductor while the cathode 1 12 is semipermeable conductor. [0043] As shown in FIG. 4, a particular embodiment of the primary high voltage circuit 106 is an RLC circuit 400 that includes a number of resistors 402A-C, one or more inductors 404, and one or more capacitors or capacitor banks 406. The primary high voltage circuit 106 also includes as a power source 408, a three-plate pressurized air gap switch 410, a lead 412 connected to the anode 1 10, another lead 414 connected to the cathode 1 12, and additional protection and safety circuitry, including but not limited to switches and diodes, generally indicated as 416. [0044] In one embodiment, the power source 408 is a direct current (DC) power source that supplies approximately 30kV to the primary high voltage circuit 106. The capacitor bank 406 has a capacitance of approximately 1 1 F to store and release approximately 4.4 kJ generate a 6 kA, 46 s current pulse (full- width half maximum) through the wire 108, causing the wire to explode. The inductor 404 is typically an 1 1 .77 µ? air-core inductor. The inductor 404 and a 5.5 O aqueous-electrolyte shaping resistor 402A are used to shape the current pulse. [0045] The circuit inductance and resistance are both variable parameters that affect the amount of current and energy delivered to and deposited into the wire 108. To determine the effects of circuit inductance on the current pulse delivered to the wire 108, the air core inductor 404, was replaced in various embodiments with other inductors having inductance values of 0.6 µ? and 27.5 µ?. Similarly, in other embodiments, the aqueous-electrolyte resistor was replaced with resistors having resistances of approximately 20 O to approximately 300 ?t?O. Non aqueous-electrolyte resistors may also be used. [0046] When varying the inductance of the primary high-voltage circuit 104, a shaping resistor 402A with a resistance of approximately 5.2 O was used. Likewise, the inductor 404 had a resistance of approximately 1 1 .77 µ? when the resistance of resistor 402A was varied. [0047] The current pulse generated by the primary high-voltage circuit 104 with a typical 1 1 .77 µ? inductor 404 and a typical 5.2 O shaping resistor 402A delivers approximately 6 kA with a pulse width of approximately 46.08 µe. It was observed that the peak and width of the current pulse varied with changes in inductance. For example, when the inductor 404 had an inductance of approximately 27.5 µ? the current pulse delivered to the wire 104 had a peak current of approximately 5.48 kA and a pulse width of approximately 53.55 µe. While the current pulse generated when the inductor 404 had an inductance of 0.6 µ? results in higher current (approximately 6.88kA) delivered in a smaller pulse width (approximately 35.9 s). As expected in view of traditional circuit theory, it was observed that the current pulse decreases in amplitude yet spreads in pulse width as the inductance increases. Further, it was observed that varying the inductance of the primary high-voltage circuit 104 did not result in a significant change in the height or duration of the TAP discharge 130. Similarly, no significant effect was observed in the distance traveled data by the TAP discharge 130. As such, the inductance of the primary high-voltage circuit 104 may be varied according to the desired application of the air plasma generation apparatus 100 without diminishing the generated TAPs. [0048] Conversely, it was determined that varying the resistance in the primary high-voltage circuit 104, did however, affect the generated TAPs. For example, the current pulse from a typical configuration of the primary high- voltage circuit, where the resistance of the shaping resistor 402A is approximately 5.2 O, is approximately 6 kA with a pulse width of approximately 46.08 s. The current pulse, when the resistor 402A has a resistance of approximately 20 O, however, reaches a peak of only about 2.02 kA with a pulse width of approximately 130.85 s. [0049] Further, by removing the typical aqueous-electrolyte resistor 402A from the circuit and directly connecting the inductor 404 to the anode 1 10, through lead 412, resulted in a stray resistance of approximately 300 ?t?O. In this configuration, the primary high-voltage circuit 104 is underdamped, rather than the typical overdamped configuration. As such, the resultant current oscillates about four times in approximately 288 s while reaching a peak of approximately 23.6 kA. [0050] Changing the resistance of the resistor 402A yields appreciable differences in the size and the duration of the TAP discharge 130. For example, when the resistor 402A has a resistance of approximately 20 O the TAP discharge 130 has a shorter duration and smaller diameter when compared to a shaping resistance of approximately 5.2 O. Further, when the resistor 402A is removed or otherwise reduced to yield a resistance of approximately 300 ?t?O, the TAP discharge 130 is approximately twice as large in diameter and has a longer duration when compared to TAP discharges with a 5.2 O resistor. In additionally, the TAP discharge 130 generated with a 300 ?t?O resistor for the shaping resistor 402A travels approximately twice as far as the TAP discharges generated using a 20 O resistor or a 5.2 O resistor for the shaping resistor. In this configuration, additional energy has been deposited into the TAP discharge 130 formed by the exploding wire 108. This results in an increase in the volume and duration of the TAP discharge 130 and may be caused, at least in part by the reduction in dampening of the primary high-voltage circuit 104. [0051] Preferably, the secondary circuit 106 includes a capacitor bank charged to a voltage suitable for heating the TAP discharge 130. For example, when the secondary high voltage circuit 106 is charged to between 100V and 300V, the TAP discharge 130 entering the secondary ignition region 122 completes a circuit between the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124. The energy imparted by the secondary high voltage circuit 106 enhances the duration and velocity of the TAP discharge 130. In one embodiment, the secondary high voltage circuit 106 is connected to the same high voltage power source as the primary high voltage circuit 106. In another embodiment, the secondary high voltage circuit 106 is powered by another high voltage source. In yet another embodiment, the primary high voltage circuit 106 and the secondary high voltage circuit 106 may be incorporated into a single high voltage system. [0052] By way of example and not limitation, the secondary circuit 106 may include a secondary 8.8 mF electrolytic capacitor bank 132 that is charged to approximately 250 V to heat the plasma in the secondary ignition region 122. The post-explosion heating has been shown to enhance both the size and duration of the TAP discharge 130. [0053] The additional heating provided by the secondary circuit 106 also plays a role in forming the toroidal shape of the TAP discharge 130. For example, the elongated cavity 128 defined by the secondary shielding material 126 allows for the plasma generated by the explosion of the wire 104 to expand. During expansion, when the area between the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator anode 124 is filled with plasma, the secondary capacitor bank 132 discharges stored energy through the plasma. In one embodiment, a 400 A current drawn by the plasma from the secondary capacitor bank 132 has a pulse width of approximately 4 ms. After the discharge from the secondary capacitor bank 132, the bulk of the TAP discharge 130 detaches from a portion 134 of the discharge that remains in the secondary ignition region 122 and exits from the TAP generator 102, as shown in FIG. 5. After the bulk of the TAP discharge 130 has separated from the remaining portion, the capacitor bank 132 may continue to discharge and energize the remaining plasma in the TAP generator 102. [0054] A cross sectional view of the evolution of the toroidal structure 500 of the TAP discharge 130 is shown in FIG. 5. For approximately the first millisecond after ignition, the discharge 130 is still expanding from the secondary ignition region 122 and has a very homogeneous profile. Approximately 1 .5 ms after ignition, the toroidal shape begins to form. These two images illustrate the toroidal shape of the discharge at 6 ms and 7 ms after ignition. FIG. 5 also shows the remaining discharge 134 within the secondary ignition region 122. [0055] In one embodiment, the TAP discharge 130 can last up to 15 ms while travelling approximately 30 cm from the TAP generator 102. In other embodiments, the TAP discharge 130 may have a lifetime in the range of milliseconds to multiple seconds and multiple minutes. The toroidal structure 400 of the TAP discharge 103 may expand to approximately 12 cm in diameter. In other embodiments, the toroidal structure 400 may expand to other diameters including those less than or greater than 12 cm. The electron density of the TAP is preferably at least 10<10>/cm<3> and may be as high as 10<19>/cm<3>. In various embodiments, the electron density is determined to be approximately 10<14>-10<15>/cm<3> based upon the measured current passing through the plasma while it is in the secondary ignition region 122. [0056] The density of the plasma may be increased by using a pressurization system (not shown) that may increase the pressure in the apparatus to a range between 1 ATM- 2000 ATM or higher. In addition, the air within and/or around the apparatus may be modified to optimize the size and electron density of the generated air plasmas. For example, the air within and/or around the apparatus may include one or more gas mixtures or gases seeded with nanoparticles or various chemical compounds. [0057] In various embodiments, the radial expansion 120 of the shock wave and heat generated by the explosion of the wire 108 is confined within the primary and secondary cavities 1 18 and 128, respectively. The discharge from the exploding wire 108 is thus dissipated, predominantly, through axial expansion along the axis of the primary elongated cavity 1 18 and the secondary cavity 128. This imparts hydrodynamic effects upon the TAP discharge 130 and therefore, the geometry of the TAP generator 102 lends itself to the self-containing characteristics of the TAP discharge 130. [0058] The combined effects of the initial axial expansion from the exploding wire 108 and the secondary excitation in the secondary ignition region 122 result in the formation of the toroidal structure 400. In various other embodiments, the secondary ignition region 122 may have any geometry that can transfer energy into the TAP discharge 130. In these embodiments, the temperature and subsequent absorption and emission of light by the TAP discharge 130 can be tailored to specific requirements based upon the geometry of the secondary ignition region 122. The duration and amount of energy delivered to the plasma in the secondary ignition region 122 can be optimized to generate characteristics of the TAP discharge 130 that are required for the desired application. For example, by increasing the energy imparted to the TAP discharge in the secondary ignition region 122, the lifetime of the TAP discharge may be extended from milliseconds to minutes thereby allowing the long-range projection of the plasma. [0059] Although the TAP generator 102 has been described using the exploding wire 108 as the initial plasma source, other plasma sources may be used. By way of example and not limitation, other plasma sources include explosives, puffed gas plasmas, hollow cathode plasmas, microwave driven sources, high power laser arrays, railguns, hypervelocity plasma accelerators, and any other plasma source that has a high repetition rate to generate ionized particles. In these embodiments, the plasma source is activated by a suitable activation device corresponding to the plasma course. For example, an activation device for an explosive is a detonator, while an activation device for a microwave driven source is a microwave generator. [0060] In another example, one or more lasers is used to form or further heat the TAP discharge 130. For example, a laser may be used to form a laser-induced air plasma in the primary ignition region 1 14. Alternately, a laser may be used to heat a plasma discharge within the secondary ignition region 122. [0061] In various embodiments, the air plasma generation apparatus 100 is configured for single or multi-shot operation. As such, the air plasma generation apparatus 100 may generate a single or multiple self- contained air plasmas at a high rate of repetition. The Toroidal Air Plasma [0062] The TAP discharge 130 has a very homogenous profile immediately after the ignition of the exploding wire 108 as it expands from the first primary elongated cavity 1 18. In one embodiment, the TAP discharge 130 begins to take on the toroidal structure 400 approximately 1 .5 ms after ignition. The toroidal structure 400 of the TAP discharge 200 is shown at approximately 6 ms and approximately 7 ms after ignition in FIGS. 5A and 5B, respectively. FIGS. 6A and 6B also show the secondary ignition 600 of the TAP discharge 130 within the secondary ignition region 122. When the TAP discharge 130 exits the TAP generator 102, the discharge has a circulating current or field reversal that generates a self-magnetic field as well as a rotating plasma region on the minor radius of the toroid structure 400. The self-magnetic field confines the TAP discharge 130 and significantly increases the lifetime of the TAP discharge to effectively produce a self-sustaining TAP discharge by reducing interactions that may recombine molecules of the air plasma with atmospheric gas molecules. [0063] In various embodiments, the TAP discharge can be sustained for approximately 2-30 ms and may travel approximately 10-40 cm away from the TAP generator 102 at up to 200 m/s. The toroidal shape 500 may expand up to approximately 12 cm in diameter. The electron density of the TAP discharge 130 is approximately 10<14>-10<15>/cm<3> as determined by the measured current passing through the TAP discharge 130 during the secondary heating of the discharge in the secondary ignition region 122. In various other embodiments, the TAP discharge 130 is scalable to higher energies, densities and can be used for a number of advanced applications. [0064] For example, 1 kilojoule to 1 gigajoule or higher of energy may be imparted to the TAP discharge 130 in the secondary ignition region 122. Increasing the energy will increase the lifetime of the TAP discharge 130 from an order of milliseconds to minutes allowing for the long-range projection of the TAP discharge. [0065] FIG. 7 is a flowchart illustrating one embodiment of a method 700 for generating a TAP discharge 130. At step 702, a first high voltage pulse is applied across the anode 1 10, the cathode 1 12, and the exploding wire 108 in the primary ignition region 1 14. The first high voltage causes the wire to explode thereby producing the TAP discharge 130. At step 704, the radial expansion of the AP discharge is restricted such that the TAP discharge travels along the longitudinal axis of the wire to a second ignition region defined by the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124. [0066] In the second ignition region 122, a second high voltage pulse is applied across the cathode 1 12 and the accelerator electrode 124 to further heat and expand the TAP discharge 130, at step 706. Within the secondary ignition region 122, the TAP discharge becomes self-sustaining and takes on the toroid structure 200. At step 708, the self-contained TAP discharge is discharged from the second ignition region 122, wherein it may be used to mitigate the effects of a shock wave or another propagating wave. Example Method for Generating a Toroidal