Floyd A. SWEET
Space Quanta Magnifier
(Vacuum Triode Amplifier)
Floyd A. "Sparky" Sweet
(1) F. Sweet : Nothing
(2) F. Sweet & T.
Bearden : Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum
(3) W. Rosenthal :
Floyd Sweet's VTA
Photographs & Video
(6) Jerry Decker : A Possible
Key to the VTA
(7) Letter : T. Bearden to Dr
(8) T. Bearden : Progress
report on the Sweet Vacuum Triode
Special thanks to: Jerry Decker/KeelyNet, J.L.
Naudin, Tom Bearden & Walt Rosenthal
Discussion Group: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Sweet_VTA
Nothing Is Something:
The Theory and Operation of a
Phase-Conjugated Vacuum Triode
Floyd A. "Sparky" Sweet
(June 24th, 1988)
[ Source: http://jnaudin.free.fr ]
Nothing, on the cosmological scale, is virtually
everything. It is the home of all the invisible fields, rippling
with the activity of every real force. Every kind of matter
produces a field, the field all mesh in complex ways, often
causing interference with other fields. Fields are the "stuff"
of the virtual vacuum. A light particle is nothing more than a
large interference in the electromagnetic field. Apart from
interaction with matter of other fields a field will not be
changed in the vacuum. It will not go away; it cannot. Fields
are a fundamental part of the vacuum structure itself. Fields in
their most quiescent state form the virtual vacuum itself. Even
when everything that can be removed from a vacuum has been
removed, the Higgs field remains. `"Imagine the entire universe
permeated with a constant magnetic field". One need not imagine,
for it is true. It is clear from experimentation that certain
results appear that are not explainable without the presence of
a field. The field consists of an infinite number of
one-dimensional North and South poles in an incoherent state-
incoherent due to the presence of a multitude of other
interfering fields formed by other North and South poles, or
particles or quanta. Thus the virtual vacuum is far from empty,
far from nothing, it is rather seething with potential energy as
the primordial powerhouse of everything in the universe.
As postulated by Einstein in his famous equation E = MC2
, energy is a kind of matter. So even the energy of distant
starlight must be accounted for in any holistic view of physical
reality. The vacuum itself is literally popping with virtual
particles that appear and disappear in the field during instants
too brief to be measured. Virtual particles with lifetimes or
dwelltimes too short for the name "particles" to be appropriate.
As a result the generated fields are always in some state of
flux. However, under the influence of a generated Motional
Electromagnetic field parts of the normally chaotic virtual
field break off from randomness and form a more coherent region.
This region consists of a structured portion of the spacetime
continuum which by its very nature seems to attract more virtual
particles (This increase in particle density has been verified
by lab experiments conducted the week of June 19, 1988). This
higher concentration of particles develops a warping of the
spacetime continuum where negative energy is produced in
abundance. The existence of this condition via direct
engineering of the virtual state allows for the safe generation
of electrical energy. This condition, in essence, forms the
underlying principle of operation of the Phase-Conjugated Vacuum
Triode. This device, however, produces negative energy which is
the reverse of the conventional positive energy generated by all
devices in service today. The arc generated by a short-circuit
in a negative energy system is excessively bright and cold,
producing barely an audible hiss with no explosive force.
Melting of conductors does not occur and this type of negative
current passes through the human body with only the feeling of a
chill. Conductors remain cool under load while only tiny
cross-sectional areas of copper are required to convey many
hundreds of watts of power. Although all of this seems nearly
unbelievable, only what has been demonstrated in the laboratory
has been described in this paper. The source of energy is
unlimited, the virtual vacuum of space itself structured by a
motional electromagnetic field is the powerhouse.
The Nature of Space
Space itself is the ability to accommodate energy. Consider for
a moment the following illustration: A signal (energy) is
transmitted from point A to point B. A and B are separated by a
finite distance. Consider three periods of time:
1) The signal is launched from A.
2) The signal resides in the space between A and B.
3) The signal arrives at B.
If (3) occurs simultaneously with (1) we say that the signal
has traveled at infinite velocity. The signal has never resided
in the intervening space and therefore there exists no space
between A and B. A is virtually at the same point in space
as B. For real space to exist between A and B it is necessary
that a signal travelling between them be "lost" with reference
to both points for a finite period of time.
Now we know that for real space to exist between two points a
signal travelling between them will propagate at a finite
If a signal will not travel between two points, as in the case
when c = 0, then we can also conclude that there is no link or
intervening space between them. We have no means of detecting
either an infinite velocity-supporting space or zero-velocity
space, so they do not exist as usable scientific concepts. If
space cannot accommodate a signal it has no function and no
reality. We are left then with the only real space, the home of
the real and virtual vacuum. Space which supports a finite,
nonzero velocity where .
The above discussion dealt with a definition of space and the
propagation velocity it will support. A similar argument applies
to the impedance of space. A medium can only accommodate
positive energy if the medium resists it to a reasonable degree.
Neither an infinitely strong spring nor an infinitely weak one
can absorb or accommodate energy by being compressed. Neither an
infinitely large mass nor an infinitely light mass can absorb or
accommodate energy imparted by collision. The same holds true
for space. Energy cannot enter space of zero impedance
any more than a force can bear on a mass of zero magnitude.
Similarly, energy could not enter space of infinite impedance.
It follows therefore, that necessary properties of real space
1) finite propagation velocity
2) finite impedance.
Continuing our discussion of space and the values of c, Zo,
we take as given that real space sustains non-zero finite
impedance and velocity as follows:
where: µ and
are characteristics of a unit volume.
As yet we have not arrived at volume, which implies real space.
At this point in our discussion we have merely described c and Zo
. Therefore, we can only define µ and in terms of them. Algebraically it can
be shown that:
Although we have said that the fundamental characteristics of
space are c and Zo , perhaps it is better to say that
they are t and Zo , where t is the time delay through
a finite segment of space replacing c, the velocity through that
segment. It is profitable to move away from the idea of constant
velocity c travelling through space which leads one to
conceptualization of a segment of space which traversed in 1
nanosecond (nsec) is 1 foot long. If one starts with a
conceptual frame in which space is in terms of t, a segment of
space can easily be though of as 1 nsec wide, and the energy
entering it appears leaving it 1 nsec later. Subsidiary concepts
of length and velocity can then be deduced as needed. We could
alternately say that space was (a) 1 foot wide with a
propagation velocity of 1 foot/nsec, or (b) 2 feet wide with a
velocity of 2 feet/nsec. Fundamental to the proposed world view
is the reality that no experiment could help us decide between
(a) and (b). The essence of space is time, not distance, and
only one propagation velocity () is possible through a segment of
space. Thus, time through a segment is
intimately related to the length of the segment. Propagation
which is not at the speed of light cannot exist according to
this world view.
General Description of Energy Transfer
Consider energy, flowing straight and level down the proximity
of a transmission line. The energy does not know the width of
the channel through which it is passing. If the energy reaches a
point where the dielectric changes (but not the geometry), some
of it will continue on and some of it will reflect. If the
energy reaches a change in the width of the transmission line
some will reflect and some will continue as well. The energy
current will not know whether:
(a) the dielectric is changing, or
(b) the geometry is changing.
Energy current does not have directional inertia, so that (a)
is equivalent to (b). Energy current does have an aspect
ratio. If the aspect ratio is forced to change, some of the
flowing energy will reflect in order to assure that its total
aspect ratio remains constant. Crudely, the aspect ratio is
similar to the ratio of E to H, or the same as the ratio
The aspect ratio of energy current is much like the aspect ratio
of space. While the aspect ratio of space can change, it
cannot really change. This parameter becomes merely our way of
conceptualizing time delay when energy resides in a region of
A /B = Aspect Ratio
Uniform space has only two parameters:
1) aspect ratio
2) time delay.
Aspect ratio defines the shape of energy entering a given
region of space, but not its amplitude. Velocity or length
define the time during which the properly shaped energy can be
accommodated by a region of space. Aspect ratio is really a
definition of the relative compatibility of adjacent regions of
space. Does flowing energy current largely travel unimpeded
through an interface, or does it largely reflect at the
interface? Space has quiet zones through which energy glides
virtually unreflected. There are also noisy zones where energy
current becomes incoherent, bounces about and splits apart.
Noisy zones in space have either rapidly changing geometry or
rapidly changing impedance ().
The rate of flow of energy through a surface can be calculated
as a function of E and H. Specifically this flow is equivalent
to E.H per unit area. This energy flows at the speed of
light through a medium where . E and H are in quadrature and are
normal to the direction of the energy flow. The energy density
is therefore: E.H/c. If two signals of equal magnitude
(assume E/2 & H/2) are travelling through each other in
opposite directions the energy density is calculated as follows:
If the directions of the two signals are such that opposite
H-fields cancel and E-fields add, an apparently steady E-field
will be created. The energy density of the fields remain as
calculated above, but the value of the E-field will double from
E/2 to E. It is a simple matter using the equations and for a team wave to get
rid of H and c and so convert the first equation into the well
known equation for energy density in the so-called electrostatic
Similarly, if two signals flow through each other in such a way
as to give the appearance of a steady magnetic field as a result
of their E-field canceling it is easily shown using the above
equations to cancel out H and c so that:
Modern physics is based upon the faulty assumption that
electromagnetics contains two kinds of energy: electric and
magnetic. This assumption leads to a Baroque view of physical
reality. Under that view energy seems to be associated with the
square of the field intensity rather than a more reasonable view
that it is linearly proportional to field intensity. It is worth
remembering that neither Einstein nor most modern physicists
were or are familiar with the concept of energy currents
described herein. However, their work still survives by ignoring
the energy current concept, scalar electromagnetics, the works
of T. E. Bearden, Kaluza-Klein, and others who dispute
Heaviside's interpretations of Maxwell's equations.
The Fallacy of Displacement Current
Conventional electromagnetic theory proposes that when an
electric current flows down a wire into a capacitor it spreads
out across the plate, producing an electric charge on the plate
which in turn leads to an electric field between the capacitor
plates. The valuable concept of continuity is then retained by
postulating "after Maxwell" a displacement current. This current
is a manipulation of the electric field (E) between the
capacitor plates which has the dimensions of electric current
and completes the flow of electricity in the circuit. This
approach permits us to retain Kirchoff's laws and other valuable
concepts even though superficially it appears that at the
capacitor there is a break in the continuous flow of electric
current. The flaw in this model appears when we notice that the
current entered the capacitor at only one point on the capacitor
plate. We then are left with the major difficulty of explaining
how the electric charge flowing down the wire suddenly
distributes itself uniformly across the entire capacitor plate,
at a velocity in excess of the speed of light. This paradoxical
situation is created by a flaw in the basic model. Work in high
speed logic conducted by Ivor Catt has shown that the model of
lumped capacitance is faulty and displacement current is an
artifact of the faulty model. Since any capacitor behaves
similarly to a transmission line it is no more necessary to
postulate a displacement current for the capacitor than it is
necessary to do so for a transmission line. The excision of
"displacement current" from electromagnetic theory has been
based on arguments which are independent of the classic dispute
over whether the electric current causes the electromagnetic
field, or vice versa.
The Motional E-Field
Of all the known fields --- electric, magnetic, gravitational
and motional E-field --- the only ones incapable of being
shielded are the induced motional E-field and the gravitational
field. The nature of the motionally induced electric field is
quite unique; in order understand it more fully we must start by
parting with a few misleading paradigms. When magnetic flux is
moved perpendicularly across a conductor an electromotive force
(emf) is electromagnetically induced "within'' the conductor.
"Within" is an artifact of the commonly used analogy comparing
the flow of electric current within a wire to the flow of water
within a pipe. This is a most misleading model theoretically.
The true phenomenon taking place has little been thought of as
involving the production of a spatially distributed electric
field. We can see that the model's origins likely arose from the
operation called "flux cutting", a most deceiving and misleading
term. A better term, "time varying flux modulation", does not
imply any separation of lines of flux. Truly, lines of flux are
always in closure upon themselves and are mathematically
expressed as line integrals. It is fallacious to use the term
"cutting", which implies time varying separation which does not
in fact ever occur. A motionally induced E-field is actually
created within the space occupied by the moving magnetic flux
described above. This field is present therein, whether or not a
conductor is present in the space. In terms of a definition we
can say that, when magnetic flux of vector intensity moved across a region
of space with vector velocity, electromagnetically induced electric
field vector BxV appears in the space at right angles to
It is this field that is related to gravity, it is virtually
unshieldable. This field may be called the Motional E-field.
According to T.E. Bearden, "It seems that the charged particles
in the atom (electrons and protons) act like tiny magnets. Their
motion in the space surrounding the atom would create this
motional E-field". The field created by both the positive and
negative charges would cancel to some degree, but due to the
high orbital velocity of the negative electron relative to that
of the positive proton the induced field of the electron should
dominate the resulting field. The field produced as a result of
these charges would vary proportionally to the inverse square of
distance similar to gravity. The field produced by the
translational motion of the charges would vary inversely as the
cube of distance. This concept totally unites the
electromagnetic and gravitational field theories and accounts
for the strong and weak forces within the atom.
Field Super-Position & The Vacuum Triode
Electromagnetic induction with no measurable magnetic field is
not new. It is well known that in the space surrounding a
properly wound toroidal coil there is no magnetic field. This is
due to the superposition of the fields. However, when
alternating current is surging through a transformer an electric
field surrounds it. When we apply the principle of superposition
to the vacuum triode it becomes more obvious how the device is
in fact operating.
The principle of superposition states that "In order to
calculate the resultant intensity of superimposed fields, each
field must be dealt with individually as though the other were
not present". The resultant is obtained by vector addition of
each field considered singularly. Consider for a moment the
construction of the triode which includes the bifilar coils
located within the fields of the two conditioned magnets. When
the current in one half of the conductors in the coils (i.e.,
one of the bifilar elements in each coil) of the device is
moving up, both the current and the magnetic field follow the
right-hand rule. The resultant motional E-field would be
vertical to both and inwardly directed. At the same time the
current in the other half of the conductors in the coils is
moving down and both the current and magnetic field follow the
right-hand rule. The resulting motion E-field is again vertical
to both and inwardly directed. Thus, the resultant field
intensity is double the intensity attributable to either one of
the set of coil conductors taken singularly. Expressed
The first term in
equation represents the flow of the magnetic field when the
electrons are moving in one direction, while the second
the flow of the magnetic field when the electrons are moving in
the other direction. These measurements indicate that field
intensity is directly proportional to the square of the current
required by the load placed on the device. This is due to its
proportional relationship with the virtual value of the magnetic
field which theory states is proportional to the current.
Electrometer readings were always close to parabolic, thus
indicating that the source was of infinite capacity. It was
further determined through experiment that the magnetic field
does not change with temperature. Also, there is no reason yet
identified which would lead one to believe that electron drift
velocity changes. It has been found remarkable that the vacuum
triode runs approximately 20°F below ambient.
Induced Electromotive Force: Positive Energy
When an emf. is impressed on a closed metallic circuit, current
results. The emf along a closed path C in space is defined as
the work per unit charge (W/Q) done by the electromagnetic
fields on a small test charge moved along path C. Since work is
the line integral of force (F), the work per unit charge is the
line integral of force per unit charge. Letting F/Q denote the
vector electromagnetic force per unit charge (in newtons per
coulomb) we have
The scalar product (F/Q) dtdl is the product of (F/Q) *
denoting the angle between vectors F/Q and dl.
The electric force per unit charge is the electric field
intensity (E) in volts/meter. The magnetic force per unit charge
is V x B where V denotes the velocity of the test charge in
meters per second and B denotes the magnetic flux density in
webers/M2. In terms of the smaller angle between V and B, the
cross product of V and B is a vector having the magnitude VB sin. The direction of vector
VxB is normal to the plane which contains vectors V and B in
accordance with the right-hand rule (i.e., VxB is in the
direction of the thumb while the fingers curl through the angle from V toward B). Since
the total force per unit charge is E + VB the total emf in terms
of the fields is:
It appears from eq. (4) that the emf depends on the forward
velocity with which the test charge is moved along the path C.
This, however, is not the case. If V and dl in eq. (4) have the
same direction then their associated scalar product is zero.
Thus, only the component of V which is not in-line with dl (i.e. = 0) can contribute to
the emf.. This component has value only if the differential path
length dl has a sideways motion. Thus, V in eq. (4) represents
the sideways motion, if any, of dl. The fields E and B in eq.(4)
could well be represented as functions of time as well as
functions of the space coordinates. In addition, the velocity V
of each differential path length dl may vary with time. However,
eq. (4) correctly expresses the emf or voltage drop along path C
as a function of time. That component of the emf consisting of
the line integral V x B is the motional E-field since it has
value ony when path C is moving through a magnetic field,
traversing lines of magnetic flux. For stationary paths there is
no motional E-field and the voltage drop is simply the integral
of the electric field E. Emfs are generated by devices that
separate charge. A familiar example is the battery which
utilizes chemical forces to separate charge. Other examples
include the heating of a thermocouple, exposure of a
photovoltaic cell to incident light, or the rubbing together of
different materials (electrostatic charge separation). Electric
fields are also produced by time varying magnetic fields. This
principle is extensively exploited to produce conventional
electric power in the utility industry.
The line integral of electric field intensity E around any
closed path C equals -d/dt, with representing the magnetic flux over
any surface S having the closed path C as its contour. The
positive side of the surface S and the direction of the line
integral around contour C are related by the right-hand
rule (the curled fingers are oriented so as to point around the
loop in the direction of the integration and the extended thumb
points out the positive side of the surface S.) The magnetic
is the surface integral of magnetic flux density B as shown
In eq. (5) the vector differential surface ds has an area of ds
and is directionally normal to the plane of ds out of the
positive side. The partial time derivative of is defined as:
This is referred to as the magnetic current through
surface S. For moving surface S the limits of the surface
integral in eq. (6) are functions of time but the equation is
still applicable. It is important to clarify at this point that
when we evaluate the value of d/dt over a surface that is moving in
the proximity of magnetic field activity we treat the
surface for the instant under consideration as though it were
stationary. The partial time derivative ofis the time rate of
change of flux through surface S due only to a changing magnetic
field density B. Any increase ofdue to the motion of the surface in the
B-field is not included in that calculation.
Continuing this discussion leads us to note that an electric
field must be present in any region containing a time varying
magnetic field. This is shown by eq. (7) displayed below:
In this equation
is the magnetic flux in webers out of the positive side of any
surface having path C as its contour. Combining eq. (7) above
with eq. (4) we are able to calculate the emf about a closed
path C. This is shown below:
and in another form
Thus, the emf around a closed path consists in general of two
components. The component d/dt is the variational emf and the
second component is the motional E-field. In eq.(9) (V x B)dl
can be means of a vector identity be replaced with B*(V x dl)A.
V is the sideways velocity of dl, the vector Vxdl has magnitude
Vdl and a direction normal to the surface ds swept out by moving
length dl in time d. Letting Bn denote the component
of B normal to this area we can see that -B*(v x dl) becomes -BnVdl
and eq.(9) can be rewritten as:
Clearly, the integral of BnV around the closed
contour C with sideways velocity of magnitude V for each length
dl traversed is simply the time rate of change of the magnetic
flux through the surface bounded by C. This change is due
directly to the passage of path C through lines of magnetic
flux. Hence, the complete expression of emf above in eq.(10) is
the time rate of change of the magnetic flux over any surface S
bounded by the closed path C, due to the changing magnetic field
and the movement of the path through the magnetic field. eq.(10)
may be written:
Note: The only difference between eq.(7) and eq.(11) is
that eq.(7) contains only the variational emf while eq.(11) is
the sum of the variational and motional emf's. In eq.(7) the
partial time derivative of magnetic fluxis the rate of flux change due only to
the time varying magnetic field while eq.(11) includes the total
time derivative of the rate of flux change due to the time
varying magnetic field and path C's passage through the magnetic
field. If the closed path C is not passing through lines of
magnetic flux then eq.(7) and eq.(11) are equivalent.
It is also important to point out that d/dt in eq.(11) does not necessarily
mean the total time rate of change of the fluxover the surface S. For example, the
flux over surface S is bounded by the closed contour C of the
left portion of the electric circuit shown in Figure 1. The flux
changing as the coil is unwound by the rotation of the cylinder
as illustrated. However, since B is static there is no
variational emf and since the conductors are not modulating
lines of flux there is no motional emf. Thus, d/dt in eq.(11) is zero
even the flux is changing with time. Note that d/dt was defined as
representing the right hand part of the expression in e.(10) and
must not be more broadly interpreted.
In the application of the presented equations it is required
that one refer all flux densities and movements to a single
specified coordinate system. In particular, the velocities will
all be with respect to this system alone and not interpreted as
relative velocities between conductors or moving lines of flux.
The coordinate system is arbitrarily selected and the magnitudes
of variational and motional fields depend upon the selection.
A fundamental electric generator is shown in Figure 2. The
parallel stationary conductors separated by distance l have a
moving conductor connected to across them.
The circuit is completed by a moving conductor connected to the
parallel conductors by means of two sliding taps. This conductor
is located at y = 0 when time t = 0, and moves to the right at a
constant velocity V = Vay. The applied flux B is represented by
dots on Figure 2 and has a magnitude that equals B = Bo
cosBy cos wt ax. The unit vectors in the directions
of the respective coordinate axes are ax, ay, and az.
Solution: Let S denote the plane rectangular surface
bounded by the closed electric circuit, with a positive side
selected as the side facing the reader. The counterclockwise emf
around the circuit is d/dt with signifying the magnetic flux out of
the positive side of S (As ds = 1 dy ax). The scalar product
B*ds is Bo l cos By, cost dy; integrating from y = 0 to y = y
with y1 denoting the instantaneous y position of the
moving wire. The counterclockwise emf is found by replacing y
with vt and evaluating d/dt. The result is
The variational (transformer) component is which is determined with
aid of eq.(12) to bewhere
y = vt. This is the first component on the right side of
Note: y1 was treated as a constant when
evaluating the partial time derivative of.
The motional E-field is the line integral of V x B along the
path of the moving conductor. As V x B is and As dl is dz ax evaluation of the
from Z = 0 to Z = 1 results in a motional E-field of
This component results from modulation of the lines of flux by
the moving conductor. If the voltmeter draws no current, there
can be no electromagnetic force on the free electrons of the
wire. Therefore, the emf along the path of the metal conductors
including the moving conductor is zero.
Suppose the conductor with the sliding taps is stationary (V =
0) and it is located at y = y1 . Also suppose the
magnetic field B is produced by a system of moving conductors
not shown in Figure 2 which are travelling with a constant
velocity V = Vay . At time t = 0 the magnetic field B is Bo
sinBy ax. Determine the voltage across the voltmeter.
Solution: There is no motional E-field because the
conductors in Figure 2 are at rest (stationary) with respect to
our selected coordinate system. However, the magnetic field at
points fixed with respect to the coordinate system is changing
with time and as a result there is a variational e.m.f. Since
the B-field at t = 0 is B 0 sinBy ax and has a velocity of V =
Vay it can be calculated that the B-field as a function of time
is Bo sin [B(y-vt)] ax. This is verified by noting
that an observer located at y at time t = 0 who is travelling at
the constant velocity (V = Vay) of the moving current would have
a y coordinate of y = y + Vt and an accordingly different
expression for B. He would observe a constant field where the
magnetic current density is:
The counterclockwise emf can be arrived at by taking the
negative of an integral of the above expression for the
rectangular surface bounded by the electric circuit with the
positive side facing the reader with the limits of zero and y.
The resulting emf equals:
which is the voltage across the meter.
Induced Motional Field: Negative Energy
Conventional theory says that electric fields and magnetic
fields are different things. Consider for a moment a charge with
an electric field around it. If the charge is moved a magnetic
field develops and the moving charge constitutes a current. If
an observer were to move along with the charge, he would see no
relative motion, no current, and no magnetic field. A stationary
observer would see motion, current and a magnetic field. It
would appear that a magnetic field is an electric field observed
from a motional reference frame. Similarly, if we take a mass
with a gravity field around it and we move the mass and create a
mass current, a new field is also created. It is a different
kind of gravity field with no source and no sink. It is called
the Protational field also known as the "Lense-Thirring Effect".
This field an its governing principles will form the basis for
future anti-gravity devices.
Within the confined area of the Vacuum Triode box, the
spacetime continuum is reversed by the fields that are produced
in the presence of excited coherent space flux quanta. These
quanta have been attracted from and ultimately extracted from
the virtual vacuum, the infinitely non-exhaustible Dirac Sea.
For a more detailed mathematical format see Appendix A, a paper
on "The Phase Conjugate Vacuum Triode" by T.E. Bearden, April
23, 1987. Much of the theory which likely applies to the vacuum
triode has been developed in the field of phase conjugate
With regards to over-unity phenomena it is important to note
that so long as positive energy is present in a positive/flowing
time regime unity and over-unity power gains are not possible.
The summation of the losses due to resistance, impedance,
friction, magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents and windage
losses of rotating machinery will always reduce overall
efficiency below unity for a closed system. The laws of
conservation of energy always apply to all systems. However, the
induced motional E-field changes the system upon which those
laws need be applied. Since the vacuum triode operates in
dimensions more than four and provides a line between the
multi-dimensional reality of the quantum state and a link
between Dirac Sea we are now dealing with an open-ended system,
not the closed system within which all conservation and
thermodynamic laws were developed. To achieve unity, the
summation of all magnetic and ohmic losses must equal zero. To
achieve this state negative energy and resistance moves to zero
and all energy flows along the outside of conductors in the form
of a special space field. Negative energy is fully capable of
lighting incandescent lights, running motors, and performing all
of the functions of positive energy tested to date. When run in
parallel with positive energy however, cancellation
(annihilation) of opposing power types occurs. This has been
fully tested in the laboratory.
Once unity has been achieved and the gate to the Dirac Sea
opened, over-unity is affected by loading the open gate more and
more which opens it further to the point where direct
communication/interaction with the nucleus of the atom itself is
achieved. Output of the vacuum triode is not proportional to the
excitation input as the output produced by the device is
directly proportional to the load which is placed upon it. That
load is the only dependent variable for device output. The
triode's output voltage and frequency always remains constant
due to the conditioning of the motional E-field in the permanent
magnets and the small regulated excitation signal which is
provided through a small oscillator. Regulation remains
constant, output locks into an in-phase condition (cos = 1 Kvar = 1) under all
The vacuum triode is a solid state device consisting of
conditioned permanent magnets capable of producing a motional
field. This field opens the gate to the Dirac Sea where negative
energy is able to flow from an into the triode's receiving
coils. The coils are very small diameter copper wire but are
capable of producing in excess of 5 kilowatts of useful power;
this in itself is a clear indicator that the type of electrical
energy provided by the device is not conventional. The wire
sizes employed by the device would not be capable of carrying
such large currents without excessive heat gain, however, the
triode's coils actually run cooler when loaded at 5 kW.
The fundamental magnets have been broken free of their binding
forces which constrained them to be steadystate single pole
uniform magnetic flux devices. They are now able to simply
support mass, as demonstrated with the transformer steel
illustration. They can now easily be made to adopt a dynamic
motional field by applying a tiny amount of excitation.
Specifically, 10V @ 1 mA (10 mW) of excitation at 60 Hz. will
enable the coils of the triode to receive from the Dirac Sea in
excess of 5000 watts of usable negative energy; how much more
can safely be removed has not yet been determined.
Proc. 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering
Conference (August 4-9, 1991, Boston, MA):
Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy
(Association of Distinguished American Scientists)
Thomas E. Bearden
(Association of Distinguished American Scientists)
Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904 papers
which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a
standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly
engineering the ambient potential of the vacuum has been
developed and realized experimentally.
Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to
classical electromagnetics, quantum mechanics, and general
relativity produces supersets of each discipline. These
supersets are joined by the common Whittaker subset, producing a
unified field theory that is engineerable and tested.
By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate
mirror, several working model energy units have been produced
which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local
virtual photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish
coherent self-oscillations between the local excited vacuum and
the affected nuclei, utilize the self-oscillating standing wave
for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny
signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load
circuit a powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate
replica wave at 60 Hertz frequency and nominal 120 volt sine
Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts early on
to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed batteryless systems with
damped positive feedback and open loop systems with
battery-powered input have been successfully built. Open loop
power gains of from 5 x 104 to 1.5 x 106 have been achieved.
Antigravity experiments have also been successfully conducted
where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled
experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an
output of 1 kilowatt.
The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and
experimental results presented. In the demonstration session, a
videotape of one operating open-loop unit with a 1.5 x 106 power
gain is planned, as is the demonstration of an actual working
model closed-loop system with a nominal rating of 500 watts, and
without external power input of any kind.
The units are solid state, with no moving parts. Each of them
comprises a unique form of self-powered vacuum triode of
extraordinary gain, where the cathode power and plate power are
freely furnished by the vacuum, and only a small grid signal
need be furnished either from an external power source or by
clamped positive feedback from the device's output. The output
is negative energy, and some of its unique characteristics are
Implications of the experimental application of the Sweet
vacuum triode, the Bearden approach to the nucleus as a pumped
phase conjugate mirror, and the unified field theory based on
Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable scalar EM potential
theory, are also briefly addressed.
Note: This paper has been prepared by
Bearden, the second author listed, hereinafter called "the
author", with full concurrence of the inventor of the vacuum
triode, inventor and magnetics engineer Sweet, the first author
In 1837 Sir W.R. Hamilton said, "The notion
of time may be unfolded into an independent pure science... a
science of pure time is possible."
As is well known, the fundamental units utilized in physics are
arbitrary. It is even possible to construct all of physics on a
single unit, time. This oddity shows the truth in Hamilton's
statement; it is even more odd, because quantum mechanically
time is not an observable. This means that the observable world
can be modeled completely in terms of the nonobservable, which
is essentially what modern quantum mechanics is now doing.
Hamilton viewed his magnificent quaternions
as essentially having accomplished the mathematical structuring
of time. Maxwell's original EM theory, as is well-known,
was modeled in Hamilton's quaternions, not in the highly
curtailed Heaviside/Hertz vectors erroneously taught today as
Not a single one of the present so-called "Maxwell's" vector
equations ever appeared in a book or paper by James Clerk
For some years the author has worked on an extended
electromagnetics theory, involving the scalar component of the
quaternion. [ref. 1]
In Maxwell's original quaternion theory, this scalar component
often remains when the directional components zero. Further, it
then enfolds vectors and functions of vectors inside, in a
hidden variable manner. Specifically, the author has patterned a
unified field theory concept upon the previously unnoticed but
remarkable early work of E.T. Whittaker. [ref. 2]
In two fundamental papers in 1903 and 1904, Whittaker showed
that all present vector EM can be replaced by scalar potential
interferometry, and that bidirectional harmonic EM plane wave
sets could be used to produce a standing wave of
force-field-free potential (Figures 1 and 2).
+ <---- Organized Local Space-Time
Figure 1: Cross-section of Whittaker spherical EM
Thus Whittaker anticipated the quantum mechanical Aharonov/Bohm
effect by 55 years, including extending it to the macroscopic
world instead of the mesoscopic realm where it has been
established to date. [ref. 3]
In modern terms, Whittaker showed how to turn EM wave energy
into electrogravitational potential energy, then how to
interfere two such scalar potential waves to recover
electromagnetic energy, even at a distance. [ref. 4]
This unrecognized work is of great importance: when applied to
modern physics, it produces supersets of quantum mechanics (QM),
classical electromagnetics (EM), and general relativity (GR).
Further, all three extended disciplines unify on their common
Whittaker subset, in a testable and engineerable fashion. [ref.
[This figure could not be effectively depicted in ASCII. See
the original paper]
Figure 2: Infolded EM plane wave structure of a Whittaker wave.
The Nucleus as a PPCM and Triode
The author has also considered the highly nonlinear nucleus of
the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM), having found
no other consideration of same in the literature.
The author also dubbed a PPCM a "triode," since the amplified
phase conjugate replica of the signal wave is much like the
amplified output of a triode, and the signal wave input to a
PPCM is much like a triode's grid signal input. The PPCM pump
wave then corresponds roughly to the power input to the cathode
and plate of a triode. [ref. 6]
Figure 3 diagrammatically shows the PPCM with correspondence to
a triode. [Referring to figure 3]
Up to all the power in the pump waves A1 and A2 may be output
in phase conjugate replica wave A3 in response to a small signal
wave input A1.
[This figure could not be effectively depicted in ASCII. See
the original paper]
Figure 3: A pumped phase conjugate mirror.
Vacuum Triode background
About seven years ago, the author was privileged to see and
examine an invention of Mr. Floyd Sweet, that produced about 6
watts of electrical power from the vacuum itself.
This remarkable device, which the author dubbed a vacuum
triode, in a single unit utilized most of the scalar EM concepts
the author had so painfully and slowly formulated over the
Sweet, a brilliant inventor with a remarkable knowledge of
magnetics, had utilized barium ferrite magnets and special coils
to produce a solid-state device that successfully tapped the
The author quickly put together a theoretical concept for the
energy-tapping mechanism, based on treatment of the nucleus as a
PPCM and Whittaker's scalar EM potential unified field theory.