Air Plasma [0067] By way of example and not limitation, an exemplary method for generating a TAP discharge, such as the discharge 130 is provided. The primary high voltage circuit 104 of the air plasma generation apparatus 100 included an 1 1 F capacitor bank energized to approximately 30kV to deliver a 4 kA pulse for a duration of approximately 200 s pulse through two strands of 40 AWG silver-plated copper wire 108 within the TAP generator 102. The anode 1 10 connected to the wire 108 was a copper screen while the cathode 1 12 was a stainless steel screen. The primary shielding material 1 16 was a polycarbonate material having a thickness of approximately 10 cm and the elongated cavity 1 18 had a diameter of approximately 1 .25 cm. [0068] The secondary circuit 106 used an 8.8 mF electrolytic capacitor bank 132 charged to 250V to heat the TAP discharge 130. The secondary primary shielding material 126 was plastic approximately 7 mm thick and defined another elongated cavity 128 with a diameter of approximately 3 cm. The secondary circuit 106 discharged approximately 400A into the TAP discharge 130 over approximately 4 ms. The TAP discharge 130 exiting the TAP generator 102 has an electron density of approximately 10<16>-10<17>/cm<3> as determined by the measured current that passed through the discharge during the secondary heating. DHIMMITUDE IS FOR DIMWITS & COWARDS From Jerry Decker / Keelynet.com : 2/22/2015 Jens Engel wrote: Hey Jerry, thought you might be interested in anew word... The word "Dhimmitude" is found in the new health care bill; so what does it mean? Thought this was interesting and worth passing on. Obama used it in the health care bill. Now isn't this interesting? It is also included in the health care law. Dhimmitude -- I had never heard the word until now. I typed it into Google and started reading. Pretty interesting. It's on page 107 of the healthcare bill. I looked this up on Google and yep, it exists. It is a REAL word. Dhimmitude is the Muslim system of controlling non-Muslim populations conquered through jihad (Holy War). Specifically, it is the TAXING of non-Muslims in exchange for tolerating their presence AND as a coercive means of converting conquered remnants to Islam. ObamaCare allows the establishment of Dhimmitude and Sharia Muslim diktat in the United States . Muslims are specifically exempted from the government mandate to purchase insurance, and also from the penalty tax for being uninsured. Islam considers insurance to be "gambling", "risk-taking", and "usury" and is thus banned. Muslims are specifically granted exemption based on this. How convenient. So I, as a Christian, will have crippling IRS liens placed against all of my assets, including real estate, cattle, and even accounts receivable, and will face hard prison time because I refuse to buy insurance or pay the penalty tax. Meanwhile, Louis Farrakhan (the Muslim) will have no such penalty and will have 100% of his health insurance needs paid for by the de facto government insurance. Non-Muslims will be paying a tax to subsidize Muslims. This is Dhimmitude. I recommend sending this on to your contacts. All American citizens need to know about it http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2013/may/30/chain-email/dhimmitude-page-107-health-care-law-exempts-muslim/ www.snopes.com/politics/medical/exemptionsasp Apr 13, 2010 Health Insurance Exemptions Dhimmitude is the Muslim system of controlling non-muslim populations .. The ObamaCare bill is the establishment of Dhimmitude and Sharia ... Editor's Choice -- The Golden Web An extraordinary & exceptionally exhaustive exegesis of entomology, extrapolated to elucidate an explicit explanation of the evil enemy alien demi-deitic matrix that enslaves humans to exhaustion in the endgame now enacting. Otherwise, it is merely lengthy linguistic masturbation, replete with irritating ignorant errors & artistic indulgence, aggravating exacerbated exaggerations of adroit anglicized quabbalic alliterations, & meta-mystical methedrinal psychobabble, all presented as an alleged adept adaptation : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PgX8l9AgzE The Golden Web Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eifUePBmJOg The Golden Web Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=46XrEeEg5CQ The Golden Web Part 3 http://www.collegedegree.com/library/college-life/100_extensive_university_libraries_from_around_the_world 100 Extensive University Libraries from Around the World that Anyone Can Access Universities house an enormous amount of information and their libraries are often the center of it all. You don't have to be affiliated with any university to take advantage of some of what they have to offer. From digital archives, to religious studies, to national libraries, these university libraries from around the world have plenty of information for you. Moo-Tinkle vs. Cancer Use of bioactive fraction from cow urine distillate ('Go-mutra'} as a bio-enhancer of anti-infective, anti-cancer agents and nutrients US7235262 The invention relates to a novel pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of bio-active fraction from cow urine distillate as a bioavailability facilitator and pharmaceutically acceptable additives selected from anticancer compounds, antibiotics, drugs, therapeutic and nutraceutic agents, ions and similar molecules which are targeted to the living systems. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6r0GqbH9Os#t=231 Chemtrails are COAL ASH *** USP5003186 Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEqSuTOKUEg Portable Generator Runs on Water !! GDS Technologies ( Sep 7, 2014 ) -- " We have developed a portable water powered generator that creates a large amount of energy to run our portable generators that generate power simply by adding water. Spending money on expensive gasoline is a thing of the past. We have found a way to produce energy by adding clean tap water. " Jerry Decker @ Keelynet.com comments : The water generator guy from Canada had a similar scheme but he has gone off the map. George Wiseman sent a guy out to the guys location and it was an empty building... 10/27/14 - Portable Generator Runs on Water!! http://www.keelynet.com/news/102714a.html and some history about the guys earlier failed venture; 11/03/14 - GDS Water Generator in Mexico http://www.keelynet.com/news/110314b.html But I think their contract might be tricked up so they can dispute it and win to keep the money if you try to reverse the charges as a defrauded or item misrepresented customer... http://uk.businessinsider.com/flow-energy-launches-boiler-that-produces-electric-power-2015-1 Feb. 2, 2015 A British company has invented a boiler that generates electricity as well as heat Stefano Pozzebon A British company has launched an innovative boiler that could totally change the way people pay for their energy and heat their homes. The Flow boiler provides both hot water and heat for the flats and apartments it is installed in but, on top of that, it also produces electric energy that can power household appliances. It aims at covering several energy needs with one single energy source, potentially allowing customers to generate their own power inside their homes. The more people will be able to generate electricity on their own, the less demand there will be on the national grid. Flow believes that its boiler can reduce a household's emissions by 20%. By switching electricity sources from an external service to the Flow boiler, a family can save up to £80 a month, according to the developers. Here is how it works: In a traditional boiler, gas is burned to heat water, which then passes through the home's pipes and radiators. The Flow boiler instead uses the gas to heat a high-pressure liquid coolant that is sealed inside the system. The vapour created then moves through a dynamo called a "scroll expander," which spins and acts as a mini electric generator. The hot vapor then moves through a heat exchanger, heating up the hot water for the house. The vapor returns to the boiler as the hot water is pumped around the house. The Flow is using gas from the national grid to do two jobs (create heat and drive a turbine) where a normal boiler does one, in other words. Flow Energy The product was 10 years in development. Flow CEO Tony Stiff is looking forward to seeing how it performs in the market. "I think it is a game-changer for a family," he said to Business Insider. Stiff said that the company has stocked up interests for 15,000 boilers prior to launch, but the company has the capacity to produce 200,000 units per year. If that is the case, the company will be able to hire 700 people at its headquarters in Ipswich, the Ipswich Star reports. The boilers are also produced in the UK: in Livingston, Scotland, by the American manufacturer Jabil. http://www.flowenergy.uk.com/ Tech Zone Flow is a reliable and really efficient boiler with a bit of magic inside. This is the world's first affordable electricity-generating boiler. It uses patented technology to generate electricity as it's heating your home. No other company anywhere else in the world has a boiler like this. Benefits Can produce around £500 of benefit a year long term Can reduce your household carbon emissions by up to 20% Features and technical spec Electricity-generating (microCHP) condensing gas boiler requiring a separate hot water tank Generates around 2000kWh of electricity a year, depending on house and gas usage A-rated efficiency – 92% Wall mounted 2 year boiler guarantee 2 year power module (electricity-generator) guarantee, extended up to 10 years Hempcrete & Hemp Adobe http://www.hempadobehomes.com Come See What you Can Build with Hemp What is Hemp Adobe? Hemp Adobe is a Proprietary Mix of - Hemp Adobe Brick Home Interior View- Family Room of HouseRefractories, Mineral Dust, Natural Fibers, Sand and Water. The advantage to using this mix is there is no toxic off-gas from casting the materials into the finished product. Its primary function is to gather, or sequester carbon dioxide from the environment as a part of the curing process and then forming to a petrified state. Hemp Adobe can be engineered to any volume of space, and into any shape desired. Hemp Adobe is 60% of the weight of conventional concrete. The strength of this material eliminates the need for rebar reinforcement. Basalt is another of Hemp Adobe’s base materials of choices, as spalling or corrosion does not occur, because of the inclusion of basalt. The Material Mix is highly efficient, a natural insulator, and allows for thermal exchange. Hemp is a Natural Biocide. Mold growth, and insects are are negated due to hemp’s innate qualities as it functions as a natural biocide. Applications The application of Hemp Adobe is Unlimited. We are just realizing it amazing possibilities. We do envision applications in; home construction, large industrial structures, sub-terrain, roads, transportation projects, bridges and spans. We are also seeing hemp adobe applications in; gardens, roofing and panel construction. The beauty of this material is that it can assume any shape we wish. Hemp-Concrete Patents Espacenet.com European Patent Office ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY CONCRETE COMPOSITION FOR BUILDING INTERIOR USING CANNABIS LIQUID AND STEMS OF CANNABIS AND CONSTRUCTING METHODS USING THEREOF KR101443674 ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY CONCRETE COMPOSITION USING CANNABIS AND CONSTRUCTING METHODS USING THEREOF KR101443669 CONCRETE CONTAINING SAPROPEL AND HEMP SHEAVES FOR INSULATION OF BUILDINGS LV14869 Cement straw composite plate and production technological method CN103771790 Self-supporting, curved ceiling plate without subconstruction of reinforced concrete for use as finished ceiling element or curved filigree plate, is made of laminated wood, metal, plastic or impregnated natural fiber material DE10201201604 Quake-proof energy-saving concrete structure CN103255835 METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING USING BRICKS CONNECTED USING DRY JOINTS US2013205703 Production method of lightweight ecological fish shelter CN103081827 Thin fleece material on the basis of alkali-macerated bast fiber, useful for producing a natural fiber composite DE102009043428 Device for projecting hemp concrete on e.g. walls of building for e.g. thermal and acoustic insulation of surfaces, has dosage unit distinct from lock to receive homogenized mixture in uncontrolled quantities and supply mixture to lock FR2965576 / FR2964059 Structure for ecological engineering method CN201722694 Insulation panel and method of production EP2295666 Preparing and projecting low density hemp concrete, comprises tightly shifting moistened binder to first feeding path, shifting dry aggregate of plant origin through second feeding path, and coating constitutive elements of aggregate FR2957016 Concrete i.e. hemp concrete projection device for e.g. clothing and insulation of house, has mixing unit comprised of aggregate unit and binding unit, and distribution unit in transport pipe supported by exit opening FR2951986 Outer insulation or construction box for forming e.g. wall, of building, has wooden frame filled with timber and lime concrete or hemp boon and lime, where wooden frame is made of board determining thickness of frame FR2947582 HEMP CONCRETE MIXTURES AND MORTARS, PREPARATION METHOD AND USES PT1406849 Construction material with filler of vegetable origin EP217748 VEGETATION CONCRETE BLOCK AND VEGETATION CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION JPH10195898 RAW MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURE FOR BUILDING FINISHING WALL MATERIAL JPH1162053 PRODUCTION OF HIGHLY DURABLE CONCRETE STRUCTURAL MATERIAL JPH0881252 ROCK WORK GREENING METHOD JPH0748823 CONCRETE BLOCK JPH1037377 MANUFACTURE OF BUILDING PANEL JPH0235150 FIBER REINFORCED RESIN TUBULAR MEMBER JPH06328624 Production of light-weight concrete products GB1089777 Improvements in or relating to concrete and the like piles GB732494 SIMULATED GRANITE AND ITS PREPARATION GB1516920 Method for casting concrete containing a filler composed partly by petrified hemp stalks (boon) aggregates and the manufactured products made on the basis of this method FR2645067 Concrete e.g. hemp concrete, projection device for e.g. renovation of wall, has case defining closed enclosure and receiving mixing units and distributing units, where distributing units distribute aggregate and binder mixture FR2915702 Process for mineralising renewable raw materials, use of the mineralised raw materials for producing concrete and building elements and materials and the building elements and materials obtained therewith EP1108696 Process for the treatment of a hemp by-product, aggregates obtained by this process and concrete incorporating these aggregates. EP0384815 Construction material containing organic filler EP1908739 Concrete roof stone consisting of one or more concrete layers useful as replacement for traditional ceramic materials contains steel, glass, synthetic plastic, bamboo, hemp or wood fibers DE102004063271 Natural fibre-reinforced building material DE19736527 Method for processing steaming rotting CN101109157 Technique for separating hemp seed and husk kernel CN101181092 New technology for producing hemp fiber CN1186877 Low-density concrete e.g. hemp lime concrete, projecting method for e.g. wall, involves humidifying mixture by mist blower due to dispersion of water in gas so as to obtain concrete, and projecting concrete on surface or substrate FR2923242 Videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?x-yt-cl=85114404&v=5XIXtZk_FA8&x-yt-ts=1422579428 Hemp Adobe Homes by Kevin Hodge https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=naGAnhax-tI HempCrete Strongest & Greenest Building material in Nature