The author furnished the technical concept, treating the
nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, to the inventor
along with copies of Whittaker's papers.
Sweet's Synthesis and Extension
Sweet is also a brilliant EM theoretician, working in four,
five, or even six dimensions with ease. He immediately
synthesized the entire PPCM and Whittaker theory, and developed
a complete theoretical treatment of the device. [ref. 8]
He also increased the nuclear potential utilized in the
activated nuclei of the device, which increased the pumping
energy and hence the energy output. He next produced an
open-loop vacuum triode (VT) with an output of 500 watts, for an
input of 33 microwatts.
Thereafter he produced several other models, including
closed-loop systems and one with 5-KW output.
Purpose of This Paper
Our purpose is to explain the detailed scalar EM concept of the
operation of the vacuum triode, since it is a universal method
for cohering and tapping useful EM energy from the vacuum.
The author believes that this mechanism is the fundamental
mechanism that must be invoked in any over-unity device that
electromagnetically extracts vacuum energy as electromagnetic
We also intend to demonstrate a full working model of the
device at this conference. Sweet's detailed theoretical
treatment will be completed and submitted to a major journal
shortly, to complete the scientific exposition of the new
I must also express my deep admiration for my brilliant
inventor colleague. It has been a privilege to work with him,
though under great difficulties and at a distance. He has
developed several other related devices that are of great
importance to the emerging new physics of vacuum engineering, in
the sense referred to by Lee. [ref. 9]
To mention just one, he has produced a magnetic lens which
apparently can directly display the vacuum's virtual particle
flux, or a good analog of it. So far as I am aware, this is the
only extant instrument today that can perform this feat.
When the vacuum triode has been proven to the scientific
community, it is my intention to nominate Sweet for the Nobel
Prize he so richly deserves, and seek high scientific
endorsements for the recommendation.
As is well known, in any closed dynamic system the order
existing in it will gradually be dissipated, as more and more
interactions occur. This leads to the notion of entropy as the
increasing disorder in such systems. The assumptions are
(1) a closed system, and
(2) a positive flow of time for the components of the system.
Actually no such thing as a completely closed system exists in
nature. Every mass system is open to virtual particle flux
exchange with the vacuum, for example, particularly in the
nucleus of its atoms, where the bulk of its mass is located.
However, the closed system assumption is reasonably
approximated by a great many systems which are in stable
thermodynamic equilibrium, or nearly so.
On the other hand, in an open system far from thermodynamic
equilibrium, the second law of thermodynamics does not
necessarily apply, because the system violates both the closed
system assumption and its equilibrium approximation. [ref.10]
Since being discovered in 1972 in the open Soviet literature,
the time-reversed (phase conjugate) EM wave has also been known.
The phase conjugate EM wave is truly time-reversed, as has been
shown experimentally. Since the time-reversed EM wave violates
the second major assumption, the second law of thermodynamics
need not necessarily hold for time-reversed entities.
Putting all this together, if one wishes negentropy and hence
increased energy in a system, the candidate suggested would
appear to be a system that was strongly
(1) open loop,
(2) time-reversed, and
(3) far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
A good overview of time-reversal in physics has been provided
by Sachs. [ref. 11]
Engineering the Nucleus
Since the nucleus already provides a myriad of time-reversed
processes, engineering the nucleus of an atom is a very good
candidate for practical negentropy.
To engineer the nucleus directly, a Whittaker potential is
first artificially constructed, by composing a harmonic set of
phase-locked EM wave/antiwave pairs. It is accented that the
antiwaves must be true phase conjugates; otherwise they will not
constitute a gradient-free Whittaker standing potential wave.
In addition, at least one harmonic interval must be used, and
additional harmonic sets are most desirable. The reason is that
a space-time lattice must be formed in the vacuum, where the
energy is additive spatially but oppositive in t-dot, the rate
of flow of time, in the fourth dimension.
So a time-structure is required as well as a spatial structure,
which is what is provided by n bidirectional harmonic
Whittaker EM wave sets, where n is an integer greater
Once a specific Whittaker structure has been chosen, the local
lattice of space-time is established. This establishes
phase-locked lattice groupings of coupled photon/antiphoton
pairs, or of gravitons. In turn, this Whittaker-structured
vacuum now contains specific graviton vacuum engines, which
directly engineer and structure the vacuum's virtual particle
flux (VPF) exchange with the nucleus. [ref.12]
The nucleus is highly nonlinear, hence strongly phase
conjugative, or time-reversed. The ambient potential of the
local vacuum surrounding the nucleus is in a violent virtual
photon exchange with it, accounting for its electrical charge.
Since the preponderant charge is positive, from the viewpoint
of the ordinary light observer whose light interacts with
electron shells, the nucleus may be taken to exhibit time
reversal (phase conjugation).
Energy, Time, and Gravitons
We take the definition of "energy" to be fundamentally an
ordering imposed upon the VPF of vacuum. We take photon
scattering from the electron shells of atoms to be the
fundamental exterior mechanism producing forward flow of
external observer time.
It then follows that "time's arrow" for the EM observer is due
to the universal scattering of photons from electron shells.
In this view, forward (positive) time flow and entropy are due
to the same primary action: photon scattering from electron
shells. It is unfortunate that the concept of "positive" energy
has been tied to, and defined in terms of, the scattering and
dissipation of VPF order as work, or energy expended.
Via the standard labeling, then, negative energy is the
reconstitution of order in the vacuum VPF. It should be noted
that, in a PPCM, dissipative or external pump wave stress energy
can be scavenged and re-emitted in perfect order as the phase
conjugate replica. This is a negentropic process, for it is
capable of turning disorder into order. [ref. 13]
In the time-reversed PPCM nucleus, we should expect
to see appreciable negative energy, that is, energy removed from
the EM scattering domain. This includes the binding energy of
the nucleus, and the gravitational (G) potential energy of the
EM energy removed from the "scattering interaction realm" and
locked into the mass.
Following Sakharov, we hold that the G-field is not a
fundamental field of nature, but a composite caused by, or made
from, other fields. [ref. 14]
To the first order, we assume the G-potential is comprised of
coupled photon/antiphoton pairs, on the average, where the
statistical coupled spin-2 photon/antiphoton pair is a graviton.
We follow the modern view of the field: because of vacuum
fluctuations, rigorously one no longer speaks of "the" field,
but of the probability of a particular field configuration.
We also hold the vacuum to be composed of potentials, and
regard the three terms space-time, vacuum, and scalar potential
as essentially synonymous.
Newton's Third Law and the Detection Process
The VPF EM stress of the local vacuum immediately surrounding
the nucleus may be decomposed a la Whittaker into opposing
bidirectional EM plane waves/forces. Thus the nonlinear nucleus
may be regarded as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, normally
with a gain of one.
In this view, Newton's third law reaction force is generated
because the so-called "photon" interaction with an atom is in
fact a graviton reaction involving a photon/antiphoton pair that
The decoupled photon normally is absorbed and reradiated by an
orbital electron, while the decoupled antiphoton interacts with
the nucleus, producing a time-reversed twin of the external
force, or, in other words, Newton's third law reaction force,
which gives a slight recoil of the nucleus.
Half of every measurement physicists normally make is
discarded, with the missing half accounting only for Newtonian
reaction in the meter or instrument, which is usually ignored.
The fact that half of our measurement interactions are ignored
is occasionally discovered and noted by physicists, who may even
write a paper pointing it out, but no change is instituted in
the foundations. [ref. 17 and 18]
Semiconducting Vacuum and Self-Oscillation
The vacuum immediately surrounding the nucleus is structured by
the nucleus, and is itself nonlinear and capable of acting as a
semiconductor. [ref. 19]
Since both this immediately local semiconductor vacuum and the
nucleus it surrounds are highly nonlinear, then nonlinear
resonance can conceivably be established between them.
Further, since the resonating system in such case is an open
system away from thermodynamic equilibrium, the oscillation can
be self-sustaining. Such self-oscillation of the pumping of a
PCM is already well known in the nonlinear optical literature,
particularly with compounds containing barium. [ref. 20]
The Vacuum Triode: The Basic Concept
As is well known, a stress can be decomposed into opposing sets
of forces. But quantum mechanically, the forces we are
interested in with our work here are all caused
electromagnetically, by the exchange of virtual photons. Even
mechanical force, according to QM, is caused in this manner.
Thus opposing electromagnetic or mechanical "stress" sets
of bidirectional EM forces are microscopically equivalent
to the notion of pump waves in nonlinear optics.
Hence under the proper conditions, it follows that trapped EM
stress energy of the vacuum can be utilized to "pump" the
nucleus. Treating the stress-pumped nonlinear nucleus as a PPCM,
it follows that the stress energy of the vacuum can be tapped by
a 4-wave mixing mechanism in the atomic nucleus, to provide
amplified phase conjugate EM wave outputs from the atom in
response to small signal wave inputs. 
In the proper nonlinear material, the material may act as a
PPCM, in which case there exists a suitable connection between
the material's atomic nuclei and its external electromagnetic
lattice bonds, and the amplified phase conjugate replica wave
generated in the nucleus will be emitted from the material as an
EM wave field. This field can then be tapped by suitable means
and output to an external load circuit.
Block Diagram of the Vacuum Triode: Figure 4 shows a
basic block diagram of the vacuum triode process, utilized by
Sweet in several laboratory vacuum energy devices. These devices
have ranged from a nominal 500 watt output in a 6 lb device to 5
kilo watts for a heavier unit. Gains have ranged from 50,000 to
1,500,000 for open-loop systems. Both open-loop and closed-loop
systems have been built and tested.
Figure 4 shows a combined block diagram for either a
closed-loop or open-loop system. In the open-loop system, a
barium ferrite magnetic material is used as a pumped phase
In the "standard" design, two opposing PPCMs are used. The
advantage of this dual combination is the use of self-targeting
(repetitive phase conjugation, signal by signal). This has the
(1) stabilizing the Whittaker field, and
(2) producing a quantum potential between the two mirrors, so
the mirrors and the Whittaker potential between them are
essentially one single space-time entity.
Discussion of a quantum potential is beyond the scope of this
paper, but the technical mechanism for creating one has been
previously presented by the author on several occasions. [ref.
First we will explain the open-loop operation of the vacuum
triode. In Figure 4, on the right an external 60 Hz, nominal 10
volt AC sine wave of several tens of microwatts in power is
input into the stabilized field of the barium ferrite magnet
structure, where it modulates the field, producing a signal wave
input into the atoms of the material.
In the top right block, the EM signal wave interacts with the
electron shell of an atom, which in turn is EM-coupled to the
[This figure could not be effectively depicted in ASCII. See
the original paper]
Figure 4: The Vacuum Triode Concept
Thus an EM signal wave is input to the nucleus of the atom,
which is highly nonlinear (middle top block). Earlier, Sweet had
specifically conditioned the atomic nuclei with a proprietary
process, wherein in the barium nucleus a trapped 60 Hz scalar EM
spherical wave resonance (self-oscillation) exists between the
structured semiconductor vacuum immediately surrounding the Ba
In the same activation process, the ambient potential of the
surrounding vacuum was raised and stabilized, in the two
At this point the nonlinear nucleus is effectively self-pumped
by the trapped, excited, spherical scalar wave oscillation
between the structured semiconductor vacuum and the nucleus. The
nucleus is now a strongly pumped phase conjugate mirror.
Consequently, when the signal wave input arrives, the PPCM
nucleus emits an amplified phase conjugate replica (PCR) wave,
which precisely backtracks the input signal wave. This precise
backtracking (perfect retroreflection) is referred to as the
"distortion correction theorem."
In short, the powerful PCR wave returns precisely toward the
external source, passing through the electron shells and
arriving in the perturbed barium ferrite magnet assembly field,
where it perturbs the field.
A transformer-like system then extracts this magnetic field
perturbation and conducts it to the external load circuit.
However, the PCR contains negative energy. Short of the load,
the internal circuits run cool, rather than heating. This is a
signature of a true vacuum energy-tapping device.
Indeed, if the output leads of the Sweet vacuum triode are
physically shorted together, a brilliant flash occurs, and the
leads instantly ice as if dipped in liquid oxygen. This is
another signature of the true negentropic over-unity vacuum tap.
Note that the energy extracted from the semiconducting vacuum
adjacent to the nucleus is just instantly replaced by the
surrounding vacuum's inexhaustible energy pool. This is an
open-loop system, with a hidden energy source: the intense
virtual particle flux of the vacuum's ambient charge.
It is not possible to exhaust that flux, which is often
calculated to have an energy density of some 10^100 or more
grams per cm^3, if the energy were cohered and condensed into
As can be seen, even a VT gain of 1.5 x 106
represents a "vacuum tap" of an incredibly small efficiency, on
the order of 10-100 or so. However, the vacuum
"river" is so energetic that such efficiencies are quite
We accent that the barium ferrite magnetic material must be
activated so that stable self-oscillation between the barium
nucleus and the surrounding semiconductor vacuum exists.
Although self-oscillating/self-pumped PCMs are known at optical
frequencies, Sweet has discovered and perfected a brilliant
methodology for activating PPCM nuclei at ELF frequencies.
In a resistive load such as light bulbs, the resistive material
accomplishes repetitive phase conjugation. Thus in the resistor,
half the total energy is expressed as photon or dissipative
energy in the external (electron shell) level.
As the excited electrons decay, they emit scattered EM energy
as light and heat. This is an exothermic interaction. The other
half of the total energy reacts in the atomic nuclei, as a phase
conjugative or endothermic interaction.
We strongly accent that, Whittaker-wise, there are two
electromagnetic channels and two kinds of EM:
(1) external EM, the common electron-shell interacting,
entropic, scattering, time-forward kind, and
(2) the internal, unsuspected, hidden variable, nuclei
interacting, negentropic, reordering/convergent kind.
Internal EM travels strictly between atomic nuclei, normally
not reacting with electron shells unless a pumped phase
conjugate mirror reaction is invoked in the nucleus to produce a
gain somewhat greater than unity.
Thus if we wish to communicate with atomic nuclei directly, and
engineer them directly, we must utilize the internal EM channel
via applied Whittaker methods.
Inherent in the preceding discussions is the possibility to
turn EM energy into gravitational energy of either sign. In
other words, one should be able to utilize Sweet's vacuum triode
to produce and demonstrate antigravity.
Indeed this is the case. Sweet has also discovered the special
alterations necessary to perform straightforward transformation
of the internal energy in the nucleus to antigravitational
energy, producing a unilateral thrust upward.
Note that the bulk of G-potential gradient (G-force-field)
occurs Whittaker-wise at ELF frequencies. This explains why
nonlinear phase conjugate opticians do not notice direct
At the optical frequencies at which they work, the effects are
so miniscule that they are negligible. This is readily explained
as follows: In QM, the quantum (photon) is comprised of action
(angular momentum), not just energy. It is rather like a "piece
of energy welded to a piece of time, with no seam in the
Since quantum change occurs in quanta, the decoupling of the
energy and time components, in the continual interaction of
photons with matter, exchanges energy between G-potential of
vacuum and trapped mass of the atom or particle. In this
exchange, small increments of time are continually being formed
(and unformed, as photon emission occurs).
Consequently, each mass is moving forward in time in small
incremental jumps, usually of exceedingly small magnitude.
However, the energy and time trapped in a photon are canonical.
The greater the piece of energy, the smaller the piece of time,
and vice versa.
So if one wishes to stress the "rate of flow of time"
significantly, one needs to produce large amounts of photons
that have very large pieces of time, and consequently little
pieces of energy.
Since the energy of the photon is directly proportional to its
frequency, this means that the lower frequency photons have
larger time increments, and hence endure over many
"regular-sized photon absorption/emission changes" to
appreciably stress the rate of time flow/production.
The bottom line is that the standard pumped phase conjugate
mirror can be adapted to produce antigravity at ELF frequencies,
but precisely the same adaptation at optical frequencies will
have negligible effect.
With this in mind, the author requested Sweet to perform an
antigravity experiment to prove the thesis. With Sweet's
proprietary adaptation of his vacuum triode/PPCM, the experiment
produced rather straightforward but spectacular results, as
shown in Figure 5.
The experiment was performed as follows: Rigged for
antigravity, the 6-lb device was placed on a scale so that its
weight could be continuously monitored. A special external load
box was utilized in which multiple electric light sockets were
connected in parallel.
Then the external load draw was adjusted by merely screwing in
100-watt lamps, one at a time, with measurement and observation
pauses in between. The output of the device was 120 volt,
negative AC sine-wave power at 60 Hz.
For each 100-watt increment, the load power was recorded and
the weight was carefully recorded. The results are shown in the
rather smooth, classic curve shown in Figure 5.
At 1,000 watts load draw, the previously 6-lb device had
reduced its weight due to gravity by 90 percent. At that point
the signal-wave (grid) input to the open-loop vacuum triode was
only 175.4 microamps at 10 volts, or just under two milliwatts.
[This figure could not be effectively depicted in ASCII. See
the original paper]
Figure 5: Antigravity Test of Sweet's Adapted Vacuum
We accent that the nominal two milliwatt input is only a gating
signal. It is the organized, gated vacuum energy that is
performing the action.
The experiment was stopped short of actual hovering and flying
due to safety considerations. With the specific adaptation,
magnetic monopoles are deposited in the magnet materials,
producing internal tensile stress.
Since no explosive controlled facilities were available, and
there was no wish to destroy the VT, the experiment was
terminated at 90% antigravity performance. It was completely
successful, and adequately demonstrated the validity of the
unified field theory concepts utilized in our approach.
A new unified field theory has been developed, tested, and at
least partially verified experimentally. The concepts of the
theory have been applied by Sweet in a series of inventions that
produce readily usable, safe electromagnetic power directly from
The methodology lends itself to formulation of power devices
without moving parts. Antigravity, predicted by the concepts of
the theory, has been demonstrated in actual practical
demonstrations on the laboratory bench.
Though not discussed in this paper, application of the concepts
and methodology to a large variety of other fields, such as
medical reversal of aging and curing of almost the entire range
of present debilitating diseases, has been previously pointed
out. [ref. 23]
We have also pointed out the mechanism for Kaznacheyev's
cytopathogenic effect, or the induction of cellular pathology at
a distance by electromagnetic means. [ref. 24]
We have also pointed out the specific mechanism involved in
Priore's device, which in rigorous laboratory animal testing
under the auspices of eminent French scientists, demonstrated
nearly 100 percent cures for terminal cancers and leukemias,
sleeping sickness, artherosclerosis, and other debilitating
We believe we have also produced the concepts enabling the
direct engineering and therapeutic manipulation of Popp's master
cellular control system. [ref. 26]
We conclude that the concepts we have utilized and
experimentally demonstrated are universal, as implied by any
notional unified field theory.
Our conclusion is that the concepts, theory, and experiments,
taken together, are sufficient for investigation and replication
by the scientific community.
If replicated and fully substantiated, we believe the work will
directly point the way to, and usher in, a new unified field
theory physics of universal application.
As can be seen, the implications of the new approach are
profound. The authors believe they have ushered in the
forerunner of a vast new physics, one which will change our
lives, and our view of physical reality, in ways previously
By mastering, controlling, and gating the vast, incredible
energy of the seething vacuum, we can power our automobiles,
flying machines, and technology inexhaustibly. Further, it can
be done absolutely cleanly; there are no noxious chemical
pollutants to poison the biosphere. With practical antigravity,
ships can be developed to cross the solar system as readily as
one crosses the ocean today.
And the ships, automobiles, and technology will never run out
of fuel; the inexhaustible vacuum fills every system,
everywhere, to overflowing.
Not discussed in this paper, it turns out that living systems,
faced with the problem of achieving negentropy so as to maintain
their form in a dissipative external physical reality, have
always used the hidden internal channel for such things as mind,
thought, cell control, and living functions.
With the new methodology, one now faces the advent of access
and engineering of the mind and life of the observer as readily
as the observer's physical body.
Transmutation of the elements, control of the weather, lighting
and powering our cities and homes cheaply and cleanly, and
provision of plenty for everyone is the vista for the future. We
can in fact clean up the radioactive wastes, rid ourselves of
coarse nuclear and petroleum powerplants.
We strongly stress that, with the ability to engineer the
Schroedinger equation itself, the new methodology allows the
direct engineering and control of quantum change, and hence of
physical reality itself.
The methodology is extendable to hyperdimensions; nested
virtual levels of the vacuum are already precisely that. The
author has already pointed out the application of this emerging
technology to the absolute cure of diseases such as AIDS,
cancer, leukemia, etc., and shown that the Priore device in
France already proved the efficacy of the application in the 60s
We shall be able to rid ourselves and our descendents of
diseases. With direct access to the actual software of life and
mind, in the future we should be able to achieve levels of
education previously unattainable, by directly inputting the
Previously we have also pointed out that four nations of the
world are already embarked on weaponization of scalar EM unified
field technology. It is sobering to think that, in addition to
having the ability to make our planet a paradise for
humankind, we also will have the ability to make it a hades.
For that reason, we are doing our best to clarify the technical
concept and the theory in this 1991, hopefully with the view
that humankind will seize upon the positive aspects, and develop
and apply this technology for the betterment of all people
Long ago, Albert Einstein said these words: "It would of course
be a great step forward if we succeeded in combining the
gravitational field and the electromagnetic field into a single
structure. Only so could the era in theoretical physics
inaugurated by Faraday and Clerk Maxwell be brought to a
And Teilhard de Chardin wrote: "Someday, after we have mastered
the winds, the waves, the tides and gravity, we shall harness
for God the energies of love. Then for the second time in the
history of the world man will have discovered fire."
The authors fervently believe they have come upon fire for the
second time, as allegorized by de Chardin. If so, let us all use
the knowledge wisely.
 Maxwell's original quaternion EM theory is contained in
some 200 quaternion equations and differs extensively from the
restricted Heaviside/Gibbs vector interpretation universally
taught today as "Maxwell's Theory." See James Clerk
Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 1873. The third edition is by Dover,
 E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of
Mathematical Physics," Math. Ann., Vol. 57, 1903, p.
333-355; "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to
Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions," Proc.
Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, pp. 367-372. The
first paper was in fact a detailed theory of the scalar standing
potential wave that Nikola Tesla discovered four years earlier,
on the night of July 3-4 1899, being radiated from
thunderstorms, which he entered in his Colorado Springs Notebook
on the morning of the 4th. More recently the Whittaker structure
(WS) inside potentials, including the Schroedinger
potential, has been shown by V.K. Ignatovich, "The Remarkable
Capabilities of Recursive Relations," Am. J. Phys.,
57(10), Oct. 1989, p. 873-878, without credit to Whittaker or to
the presence of such structured scalar potentials in Maxwell's
original quaternion EM theory. These WSs are universal to scalar
potentials; e.g., for the same in acoustics, see Richard W.
Ziolkowski, "Localized Transmission of Wave Energy," Proc.
SPIE, Vol.1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and
Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397.
 See Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of
Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Phys.
Rev., Second Series, 115(3), Aug. 1, 1959, p. 458-491.
This paper pointed out the primacy of the potentials. Instead of
being causative agents, the force fields are actually effects
generated from the potentials. This is in complete violation of
both classical electromagnetics and classical dynamics, but it
is absolutely required by quantum mechanics. For an extensive
discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and an extensive list of
references, see S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The Quantum
Effects of Electromagnetic Fluxes," Rev. Mod. Phys.
57(2), Apr.1985. See Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in
Normal-Metal Rings Exhibit Aharonov-Bohm Effect," Physics
Today, 39(1), Jan. 1986, p. 17-20 for confirmation that
the Aharonov/Bohm effect has indeed been firmly proven
 It is pointed out that today all potentials are well known
to be gravitational entities. However, this was not known in
Whittaker's time, and so he himself did not realize that he had
actually produced an engineerable, testable unified theory of
electromagnetics and gravitation.
 T.E. Bearden, "Possible Whittaker Unification of
Electromagnetics, General Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics:
Part I: Background," Presented to Ala. Acad. Sci. Annual
Symp., Univ. Jacksonville, Mar. 1991.
 For the theory of a pumped phase conjugate
mirror, see David M. Pepper, "Nonlinear Optical Phase
Conjugation," Opt. Eng., 21(2), Mar./Apr. 1982, p.
156-183; Amnon Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd Edn.,
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1985. In a normal
triode tube, the amplified plate signal is 180 degrees out of
phase spatially with the grid input, but in-phase with it in
respect to rate of flow through time. In a PPCM, the amplified
phase conjugate replica wave is in phase spatially with the
signal wave, but 180 degrees out of phase with it in respect to
its rate of flow through time. It is pointed out that a PCM with
a gain of unity produces a coupled EM wave/antiwave pair whose
energy is additive in 3-space but subtractive in the first
derivative of the fourth dimension, time. Hence it is no longer
an electromagnetic wave as such, but an oscillatory wave of
stress upon the local rate of flow of time. Hence it is a
powerful electrogravitational wave, whose EM nature is hidden in
the guise of a scalar EM potential. It is also a wave of
variation in the local gauge, and of variation in the local ST
 See T.E. Bearden, The Phase Conjugate Vacuum Triode,
Apr. 23, 1987, privately published. An earlier pencil
draft was initially produced.
 Sweet has continued to extend his theoretical treatment. A
formal paper providing the complete mathematical theory of the
vacuum triode has been drafted, is in final review, and will be
submitted to a leading journal by mid-1991.
 See Chapter 25: Outlook, "Possibility of Vacuum
Engineering," T.D. Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to
Field Theory, Harwood, New York, 1981, pp. 824-828.
 In 1977 Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel Prize for
extending thermodynamics; in particular, for the theory of
dissipative structures in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In
Prigogine systems, negentropy is known to be possible.
 Robert G. Sachs, The Physics of Time Reversal,
Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1987.
 Note that this moves the entire notion of the charge of a
fundamental particle to a deeper and more extended level. Now
the charge may be discretized, but it is not quantized in the
hard conventional sense. Further, the internal Whittaker
structure of the massless VPF photon exchange of vacuum and
mass, which, quantum mechanically, is what the electrical charge
of the particle is in the first place, is deterministically
structured. Note that this violates the present assumption that
all like charged particles are identical; now two electrons may
have either the same or different magnitudes of charge, and even
when the magnitudes are the same, their internal charge
structures (Whittaker structures) and VPF exchange with the
vacuum may differ. Also note that this resolves the severe QM
problem of missing chaos (hidden order) in quantum change. The
reason for the problem was the use of Gibbs statistics with its
assumption of random variable change, which a priori excluded
hidden order (and hence chaos) from QM. That was only a
special case, albeit an important one. There are now three QM
cases: (1) the conventional case, where there is no hidden
order; (2) the case where there is some hidden order, and the
statistics is chaotic, not random; and (3) the case where the QM
change is deterministic, with essentially total hidden order.
Note that the Whittaker methodology allows one to directly
engineer cases (2) and (3), including the Schroedinger equation
 The present second law of thermodynamics is written only
for time-forward entities, and need not apply for the
time-reversed case. Merely viewing the energy-dissipating
forward time case in reverse allows an appreciation of the
time-reversed case. In other words, the second law of
thermodynamics is incomplete as presently stated. The complete
law has a corollary to cover the increase in order as the
time-reversal of the system increases. Thus the complete law
consists of two parts: (1) the entropic, time-forward case, and
(2) the negentropic time-reversed case. Since the re-ordering
can be amplified at will by a PPCM process, the correct
distinction between the two subsets of the complete law is
important, and applies to real systems.
 A.D. Sakharov, Theor. Math. Phys., Vol. 23, 1975,
 T. E. Bearden, Gravitobiology: A New Biophysics,
Tesla Book Co., 1991.
 C.f. Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald
Wheeler, Gravitation, W.H. Freeman and Co., San
Francisco, 1973, p. 1191.
 E.g., see Richard Kidd, et al, "Evolution of the
Modern Photon," Am. J. Phys., 57(1), Jan. 1989, pp.
27-35. See also R. Chen, "Cancellation of Internal
Forces," Am. J. Phys. 49(4), Apr. 1981, p. 372.
 A nonlinear material may simply emit a photon, or it may
act as a phase conjugate mirror (PCM) and emit a phase conjugate
replica of the absorbed photon. When the material emits a normal
photon, it measurably recoils. When it emits a time-reversed
photon, it does not recoil, as already experimentally
established in nonlinear phase conjugate optics. The solution to
the mystery is this: When emitting a normal photon, the material
does not act as a PCM. In that case the matching antiphoton
which split from the interacting graviton (the graviton that
yielded the external photon) interacts with the nucleus,
producing a recoil action with a gain of one. Thus Newtonian
third-law recoil of the nucleus occurs. On the other hand, when
the material acts as a PCM, it also emits the antiphoton outside
the atom to "backtrack" the absorbed "signal wave" photon. In
that case there is no Newtonian recoil of the nucleus, because
the agent for causing recoil did not interact with the nucleus
to produce it.
 Richard E. Prange and Peter Strance, "The Semiconducting
Vacuum," Am. J. Phys. 52(1), Jan. 1984, p. 19-21. Also,
under nonlinear conditions, a particle can absorb more energy
than is in the light incident on it, absorbing the energy from
the vacuum VPF. Cf. Craig F. Bohren, "How Can a Particle Absorb
More Than the Light Incident on It?"; Am. J. Phys.
51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327.
 Cf. Pepper, ibid. and Yariv, ibid. For a specific example,
see Mary J. Miller, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett.
41(8), Oct. 15. 1982, p. 689-691.
 Again, for the theory of the PPCM, see Pepper,
ibid., and Yariv, ibid.
 E.g., see T.E. Bearden, Gravitobiology: A New
Biophysics, Tesla Book Co., Chula Vista, CA, 1991, p.
 Bearden, AIDS: Biological Warfare, Tesla Book Co.,
1988; Gravitobiology: A New Biophysics,
Tesla Book Co., 1991; Analysis of Scalar
Electromagnetics, Tesla Book Co., 1990.
 Cf. Vlail P. Kaznacheyev and L.P. Mikhailova, Ultraweak
Intercellular Interactions, [in Russian],
Novosibirsk, 1981; Vlail P. Kaznacheyev, "Electromagnetic
Bioinformation in Intercellular Interactions," Psi Research,
1(1), Mar. 1982, p. 47-76; N.D. Devyatkov, Ed.,
"Applications of Low-Intensity Millimeter Wave
Radiation in Biology and Medicine", [in Russian], IRE
SSSR, Moscow, 1985.
 Cf. Antoine Priore, "Method of Producing Radiations for
Penetrating Living Cells," US Patent No. 3,280,816; Jean- Michel
Graille, Le Dossier Priore, De Noel, Paris, 1984 [in
French]; Christopher Bird, "The Case of Antoine Priore and His
Therapeutic Machine: A Scandal in the Politics of Science,"
Appx. I to Bearden, AIDS: Biological Warfare, 1988.
 Cf. Fritz Albert Popp, "Photon Storage
in Biological Systems," in Fritz Albert Popp, et
al, Eds., "Electromagnetic Bio-Information", Proceedings
of the Symposium, Marburg, September 5, 1977, Urban &
Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, 1979, p.123-149; also Biophotonen:
Ein neuer weg zur Losung des Krebsproblems, Verlag fur
Medizin, Heidelberg, 1976 [in German].
Floyd Sweet's VTA
(Excerpted from: Space Energy Newsletter IV (1) March
13, 1993 ~ PO Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616)
The Vacuum Triode Amplifier (VTA) invented by Floyd Sweet
consists of two ferrite magnets and two to four coreless wire
coils. It is self-powered in the preferred configuration and
produces in excess of one KW of 120 VRMS 60 HZ power in
the form of energy that resembles electricity. This energy is
referred to as negative energy. The VTA development history, its
anti-gravity characteristics, negative energy properties, and
some of the personalities involved are discussed.
This is a story of Floyd Sweet's trials and tribulations
involving a mystery wrapped in an enigma. God revealed to Floyd
sufficient information to build a machine to provide energy that
resembles electricity. However, God did not provide solutions to
the frustrating string of problems that would surface in
converting the idea into a working device. There are several
people in this story that have provided help and some who have
When Tom Bearden met Floyd, the device Floyd had developed was
producing a few watts of alternating current at 28 volts. Tom
saw in Floyd's device the physical embodiment of a principle he
had theorized many years before. Tom had never designed or
constructed a physical device to access this elusive energy
Tom's name for the extraction process is 'Four Wave Phase
Conjugate Mixing'. The energy source is the intense non-cohered
energy that is thought to be present everywhere in the universe.
Various researchers through the years have given this energy
different names, such as "Zero Point Energy", "Gravity Field
Energy", "Radiant Energy", and others.
Tom Bearden gave Floyd's device the name "Vacuum Triode
Amplifier" or VTA. The machine provides a small amount of its
output fed back to the equivalent of a grid which gates or
coheres a large amount of energy which appears at the device
output terminal as something that resembles electricity!