https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPHgnd068nI&list=PLB0CEA282A4D80AC2 Hemp House in Asheville, NC https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6eMdqJbQI4&index=5&list=PLB0CEA282A4D80AC2 Building with Hemp https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwrSeIFGs8o&index=15&list=PLB0CEA282A4D80AC2 Hemp Building Materials https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dnpw2hbpHxE&index=19&list=PLB0CEA282A4D80AC2 Hemp Lime Bulding Workshop Larry FULLERTON, et. al. : Programable Magnets A fundamental breakthrough combining patterned magnetic fields. http://www.correlatedmagnetics.com/ Correlated Magnetics Research CMR Demos Its Printed Polarity Magnets Correlated magnetics is a fundamental breakthrough in magnetics. By combining many magnetic fields, CMR’s patented Polymagnet technology transforms ordinary magnets into precision-tailored magnetic systems that produce complex functions not possible with conventional magnets. Magnetic functions are created with the world’s first magnetic printer, the CMR MagPrinter. The MagPrinter creates patterns of small magnetic regions called maxels on rare-earth, ferrite or flexible magnetic materials. Each Polymagnet pattern creates a unique function. Polymagnet means many magnets Polymagnets contain many smaller magnetic elements that can produce superior attachment forces, safer magnets, precision alignment, shear and torque stiffness, and complex, multi-level/multi-force functions never before achieved with traditional bulk magnets. Polymagnet technology enables unprecedented control over magnet interaction by applying the principles of signal processing theory and correlation methods to a pattern of magnetic elements on the magnet surface. Each Polymagnet comprises a number of pixel-like elements called maxels. The arrangement or pattern of these maxels creates a unique magnetic circuit that defines the function of the Polymagnet device and its interaction with other magnets and ferrous metals. The basic principle behind the interaction of Polymagnets is correlation, in which magnetic fields add to or subtract from the aggregate forces depending on the orientation of the maxels. Patterns can vary according to the number, location, size, shape and amplitude of the maxels that constitute the Polymagnet... the possible combinations reach toward infinity... Among the many advantages of Polymagnets are… Stronger forces : By concentrating magnetic flux at the surface of the magnet, more magnetic force is created ... can be tuned to thickness of metal... down to thousandths of an inch. Safer magnets : reduces stray magnetic fields that can accidentally attract nearby metal or other magnets. Concentrating the available magnetic flux into a prescribed near-surface region ... to achieve incredible attach force while reducing the risk of unintended attraction and acceleration of metal objects or other magnets... can even protect volatile magnetic storage devices from damaging stray fields. Precision alignment : By varying the number of magnetic elements, materials, and maxel pattern ... the positioning can be “assisted” by the magnetic field ... to attach at one position only, or at multiple positions, at prescribed rotation angles, lateral translation, or other spatial arrangement. Shear stiffness : Magnetic shear forces are traditionally weak relative to the attract and repel forces developed normal to a magnet surface... Polymagnets can ... significantly increase the shear forces... by improving the magnetic shear densities ... and the attach force between a magnet and a metal target surface. This Polymagnet advantage is even more pronounced as the magnet and/or metal surface thickness decreases. Better magnetic attach performance with less material, lower weight, smaller volume, and reduced costs. Torque transfer : Magnetic gears and couplings offer decided advantages over mechanical couplings because they eliminate wear and suppress vibration... Polymagnet technology provides superior torque density, and can be tuned for specific applications by varying the spatial frequency (transition from north polarity to south polarity) of the maxel regions. Multi-level magnetic systems : Polymagnet technology confers to the magnet designer precise control over magnetic fields in terms of reach, flux density, and three-dimensional shape of the field. In addition, the polarity mix for a given pattern can produce local attract or repel forces. These fields and forces can be combined to produce magnets that attract at a distance and repel in close proximity. Conversely, a multi-level design approach can produce a Polymagnet system where the components repel each other at a distance and attract each other in close proximity. The resulting behavior becomes a useful design functionality for attachment devices, motion actuators, and much more. Complex magnetic fields : Pixel-like magnetic elements (maxels) can be aggregated to form very intricate magnetic fields... enabling a nearly limitless set of unique magnetic field designs... VIDEOS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=drD416THU7Y Demonstration http://www.youtube.com/embed/mzVBFU_CbWU Stronger Forces http://www.youtube.com/embed/65XwNwgyWO4 Attach-Release http://www.youtube.com/embed/oBHWUUtJH6U Advanced Functions http://www.youtube.com/embed/jcCx8J5rP6U MagPrinter http://www.youtube.com/embed/5xJM4YM9I9M/?autoplay=1 Hanging Solutions http://www.youtube.com/embed/pgi2gDvYkrs/?autoplay=1 Self-Assembly PATENTS System and Method for Magnetization US2014035707 A system and a method are described herein for magnetizing magnetic sources into a magnetizable material. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (a) providing an inductor coil having multiple layers and a hole extending through the multiple layers; (b) positioning the inductor coil next to the magnetizable material; and (c) emitting from the inductor coil a magnetic field that magnetizes an area on a surface of the magnetizable material, wherein the area on the surface of the magnetizable material that is magnetized is in a direction other than perpendicular to the magnetizable material such that there is a magnetic dipole with both a north polarity and a south polarity formed on the surface of the magnetizable material. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TAILORING POLARITY TRANSITIONS OF MAGNETIC STRUCTURES US2014028426 A system and method for tailoring a polarity transition of a magnetic structure is provided that involves printing one or more reinforcing maxels alongside one side or both sides of a polarity transition boundary between a first polarity region of the magnetic structure having a first polarity and a second polarity region of the magnetic structure having a second polarity, where printing reinforcing maxels alongside the polarity transition boundary improves the magnetic field characteristics of the polarity transition. Magnetic Structures and Methods for Defining Magnetic Structures Using One-Dimensional Codes US8368495 / US8502630 An improved field emission system and method is provided that involves field emission structures having irregular polarity patterns defined in accordance with one-dimensional codes, where an irregular polarity pattern is at least one of an asymmetrical polarity pattern or an uneven polarity pattern. Such one-dimensional codes define at least one peak force and a plurality of off peak spatial forces corresponding to a plurality of alignments of said first and second field emission structures per code modulo, where a peak force is a spatial force produced when all aligned field emission sources produce an attractive force or all aligned field emission sources produce a repellant force and an off peak spatial force is a spatial force resulting from cancellation of at least one attractive force by at least one repellant force. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A FIELD EMISSION STRUCTURE US7750777 An improved field emission system and method is provided that involves field emission structures having electric or magnetic field sources. The magnitudes, polarities, and positions of the magnetic or electric field sources are configured to have desirable correlation properties, which may be in accordance with a code. The correlation properties correspond to a desired spatial force function where spatial forces between field emission structures correspond to relative alignment, separation distance, and the spatial force function. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR AUTHENTICATING AN OPTICAL PATTERN US2013284807 An improved field emission system and method is provided that involves field emission structures having electric or magnetic field sources. The magnitudes, polarities, and positions of the magnetic or electric field sources are configured to have desirable correlation properties, which may be in accordance with a code. The correlation properties correspond to a desired spatial force function where spatial forces between field emission structures correspond to relative alignment, separation distance, and the spatial force function. MAGNETIC SHEAR FORCE TRANSFER DEVICE US2014062241 A magnetic shear force transfer device for transferring shear forces across a non-magnetic gap includes a first magnetic structure comprising concentric circular tracks of magnetic sources magnetically printed into a first magnetizable material a second magnetic structure comprising concentric circular tracks of magnetic sources magnetically printed into a second magnetizable material. Each concentric circular track has an even number of magnetic sources where adjoining magnetic sources alternate in polarity. One or more tracks of the first magnetic structure are rotated relative to one or more tracks of the second magnetic structure such that a maximum torque condition coincides to one angular orientation between the first and second magnetic structures. Magnetic System US8174347 / US8570130 A multilevel magnetic system described herein includes first and second magnetic structures that produce a net force that transitions from an attract force to a repel force as a separation distance between the first and second magnetic structures increases. The multi-level magnetic system is configured to maintain a minimum separation distance between a transition distance where the net force is zero and a separation distance at which a peak repel force is produced. MAGNETIC ATTACHMENT SYSTEM HAVING A MULTI-POLE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND POLE PIECES US2014033482 An attachment system comprises an attachment assembly having a side with an exposed surface. A magnetic structure comprises a plurality of assembly field emission sources having positions and polarities relating to an attachment spatial force function. A plurality of assembly pole pieces are coupled to the magnetic structure such that a spatial spacing is created between the magnetic structure and the side. Each assembly pole piece is coupled to a corresponding one of the plurality of assembly field emission sources for directing magnetic flux. An attachment target attaches to the exposed surface based on the attachment spatial force function. The attachment target comprises a plurality of target field emission sources having positions and polarities relating to the attachment spatial force. The attachment spatial force function is in accordance with a code and corresponds to the relative alignment of the plurality of assembly field emission sources and the plurality of target field emission sources to each other. Detachable Cover System US8279032 / US8514046 A detachable cover system is described herein for covering an opening of an enclosure. The system comprises an enclosure, a cover, a first magnetic structure attached to the enclosure, a second magnetic system attached to the cover, and a coil in proximity to one of the first magnetic structure and the second magnetic structure. The first and second magnetic structures are configured to magnetically attach such that the cover covers the opening. The coil is controllable to produce a magnetic field that causes magnetic detachment of the first magnetic structure from the second magnetic structure such that said cover no longer covers the opening SYSTEM FOR DETACHING A MAGNETIC STRUCTURE FROM A FERROMAGNETIC MATERIAL WO2013130667 A detachment system includes a first piece of ferromagnetic material, a shunt plate, and at least one simple machine. The first piece of ferromagnetic material has a first side and a second side opposite the first side and has magnetically printed field sources that extend from the first side to the second side. The magnetically printed field sources have a first multi-polarity pattern. The first side of the first piece of ferromagnetic material is magnetically attached to a second piece of ferromagnetic material. The shunt plate is disposed on the second side of the first piece of ferromagnetic material. The shunt plate routes magnetic flux through the first piece of ferromagnetic material from the second side to the first side of the first ferromagnetic material.; The at least one simple machine is configured to amplify an applied force into a detachment force to create an angled spacing between the first piece of ferromagnetic material and the second piece of ferromagnetic material. FIELD EMISSION SYSTEM AND METHOD US8643454 / US8179219 / US8593242 An improved field emission system and method is provided that involves field emission structures having electric or magnetic field sources. The magnitudes, polarities, and positions of the magnetic or electric field sources are configured to have desirable correlation properties, which may be in accordance with a code. The correlation properties correspond to a desired spatial force function where spatial forces between field emission structures correspond to relative alignment, separation distance, and the spatial force function. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FOCUSING MAGNETIC FIELDS US2013135071 An improved system and method for focusing magnetic fields involves two aligned correlated magnetic structures each comprising an inner portion and an outer portion surrounding the inner portion where the inner portion and the outer portion have an opposite polarity relationship. The focused field magnetic structures produce composite magnetic fields where surface fields have substantially greater field strength than side fields. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR POWER GENERATION SYSTEM US2013015667 A power generation system comprises a tube, a coil assembly, a magnetic assembly, and a direct detonation source. The coil assembly comprises at least one coil configured outside the tube. The magnetic assembly comprises at least one magnet inside the tube. The magnetic assembly is configured to move relative to the tube. The direct detonation source produces a detonation impulse that causes one of the tube or the magnetic assembly to move thereby generating power based on the movement of the magnet assembly relative to the coil assembly where the direct detonation source produces the detonation impulse at an ignition point without requiring a period of deflagration. Complex Machine Including a Classical Simple Machine and a Magnetic System US8570129 / US7982568 / US8222986 A multilevel magnetic system and method for using the same are described herein. A wide-range of devices including a momentary snap switch, a cushioning device, and an exploding toy are also described herein that may incorporate one or more of the multilevel magnetic systems. MAGNETIC ATTACHMENT SYSTEM US8373527 / US2012246885 / US2012229241 An improved magnetic attachment system is provided that involves field emission structures having electric or magnetic field sources. The magnitudes, polarities, and positions of the magnetic or electric field sources are configured to have desirable correlation properties, which may be in accordance with a code. The correlation properties correspond to a desired spatial force function where spatial forces between field emission structures correspond to relative alignment, separation distance, and the spatial force function. ELECTRICAL ADAPTER SYSTEM US2012244732 MULTI-LEVEL MAGNETIC SYSTEM FOR ISOLATION OF VIBRATION US2012188037 System and method for affecting flux of multi-pole magnetic structures US2012146752 TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCING AN ELECTRICAL PULSE US2012139675 ELECTROMAGNETIC STRUCTURE HAVING A CORE ELEMENT THAT EXTENDS MAGNETIC COUPLING AROUND OPPOSING SURFACES OF A CIRCULAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURE US2012091847 A FIELD EMISSION SYSTEN AND METHOD KR20120008489 Magnetic Structure Production US2012038440 Stepping motor with a coded pole pattern US8174155 Randy Ziesenis : Water-Charging Machine http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_quantum08.htm www.greatspiritearth.com Randy Ziesenis Randy Ziesenis Ph.D. (Engineer) will describe his work, which includes locating PRIMARY WATER in China. (coordinated with Dan Winters project ‘Bloom the Desert’) His ‘Rapid Energy’ based company in Oklahoma specializes in the research and development of biotechnology radio frequency devices that have proven to alter the bonding structure of gases within water, producing oxygenated water with charging technology, which adds resonant memory, high negative ZETA potential and stabilized oxygen gas to normally dead water. ‘Rapid Energy’ has related technologies for enhancing growth, sedating or killing microbes, mold and fungus, using radio frequencies. Also commercial mixing or ore separation of rare earth elements, using resonant RF and sonic / ultrasonic energy. Randy invented the original circuit that became Q-Link, a commercially successful EMF deduction method. Consultant, Quantum Resonance Systems Inc and 30 years of RF research in water patents, and full time inventor since 1980. http://www.starchamberproducts.com/ Tom Mercer Science An often overlooked aspect of water is its unique ability to take on and hold a charge of energy by forming crystals in its atomic substructure, reflecting the stored energy. Like a rose reflects color to the eye, the water crystals reflect color and the energy that has been loaded into their network. Many methods have been tried to achieve the perfect water crystal for the body to use and to recognize as natural and beneficial to its restoration and cleansing processes. Unfortunately, we use prepared water stored in bottles, carried through pipes, and treated for human consumption by various electrically charged antibacterial processes. Using these methods have destroyed the naturally occurring life force in clean, fresh, well water and clear aquifer water. Those waters all contain a natural "Earth charge" that can actually be measured when first taken from their source. All the processing eliminates the very reason we drink water - which is for the life forces released in the body when it breaks water down into the hydrogen and oxygen used in maintaining life. The problem begins when we bring water from wells and treat it with various chemicals and electricity. This was graphically shown in photographs presented at the International Water Conference held in Pasadena in May 2001. Dr. Masaru Emoto showed his research involved freezing water to subzero temperatures and then photographing the crystals that are formed to show the result of their exposure to stimuli. The pictures reveal that the water structure is severely damaged by electrical processing. Not even micro-clustering or any other process will recreate water's original cold vortex in the Earth, a "perfect crystal of stored energy." According to many modern researchers. In our presentation at the conference, Tom's research showed a new type of water crystal, created using a previously unknown method of interacting with the core atoms of hydrogen and elements of natural primal energy. The result is an absolutely perfectly structured, rotating water crystal, created from the ultra pure distilled water we start with. We go into the interior of the water crystal to reorganize the energy structure and reprogram it to emit high levels of this so called "living energy." This natural, organic process causes the crystal to spin rapidly and give off strong electromagnetic pulses (natural earth pulses) that are easily felt by most people. These are the vital lost electrical signals the body uses to guide the water through the aquaporins. This activity was first videotaped by the internationally known molecular water-energy researcher, Dr.Randy Ziesenis, in his lab in Oklahoma using a 20,000-power microscope. (Dr. Zeiseneis does research with Dr. Bill Tiller, Professor Emetrius, Stanford University, on water.) The study revealed high-speed spinning vortexes in our water, "releasing balls of pure light, disseminating their energy into whatever they touch." Starchamber first gave a paper on these phenomena at the International Forum on New Sciences Conference at Colorado State University in 1991, where we discussed the process of restoring the human system using this discovery. Our water adds this tremendous force to whatever it is placed into or on. Our water is made using natural earth currents and the unified field as described by Einstein and by our new research into Nikola Tesla's studies on free energy. The charging tool is an organic device designed to collect the natural energies around us. The tool "creates cold vortical amplification and enhancement" into the water to create the spinning effect we see in the photos... Pure distilled water is used as a carrier of our charging process. The water is sealed in the holding tank and the charging tool is placed outside around the tank. After a prescribed time, the water inside has been permanently charged and restructured with the naturally enhanced energy, by a process known as "biomagnetic entrainment". The charging device consists of hundreds of organic sands and metallic elements, with the magnetic ability to transfer their natural organic electric energy to the water inside the holding tanks. This moving natural Earth energy field causes the water molecules to restructure in a cold vortical form, and rotate at high speed, as seen in the actual laboratory video shot by Dr. Randy Zeiseneis, world renowned water researcher. Dr. Zeiseneis visually confirmed VEW as free high speed cold vortical rotating energetic molecules, same as described by Dr. Gerald Pollack Ph.D. Director of University of Washington's research, on water's ability to hold charges and the ability to properly transfer it to the cells, if structured as a vortex. US5925292 Water-Charging Machine [ Excerpt ] A water charging machine wherein the water being treated is moved downwardly through a vertically extending outer vortex and then moved in an upwardly extending inner vortex within the outer vortex. Oxygen may be introduced into the stream of water either upstream of the outer vortex or at the point of reversal of the water between the outer vortex and the inner vortex, or both, to provide a long shelf life incorporation of the gaseous oxygen in the water. The water and oxygen may also be exposed to a negative or positive magnetic field and a piezoelectric field to provide a substantial Zeta potential. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is now generally recognized that most people suffer from a lack of adequate oxygen for optimal body functions. For example, it is generally recognized that the oxygen level in the air is much below what it was many years ago. Many efforts have been made to provide a supplemental supply of oxygen. The most obvious way is to provide a mask connected to a supply of gaseous oxygen; however, such use is inconvenient and can be dangerous if not properly monitored. Other efforts have included incorporation of additional oxygen in water based products, such as drinking water. Heretofore, however, such attempts have not been adequate for a variety of reasons, such as the inability of presently known techniques for incorporating gaseous oxygen in water in such a manner that the oxygen will be retained in the water over extended periods of time, particularly after the container for the water is opened to atmospheric pressure. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, a stream of water in which oxygen is to be incorporated is first directed downwardly in an outer vortex, and then directed upwardly through an inner vortex within the outer vortex. The oxygen could be incorporated into the stream of water by being introduced into the stream before the stream is moved through the first outer vortex, as well as being introduced at the point of reversal of the stream from the outer vortex to the inner vortex, or both. In a preferred embodiment, the gaseous oxygen introduced into the stream prior to the stream entering the first outer vortex is introduced in smaller bubbles than is the gaseous oxygen introduced into the stream at the point of reversal between the outer and the inner vortexes. Also, in the preferred embodiment, the water is moved in each vortex in a clockwise direction looking in the direction of movement of the stream... Rainmaker Water Treatment Benefits : Increased yields with reduced water... Enables crops to endure higher/lower temperatures ... Decreased irrigation costs... No batteries... Unlimited water treatments... No parts to replace... Tanks/tubs/showers stay cleaner... 20 year warranty... More efficient cleaning... Lower heating costs,,, Improve appliance efficiency... Dissolve deposits in plumbing... Increases hardness in concrete... Features : Triangular Configuration Of Energized Crystal Spheres ... Contains All Natural Elements Of The Periodic Table ... Contains Full Spectrum Natural Energies ... Incorporates Peizoelectrics http://rainmakerh2o.com/ 707-498-9642 1.888.777.6045 info@rainmakerH20.com Rainmaker H2O Enhances water's natural ability to hydrate and nourish cells and tissues, providing superior health and productivity for plants, animals and people while reducing the amount of water needed. Farmers and ranchers have long known of the positive effects of rainwater on their fields. The Rainmaker™ mimics one of nature’s greatest miracles of natural cleansing and regeneration. We have created the same revitalizing effect the earth's atmosphere has on rainwater. When it rains, some of the molecules of water (H2O) are changed into natural peroxide (H2O2), hydronium (H3O) and ozone (O3). Peroxide is water with an extra oxygen atom attached to it. Hydronium is water that has an extra hydrogen atom attached to it and ozone is an oxygen molecule with an extra oxygen atom attached to it. Although rarely discussed in the general or scientific literature, it is the presence of "hydrogen," that is the real determinant of cellular pH, also known as the acid/alkaline balance, a vital component in the health of all plants, animals and people everywhere on the earth. In addition, the extra supply of hydrogen ions attract vital, life-restoring and life-sustaining energy and information from the natural environment, with the bulk water (H2O) acting, in effect, like a "carrier wave." Ozone is one of nature's greatest cleansers and sanitizers that de-activates bacteria and viruses 3125 times faster and 50% more efficiently than chlorine. This allows for the control of common bacteria like E. coli, as well as fecal coliforms, viruses, fungi, mold, mildew and cysts. Unlike chlorine, however, which produces trihalomethane (a toxic chemical by-product), ozone is not carcinogenic. In fact, it is extremely beneficial. Water is the very substance of life and oxygen is its breath. As stated above, oxygen-rich, life-giving rainwater is loaded with natural ozone and peroxide that are both found in the chlorophyll of plant greens you eat. Water in this form oxygenates and revitalizes your plants as well as your body. Human impact on the soil has increased across the globe. In the course of trying to provide a favorable environment for life, people everywhere have manipulated nature resulting instead in serious damage to the entire ecosystem. The Rainmaker™ helps to reverse these negative effects by providing more available life-enhancing water and nutrients for your plants which results in far higher nutrient density and much greater crop yields. TECHNOLOGY Farmers and ranchers have long known of the positive effects of rainwater on their fields. The Rainmaker mimics one of nature’s greatest miracles of natural cleansing and regeneration. We have created the same revitalizing effect the earth's atmosphere has on rainwater. When it rains, some of the molecules of water (H2O) are changed into natural peroxide (H2O2), hydronium (H3O) and ozone (O3). Peroxide is water with an extra oxygen atom attached to it. Hydronium is water that has an extra hydrogen atom attached to it and ozone is an oxygen molecule with an extra oxygen atom attached to it... GlassesOff Vision Training http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2583746/The-app-let-throw-away-reading-glasses.html 18 March 2014 Could the 'eye training' app really let you throw away your reading glasses? by Mark Prigg A new app that claims to be able to improve people's eyesight by 'training' them with a series of exercises has become a hit. Called GlassesOff, it uses a series of patterns to create 15 minutes exercises for users. If done three times a week, its makers say it could mean they no longer need reading glasses after three months. The app uses a series of games, puzzles and tests to improve a user's eyesight - if they can play for 15 minutes three times a week for three months. The app uses a series of games, puzzles and tests to improve a user's eyesight - if they can play for 15 minutes three times a week for three months. HOW IT WORKS GlassesOff uses a completely different approach that is exclusively aimed at teaching the visual system of the brain to better use its potential. This allows the brain to compensate for blurred information captured by the eyes as we age. The foundation for this technology is provided by the brain's ability to adapt, the app makers say. The app uses patterns designed to strengthen connections within circuits relevant to a task, such as recognizing letters when reading. 'Traditionally, near distance reading improvement solutions were limited to optical corrections such as glasses, contact lenses and refractive surgery,' said said Nimrod Madar, CEO of GlassesOff. 'However, human vision performance is in fact limited by two factors: the quality of an image captured by the eye and the image processing capability of the brain as it interprets such images. 'Our solution is designed to improve reading by enhancing the image processing function of the visual cortex, demonstrating the amazing potential of the human brain. The app uses patterns as well as games to train the user's eyes 'We created this app because we wanted to empower people who experienced natural age-related changes in reading ability to take control of their vision and improve their quality of life. 'Our personalized app constantly adapts according to users’ progress, with the ultimate goal of freeing them from dependency on magnifying devices such as reading glasses.” The GlassesOff app is free to download from the App Store and offer users access to a vision evaluation and the first segment of the GlassesOff program. After Using the GlassesOff app for approximately two weeks, users will be given the option to subscribe to the full version, which includes additional advanced segments, for59.99.