This energy can be utilized by devices designed to convert
electricity to light, heat, or mechanical work or anything else
for which normal electricity is used. The properties of this
energy, although superficially resembling the 120 VRMS 60 HZ
power we normally use, are unique and sufficiently different
from conventional electricity, so that it should be classified
as an entirely new energy form. It will require careful extended
study by a wide range of people in order to document its
properties in the manner scientists have done with conventional
Tom Bearden refers to this energy as negative energy, and he
states that negative time must be utilized. In negative time
according to Bearden, gravity is a repulsive force.
Floyd's experiments demonstrated that the VTA loses weight in
proportion to the amount of generated "Negative Energy". This
was carefully documented by Floyd on a kitchen scale. The
machine weight was observed decreasing with increased load in a
quite orderly fashion until a point was suddenly reached when
Floyd heard an immense sound, as if he were at the center of a
giant whirlwind but without actual air movement. The sound was
heard by his wife Rose in another room of their apartment and
was heard by others outside the apartment. The experience was
very frightening and the experiment has not been repeated.
Some observers of the light emanating from ordinary 120 volt
100 watt incandescent bulbs powered by the VTA claim the light
is different, softer than normal incandescent light. The VTA
magnets and coils when powering loads of over a kilowatt become
cold and temperatures of 20 degrees F below ambient have been
observed. Similar reports of below ambient temperature of energy
machine components have been reported by other inventors, such
as John Bedini and John R.R. Searl.
When the VTA output wires had been accidentally shorted, first
an extremely brilliant flash occurred. When the wires involved
were examined shortly afterward, they were found covered with
frost. Unfortunately this also caused the VTA magnet to fracture
and the machine ceased operating. In one instance the machine
operation ceased during a local earthquake. The physical
shacking was not believed to be sufficiently severe to disrupt
the machine magnet/coil relative placement or physical shock to
the magnet such as a hammer blow might impart. The best
speculation is that the machine was affected by the intense
electromagnetic pulse known to originate from earthquakes.
Conventional instruments used to measure volts, amps, or watts
appear to correlate machine output as coupled to loads, but only
up to approximately 1 KW; above that value they may indicate
zero or some other value not related to the known actual load.
Floyd's attempts to use conventional electrical design formulas
relating number of coil turns, amp turns on drive coils, and any
other parameter to predict observed outputs have all resulted in
failures with calculations. Empirical formulas based on actual
tests have been documented.
Observation of machine output voltage of approximately 120 VRMS
while the load was changed in 100 watt increments from 100 watts
to 1000 watts has shown no observable output voltage change,
which suggests an extremely low internal equivalent impedance.
The 20 gauge magnet wire in the output coils consisting of
several hundred turns has significant DC resistance which is not
correlated with the unvarying output terminal voltage at
different loads. It is speculated that this energy does not
travel within the copper wire or its passage through the copper
wire does not generate a voltage drop --- a most useful feature
when transferring energy from one place to another.
One frustrating aspect of the VTA has been its failures,
evidenced by the output voltage slowly decaying to zero over a
few seconds or minutes. There also have been spontaneous
instances of the voltage rising above 120 VRMS as observed by
the increased lamp load bank brightness. The volt meters,
ammeter, and power meter did not correlate with the brightness
change except when the machine would the fail to produce any
Many times the VTA was normally left on powering a lamp load
bank 24 hours a day. During a period of time when it appeared to
be functioning properly all day long, Floyd got up at 3:00 AM to
go to the bathroom. As he walked past the room where the VTA was
located, he noticed that the lights appeared dim. He measured
the voltage at 70 VRMS. Being tired at the moment, he returned
to bed. The next morning when he rose, the voltage was back to
the normal 120 VRMS and stayed there all day. The next
night Floyd got up at 4:30 AM. The voltage was measured at 85
VRMS. Floyd returned to bed. The voltage was normal the entire
A possible clue to this anomaly has appeared in an article by
E.W. Silvertooth titled 'Motion Through The Ether' where Silver
tooth describes a dual path laser interferometer experiment that
conclusively demonstrated the presence of an ether that flows
through our portion of the universe at greater than the speed of
light with its vector in the direction of the constellation Leo.
Floyd's VTA may be orientation sensitive to this ether velocity
The VTA consists of two 4" X 6" X .5" grade 5 or grade 8
ferrite magnets spaced 3 inches apart in the attractive
orientation, with the output and drive coils in between. The
output coils are wound with 20 gage magnet wire. Their axis is
parallel to the magnetic lines of force between the two magnets.
The two drive (or excitation) coil axes are positioned at 90
degrees to the output coil axis. The VTA excitation coils may be
driven by the VTA output voltage or a separate sinewave
The "Secret" to the machine is the process that "conditions"
the magnets. This conditioning process determines the
output frequency and also prepares the machine for
operation. The same machine could be just as well "told" to
output 50 HZ or 400 HZ. The conditioning technique is so
novel, it is doubtful anyone would ever guess how it is done.
Oscilloscope observation of the VTA output voltage waveform
shows an apparently perfect sinewave that is not phase
locked to the local 60 HZ powerline voltage.
The VTA can be started by momentary connection of a 9-volt
battery to the drive coils when the machine is operated in the
self-powered mode. The operation is stopped by momentary
interruption of power to the power coils.
The VTA "likes" to always see a minimum load of 25 watts.
Electrical shock to humans from the VTA may be more damaging
than contact with a 120 VRMS 60 HZ conventional powerline
voltage. Floyd has accidentally had VTA current pass from
his thumb to his smallest finger. It appears to freeze the
flesh and was extremely painful for at least two weeks.
The mechanism by which negative energy makes copper conductors
cold but will also heat light bulb filaments is not understood.
Tom Bearden has coined the term "Gravito-Striction" for this
process and has described how he believes it works.
On the human side of the VTA development, some incidents are
worth telling. Two people from Australia, who claimed they
wanted to help Floyd, stole his notebook and promptly asked John
Bedini for help in replicating the VTA based on the notebook
contents. John recognized the notebook as belonging to Floyd and
promptly asked them to leave. However, the notebook was never
Floyd has received many death threats over the phone, and some
threats face to face. A well dressed gentleman in an expensive
suit, tie, hat, and hundred dollar shoes approached Floyd on the
sidewalk of the street where he lives and introduced himself as
Cecil Brown. He showed him a picture of Floyd inside his
apartment. Cecil then told him that he represented a
conglomerate that did not want Floyd's device to appear in the
world at this time. He further stated that sometimes unfortunate
things happen to people who do not comply with the wishes of
others. He then retrieved the picture and departed. Incidences
like this do impart significant concern in Floyd's mind!
One real unsung hero of the human side of this story is Al
Margolin, who for many years has provided test equipment,
fabrication help, and transportation for Floyd and Rose whenever
needed, and it was needed many times.
Floyd's long time friend and former employer Bill Lawry has
provided living and project expenses and fabrication help when
The reliable conditioning of the magnets in a manner that
assures long time operation is the Achilles heel of this device.
With the help of enough of the right people this device may
change our world and open a new field of physics! This adventure
of course is an on going and the final goal of powering the
world with the VTA is still a long ways off.
Don Watson, et al.
Floyd Sweet: Vacuum Triode Amplifier (VTA)
According to Floyd Sweet, who is now deceased, God "revealed"
information to him about how to create a device that would
provide energy "that resembles electricity." (1) Although Sweet
may have claimed divine inspiration, don't let your skepticism
deter you from reading on -- the end result is worth a good deal
"The virtual vacuum is the primordial powerhouse of everything
in the universe." Floyd Sweet
The Vacuum Triode Amplifier, the result of Sweet's hard work,
is claimed to produce an overunity effect due to its interaction
with the vacuum of space. Sweet declared that "the virtual
vacuum is far from empty, far from nothing, it is rather
seething with potential energy as the primordial powerhouse of
everything in the universe." (2) This energy is referred to by
Sweet's compatriot, free thinker and nuclear engineer Thomas
Bearden, as negative energy. It was Bearden who gave Floyd's
device the name "Vacuum Triode Amplifier" or VTA. Tom saw in
Floyd's invention the physical embodiment of a principle he had
theorized many years before, but Bearden himself had never
designed or constructed a physical device to access this elusive
energy force. Upon meeting Sweet and examining the VTA, Thomas
Bearden recognized what he calls "Four Wave Phase Conjugate
Mixing," a type of energy extraction that taps what he, too,
believes to be a universal, ever-present source of energy.
Whether called "zero-point energy," "gravity field energy," or
"radiant energy," its availability for conversion of electricity
into heat, light, or mechanical work makes it a new form of
energy worthy of extensive research. Bearden thinks it is
negative energy, whose acquisition requires negative time. This
means that if gravity were similarly utilized, it would be
construed as a repelling force.
In its physical form, the VTA consists of two magnets whose
attractive sides are held about 3 inches apart by 2 to 4
coreless wire output and drive coils. The device is self-powered
but can be started by connecting a 9-volt battery to the drive
coils. One of the reasons that the Sweet vacuum unit falls into
the free energy category is because it pertains to the wider
technological domain that includes the prior research of other
inventors such as Paul Baumann, of the Swiss commune,
Methernitha, and Hans Coler (Germany 1942). (See AEI website for
The success of these three inventors' devices can be attributed
to the work of Franz Kalusa and Oskar Kline in the first few
decades of the twentieth century. By using "twin bifilar wound
coils over permanent magnets," it is believed that the Sweet
VTA, Swiss M-L converters, and Coler Magnetstromapparat utilize
the same principle to acquire free energy. The coils are thought
to cancel out the magnetic field that "the normal, excited EMF
flow" causes. This allows the magnetism from the stack of
permanent magnets to be directed into the 5th and 6th
dimensions, which are "' curled up' within the other four
dimensions," according to Kalusa. The magnets are then allowed
to freely tap the space energy in those dimensions while the
coil continues to distract the normal magnetic field, so to
speak. The Sweet VTA is slightly different than the other two
devices, in that "it uses special conditioned or activated
permanent magnet material." It is therefore considered a "Stand
alone device." This conditioning of the magnets is considered
"the secret to the machine," since it could "be just as well
'told' to output 50 HZ or 400 HZ." When the theory behind the
source of free energy that runs these three devices was
originally postulated, Einstein rejected it. Eventually he
accepted the idea and allowed it to be published by the Prussian
Floyd's homespun experiments with the Vacuum Triode Amplifier
apparently tapped some very interesting forces. During one test
in his apartment, the VTA actually weighed less and less the
more that was applied to the load. In other words, the more
"negative energy" generated, the more anti-gravity observed. At
a certain point, a frighteningly loud sound jolted the inventor,
and that particular experiment was forever retired.
A recurring theme in other experiments is a decrease in
temperature of the Sweet VTA. Sometimes the magnets and coils
measure as much as 20F below air temperature when the device is
powering loads of over one kilowatt. Once when the wiring was
accidentally shorted, a "brilliant flash" appeared and frost was
observed on the wires. Sweet was even electrocuted by his device
once, which appeared to freeze the skin through which the
current passed, and he believes that it was more damaging than a
shock from conventional voltage in a power line would be.
Bearden calls the simultaneous cooling of the device and heating
of what it powers "Gravito Striction." Similar reports of energy
machine components that exhibit below-ambient temperatures have
been observed by other inventors, such as John Bedini and John
R.R. Searl. A theory that could explain this effect has been
postulated by Victor Schauberger, Walter Russell, and other
researchers. They think "nature uses two types of 'spin,' one
clockwise, the other counterclockwise. The clockwise spin is a
concentrating effect which generates Heat as a byproduct and is
used in all modern power generation and utilization. The
counterclockwise spin is an expanding effect associated with
cold and the attempt of nature to regain the unity that prevails
when force of any type (Aether, magnetic, light, electric,
gravitic, etc.) is not polarized. In fact, the very existence of
electricity, magnetism, gravity, heat, light, etc. is not
possible unless the Aether is thus polarized to create the
interferences necessary to provide potential differences."
Other oddities of the VTA's performance have been reported. The
device is known to have stopped working one day after an
earthquake. Though it was not substantial enough to disrupt the
VTA's set-up, it is believed that the earthquake's accompanying
electromagnetic pulse interfered with the machine. Also, when
Sweet left his device on for 24 hours a day, he noticed that at
night there was less voltage measured and the lights it powered
were dim, while in the daytime there was more voltage and the
lights were bright. Obviously, there is still a lot to learn
about this new source of energy.
Sweet's VTA unit is listed as an overunity device in the
database of the Institute for New Energy (INE). The unit was
tested by Tom Bearden on April 30, 1987, in front of multiple
witnesses, and its most recent demonstration occurred in the
1990s (3). According to its own guidelines, INE rates the
invention at the highest interest level, with the potential for
"new physics and great impact." INE also believes that "the
device seems to be scalable to a larger size." INE ranks the
commercial aspects of Floyd Sweet's VTA unit as very high since
"the operation techniques and measurements are being refined."
Bearden vouches for the validity of his colleague's invention,
which can produce 500 watts of electricity with only a
330-microwatt input (4).
Like many other inventors, Floyd Sweet ran into problems with
threats and theft. Two Australians once offered their help to
Sweet and then stole his work notebook. Upon asking John Bedini
for help in understanding the notebook's contents in order to
replicate the device, Bedini noticed it was Sweet's property and
refused to cooperate. Sweet never recovered the notebook. The
inventor also received death threats, over the phone and face to
face. Reportedly, a well-dressed man wearing a very expensive
suit and shoes approached Floyd on the street he lived on. He
introduced himself as Cecil Brown, showed him a picture of Sweet
inside his apartment, and said that he represented people who
did not want Sweet's invention to be revealed to the public. The
man then said "that sometimes unfortunate things happen to
people who do not comply with the wishes of others," and walked
The VTA is not without problems. Although it is capable of
producing "in excess of one KW of 120 VRMS 60 HZ power," the
latest VTA prototype "has not shown the ability to continue
operation for extended periods of time." It is thought that
electrical disturbances outside the device are responsible for
disrupting the internal resonance. The device often fails
altogether to produce a steady output, as it is common for the
voltage to drop to zero within only seconds or minutes. It is
not yet known how or if this problem can be solved.
Another challenge is that conventional electrical design and
instrumentation does not seem to be compatible with the VTA.
Floyd tried to apply conventional design formulas in order to
figure out how many coil turns and amp turns should be made to
achieve desirable outputs. To his dismay, this method "resulted
in calculation inconsistencies." When it came to using
conventional instrumentation to measure watts, volts, or amps,
it would not work properly over 1 kW; instead, it would
"indicate zero or some other value not related to the known
actual load." For instance, when the VTA's voltage surpassed 120
VRMS, indicated by the increased brightness of a lamp load, the
ammeter, voltmeters, and power meter did not correlate with the
change in brightness. These mysteries still plague the work of
present researchers and scientists who are trying to further
understand Sweet's device. The fact that they "are not quite
sure why Sparky presents such flaws in his data releases"
indicates either the difficulties Sweet ran into or the
changing, unpredictable nature of the device's functioning (5).
The painstaking process of duplicating the VTA's overunity
effect coupled with the fact that "reliable conditioning of the
magnets in a manner that assures long time operation is the
Achilles heel of this device" mean that "we must await further
troubleshooting and development of this unique Sweet VTA
technology." Let's hope that it happens sooner than later.
Does Sweet's Work Explain Searl's Device?
Floyd Sweet claims to have obtained over unity electrical
energy effects by applying a special magnetization process to
some ferrite magnets. His setup consisted of one or more
specially conditioned magnets and at least 2 coils. The magnets
are fixed (stationary). One coil was used to excite or begin the
oscillations of the magnets with a small AC field. The other
coil(s) were used to "pick up" the magnet's large magnetic
oscillations. (Clearly a non-linear effect occurs here for the
excitation AC magnetic field is small compared to the output.)
See, for example, Alan Dubla's web pages and this article for a
more detailed description of Floyd Sweet's devices.
I have also investigated Prof. John Searl's magnetic
motor/generator. After spending a couple of years volunteering
my time with D.I.S.C. Inc. USA to help Prof. Searl reproduce his
device according to his explanations and instructions, I have
not been able to figure out by what physical bases Prof. Searl
claims his devices worked. (Note: I have not worked directly
with Prof. Searl. However, the group working here in the USA was
in direct and frequent contact with Prof. Searl.) He has
developed a construction method which he calls "The Laws of
Squares" which, in my opinion, is so far removed from the
language of physics and engineering that one is left completely
in the dark as to the cause of the motion in his devices. We are
therefore free to think up our own methods and explanations for
constructing a device in which magnets are "self-propelled".
Here is a rough illustration [Not included here] of Searl's
setup. For more detail on Searl's devices see the info at this
web site or just search the web.
What is most interesting for the following comparison is the
similarity (but not perfect match) between Sweet's method of
conditioning the magnets and Searl's magnetization process. In
both cases, an AC field is applied to the material. (There is
more detail, of course, to both Sweet's and Searl's
magnetization process. I am only pointing out the most obvious
So, is there a way to use Sweet's effect to produce a
Searl-like magnetic motor?
Consider "large" but "slow" magnetization vector oscillations
cohered (in sync) to produce traveling waves. It would then be
possible for the wave to "pull" (or "push") a disk magnet along
with it. This is illustrated in the next figure [Not included
here] in which a disk magnet (red) moves along a magnetization
vector oscillation traveling wave.
If such waves can be created around a cylinder (or ring) then
it might be possible to move the stacks of disks around this
In Sweet's work, a small AC excitation is needed to begin the
larger magnetization oscillations. Applying this concept to the
Searl-like arrangement, the disks rolling around the center
cylinder would be "seen" by the center cylinder as small
"excitation" magnetic oscillations.
Searl says that his first devices needed to be "started". That
is, the stack of disk magnets need an external source to start
them rolling. This could have excited large magnitude
oscillations in the center cylinder in a similar way that
Sweet's small excitations started the large magnetization
oscillations in his magnets.
One problem that I see with this arrangement is that I would
not expect the wave length to be so large that the disks fit
between wave crests. I would expect the wave length on the
center cylinder to be much smaller. Then it is doubtful that the
disks would be carried along.
This may be why Searl claims that both the center cylinder
(actually, its a ring in Searl's set-up) and the disks need to
be specially magnetized (conditioned). The result may be another
magnetization wave around the disks. These waves in the disks
coupled with the wave in the center cylinder may be like two
gears in which their teeth mesh. (Searl says that the frequency
used to magnetize the disks is not to be the same as that used
for the center ring. So it is not clear whether or not this
"gear" analogy is appropriate.)
In a static condition (that is, considering the center cylinder
alone with no disks around it) The magnetization vector wave
might "stop" (might not be traveling around the cylinder) but it
might retain its alternating "pattern" around the periphery of
the cylinder. This might be the origin of the "pattern" that
Prof. Searl claims is measured around his center ring.
Both Sweet and Searl claim that once the oscillation started
and they extracted energy from their devices the magnets would
become very cold.
I have read that in ferromagnets, the magnetization vectors of
the material are constantly oscillating. But the oscillations
are chaotic/random. Sweet may have found a way to cohere or
"order" these oscillations with a non-linear oscillating result.
And Searl (independent of Sweet) might be using these
oscillations to "carry" the stacks of disk magnets around the
It is claimed that another researcher by the name of Hans Coler
was also able to induce "large" oscillations in ferromagnets. I
don't think there was any kind of special "magnetization"
process involved, but I could be wrong.
As far as I can determine, "large" scale coherence of magnetic
oscillations is not known to exist in "large" magnets. (But then
neither are the over unity effects produced by Sweet, Searl and
On the other hand, "small" coherent oscillations are know to
exist in magnetic material.
If you want to read up on magnetic oscillations, take a look at
the following books.
Magnetization Oscillations and Waves, by A.G. Gurevich
and G.A. Melkov, CRC Press, 1996
Theory of Magnetostatic Waves, by D.D. Stancil,
Magnetostatic Waves and Their Application, by P. Kabos
and V.S. Stalmachov, Chapman & Hall, 1994
These books mention the use of a DC magnetic "bias" field
together with an AC magnetic field being applied to the magnetic
material sample to induce various kinds of oscillations. This
technique is called "parallel pumping". It is clear, to me, that
AC magnetization techniques have been applied to small sample
magnetic material now for many years. But the science folks
don't seem to have applied such techniques on the "large scale"
as have Sweet and Searl.
A fellow handed out a paper at the '94 INE Conference, which
was sent to me (Alan Dubla), that had references to the Sweet
VTA. It talked about creating a magnetic bubble and extracting
energy out of it using methods similar to those described in
articles written on Sweet's VTA. I was able to recreate a
magnetic bubble, in small round BaFe magnets. I have had no
success extracting energy out of it yet, but it is rather
interesting and worth studying for a while.
When the bubble is created and stable, the magnet has a very
weak field. In the picture bellow, I have 8 1.25 inch diameter
ring magnets lined up in two rows of four each. There is a strip
of magnetic viewing paper laid across each of the rows. This
paper will show the Bloc wall as a light green band. The Bloc
wall, in easy to explain terms, is where the north and south
pole meet in a magnet. On one side of the wall you have the
north pole and on the other side you have the south pole.
Looking at the magnets from right to left, top to bottom, you
will notice that each magnet has a light green circular band
over it, as seen with the viewing paper. The number above each
magnet represents the number of joules it took to alter the
original magnetic field to form the new, modified magnetic
field. As the joules increase, the bubble shifts position from
the outside of the magnet towards the middle. As the joules
increase even more, the bubble starts moving towards the center.
When that happens the original orientation of the magnetic field
will be flipped 180 degrees. The bubble is created in the magnet
as a result of partial demagnetization. By doing this, I am
moving the Bloc wall and magnetic poles 90 degrees from their
original position. After the field is modified, the north pole
is now orientated towards the center of the magnet, and the
south pole is along the outer edge of the magnet. When the
band is centered between the outer circumference and the inner,
the magnet is at its weakest point and the poles flip very
easily. Running a 60 Hz AC signal running through a small
electromagnet at a 90 degree angle to the magnet face makes the
poles flip-flop, and the magnetic bubble expands and contracts,
back and forth.
To create the magnetic bubbles, you need some high power
magnetizing equipment. In the picture I have a box housing 8000
uf worth of caps, a giant resistor to slow current draw, and a
600 amp SCR for switching. The power supply is an old HP 300
The caps charge up, and with the push of a button the caps are
discharged through a 1 ohm coil with the magnet in the middle.
The small coil in the picture is what I used to make the
magnetic bubbles. The big coil is designed for the 4X6 magnets,
but more power is required. The amount of joules discharged is
variable. The small BaFe magnets require around 205 joules to
create the neutral/centered magnetic bubble.
From: Jerry Decker (Keelynet) ~ Date:
Sat, 29 Jul 2000 (07:55:22)
Gunderson & Sweet VTA
In a refreshing turn of events, however, a correspondent named
Graham Gunderson recently Emailed me a very interesting defense
of Bearden's view that EM waves can be longitudinal and still
carry a polarization sense.
And, relevant to outphased waves, Gunderson takes issue with
another argument-- the one that asserts that self-cancelling
coils "do nothing".
He says they do indeed "do something", and describes some of
his experimentation along these lines. This is what I like to
see-- calm, rational explanation and some experiments to back it
With Gunderson's email posted at:
and it does have a section about vibrating neodymium magnets...
From: Graham Gunderson ~ To: [email protected] ~ Sent:
Saturday, 29 July 2000 8:49 AM
A Way to Program Magnets
I have spoken with a fellow who had hired Don Watson several
years ago to replicate the Sweet device; allegedly Watson was
able to get about 3 watts from one model. The deal however went
sour somehow, and work was not continued.
Sweet, too, had a beginning model that output 6 watts until he
did something *more* to excite the living you-know-what out of
the barium nuclei - only after that was the phenomenal power
gain (and 500 watt nominal output) available to use (for a while
- until it inevitably sputtered out).
Watson is correct in mentioning one way to excite barium nuclei
in a magnet. It is a weak method however, and does not cause
much action (at least as I have done it)
One experiment I tried on this angle some time ago, caused some
I had a 4x6x1" barium ferrite slab sitting on top of a large
tupperware (polypropylene) container, about 2 feet off the
floor. The slab was magnetized and its attraction held a steel
alligator clip onto it, in electrical contact. The other end of
the alligator clip wire (about 2 feet long) connected to one
terminal of a neon sign transformer.
The neon xfmr is rated 15 kV, center tapped, so each output
represents about a 7.5 kV RMS AC signal, the two outputs being
out of phase of course. The other end of the xfmr output was
left open. Only one end was used. The transformer's case (center
tap) was grounded.
So the magnet sitting on the plastic container was oscillated
with about 7.5 kVRMS at 60 Hz.
I was living with a roommate at the time who came near the
thing and didn't know it was "on". Glad he didn't touch it.
He was curious what it was and said when he put his head near
the magnet to have a look, it built up a "pressure" behind his
forehead, which caused him a curious headache afterward.
After I heard this I went down to the basement where it was and
did the same thing, putting my head within about 2 feet of the
magnet. It began to hurt in a way, it was a kind of pain from
the thing that I remember feeling. It caused in me a persistent
headache as well, and also a shift in mood, I became very
"spacey" and somewhat disturbed
This also seemed to make both me and my roommate prone to
violence, we both began to get irritated at trivial things and
ended up in a brief fist fight. This was very out of character
for both of us. My (now ex) roommate still says I should do more
with my "electric brainwhacker".
The magnet, after a while of this treatment, does develop a
*slight* and mellow buzz, as I am used to feeling it. However I
doubt it would be immediately perceptible to the unaccustomed
observer. It is a small thing. And it will not create magnetic
bubbles, so far as I know.
The excitation does decay rapidly, and usually will not hold
for more than a period of ten minutes. It begins to decay
immediately after excitation is removed, and the rate of decay
appears to be exponential.
This is in sharp contrast to other things I have done, in which
the vibrations are stronger and fully perceptible to
unaccustomed observers. The decay rate is not exponential, but
seems to follow a curve similar to the run down of an alkaline
cell - it holds for a while, then tapers off at a faster rate.
And it can happen over days, not minutes. Also it travels, I
have been able to take energized magnets on a 300 mile road trip
with no acceleration in decay. There has been mention, for
intance, of the Testatika's inability to continue power output
when moved. (To me --- as good ol Einstein would have put it ---
So it appears that there are various modes of BaFe excitation,
and that they have distinct effects, as evidenced, in part, by
the different curves of excitation-decay. For starters though,
HV excitation will show you a bit of something... but no
promises, if you don't think you see any effects :)
(From: Luc Corriveau ~ To: [email protected] ~ Sent: Tuesday,
July 25, 2000 1:39 AM)
Sweet VTA, ISNE & Miscellany (6/15/97)
In fact, Don Watson said the magnet to be programmed was to be
excited between two plates that were charged
with at least 20KV (DC or AC). This would cause a 'ringing' in
the barium which would last for upwards
of 15 minutes.
During that time, the magnet could be subjected to a sharp
pulse at roughly 260 degrees of a 60 cps
sinewave. He said this was based on his own experiments and
seemed to get the best results.
Why would I believe Don Watson? Because he showed me two
magnets, both 4" X 6" by 1/2" thick. One was
'programmed', the other was not.
Using a piece of magnetic field line viewing plastic to view
the unprogrammed magnet, I could clearly see the south pole on
one face and the north pole on the other face, separated at the
middle of the 1/2" magnet width by the Bloch wall.
However, in the programmed magnet, the south pole did not stop
at the midpoint, but wrapped up onto the face
of the north pole section, extending inward from the edge by
about 1/4". That is where the Bloch wall HAD MOVED.
It was like altering the duty cycle of a square wave, where a
normal magnet would be analogous to a North/South relationship
of 50:50, the programmed magnet was something like 30:70. Quite
Additionally, there was a bubble within the top North pole
face, looking much like an air bubble in water covered by
plastic. And when you put another magnet near this bubble, IT
MOVED away, just like pressing on a sheet of plastic to move the
captive air bubble.
Don said the programming did not always take, but that you
could just do it again, using the same magnet until it did. Also
that some magnets were imperfect, having internal fractures not
visible without using the magnetic viewing plastic.
The slabs were also sensitive to shock or outside stimulus
which would kill the programmed effect and necessitate the
magnet being reprogrammed.
Ashley Gray's Diagrams:
Demonstration with Lamps
KeelyNet --- 7-13-97
A Possible Source to the VTA
By Jerry Decker
During the year of 1993, I received a call from a fellow by
the name of Donny Watson. He lived in Lancaster and had called
to talk about various free energy devices, particularly Floyd
Sweet’s VTA (Vacuum Triode Amplifier).
Donny claimed he had made a device that was producing anomalous
amounts of energy, not large quantities, but definitely
overunity. This particular unit was a rotary mechanical unit
that as I recall was based on collecting back emf. I of course
asked to see the device, but Donny was reticent.
We met for lunch and on several other occasions, becoming
friends in the process. Though I never saw any machines, I did
see Donny’s work area and he had a lot o parts and some
equipment, but out of all the time I knew him, he showed me
After several months of periodic discussion and meetings, we
had a falling out and I did not hear from Dony again.
At the ISNE conference in Denver, I was surprised to hear that
a Donny Watson would be speaking on the Sweet VTA and his work
to duplicate it. Turns out it was the same Donny Watson, we
became reacquainted and ended up drinking beer late into the
night, swapping all kinds of goodies.
During the course o the conference, Donny showed me two
magnets, they were both BaFe (barium ferrite) 4" x 6" x 1/2"
thick. One was "programmed", the other was not.
Using a piece of magnetic viewing plastic to view the
unprogrammed magnet, I could clearly see the south pole on one
face, separated at the middle of the ˝ inch magnet width by the
However, in the programmed magnet, the south pole did not stop
at the midpoint, but wrapped up onto the face of the north pole
section, extending inward from the edge by about 1/4". That is
where the Bloch wall had moved!
It was like altering the duty cycle of a square wave, where a
normal magnet would be analogous to a S-N relationship of 50:50,
the programmed magnet was now something like 70:30. Quite
Additionally, there was a bubble within the top N pole face,
looking much like an air bubble in water covered by plastic.
When you put another magnet near the bubble, it moved away, just
like pressing on a sheet of plastic to move the captive air
Donny said the programming did not always take, but that you
could just do it again, using the same magnet until it did. Also
that some magnets were imperfect, having internal fractures not
visible without using the magnetic viewing plastic.
The slabs were also sensitive to shock or outside stimulus
which would kill the programmed effect and necessitate the
magnet being reprogrammed.
Although I’ve never seen any working models of the Sweet device
from anyone, this observation of the magnets was the closest
I’ve come, so Don Watson has my vote of confidence at this point
and he is to be commended for figuring out how to produce the
effect but also for sharing this information for other
New Insights ~
The reason I have written this short paper is because in the
last few days, I’ve been thinking a lot about the VTA and it
struck me what must be going on in the programmed slab magnet.
The only way you could have a bubble inside of the N face is if
that bubble was of a different polarity, i.e., S, with the
bubble edge being another Bloch wall.
You must have a difference to be able to measure anything,
homogeneity means harmony, no polarity and equates to zero,
though there appears to always be minor fluctuations since
nothing is ever truly in balance.
I always thought the trick of the VTA was to cause the Bloch
wall to vibrate in the presence of a coil of wire. Anytime you
have a change of magnetic polarity near a conductor, you have an
induced current, when that polarity changes, the current changes
and in effect, pumps the energy out.
Since this artificially created S pole in te form of a moving
bubble floating on the N pole face can easily move, it can
easily be made to vibrate, possibly over a contained area.
If you place a coil of wire around the bubble, creating a
constrained area, you could push the bubble back and forth in a
controlled fashion with very small magnetic impulses.
Now, if you could place another coil of wire, in such a way
that the bubble edge moves back and forth across this coil, then
you will induce a changing current that can be extracted.
If the coil tapping the energy is bifilar, it would not suffer
magnetic repulsions due to back emf. If under load, it would
work like a homopolar generator, where the dissipation of
produced power for any size load would not increase the energy
needed to drive the motor driving the generator.
Another key point, I think, is that the bubble must be tuned to
the frequency at which it will be driven, say 60 Hz, to get the
greatest Q (coupling of energy).
Resonance is thus necessary to be able to tap the extra energy.
Much like tapping a swing at precisely the right moment, with
precisely enough energy to overcome internal resistances,
eventually the inertia of the mass (or energy) will reach a
point where other forces can e added and tapped.
Alan Dubla has recently put up a new site dedicated to the
Sweet VTA. Alan has achieved what appears to be the same
magnetic bubble that Don did.
In closing, there is one other point I’d like to make; when I
asked Donny about the programming of the magnet with the 60 Hz
wave, he said it could be any frequency. Don also said that once
a magnet was programmed, you could touch a scope probe to the
magnet and you would see a very weak 60 Hz wave on the screen.
I asked if this could be simply picking up background 60 Hz
from the wall wiring and Don insisted it was not. I did not see
this test since we were at the conference and he was just
describing it. Perhaps he had programmed in another frequency
and could see that on the scope, maybe even put the magnet and
scope in a Faraday cage. Lots of room for experiment here…
Letter: Tom Bearden to Dr Jon Noring
February 28, 1992
2311 Big Cove Road
Huntsville, AL 35801
Dr. Jon Noring
1312 Carlton Place
Livermore, CA 94550
Thanks for sending along the extract of comments on the papers.