However, during the launch, subscriptions will be offered at a special price of just $9.99. App claims exercise will improve eyesight The app gives users regular tests to check their progress, giving them a 'brain speed' ranking as they improve The researchers have also published several studies backing up the app's effectiveness. In a study carried out at the University of California at Berkeley and published in Nature Scientific Reports, all subjects who completed the GlassesOff program were able to read standard newspaper font size without the use of reading glasses, while improving their 'Eye Age' by an average of 8.6 years. A second study looks at the correlation between the fovea, which is part of the retina, and crowding, processing speed and vision sharpness. The findings demonstrate that the GlassesOff technology may be applicable to improved performance of daily tasks, such as sports, reading, driving, and more. 'This study results reaffirm our product’s ability to help reading by improving visual processing speed. 'The results are encouraging and relevant for our planned launch of a series of pipeline products for mass market segments, including those designed to improve visual functions in sports and reading speed,' said Madar. http://www.glassesoff.com/ Revolutionary science delivered directly to your iPhone Human vision is limited by two main factors: The quality of an image captured by the eyes. The image processing capabilities of the brain as it interprets an image captured by the eyes. GlassesOff scientists have developed a proprietary method for improving near vision sharpness, by improving the image processing function in the visual cortex of the brain. eople can impact their vision by increasing the quality of images captured by their eye (e.g., wearing glasses, going through corrective eye surgery), or by enhancing their brain’s image processing abilities. At some point, every person will suffer from the inevitable natural deterioration in near distance reading capabilities. This deficiency has typically been addressed by traditional products for improvement of reading capabilities, mainly magnification devices such as reading glasses or contact lenses that support reading. GlassesOff scientists have developed a patented method for boosting the image processing function in the visual cortex of the brain, thereby improving a person’s near vision sharpness and reading capabilities. Scientifically Proven Solution Our technology is based on extensive scientific research and achievements that have been published in the leading scientific publications, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, Vision Research, Scientific Reports and others. During the last two decades, scientists have demonstrated that contrast-driven neural responses are robustly affected by lateral propagations between neurons in the visual cortex. A positive effect of this interaction is called “collinear facilitation”, which amplifies weak and slow responses and their underlying mechanism of neuronal excitations. This function strengthens selective synapses to elevate weak stimuli above the noise, and is the foundation of GlassesOff technology. Weaker and slower neuronal responses in the visual cortex, either as a consequence of blurred input from the eyes or abnormal development, result in degraded basic visual functions both in the spatial domain, e.g. contrast sensitivity, and the temporal domain, e.g. processing speed. These changes eventually affect high-level visual tasks, such as letter identification. GlassesOff scientists have shown that using neuronal plasticity retained in the adult brain, it is possible to increase collinear facilitation to compensate for spatial and temporal deficiencies. GlassesOff scientific foundations Selected peer-reviewed scientific publications and scientific presentations: http://uripolat.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/srep00278.pdf Training the brain to overcome the effect of aging on the human eye The effectiveness of the GlassesOff product was examined in a recent study conducted at the University of California at Berkeley and published in Nature’s Scientific Reports. This study clearly demonstrated the significant benefit of the GlassesOff training program for reading abilities and eye age. Moreover, cutting-edge optometric equipment allowed the scientists to unequivocally determine that the actual source of the observed benefits is solely in the brain and not in the optics of the eyes. http://uripolat.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/2004-polat-pnas-amblyopia.pdf Improving vision in adult amblyopia by perceptual learning Perceptual training was applied to an adult visual system with abnormal development of the primary visual cortex of the brain leading to amblyopia (“lazy eye”). Training yielded significant benefits that transfer to higher visual tasks, resulting in a two-fold improvement in contrast sensitivity and in letter-recognition tasks in patients between 9 and 55 years old. This is the first evidence for a remarkable vision improvement following perceptual learning in a condition previously acknowledged as untreatable in adults. http://uripolat.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/2009-practical_pl.pdf Making perceptual learning practical to improve visual functions Generalization, or transfer, of gains acquired on a trained task to other functions is crucial for both understanding the neural mechanisms and the practical values of the training. This study describes a perceptual learning method applied to amblyopia (“lazy eye”), myopia (near-sightedness) and presbyopia (age-related near vision decline). The gains were transferred to visual acuity, processing speed and reaction time. Thus, perceptual learning can become a practical method for improving visual functions in people with impaired or blurred vision. http://uripolat.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/sterkin_yehezkel_polat_vr_2012.pdf Learning to be fast: gain accuracy with speed The effectiveness of perceptual learning on contrast detection in young adults was tested using behavioral and neurophysiological (Event-Related Potentials, ERPs) measurements. A remarkable improvement in all behavioral measurements, including sensitivity and reaction time, along with shorter latency and increased amplitude of an ERP marker of neuronal interactions within the visual cortex of the brain. Thus, perceptual learning that strengthens inter-neuronal interaction results in a faster processing speed and higher contrast sensitivity. http://www.glassesoff.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ARVO_2013.pdf Digital precise remote near vision sharpness evaluation on mobile devices GlassesOff developed a tool for precise remote evaluation of near vision sharpness in order to accurately and remotely estimate reading abilities. Tested on 73 volunteers on iPhone 4, the application better predicts the functional reading acuity due to the brief stimuli presentation, as opposed to single letter detection used in golden standard reading chart measurements. http://www.glassesoff.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ARVO_2012.pdf Perceptual training on mobile devices improves near visual functions The resolution and quality of smart phone screens are much better than those of PC monitors, with an average pixel size several times smaller in Apple’s retina display than in PC screens. This enables one to achieve better contrast sensitivity by a factor of 2-3, thus providing more prospect for training near visual functions. http://www.glassesoff.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/AAO_2012.pdf Perceptual training on mobile devices for the aging human eye Training with GlassesOff on mobile devices is an effective solution for improving near vision sharpness in presbyopia by enhancing image processing in the brain, with better contrast sensitivity compared to PC. http://uripolat.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/2009-experreviews1.pdf Neuroplasticity following perceptual learning for visual improvement The aim of this review is to show that perceptual learning can be applied for practical purposes to improve visual functions of people with special needs. Prof. Polat predicts that perceptual learning methodology will be modified in the near future into complementary or standalone procedures to aid care providers in treating and improving a variety of visual functions that are not addressed by conventional treatment. Yee Haw ! Drive more fish & birds to extinction sooner and pollute the water too ! Milan JECKLE : Ultraviolet Fish / Bird Lure http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/05/ap/strange/mainD8FJ4Q6G5.shtml http://www.keelynet.com/indexfeb206.htm Ultraviolet Lure May Catch Fish's Eye In the ancient struggle between man and fish, man has a new weapon. Forget fancy lures, depth charges or precision casting guns. The new weapon requires vision -- ultraviolet vision. Called Fool-a-Fish, it comes in a bottle that sprays titanium dioxide on fishing lures and bait. The chemical lights up the watery depths like a disco ball, luring fish from half a mile away. "You catch three or four times more fish, and the biggest fish," Jeckle contended. Researchers have discovered that while humans see in three colors -- red, yellow-green and blue -- fish and birds see a fourth color in the ultraviolet range, which shows up as a white glow, Jeckle said. This color is invisible to humans. Working with David Cleary, a chemistry professor at Spokane's Gonzaga University, Jeckle came up with the formula combining titanium dioxide, which is used in sunscreens, and several other chemicals. The whitish liquid dries quickly, and will stay on a lure for some two hours, he said. It is nontoxic, odorless and washes off with soap and water. But underwater it shines like a beacon to fish. Jeckle said many of the spray products currently used to lure fish are scent-based, because fish are known to search for food by smell. "This is based entirely on vision," Jeckle said. "This is a new way to fish." "It's not just blood that attracts sharks," he added. "They can see a swimmer half a mile away." Jeckle makes up batches of Fool-A-Fish in his kitchen. The spray is sold in some outdoor stores in the region, and it can be ordered on Jeckle's Web site. It is also getting written up in fishing magazines. Northwest Angler said the formula "makes it super easy for fish to see lures or baits from great distances." Jeckle has also adapted his formula to produce Fool-A-Bird, which works on a reverse principle. Birds use ultraviolet vision to avoid humans, so Jeckle created a formula that when sprayed on a hunter's clothes, body and gun will absorb ultraviolet rays. "You spray it on yourself and they treat you like a tree trunk or a dead stump," Jeckle said. "They ignore you." Ultraviolet light reflective composition for fishing apparatus US2006121166 A spray-on ultra violet light reflective composition for application on natural and synthetic baits and lures used in fishing activities, and the process for making the composition. The composition is made in three phases each separately mixed and thereafter combined. In phase A, a thickener, optionally a preservative, a pH adjuster and distilled water are combined and mixed. In phase B, a disperser, a solvent, a film forming polymer and a pH buffer are combined and mixed. The mixtures of phase A and phase B are combined, mixed and heated. In phase C, Titanium dioxide, a UV reflectant, a wetting agent and emulsifiers, and optionally a surface smoother, are combined and mixed. The mixture of phase C is heated and added to the heated phase A and phase B mixture. The composition is thereafter cooled, diluted and homogenized. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION [0002] 1. Field of Invention [0003] The present invention relates generally to apparatus used in fishing activities, and more particularly to a spray coating applied to baits and lures which reacts with ultraviolet light to increase perceptibility by fish and crustaceans. [0004] 2. Background and Description of Prior Art [0005] Color is an interpretation of light waves having a particular wavelength. While it is an organism's eye that receives light waves, it is the organism's brain that interprets those light waves and "sees" colors. [0006] A transparent lens called the cornea is at the front of the eye to allow light waves into the eye. Behind the cornea is the iris, which gives the eye its color. By changing size, the iris regulates the amount of light entering the pupil, which is the orifice defined by the iris. Located behind the iris is a crystalline lens which focuses the light rays entering the eye onto the retina. The retina is the inner most layer of the eye and is covered with photo receptor cells. Light waves enter the eye through the cornea, pass through the pupil are focused by the lens and strike the photo receptors on the retina. [0007] There are two types of photo receptors, rods and cones, which are named for their relative shapes. Rod type photo receptors perceive the intensity of light and enable an organism to see at night. Cone type photo receptors perceive the wavelengths of various light waves and enable the organism to distinguish colors. [0008] Humans are among the minority of mammals that have color vision. In the human eye, rods are found at the peripheral regions of the retina but are nearly absent from the center of the visual field, known as the fovea, where the cones are concentrated. The human eye has about 150,000 cones (color receptors) per square millimeter of fovea area. Humans' eyes have three variants of photo-receptive cones (known as red cones, blue cones and green cones) and for that reason humans are classified as trichromic organisms. Each variant of photo receptive cone carries a unique protein, called an opsin, that reacts when struck by light waves having wavelengths that correspond to the opsin's light sensitivity. It is unknown whether the reaction is physical, chemical or both. The reaction of the opsin is communicated to the brain allowing the organism to distinguish between red, blue and green colors. Thus, the world visually perceived by humans is dominated by light having wave lengths ranging from 400-750 nanometers, or blue to red respectively. [0009] In contrast to humans, bony fish and crustaceans have tetra-chromic vision. The eyes of tetra-chromic organisms have four variants of photo receptive cones. In addition to having three variants of cones with opsins sensitive to red, green and blue light, bony fish and crustaceans have a fourth variant of cone with an opsin that is sensitive to UV light which presumptively enables the organism to perceive ultra violet light that is invisible to humans. The peak sensitivity of the opsin on this fourth variant of photo receptive cone is at about 358 nanometers which is known as Ultra Violet A (UVA) light. [0010] As noted above, while a human eye has about 150,000 cones per square millimeter of fovea area, the eyes of bony fish and crustaceans have more than one million cones per square millimeter of fovea area. This large difference in the number of cone type photo receptors in the fovea presumptively provides bony fish and crustaceans with greater visual acuity than humans, as well as an ability to perceive UV light that is invisible to humans. [0011] Ultra violet light penetrates more deeply into water than visible light and ultraviolet light is abundant in near surface marine ecosystems. It is estimated there is sufficient UV light for UV vision down to a depth of approximately 200 meters in clear ocean water, while visible light penetrates clear ocean water to a depth of only approximately 20-40 meters. The current prevailing hypothesis is that UV vision is primarily used by fish and crustaceans to improve detection of prey. [0012] The prior art discloses various compositions and substances, commonly known as scents that allegedly make baits and lures more appealing to fish and crustaceans by means of olfactory stimulation. The instant composition is distinguishable from scents because it does not stimulate the olfactory senses but rather is a composition that presumptively appeals to the visual senses of fish and crustaceans. [0013] The instant invention reflects light, and especially UV light, off treated surfaces making baits and lure more perceptible to bony fish and crustaceans and theoretically more likely to cause the fish and crustacean to attempt to eat the treated bait or lure. [0014] The instant invention is a spray-on, quick drying, water resistant composition that promotes and enhances the effectiveness of natural and synthetic baits and lures in attracting fish and crustaceans. The composition presumptively functions by various methodologies including reflecting light waves, and especially UV light waves, at incident wave lengths, reflecting light waves at altered wave lengths, leaving a trail of light reflecting crystals as treated baits and lures move through the water, and it appears the composition may be doing more than merely reflecting light waves, and especially UV light waves, although the nature of how this might be occurring is presently unknown. SUMMARY OF INVENTION [0015] My invention provides a spray-on, water resistant colloidal composition that reflects light and especially "UV" light. The composition is made in three individual phases which are heated and thereafter combined. The composition comprising distilled water, Carbopol ETD, Versene 100, Phenonip, Propylene glycol, Dermacryl 79, Triethanolamine, Tegosoft TN 2, Titanium dioxide, Tego Care 450 and Dow Corning 200/10 CST.... DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT [0028] The chemical ingredients used in the preferred embodiment of the composition are identified by chemical name and common trade name in Table 1. The International Nomenclature for Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) chemical names have been provided. Other chemicals having the same properties but produced by other manufacturers and having different trade names may be equally suitable for manufacture of the composition. [0029] The instant invention provides a stable spray-on water resistant ultraviolet (UV) light reflective composition having the following ingredients: TABLE 1 Ingredient: Manufacturer: Purpose: Carbopol ETD Acrylates/C10-30 thickener Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer Versene 100 Tetrasodium EDTA pH adjuster, (Ethylenediamine chelating agent Tetraacetic Acid) Phenonip Phenoxyethanol preservative Propylene Glycol 1,2 Propanediol solvent, cross linking agent Dermacryl 79 Acrylates/Octyl- film forming acrylamide polymer Copolymer Triethanolamine Triethanolamine pH buffer, 99% emulsifier, chelating agent TegoSoft TN2 C12-15 Alkyl wetting agent, Benzoate emulsifier Titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide UV light reflectant Tego Care 450 Poly Glyceryl-3 emulsifier Methyl glucose Distearate Dimethicone surface smoother Distilled Water water carrier medium [0030] The described process of manufacture forms a stable liquid colloidal composition that may be applied with a spray applicator or otherwise, and when dry forms a layered water resistant matrix having light reflective material, and especially UV light reflective material, therein. [0031] The light reflective Titanium dioxide crystals of the instant invention are insoluble in water by nature. Forming of a stable colloidal composition with such crystals requires that the crystals be stabilized so they will not separate from the carrier medium. Tego Care 450 and Tegosoft TN 2 are elongate molecules having one end portion that is hydrophilic and an opposing end portion that is hydrophobic. These elongate molecules adhere to the Titanium dioxide crystals so they do not coalesce and settle-out of the composition. The result is a stable colloidal composition with a water carrier medium holding the Titanium dioxide crystals in suspension. The inclusion of Phenonip, which is a preservative, and Dow Corning 200/10 CST, which is a surface smoother, in the composition is not essential to operability but is preferable to provide longer shelf-life and give the composition more appealing texture to both fish and user. [0032] The composition is made in three phases to maintain the proper pH balance for each phase and to ensure that the intermediate chemical reactions occur as desired. Manufacture in three separate phases also prevents undesirable premature reactions between ingredients of the separate phases with each other. [0033] Phase A. 309.60 milliliters of distilled water is added to a 5 liter beaker. A magnetic stir bar is placed in the beaker containing the water and operated to create a vortex in the water. 0.90 grams of Carbopol ETD, which is a thickener, is slowly added to the beaker containing the distilled water and mixed for approximately 15 minutes while maintaining a vortex in the mixture throughout the mixing. Following the mixing, the Carbopol ETD should be evenly dispersed and all "fish-eyes" should have disappeared. 0.77 grams of Versene 100, which is a pH adjuster and chelating agent, is slowly added to the mixture of distilled water and Carbopol ETD and mixed with the magnetic stir bar at a moderate speed of approximately 5 revolutions per second. 0.35 grams of Phenonip, which is a preservative, optionally is added to the mixture in the beaker to prevent bacterial or fungal growth in the composition. Phase A is mixed as described because the pH of the mixture is material. Versene 100 is a weak base and pH adjuster and also a chelating agent. When combined with water, the Versene 100 increases the pH of the mixture so that the Carbopol ETD is more completely drawn into colloidal suspension. Without inclusion of Versene 100, the Carbopol ETD has less colloidal suspension. The Phase A mixture is set aside. [0034] Phase B. 20.18 grams of Propylene Glycol, which is a solvent and cross-linking agent, is placed in a 2 liter beaker. 10.00 grams of Dermacryl 79, which is a water resistant film forming polymer, is added to the beaker containing the Propylene Glycol and mixed by hand with a glass stir rod until all "fish-eyes" have disappeared. The result is a thick white oily paste. 3.55 grams of Triethanolamine, which is a pH buffer, emulsifier and chelating agent, is added to the mixture of Propylene Glycol and Dermacryl 79 and mixing is continued with the glass stir rod until the mixture appears to be a uniform thick white oily paste. The Dermacryl 79 combines with the Triethanolamine to create a reaction product which is soluble in water. The Propylene Glycol is an additional solvent that ensures that the Dermacryl 79 dissolves into the mixture completely. [0035] Combining Phase A and Phase B. The mixture made in Phase B is transferred into the 5 liter beaker containing the mixture made in Phase A. A stir bar is used to mix the Phase A and Phase B mixtures while heating the combined mixtures to 80[deg.] C. At first, the mixture of Phase B forms a separate layer on the surface of the Phase A mixture, but as the mixing and heating is continued the two mixtures thin and combine to form a homogeneous white mixture. The combined Phase A and Phase B mixture is maintained at 80[deg.] C. [0036] Phase C. 65.00 milliliters of distilled water, which is a carrier medium, is added to a 2 liter beaker and stirred with a magnetic stir bar at a moderate speed of approximately 5 revolutions per second. 30.02 grams of Tegosoft TN2, which is an emulsifier and wetting agent, is added to the beaker containing the distilled water. The Tegosoft TN2 does not mix with the distilled water, but instead forms a separate layer on the surface of the distilled water. 25.06 grams of finely particulated forms of Titanium dioxide, which is a light reflectant, is added to the beaker containing the distilled water and the Tegosoft TN2. The Titanium dioxide does not immediately mix with either the Tegosoft TN2 or the distilled water but rather appears to settle in the bottom water layer as a combined suspension and sludge. 15.01 grams of Tego Care 450, which is an emulsifier, is added to the beaker containing the foregoing Phase C mixture. The particles of Tego Care 450 do not combine with any of the other ingredients in the beaker, but instead fall to the bottom of the mixture. Because a magnetic stir bar is unable to stir the mixture by itself, a glass stir rod is used in combination with the magnetic stir bar. The combined methods of mixing cause a large portion of the Tego Care 450 particles to break up forming a suspension in the mixture. 15.05 grams of Dow Corning 200/10 CST, which is a surface smoother and lubricant for spray nozzles, is added to the beaker containing the Phase C mixture while the magnetic stir bar and glass stir rod mixing is continued and the mixture is heated to 80[deg.] C. As the mixing and heating continue, the ingredients combine to form a homogenous liquid mixture having a light yellow color that thickens as it is heated. The Tegosoft TN2 and the Tego Care 450 hold the Titanium dioxide crystals in suspension. The Tegosoft TN 2 also enhances the uniform distribution of the Titanium dioxide crystals throughout the mixture. [0037] Combining Phase C with the Phase A and Phase B combination. After being heated to 80[deg.] C., Phase C is added to the 5 liter beaker containing the combination of Phase A and Phase B mixtures already at 80[deg.] C. The newly combined mixture is held at 80[deg.] C. for approximately 15 minutes while mixing with a magnetic stir bar continues until a thick white homogenous mixture forms in the beaker. [0038] The mixture is allowed to cool to approximately 35[deg.] C. and is then diluted with distilled water at a volume ratio of four parts distilled water to one part mixture. Thereafter, the diluted colloidal mixture is mechanically homogenized at approximately 25,000 rpm for a period of approximately five minutes. [0039] Testing of the ultraviolet light reflectance of this composition showed the following: EXAMPLE 1 [0040] A transparent coating of the colloidal composition was applied to a glass slide with a spray bottle and allowed to dry. The transparent layer is not visible on a test slide without magnification. An uncoated glass control slide provided a comparison measurement for reflectance. The slides were simultaneously exposed to a single light source and reflectance of the light from the test slide and the control slide was measured for light having wave lengths of 350 nanometers and 450 nanometers. The measurements showed the test slide, having the transparent layer of the composition, reflected approximately 43% more 350 nanometer light waves than the control slide, and 50% more 450 nanometer light waves than the control slide. EXAMPLE 2 [0041] A translucent layer of the composition was applied to a glass slide with a spray bottle and allowed to dry. The translucent layer has a slightly milky appearance and is visible on a test slide without magnification, but is not opaque. An uncoated glass control slide provided a comparison measurement of reflectance. The slides were simultaneously exposed to a single light source and reflectance of the light from the test slide and the control slide was measured for light having wave lengths of 350 nanometers and 450 nanometers. The measurements showed the test slide, having the translucent layer of the composition, reflected approximately 292% more 350 nanometer light waves than the control slide, and 275% more 450 nanometer light waves than the control slide. [0042] Having described the structure and composition of my ultraviolet light reflective colloidal composition its use and operation may be understood. [0043] In the preferred method of application, a bait 10 or lure (not shown) is secured to a fishing line 12 or hook 11 in customary fashion, or the bait 10 is placed in a bait apparatus such as a crustacean trap. The bait 10 or lure is coated with the instant composition, preferably using a spray type applicator of known construction, such that the exterior surfaces of the bait 10 or lure are coated. The composition is allowed to dry, which takes approximately 1-5 minutes depending upon temperature and humidity conditions. Thereafter the bait or lure is used in a customary fashion. [0044] Although the composition is stable and water resistant, it may be necessary to reapply the composition to baits and lures after a period of use and after extended exposure to the water and strikes by fish. [0045] Use of the ultraviolet light reflecting coating composition on a worm is shown in FIG. 1 wherein there is seen a bait 10, a worm in this illustration, carried on a hook 11 attached to a fishing line 12, with or without an intervening lure or flasher (not shown). Light rays 13 striking and reflected from the bait 10 are as indicated by the arrows thereon. This illustration would represent a relatively static positioning of the bait 10 in water as in the case of still fishing. [0046] The illustration of FIG. 2 shows the bait of FIG. 1 as it would appear if moving forwardly, to the left, in a body of water, as in the case of trolling or casting and retrieving. Here, some of the diagrammatically illustrated crystals of Titanium dioxide 14 are removed from, and with portions of the instant coating composition (not shown), to leave a particulated trail about and behind the coated bait 10 as it passes through the surrounding water to further attract fish and ultimately draw the attention of fish to the bait 10. Ultraviolet light absorbing composition for bird hunting apparatus US7528187 A spray-on ultra violet light absorbing composition for application on bird decoys and related bird hunting and bird watching apparatus, and the process for making the composition. The composition is made in three phases each separately mixed and thereafter combined. In phase A, a thickener, optionally a preservative, a pH adjuster and distilled water are combined and mixed. In phase B, a disperser, a solvent, a film forming polymer and a pH buffer are combined and mixed. The mixtures of phase A and phase B are heated, combined and mixed. In phase C, a UV absorbent, a wetting agent, emulsifiers, and optionally a surface smoother, are combined and mixed. The mixture of phase C is heated and added to the heated phase A and phase B mixture. The mixture is thereafter cooled, diluted and homogenized. Diary of a Plagiarist Dear Diary -- Yesterday, I was hanging out in the Mojave Desert with " Ptooee " [ phonetic ], a Pleiadian ET crack-smoking buddy, & she said to me : " Alternating Current Electricity is Demagnetizing Planet Earth, Causing Pole Shift -- Catastrophe Looms -- The End is Now -- Thanks for the Fish ! " I replied : " Surely, Miss Ptoee, Surely, You are Joculating ! " "No", She said : " You are Unforgiven. " " Well, Copulate Me Running ! Please Expla ... ", I said as I passed out, drugged again ! I woke up in my car, my crotch was itchy, and my sphinctero-gluteal musclature was numb. The irritation turned out to be a soothing$35,000.