Perhaps I can add a thing or two that will shed a little more
light on some of this. First, let's settle the matter of whether
this is a scam by persons after money. It isn't. There are no
stock plans. Nobody wants any "investment." No one would accept
it if it were offered. The inventor presently has a sufficient
small income for his small needs. I work every day as a senior
engineer, and support myself adequately in that fashion. I'm
also retired from the U.S. Army with the rank of Lieutenant
Colonel. Also, it is certainly quite true that the burden of
proof is fully upon Sweet and me. That proof can only be
achieved by independent test and certification by agencies and
scientists of impeccable credentials and with no formal
connection to the project. Until that is done, we totally accept
that what we have said will not be believed, and should not be
believed. I will say this: I have absolutely no control of the
invention, and absolutely no say in its direction. It is totally
If I had had my own fervent wish, formal submission for
independent testing and certification (or falsification) by the
scientific community would have been accomplished in 1987. Let
it also be noted that an inventor has agreements and/or (with
other) parties involved; he is often not legally free to do
exactly as he might wish. The best we can presently ask is that
the readers keep an open but highly skeptical mind, until such
independent certification is forthcoming. If it isn't
forthcoming, then trash the whole thing in file 13.
To try to address the gist of many of the other comments, let
me point out that we are referring to two key mathematical
papers: Whittaker 1903 as cited, and Whittaker 1904 as cited.
Let me urge all persons who commented on the lack of mathematics
to please at least study those two papers intensely. Let me
summarize what they actually show, rigorously.
In the first paper, Whittaker shows that, completely at odds
with the present scientific view, the electrostatic scalar
potential has a totally unsuspected and highly organized
bidirectional EM internal structure. It's actually composed of
paired EM waves, each going in opposite directions (and in my
view, one being the phase conjugate of the other). Further, the
bidirectional pairs are phaselocked and in a harmonic sequence.
So what the potential is actually composed of is a Fourier-type
harmonic expansion, directly coupled with its time-reversed twin
set, in a one-to-one ratio, with all the harmonic twin waves
Normally, in electromagnetics one just gives a magnitude to the
potential at each point and leaves it at that. However,
Whittaker shows that the potential at a point actually
encompasses a magnificent, hidden, highly organized flow of EM
waves and energy into and out of that point. Although there may
be no net EM forcefield at the point, the "hidden interior"
energy flow through the point to and from the surrounding space
is filled with EM forces and waves in dynamic motion.
This leads to a real quandary in the assumed nature of a scalar
potential, in my view: Instead of being a passive or simple
scalar sort of thing that just has a convolution magnitude and
sometimes an external gradient in that magnitude, it's a new
kind of entity that is scalar externally, with gradients between
adjacent external points, but at the same time it's totally
dynamic, vectorial, and energetically organized "inside."
"Further, it would seem to be in hidden hyperspatial EM
communication with every other point in the universe, at least
in the simple case. The basic thing, I think, is that Whittaker
seems to delocalize the notion of the potential, extending it
into hyperspace with respect to its internal EM energy flow. If
someone on the net could put that into more precise language,
I'd be very grateful.
In my picture of it, as shown by Whittaker the seemingly quite
placid scalar potential is an unsuspecting vector EM dynamo
inside. In early 1987 I simply took the Whittaker picture of the
potential's internal bidirectional EM waves seriously, and
realized that these internal hidden EM waves didn't translate
electrons in the electron shells of atoms, but instead
penetrated to the nucleus directly. That meant that, in simply
having a stress potential added to a material, one effectively
had "pumping" EM waves connected directly to the atomic nuclei
through hyperspace, bypassing the electron shells' usual Faraday
One can fairly readily build EM wave oppositions in proper
harmonic, phase-locked Whittaker fashion, and so one can make
and use an EM gradient-free potential construction entirely of
bidirectional waves. This construction is such that :
(1) a normal electron-wiggle detector instrument doesn't even
(2) the internal wave EM reaches directly to the nucleus and
affects it and
(3) it consists of EM "pump" waves in the nonlinear phase
conjugate mirror sense.
All that was needed then was to simply extract the standard
pumped phase conjugate mirror equations from nonlinear optics
and apply them to this "potentialized" or "Whittaker-pumped"
nucleus of the atom. That mean that the nucleus should now be a
pumped phase conjugate mirror. However, it still needs one small
thing added. Sweet did one additional thing: he superposed a
60-Hz modulation on the envelope of the Whittaker bidirectional
In other words, the external amplitude of the artificially
constructed stress potential was oscillated at 60 Hz. [Note that
the external amplitude of the potential is what is in our
3-space; the internal Whittaker EM biwaves are BEYOND 3-space.
The nucleus is a hyperspatial or higher topological entity when
the Whittaker structures of its potentials are taken into
Sweet personally discovered the activation procedure (which he
still holds proprietary) for causing this 60-Hz oscillation to
be taken up and self-sustained by the barium nucleus (we assume
that it's the barium nucleus involved, because it won't work
with any other kind of magnet except a barium ferrite magnet).
Self- oscillation of barium compounds is well-known in the phase
conjugate mirror optical literature. However, most of the papers
I've been able to find on self-pumping mirrors have achieved the
self-pumping only at optical frequencies.
I've not been able to find anything else at ELF self-
oscillation frequencies. I will say that, if Sweet's 6-lb unit
is not in the self-oscillation (activated, or self-pumping)
condition, you won't get a microwatt out of it, no matter what
you do! If it's in the self-oscillation condition but at
essentially "normal" nuclear potential, you will only get a few
watts out, say, something like six watts.
Sweet increased the nuclear potential and its 60-Hz
oscillation, trapping it in the barium nucleus also as part of
the activation, whereupon much greater electrical power is
extractable from the device. He also worked out the device
design so that its objective output voltage was 120 volts, for
an input voltage of 10 volts (at 33 microamps). This small 1/3
milliwatt 60 Hz input corresponds to the signal wave in PPCM
The entire device is, in my view, just a special self-pumped
phase conjugate mirror, precisely like what is already in the
standard literature, self-pumping and all. It's just self-pumped
at ELF frequencies, and in a very special manner. It is being
fed by self-oscillating hidden EM biwave (pumpwave) energy
directly from the surrounding vacuum. [The EM energy of the
vacuum intercommunicates internally through the hyperspatial
Whittaker channels of the vacuum. The gradient in the potential
magnitude represents the EM energy entering our 3-space by local
I also quoted a reference that shows that the local vacuum
immediately around a nucleus is structured by the nucleus and
can be considered and treated as a special sort of
semiconductor. One can visualize, then, that the 60-Hz trapped
self-oscillation is between that local semiconductor vacuum and
the potentialized barium nucleus. In other words, in the
self-oscillating nuclear potential it is both the local vacuum
and the nucleus that are oscillating, at 180 degrees phase from
each other. That means that there is a rhythmic inflow and
outflow of potential (Whittaker biwaves) envelope magnitude
gradient, to and from the nucleus, exchanged to and from the
local semiconductor vacuum. Note what we're talking about.
You've got to get the hyperspatial EM energy exchange of the
vacuum "gated" or" shifted" into our 3-space, from hyperspace.
Whittaker's 1904 paper can be interpreted as showing that (1)
the gradient in the potential represents the 3-space aspect, and
(2) any such potential gradient in 3-space is produced by scalar
interferometry (interference of the hyperspatial vector EM wave
interiors of scalar potentials.)
So Sweet's 60-Hz modulation of the nuclear potential's
amplitude represents a 3-space oscillating flow of EM vector
energy, in and out of the nucleus from the surrounding
semiconductor vacuum. If you properly introduce a signal wave to
that "activated" or self- pumped nucleus (once it's got a
3-space oscillating EM vector flow), then by standard textbook
theory you are going to get out up to all the energy in the pump
waves, coming forth from the "nucleus-mirror" as an amplified
phase conjugate replica (PCR) of the small signal wave input.
By the standard distortion correction theorem, that amplified
PCR wave will travel back along the path taken by the signal
wave. In other words, you've got organized EM energy coming out
of the nuclei as a coherent EM wave, through the electron
shells, into the material lattice, and on out of there into the
external circuit. At that point, one simply taps onto it (e.g.,
by magnetic induction), and you can extract and gate the
amplified energy wherever you wish in the external circuit. Note
that the 60-Hz self-oscillation energy comes in from the local
vacuum to the nucleus, on the inflow or "intake" cycle. If you
gate some of it on out of the nucleus externally, instead of
letting it flow back to the local semiconductor vacuum, the
adjacent vacuum surrounding the semiconductor just promptly
replenishes the local vacuum potential. It has to do so, because
of the nonlocal hyperspatial EM energy flow in the Whittaker
structure of the potential in the first place. You can draw EM
energy out of those internal EM waves in the Whittaker structure
of the potential, and the electrical charges establishing that
potential will continue to "pump out" virtual photons and
replenish the potential.
It can be seen that the potentials between the self-pumping
nuclei are self-cohering (in their internal EM) throughout the
mirror material by what is called "self-targeting," but that is
another story too long to detail here. The second (1904)
Whittaker paper I cited is also quite revealing. Here's what it
shows. Rigorously, you can replace all of classical forcefield
EM with scalar potential interferometry. Period. Note that this
paper actually incorporates the Aharonov-Bohm effect, decades
before Aharonov and Bohm's seminal 1959 paper. It also
drastically extends it, for it is dealing with macroscopic
effects, not just mesoscopic. Also, please note that scalar
interferometry is not an oxymoron,in spite of being so labeled
by one eminent scientist.
If you realize that the scalar potential is totally vectorial
in its Whittaker internal composition, and comprised of multiple
EM waves, then when one interferes two scalar EM potentials, one
is simply doing multiple wave interferometry simultaneously.
It's perfectly good "wave" interferometry; it's just a whole
bunch of it at once. And the wave interference actually connects
hyperspace EM waves with 3-space EM waves. The hyperspatial EM
wave interference creates 3-space EM potential gradients
(forcefields), including both statics and dynamics. To sum up my
view of the Whittaker papers, here's what they add to physics:
(1) They add a second and completely new kind of
electromagnetics, a hidden hyperspatial EM wave communication
inside the scalar potential. Since the magnitude of the scalar
potential from a single point charge does not reach zero until
an infinite radial distance is reached, then each point charge
communicates electromagnetically with each other point in the
universe, through the hidden Whittaker EM hyperspace channel. It
communicates via hidden (hyperspatial) EM waves that a normal EM
detector does not even see.
(2) The papers allow replacing all notions of external [3-
space] EM force fields, waves, etc. with scalar interferometry
of potentials [hyperspatial EM wave interferometry].
(3) by adding the "internal" EM energy and its hyperspatial
"hidden variable" communication, the two papers do in fact
extend each of the three disciplines: classical EM, QM,and
Indeed, they force consideration of a sort of "action at a
distance," where by scalar interferometry the local vacuum
potential and the local spacetime itself are altered and
interact with the system in unexpected manners.
Since the Whittaker internal EM energy extension set is the
same in each case, it is my view that adding the Whittaker
internal EM does unify the three extended disciplines. Note that
it does not change the three present subsets. We might also ask
Can anyone show any paper in the literature, other than the
Whittaker work and the other two recent papers I cited, that
deals with this internal organized EM inside the scalar
potential? If so, I've personally been unable to find it, and
would very much appreciate the reference.
Does there exist any other paper in the literature that treats
the atomic nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror? I would
very much appreciate the references, if there are any.
Are there any papers at all in the literature, where research
has been conducted in actually making the Whittaker-type of
simultaneous wave/antiwave structure as an artificial scalar
potential, in beams, and performing scalar beam interferometry
with it on materials and systems at a distance __ e.g., say at
three feet in the laboratory? If so, I'd again very much
appreciate the references.
It is my strong feeling that we must get such things looked
into by the universities and by sharp physicists and graduate
students. The Whittaker approach and the concept of using the
nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror that one
can externally engineer electromagnetically, do seem to lead to
some startling things on the bench. But presently the
phenomenology is so completely unknown and unexpected that I
fear we may never have a true science and technology here unless
university-level work is done on it. Indeed, it's going to take
some good theorists and some good experimentalists both.
I might add that Sweet is incorporating the Whittaker theory
into his EM theory of the device, and I expect him to publish
that in the future for peer review and examination. His wife
died recently, however, and so that part of the effort has been
setback for a time. Sweet is a good theorist (I am not), and he
is an especially good magnetics engineer of high caliber. He is
also, in my opinion, a genius on the experimental bench.
*** He has other highly unusual EM inventions which may ***
receive more publicity in the future.
I believe that, for the quaternions, the best way to describe
EM expressed in quaternions (or better yet, in Clifford algebra)
is to note that the EM thus expressed has a higher topology. It
seems that you can get EM effects in the higher topology that a
rigorous orthodox EM analysis will never reveal or appreciate.
A very interesting reference to check in this respect --- by a
highly capable scientist, and with all the mathematics --- is
T.W. Barrett, "Tesla's nonlinear oscillator-shuttle-circuit
(OSC) theory," Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie,
16(1), 1991,p. 23-41.
Indeed, I'm attracted to the notion that my own concept of the
nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror could also possibly
be expressed in terms of Barrett's OSC exposition. This is
particularly attractive because Barrett points out that in the
higher topology the nonlinear optics effects are achievable by
circuits and devices themselves, without the presence of laser-
matter interactions as such. He also cites a document number
225395, 1988, U.S. Patent Office, where the OSC theory was
The complete mathematics for decomposition of the electrostatic
scalar potential into bidirectional EM wave sets in harmonic
phase- locked series is in E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial
differential equations of mathematical physics," Mathematische
Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355.
The complete mathematical proof that classical EM can be
completely replaced with scalar potential interferometry is in
E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic field
due to electrons by means of two scalar potential functions," Proceedings
of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, Vol. 1,
1904, p. 367-372.
I believe Whittaker actually orally delivered both papers in
1903. Review and commentary from the network scientists on the
two Whittaker papers, and on the significance of the Whittaker
papers or lack of it, would be most deeply appreciated.
Particularly desired would be the results of any experiments
performed in scalar potential interferometry, at a mild distance
(say, three feet) where each of the two interfering potentials
is artificially constructed of multiple phase-locked harmonics
and their true phase conjugate waves in one-to-one magnitude
ratio. We accent that at least one harmonic interval, and
preferably more than that, are essential.
Progress Report on the Sweet Vacuum Triode
T. E. Bearden
Updated Jan. 29, 1992
Phase I Operation Completed
In 1991 we ended Phase I, and began the opening round of Phase
II of our decades-long operation. Phase I was to alert the free
nations to the dangers of Soviet scalar EM weapons, and the
necessity of countering them. That phase has been successfully
completed. There are now three other nations --- not hostile to
the U.S. --- that have developed and deployed scalar EM
weaponry. The Soviets/KGB are soundly checked by these three
nations, with regards to scalar EM weaponry.
Phase II Operation Begun
The goal of the phase II operation is to get cheap, clean
energy from the vacuum, obtain antigravity, and develop scalar
EM healing of notorious diseases such as cancer, leukemia, AIDS,
etc. In this phase we are now publishing papers in the orthodox
literature that carry the message. Our target is the bright
young graduate students and postdoctoral candidates who are
becoming increasingly curious in this area. We will try to get
as many of these interested as possible. The idea is to have
about 100 "seed cells", in major universities, so that these
young tigers do the necessary phenomenology experiments and
produce the necessary theory extensions. If we can reach that
number of seed cells, then those young Turks will turn over the
present physics. That Phase II operation has begun.
Two Fundamental Papers Published
For example, in mid-1991 we gave (in absentia) two fundamental
papers to a very large symposium (IECEC '91) in the Boston area.
The symposium was sponsored by IEEE, AIAA, and many of the other
leading technical societies of the U.S. The two papers are
published in the Proceedings by the American Nuclear
One of these papers  tells what is wrong with quantum
mechanics, electromagnetics, and general relativity - that is,
what actually prevents their unification. It also tells what has
to be done to unify them. I emphasize that the thesis in this
paper is testable on the laboratory bench; it isn't just
The second paper  is rather unique, to say the least. In it
I openly released the basic universal mechanism that is capable
of directly tapping the potential energy of the vacuum,
electromagnetically. That's a secret eventually worth billions
of dollars; I freely gave it to everyone. I discovered the
theoretical mechanism, so it was mine to give. The paper
reported on Floyd Sweet's (my colleague for several years)
vacuum triode which successfully taps the vacuum's virtual
photon flux energy to produce 500 watts of time-reversed
electrical power, with only 330 microwatts of normal power
input. That device has been in existence since 1987 or earlier.