My driver's license & credit cards were missing. I suspect that there's a Pleiadian at large with a biomask of my face and fingerprints and identity plastic.

http://viewsandpreviews.com/welcome-back-to-medieval-dark-ages/

Welcome Back to Medieval Dark Ages

Welcome!

It is the dawn of The Great Dark Ages – again. The glorious age of ruthless oppression and tyranny, the era when all the wealth and resources of the land and the people were the property of the feudal lords, is almost upon us.

During those glorious days, the kings and lords owned the land and the people. People worked for their lords until they die. It was with the grace of the lord that they had the sustenance to survive to the next day. When they wed, the first night their wives were the property of the lord – Lords loved the tenderness of the virgins.

People owned nothing. Whatever they had was at the mercy of the lords. The lords could block the exit and entry to their shoddy homes – inflicting death by starvation.

The word of the lord was the ‘Law’. And, the lords has the enforcers to establish the ‘rule of law’. The enforcers of the law – the police of the lords, had the license to harass, torture, rape, and kill anyone with impunity. People had no rights – no education, no health care, and no amenities. They lived to serve their lords, and die serving the lords.

After a short respite, back we go to the glorious Dark Ages of The Medieval Times – to faithfully serve the masters again.

The Medieval Times:

Until the later part of the 16th century, the entire western Europe, with the exception of Moorish Europe – Spain, Portugal, southern France and Italy, was in the ‘Dark Ages’ – under the harsh feudal rule, zero tolerance, and extreme poverty, the life for ‘common people was a living hell. Thanks to malnutrition, infectious diseases, lack of sanitary and personal hygiene, and non-existence of health care, the life expectancy of common people was well under 32 years.

The Brief Respite:

With the fall of the Moore Empire in 1492, the door to Knowledge and Science got opened and the Era of Renaissance downed upon Europe. People came to realize that Earth was not flat, and they too were humans – And, with that realization came the era of awareness and unrest in the region. The resulting public awareness forced the lords to bestow some rights back to the people.

It was the dawn of the Golden Age for the West.

People – the subject of the same old lords, were allowed to enjoy their new found ‘freedom’ for almost two centuries while producing more wealth for the masters – and killing each others in millions.

While the people in the West were allowed to enjoy there freedom, the Lords of the Darkness had shifted their loving attention to the East. The rest of the was put under the yolk of slavery. In the world beyond Europe, it was suppression of human rights, freedom, and civil liberties. In the land of lawlessness, the word of the master was The Law.

While the masses all over the world suffer, West had the good times. The West – Europe and the US, were perceived as the “beacon” of freedom, democracy, and human rights in the world – The land of the Free – The land of the Rule of Law, Reasoning, and Logic. The land where the individual safety, security and peaceful enjoyment was guaranteed.

Back to Medieval Dark Ages:

Now, the lords have gotten fed up with the ever increasing demands and self-indulgence of their western subjects, and have decided to put them back into the Era where they belong – The Era of Glorious Medieval dark Ages.

The Wheel of Fortune has been made to make 180° turn. While the freedom and human rights are taking the front row seat in the rest of the world, the West is turning into a suffocating hell of tyranny, oppression, and intolerance.

The process of unraveling, dismantling, and tearing apart the social and civil fabrics of the western society at the seams is in full swing.

The Lords of the Dark Ages are systematically dismantling, and tearing down the mask of ‘civilization and humanity’ from the face of West. The processes are in full swing to usher in the Golden Age of the Medieval Feudal tyranny again – Albeit with one twist, this time around the lords will not be responsible to feed their subjects.

Coming to you is the Fascism married to Feudalism, with the ruthless Dictatorship as the favorite Concubine.

The Pillars Supporting The Feudal Fascist System:

The Police State:

The moment one lands at any of the airports in the West, it is difficult to escape the realization that one has entered into an occupied and hostile region – your life is at the mercy of those with badges and guns.

Police has been fully militarized and acts like an occupation force. Police brutality is beyond description. They shoot and kill people with impunity – it is a force created and trained to terrorize the public. Its task is to protect the interests of the ruling elites. As the US Supreme Court clarified in its recent ruling, police’s job is NOT to protect people, its job is to enforce the ‘law’ – The law of the lords.

Welcome to the Medieval Age of Feudal Lords.

State of Lawlessness:

There is no more Rule of the Law in the West. Laws are made at the whim of those who rule. Judges are selected by the ruling elites to serve the interests of the masters. Any judge who dares to deviate from the given command or directive is “suicided” to make an example. Court’s job is to rubber-stamp the dictate of the lords and guard the interests of the lords – Recall: The Affluenza Ruling in Texas!

The Age of the Executive Orders:

The heads and the figureheads of the governments, on behalf of their masters, rule the nations by way of executive orders. Legislative bodies’ job is, on cue, to simply prompt the executive head to make the EO’s as deemed necessary for imposition of the Medieval Time.

Secret Courts, Secret Laws, and Secret Interpretations:

Beside the rule by EOs, a system of secret courts has been established to prosecute the ‘undesired’ elements. these courts follow the ‘secret laws’ whose interpretations are also secret!

Indefinite Detentions – Guilty until Proven Innocent:

The governments can snatch anyone without ever charging or even acknowledging the arrest. You may simply disappear – like many already have. Government doesn’t need to bring any charges. You have no rights.

Gag Orders:

The accused, if he were lucky to be charged in the first place, can be put under a ‘Gag Order’. You are not allowed to defend yourself – Neither is your attorney. You are gagged!

The Land of The Inhuman Tortures :

Torturing innocent people, snatched and kidnapped by the governments, is an accepted way of controlling the people. Inhuman assaults on detainees, including rape and beating to death are acknowledged practices. Such tortures are deliberately “leaked” to further terrorize the public even more.

Secret trials, gag orders, indefinite detentions, and inhuman tortures – the hallmark of a dictatorial fascist system, are the norm.

Consolidation of Wealth & Ownership:

The Financial collapse of 2008 was thoughtfully created to decimate the public equity, confiscate the wealth of common people, create a population of millions of homeless families, disconnect millions more from the credit system, and, through hyper inflation and mass unemployment, destroy the lives of a very large segment of the population.

Through the real estate market crash and the subsequent foreclosures, the wealth-base of millions of people all over the West was destroyed. Now, the super wealthy class, the new lords of the descending Medieval Age, control almost all the national resources, and own more than 80% of the worthwhile assets.

Public ownership is on fast decline

Further to increase the gap between the Lords and the poor public, the working classes are skinned to death with the ever increasing tax burden, cost of utilities, food prices, and the housing expenses. People are practically in bondage already.

Privatization of Public Assets:

All over the West, public assets – from land, water, and food to roads, railways, and airways, have been handed over to the super rich. Public is at the mercy of the lords again. The Working class owns nothing; neither money nor assets.

Dwindling Income and Rising Cost:

Vast majority of people have been forced work on meager wages insufficient to sustain and maintain even the basic essential for living. With the ever increasing cost of living, they are forced to survive on government ‘dole outs’ – An old tactic of the feudal lord – keep them hand-to-mouth – always looking for the mercy of the lords.

Education Beyond the Reach of Public:

The entire education system, the pride jewel of the West – built over a period of centuries, has been hollowed and dynamited – serving the needs of the lords by stamping out the faithful servants of the masters. Further, the cost of higher education has been inflated so much that it is beyond the means of ordinary people.

For the most, education is not required – actually, made prohibited by virtue of exorbitant cost that they cannot afford. Like the Golden days of the Feudal system.

Through planned inflation of the cost of education, housing, and all the other major necessities of living, an economy of debt has been created – A society made ready to fall prey to the feudal lords.

Suppression of Freedom of Speech:

No Freedom of Speech here – unless it is approved!

You have the complete freedom of speech, as long as you toe the line of the masters. Selective protection of the “Freedom of Speech”, while targeting and prosecuting the ‘undesired Freedom of Speech’, is the rule – The doctrine of Freedom of Speech doesn’t apply to the likes of 70-year-old writer, publisher and civil rights activist, Ernst Zundel or the British cartoonists, Stephen Whittle and Simon Sheppard or the French comedian Dieudonné. Freedom doesn’t fit the model of Medieval Feudal system.

Dumbification of the Masses:

Free thinking and intelligent public doesn’t belong in the Medieval times. The populace, therefore, has been ‘dumbified’ to such a degree that they are incapable of analyzing the fact and making rational decisions to protect themselves and their communities – A collection of sheeples ready for the butcher’s block of the Feudal Lords – Thanks in great part to the shows like ‘Kardashain’s’ and Duck Dynasty’.

Legalization of Drugs & Prostitution:

Drugs are already being legalized across the board. An intoxicated population is easy to dupe into serving the the lords – Recall: The ‘Opiumization’ of China. It has come full circle – the roosters have come back home to roost.

Prostitution, already ‘Legal’ in many places, is next in line to be legalized and promoted as ‘essential service’ – Remember Russia of Yeltsin era? Wives, even the wives of generals, had to do the ‘street job’ to supplement the husband’s meager wages. It is coming to you too.

But here is the Silver Line: As an acknowledgment of the dedicated service, the Lords, as a favor to their subject, will do the promotion and marketing for the prostituting wives, sisters, and daughters of the subject for free!

Prostitution is going to be an important sector of the economy – an integral part of GDP. The wealthy Chinese will have a good time while you will be able to put loves of bread on the tiny table.

Mass Surveillance:

A system of mass surveillance has been imposed in which no one has the right to privacy. From your phone calls and emails to the details of your shopping, very thing is monitored. You are a state property. Even your thoughts belong to the lords – Like the old days

Private Security and Mercenary forces:

On the lines of the old Medieval Feudal system, provisions have been made into the law for the major businesses and super wealthy to hire and maintain their own private ‘security forces’, with power to arrest and detain the citizens who may be perceived as posing a threat to the interests of their masters -The dawn of the era of Feudal Fascism.

Welcome Back to Medieval Dark Ages!

http://cluborlov.blogspot.com
February 17, 2015

Extinct — Extincter — Extinctest

by

Dmitry Orlov

This blog is dedicated to the idea of presenting the big picture — the biggest possible — of what is going on in the world. The abiding areas of interest that make up the big picture have included the following:

1. The terminal decay and eventual collapse of industrial civilization as the fossil fuels that power it become more and more expensive to produce in the needed quantities, of lower and lower resource quality and net energy and, eventually, in ever-shorter supply.

The first guess by Hubbert that the all-time peak of oil production in the US would be back in the 1970s was accurate, but later prediction of a global peak, followed by a swift collapse, around the year 2000 was rather off, because here we are 15 years later and global oil production has never been higher. Oil prices, which were high for a time, have temporarily moderated. However, zooming in on the oil picture just a little bit, we see that conventional oil production peaked in 2005 — just 5 years late — and has been declining ever since, and the shortfall has been made up by oil that is difficult and expensive to get at (deep offshore, fracking) and by things that aren't exactly oil (tar sands).

The current low prices are not high enough to sustain this new, expensive production for much longer, and the current glut is starting to look like a feast to be followed by famine. The direct cause of this famine will not be energy but debt, but it can still be traced back to energy: a successful, growing industrial economy requires cheap energy; expensive energy causes it to stop growing and to become mired in debt that can never be repaid. Once the debt bubble pops, there isn't enough capital to invest in another round of expensive energy production, and terminal decay sets in.

2. The very interesting process of the USA becoming its own nemesis: the USSR 2.0, or, as some are calling, the USSA.

The USA is best characterized as a decomposing corpse of a nation lorded over by a tiny clique of oligarchs who control the herd by wielding Orwellian methods of mind control. So far gone is the populace that most of them think that things are just peachy — there is an economic recovery, don't you know — but a few of them do realize that they all have lots of personal issues with things like violence, drug and alcohol abuse, and gluttony. But don't call them a nation of violent, drug-abusing gluttons, because that would be insulting. In any case, you can't call them anything, because they aren't listening, for they are too busy fiddling with their electronic life support units to which they have become addicted. Thanks to Facebook and the like they are now so far inside Plato's cave that even the shadows they see aren't real: they are computer simulations of shadows of other computer simulations.

The signs of this advanced state of decomposition are now unmistakable everywhere you look, be it education, medicine, culture or the general state of American society, where now fully half the working-age men is impaired in their ability to earn a decent living. But it is now particularly obvious in the endless compounding of errors that is the essence of American foreign policy. Some have started calling it “the empire of chaos,” neglecting to mention the fact that an empire of chaos is by definition ungovernable.

A particularly compelling example o failure is the Islamic Caliphate, which now rules large parts of Syria and Iraq. It was initially organized with American help topple the Syrian government, but which now threatens the stability of Saudi Arabia instead. This problem was made much worse by alienating Russia, which, with its long Central Asian border, is the one major nation that is interested in fighting Islamic extremism. The best the Americans have been able to do against the Caliphate is an expensive and ineffectual bombing campaign. Previous ineffectual and expensive bombing campaigns, such as the one in Cambodia, have produced unintended consequences such as the genocidal regime of Pol Pot, but why bother learning from mistakes when you can endlessly compound them?

Another example is the militarized mayhem and full-blown economic collapse that has engulfed the Ukraine in the wake of American-organized violent overthrow of its last-ever constitutional government a year ago. The destruction of the Ukraine was motivated by Zbigniew Brzezinski's simplistic calculus that turning the Ukraine into an anti-Russian NATO-occupied zone would effectively thwart Russian imperial ambitions. A major problem with this calculus is that Russia has no imperial ambitions: Russia has all the territory it could ever want, but to develop it it needs peace and free trade. Another slight problem with Zbiggy's “chessboard” is that Russia does have an overriding concern with protecting the interests of Russians wherever they may live and, for internal political reasons, will always act to protect them, even if such actions are illegal and carry the risk of a larger military conflict. Thus, the American destabilization of the Ukraine has accomplished nothing positive, but did increase the odds of nuclear self-annihilation. But if the USA manages to disappear from the world's political map without triggering a nuclear holocaust, we will still have a problem, which is that...

3. The climate of Earth, our home planet, is, to put it as politely as possible, completely fucked. Now, there are quite a few people who think that radically altering the planet's atmospheric and ocean chemistry and physics by burning just over half the fossilized hydrocarbons that could possibly be dug up using industrial means nothing, and that what we are observing is just natural climate variability. These people are morons. I will delete every single one of the comments they submit in response to this post, but in spite of my promise to do so, I assure you that they will still submit them... because they are morons.

What we are looking at is a human-triggered extinction episode that will certainly be beyond anything in human experience, and which may rival the great Permian-Triassic extinction event of 252 million years ago. There is even the possibility of Earth becoming completely sterilized, with an atmosphere as overheated and toxic as that of Venus. That these changes are happening does not require prediction, just observation. The only parameters that remain to be determined are these:

1. How far will this process run? Will there still be a habitat where humans can survive? Humans cannot survive without plenty of fresh water and sources of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, all of which require functioning ecosystems. Humans can survive on almost any kind of diet — even tree bark and insects— but if all vegetation is dead, then so are we. Also, we cannot survive in an environment where the wet bulb temperature (which takes into account our ability to cool ourselves by sweating) exceeds our body temperature: whenever that happens, we die of heat stroke. Lastly, we need air that we can actually breathe: if the atmosphere becomes too low in oxygen (because the vegetation has died out) and too high in carbon dioxide and methane (because the dead vegetation has burned off, the permafrost has melted, and the methane currently trapped in oceanic clathrates has been released) then we all die.

We already know that the increase in average global temperature has exceeded 1C since pre-industrial times, and, based on the altered atmospheric chemistry, is predicted to eventually exceed 2C. We also know that industrial activity, thanks to the aerosols it puts into the atmosphere, produces an effect known as global dimming. Once it's gone, the average temperature will jump by at least another 1.1C. This would put us within striking range of 3.5C, and no humans have ever been alive with Earth more than 3.5C above baseline. But, you know, there is a first time for everything. Maybe we can invent some gizmo... Maybe if we all put on air-conditioned sombreros or something... (Design contest, anyone?)

2. How fast will this process happen?

The thermal mass of the planet is such that there is a 40-year lag between when atmospheric chemistry is changed and its effects on average temperature are felt. So far we have been shielded from some of the effects by two things: the melting of Arctic and Antarctic ice and permafrost, and the ocean's ability to absorb heat. Your iced drink remains pleasant until the last ice cube is gone, but then it becomes tepid and distasteful rather quickly. Some scientists say that, on the outside, it will take 5000 years for us to run out of ice cubes, causing the party to end, but then the dynamics of the huge glaciers that supply the ice cubes are not understood all that well, and there have been constant surprises in terms of how quickly they can slough off icebergs, which then drift into warmer waters and melt quickly.

But the biggest surprise of the last few years has been the rate of arctic methane release. Perhaps you haven't, but I've found it impossible to ignore all the scientists who have been ringing alarm bells on Arctic methane release. What they are calling the clathrate gun — which can release some 50 gigatons of methane in as little as a couple of decades — appears to have been fired in 2007 and now, just a few years later, the trend line in Arctic methane concentrations has become alarming. But we will need to wait for at least another two years to get an authoritative answer. Overall, the methane held in the clathrates is enough to exceed the global warming potential of all fossil fuels burned to date by a factor of between 4 and 40. The upper end of that range does seem to put us quite far towards a Venus-type atmosphere, and the surviving species may be limited to exotic thermophilic bacteria, if that, and certainly will not include any of the species we like to eat, nor any of us.

Looking at such numbers has caused quite a few researchers to propose the possibility of near-term human extinction. Estimates vary, but, in general, if the clathrate gun has indeed gone off, then most of us shouldn't be planning to be around beyond mid-century. But the funny thing is (humor is never in poor taste, no matter how dire the situation) that most of us shouldn't be planning on sticking around beyond mid-century in any case. The current oversized human population is a product of fossil fuel-burning, and once that's over, human population will crash. This is called a die-off, and it's something that happens all the time: a population (say, of yeast in a vat of sugary liquid) consumes its food, and then dies off. A few hardy individuals linger on, and if you throw in a lump of sugar, they spring to life, start reproducing and the process takes off again.

Another funny aspect of near-term human extinction is that it can never be observable, because no scientist will ever be around to observe it, and therefore it is a non-scientific concept. Since it cannot be used to do science, the scientists who throw it around must be aiming for an emotional effect. This is quite uncharacteristic of scientists, who generally pride themselves on being cool-headed and prefer to deal in the observable and the measurable. So, why would scientists go for emotional effect? Clearly, it is because they feel that something must be done. And to feel that something must be done, they must also feel that something can be done. But, if so, what is it?

Always first on the list is the effort to lobby governments to limit carbon emissions. This has not been a success; as to one of the many reasons why, consider point 2 above: the USA is one of the biggest offenders when it comes to carbon emissions, but the rotting corpse of America's political system is incapable of any constructive action. It is too busy destroying countries: Iraq, Libya, Syria, Ukraine...

Second on the list is something called geoengineering. If you don't know what it is, don't worry; it's largely a synonym for mental masturbation. The idea is that you fix things you don't understand by using technologies that don't exist. But given many humans' irrational belief that every problem must have a technological solution, there is always some fool willing to throw money at it. Previous efforts along these lines involved the idea of seeding the oceans with iron to promote plankton growth, or putting bits of tin foil in orbit to reflect some of the sunlight, or painting the Sahara white. These are all fun projects to think about. How about using nuclear weapons to put dust into the atmosphere, to block out some of the sunlight? Or how about nuking a few big volcanos, for the same effect? If that's politically difficult, how about something politically easy: a limited nuclear exchange? That will darken the skies, bringing on a mini nuclar winter, and also reduce the population, which will cut down on industrial activity. There are enough nuclear weapons to keep the planet cool for as long as it takes us all to die of radiation poisoning. This geoengineering solution, along with all the others, is in line with the popular dictum “If you can't solve a problem, enlarge it.”

And so it seems to me that all the talk about near-term human extinction is just so much emotional hand-flapping designed to motivate people to try things that won't work. Still, I believe the topic is worth pondering, for a simple reason: what if you don't want to go extinct? We've already established that human extinction (whenever it might be said to occur) will never be observable, because no human will be around to observe it. We also know that population die-offs happen all the time, but they don't always result in extinction. So, who will be most likely to die, and who might actually make it?

First on the list are the invisible victims of war. By now lots of people have seen photographs of piles of dead Ukrainian soldiers left to rot after another failed attack, or videos of residents of Donetsk expiring on the sidewalk after being hit by a government artillery shell or mortar. But we don't know how many children and women are dying in childbirth because the government has bombed maternity clinics and hospitals: such casualties of war are invisible. Nor will we be shown footage of all of the Ukrainian retirees expiring prematurely because they can no longer afford food, medicine or heat, but we can be sure that many of them won't be around a year hence. When it comes to war, there are just two viable survival strategies: refuse to take part; and flee. Indeed, the million or so Ukrainians that are now in Russia, or the million or so Syrians who are no longer in Syria, are the smart ones. The Ukrainians who are volunteering to fight are the idiots; the ones who are fleeing to Russia to sit out the war are the smart ones. (However, the Russians, who are volunteering to protect their land and their families from what amounts to an American invasion, are clearly not idiots. They are also winning.) In this sense, war is a Darwinian process, delivering extinction to the foolish.

Next on the list of extinction episodes to avoid happens in major cities during a heat wave. It's happened across Europe in 2003, and resulted in 70,000 casualties. In 2010, a heat wave in the Moscow region (which is quite far north) resulted in over 14,000 deaths in Moscow alone. The urban heat effect, which is caused by heat soaked up by pavement and buildings, produces much higher local temperatures, driving them over the threshold for heat stroke. While the fossil fuel economy continues to operate, cities remain survivable because of the availability of air conditioning; once it shuts down, urban heat wave extinction episodes will become widespread. Since 50% of the population lives in cities, half of the human population is at risk of extinction from heat stroke. Therefore, if you don't want to go extinct, don't spend your summers in a city.

The list of places you don't want to be if you wish to avoid extinction gets rather long. You wouldn't want to live in California, for example, or in the arid southwestern states, because there won't be any water there. You wouldn't want to live along the coasts, because they are likely to be flooded by the rising oceans (they will eventually rise over 100 meters, putting all coastal cities underwater). You wouldn't want to live in the eastern half of North America, because, paradoxically, a dramatically warmer Arctic region causes the jet stream to meander, producing increasingly fierce winters, which, minus fossil fuels, will cause widespread deaths from exposure. Even now, a bit of extra snow, which is likely to become the new normal, has caused the entire transportation infrastructure of New England (where, luckily, I am not) to roll over and play dead. Nor would you want to live in any of the places where the water source comes from glacial melt, because the glaciers will soon be gone. This includes much of Pakistan, large parts of India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and so on. The list of places where you wouldn't want to be if you don't want to go extinct for this or that reason gets to be rather long.

But the entire northern half of Eurasia looks quite nice for the foreseeable future, so if you don't want to go extinct, you better start teaching your kids Russian.

Dmitry Orlov is a Russian-American engineer and a writer on subjects related to "potential economic, ecological and political decline and collapse in the United States," something he has called “permanent crisis”. http://cluborlov.blogspot.com

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