The Fundamental Mechanism Is Proven
There are several hundred papers in the nonlinear optics
literature that prove that the fundamental pumped phase
conjugate mirror (PPCM) mechanism works, in the macroscopic
world. I seem to have been (in 1986/87) the first person to
openly treat the nucleus of the atom as a PPCM.
In a proprietary 1986 draft and later 1987 paper given to
Sweet, I produced the basic theory of how Sweet's vacuum triode
device (which then was producing 6 watts output) was tapping the
vacuum energy. To do so, I treated the Whittaker bidirectional
EM wave components of a scalar EM potential --- introduced onto
the nucleus --- as a set of wave/antiwave pairs or pump waves.
This application simply uses the internal scalar potential's
internal structuring as clearly established by Whittaker in
With the internal Whittaker wave/antiwave structure, one can
establish a self-oscillation (self-pumping) on the barium
nucleus, in and of the virtual photon flux (VPF) exchange
between the nucleus and its immediately surrounding vacuum.
When that is successfully done, the material containing the
barium (in Sweet's case, barium ferrite magnets) is activated.
That is, VPF exchange energy is rhythmically flowing into the
barium nucleus and back out again in a 60 Hz wave --- as a wave
of pure VPF stress potential; a pure scalar EM wave, which is
composed of (and can be decomposed into) phase-locked AM
oscillations of the set of Whittaker biwaves composing the
With this Whittaker decomposition, the self-oscillating barium
nucleus is then a self-pumped phase conjugate mirror. Note that
this "nucleus as a pumped phase conjugate mirror" approach is a
universal scheme for tapping the trapped energy in a massless
scalar EM potential in the vacuum, without depleting the
The potential in the vacuum is a function of vacuum VPF
activity; the potential is continually replenished by the vacuum
itself. The EM energy trapped inside the potential can be tapped
forever, if the potential is not bled off by translating
electrons (or other charged particles).
Then all that remains to be done to tap this vacuum-furnished
"pumping" energy, is to utilize standard 4-wave mixing theory
from nonlinear optics, and introduce a small signal wave input.
By standard textbook theory, up to all the energy in the pump
waves will then be emitted by the nucleus as a phase conjugate
replica (PCR) (time-reversed replica) of the signal wave input.
In other words, an amplified EM energy wave --- in this case,
60 Hz --- will come from the self-pumped nuclei and will
backtrack the path taken by the signal wave, in accordance with
the so-called distortion correction theorem of orthodox
In this fashion, the energy in a potential established in
vacuum can be directly tapped, taken from the VPF exchange with
the nucleus, and gated out of the atom and into the external
circuit, to power an external load.
The Secret of Overunity EM Devices
THIS "NUCLEUS AS A PUMPED PHASE CONJUGATE MIRROR" MECHANISM IS
THE FUNDAMENTAL SECRET OF ALL LEGITIMATE OVER-UNITY DEVICES THAT
TAP VACUUM ENERGY.
The tapping device is not a closed system, but is open to the
flow of energy from the vacuum to the nuclei and back. All
systems everywhere are open to this in-and-out VPF flux exchange
anyway. Normally, however, the two VPF flows --- in and out ---
are equal and opposite, and so the energy exchange between
vacuum and nucleus is in equilibrium. In that case, none of the
VPF exchange energy is gated out to the external circuit.
In the "activated" case, however, the two VPF flows (between
the nucleus and the vacuum) are not equal, because part of the
flow energy that accumulates in the in-surge into the nucleus is
gated out of the atom and into the external circuit.
Hence the vacuum/nucleus flux exchange system is not locally in
equilibrium, because part of the in-flow is being gated by
4-wave mixing accomplished in the PPCM barium nuclei, into
forming an organized PCR wave, which in turn goes on out of the
atom instead of back to the vacuum. Any local vacuum energy
extracted is just instantly replaced by the surrounding vacuum -
just as a raging ocean instantly refills the hole left in
dipping out a spoonful of water.
So in the self-oscillating PPCM nucleus, part of the vacuum
influx energy is gated into an organized phase conjugate replica
(PCR) wave, instead of simply being flux-exchanged back to the
local vacuum. This amplified PCR wave backtracks the path
previously taken by the input 60 Hz signal wave, and thus
proceeds out of the vacuum-pumped nuclei, through the atom's
electron shells, into and through the material lattice, and
arrives in the outer circuit, which is connected to the external
The device thus powers the external load directly off the
energy organized and gated from the local vacua surrounding the
excited, activated, self-pumped barium nuclei. Floyd Sweet's
In his second vacuum triode, Sweet obtained 500 watts of
negative electrical power out (at 60 Hz and 120 volts), with an
input (signal wave, in nonlinear optical PPCM terminology) of
only 330 microwatts (10 volts, 33 x 10^-6 amps) from a small 60
Hz oscillator. That's about a 1,500,000 power gain. Not too bad
Sweet later "close-looped" the device, tapping off a wee bit of
the output, and using it as the rigidly clamped
positive-feedback input. So his later devices put out 500 watts,
directly from the vacuum, without any external input at all.
Sweet has also built devices having 1,000 watt output and 5,000
watt output. The devices also are solid state, with no moving
A nominal Sweet device outputs 1,000 watts of time-reversed
(PCR) EM power at 60 Hz and 120 volts. It weighs 6 pounds, and
can be rigged to simultaneously produce antigravity, while it is
producing its negative power.
However, there are still some serious problems with stability,
etc. Also, there are serious legal problems, and in fact the
entire thing has been in litigation. It may be that nothing will
ever be possible with this device, because of the horrendous
legal entanglements. But the device is real, it works (albeit it
is just a laboratory demonstration device, and not at all a
production-ready model). It proves the principles, and the
report is now in the standard literature.
World's First Antigravity Success
Also, to prove the scalar EM interpretation of gravity and
antigravity, at my urgent request in 1987, Sweet specially
rigged the device for antigravity production. In the cited paper
we report on the highly successful result.
The 6-lb. weight of the object was reduced in periodic stages
by 90%, on a scale on the lab bench, in a totally controlled,
smooth, slow, sustained experiment without transients or sudden
surges, jerks, etc. At the same time, the device was steadily
producing negative electrical power.
In fact, the method of producing antigravity in a "rigged" unit
is simply to force it to process more negative power through the
nucleus. Gravitational energy is negative energy, and
gravitational power is negative power, as is well known.
It follows that to first order, antigravity can be regarded as
simply the outputting or ejecting of negative energy from the
atomic nucleus, through the electron shells and into an external
load, rather than return of the negative VPF energy back to the
vacuum from the nucleus.
The curve is reproduced in the paper, and printed in the
proceedings. I had qualitatively predicted the results, prior to
What is not printed in the proceedings is that, with another
more powerful model, Sweet has actually fully levitated the
entire 6-lb unit, and "flown" it above the bench, via this
approach to antigravity.
So the scalar EM theory works. It's still tricky, and we're
just at the stage that normal EM went through with "cat fur,
glass rods, and pith balls." But slowly we're getting there.
Still, we desperately need to develop good instrumentation for
detecting (1) the absolute scalar potential, including its
magnitude, and (2) the exact Whittaker bidirectional EM wave
harmonic structure of the scalar potential. We know how to
approach that problem, but it will be quite expensive, and
funding to do that has simply never been available.
"Energy" Is Presently Incorrectly Defined
To illustrate just how poorly some of the foundations of normal
science (including physics) are known, let me point out that the
present definition of energy is totally wrong. Now there's a
real attention grabber of a statement! Can I prove it? Let's
The present "definition" of energy in science is usually stated
something like this. "Energy is the capacity to do work." Well,
that statement happens to be totally, hopelessly false. It isn't
even correct logic. Here's why.
What is work? Ultimately, work is the scattering (disordering)
of energy. We can always resort to calorimetry, e.g., and
determine the warming of a solution (such as water) by a
mechanically-powered paddlewheel, to convert mechanical energy
to heat energy, etc. But in QM, all mechanical forces are
generated by the exchange of virtual photons, so even mechanical
force is electromagnetic at base. Hence mechanical force times
distance is also EM-generated, at its causative base.
Eventually, mechanical and electromagnetic work involves the
scattering of EM energy.
So substituting for the term "work" in the accepted definition
of energy, the standard definition is really this: "Energy is
the (capacity to do) scattering of energy." That's logically
contradictory. It says that energy is just its own scattering!
And that's nonsense.
Try it on the notion of a fishhook. I can truthfully state: "A
fishhook can be used to catch fish." That's perfectly okay.
However, we cannot accurately define a fishhook as "A fishhook
IS the capacity to catch fish." That's a non sequitur. We can
say, accurately, that "a fishhook HAS the (innate) capacity to
catch fish," and that is accurate. That's just a statement about
fishhooks, it is not a definition. But we cannot say that "a
fishhook IS the capacity to catch fish." Indeed, a fishhook IS a
bent piece of wire, where one end is usually curved with a barb
on the tip.
Similarly, we can say that "energy HAS the capacity to do
work," and that is logically accurate. In that form, it's just a
statement of one of the things that energy can be used to do.
One can, by scattering the energy, do work --- since work is
just the scattering of energy in the first place. But one cannot
say that "Energy IS the capacity to do work." A thing cannot be
defined as just its own scattering!
I find it remarkable --- even astounding --- that generations
of scientists and engineers have apparently failed to notice
this simple, elementary fact. Could it be that all the
physicists and engineers are presently wrong in their notion as
to precisely what energy IS? If so, then (one might say) what,
pray tell, is it? What is energy anyway?
A Fundamental Redefinition of Energy
Here's the precise definition: ENERGY IS ANY ORDERING, EITHER
STATIC OR DYNAMIC, IN THE VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX OF VACUUM.
Period. Note that energy overall refers to the flux of any and
all kinds of virtual particles in the vacuum. It can be any kind
of ordering imposed in or on any or some or all of those
But when you put an adjective modifier in front of the word
"energy", then you have selected a particular type of flux. In
that case you have to discriminate the type of quantum particle
of the field, comprising the flux that is being referred to.
Like the following:
Definition of Electromagnetic Energy
Electromagnetic energy is any ordering, either static or
dynamic, in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. In other words,
for a field energy, one selects only the type of particle in the
VPF that is the quantum particle of that field.
Let's continue: Nowhere in physics --- in all of physics ---
does there appear a legitimate definition of the electrostatic
scalar potential. The normal "definition" utilized or advanced
is a prescription for calculating its magnitude. I could not
find a single physicist or electrical engineer who could
accurately define it. So I went to QM and dug out what it is,
myself. Let's continue:
Definitions of Some Types of Potentials
A potential is any ordering, either static or dynamic or
combination thereof, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum.
Note that, according to this definition, a potential is pure
energy, a priori. But we must be careful. Because of the nature
of the virtual particle flux comprising it, the potential is a
collection of individual virtual energies --- a collection of
the individual energies of a host of individually moving virtual
particles. Each particle is still almost totally separate from
each other, most of the time. In other words, as an informal
analogy, potential is a sort of mostly disintegrated energy,
which only has just a touch of integration, enough to allow it
to be referred to as a single "collection" or "ordering."
A scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the
virtual particle flux of vacuum. A vector potential is any
dynamic (nonstationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of
vacuum. So scalar potentials and vector potentials are simply
different subsets of the energy domain.
An electrostatic scalar potential is any static (stationary)
ordering in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. And so on.
Now those are all precise definitions. To the best of my
knowledge, they have not previously appeared in physics.
Internal Wave Structure of A Scalar Potential
However, with respect to the electrostatic scalar potential,
one still has a conceptual problem. Any photon in the vacuum
must of necessity be moving at an average velocity of c, it
would seem. So how does one have a "stationary" ordering of
these extremely fast photons? In other words, how do you catch
and "hold stationary" a particle that's moving at luminal
velocity, and have it still continuing to move that fast?
It's simply a special case of a kind of "standing wave"
stationary solution by another name. Indeed, Whittaker
decomposes the scalar potential into bidirectional pairs (in a
harmonic series) of EM waves. In other words, a scalar
electrostatic potential internally consists of --- and is
composed of --- paired EM waves, passing through each other, in
pairs in a harmonic set. Sort of like a Fourier expansion set of
harmonic waves, coupled with its phase conjugate set that is
present at the same time. Notice that the harmonic wavepairs are
phase-locked in frequency and time.
Hence this structure establishes an organized, standing,
stationary spatiotemporal lattice directly in the vacuum
potential. It is strongly pointed out that this represents a
local organization and structuring of spacetime itself.
Further, a given potential created by our circuits is a change
in the trapped local EM energy of the vacuum. It therefore
represents a local curvature of spacetime, and this local
curvature is Whittaker-structured.
Gravitons, Photons, and Antiphotons
So we look at one pair of Whittaker waves, at its wave and
antiwave components. We point out that the antiwave is a true
phase conjugate (time-reversal) twin of the wave. In that
wave/antiwave pair, photons in the wave are moving forward (say,
from left to right) in one direction, and antiphotons in the
antiwave are moving back (say, from right to left). In other
words, photons and antiphotons are present and constantly
meeting each other in each wave/antiwave pair.
Further, the antiwave is precisely coupled to the wave by phase
conjugation. This requires that photons and antiphotons are also
continually and precisely coupling - which they can do and will
do if one is a precise phase conjugate of the other --- and
decoupling. But when momentarily coupled, the photon/antiphoton
pair have helicity 2. In other words, at that moment the paired
system (couple) is stationary. As a crude visual model, each may
be visualized as "whirling around" (orbiting) the other
momentarily, so that each has tangential velocity c, but
oppositely directed, producing a spin-2 system that is
momentarily "trapped" and not translating. In this fashion a
photon may be "spatially trapped" in a graviton system, but the
individual photon may still be moving with tangential velocity
c, even though the graviton system is stationary.
Thus what we have in the Whittaker bidirectional wave structure
of the scalar EM potential is the continual formation and
dissolution of stationary spin-2 gravitons, with photons and
antiphotons continually entering and exiting each coupling
position. The gravitons resulting from the photon
coupling/uncoupling are statistical, for they are continually
being created and destroyed.
Those statistical gravitons are what comprise the
"electrostatic scalar potential," and constitute the convolution
of the locally trapped photons. Consequently, the local EM
energy trapped in the scalar EM potential exists in that form.
Note that, because of the arrangement of the photon/antiphoton
pairs into a harmonic series, all the EM waves in the entire
Whittaker set are phase-locked, as are the gravitons. This means
that the phase-locked graviton sets represent an ordered
spacetime graviton lattice --- containing EM energy ordered both
dynamically and statically in frequency, energy, space, and
So, the scalar electrostatic potential is actually a hidden
graviton latticing organization of local spacetime itself.
Photon Interaction And Newton's Third Law
It follows that, in photon interactions, normally we actually
have a bust-up of a graviton, so that we have two photon
interactions, not one, as follows: (1) the freed forward-time
photon interacts with the shell electrons of the atom, which is
the reaction contained in the textbooks, and (2) the freed
time-reversed antiphoton interacts with the nucleus of the atom
to produce Newton's third law reaction force.
The Scalar Potential Is Gravitational
Now that we know that the scalar potential is comprised of
gravitons, we can understand why the potential is gravitational
(as is well-known in general relativity.) We also realize
something even more important: We realize precisely how
gravitational potential is made and sustained
electromagnetically. In other words, we now understand
electrogravitation. Note that, so far, we have described a very
"linear" condition in spacetime, where the local spacetime from
one point to its neighboring points does not change in the
photon coupling constituency of the graviton lattice. Such a
spacetime is locally flat.
Curved and Flat Local Spacetimes
However, it follows that we also should be able to do some
nonlinear things to make the average photon/antiphoton coupling
differ from spin-2. In that case, we can have some multiple
photon couplings greater than helicity 2. We can also have the
occasional failure of photon and antiphoton to couple, so that
the average coupling is less than helicity 2.
Because of the continual creation and annihilation of
gravitons, in describing "the" graviton we are speaking of the
average photon coupling over a finite time, where the average
smooths and becomes a constant value, and where by "photon" we
refer to both photons and antiphotons.
If so, we then have this characteristic: If the average photon
coupling in the vacuum EM potential is spin-2, then that's the
"linear" coupling case, and the local spacetime is flat
(uncurved). If the average coupling is less than spin-2, then
the local spacetime is curved in one direction. It is deficient
in photons for its preferred coupling, so it acts as a photon
sink, or EM energy sink. So to speak, such a
potential/vacuum/spacetime has "unfilled photon holes --- sort
of a slightly depleted "Dirac photon sea." On the other hand, if
the average coupling is greater than spin-2, the local spacetime
is curved in the opposite direction. It has a surplus of
photons, so it acts as a photon source --- in other words, as an
EM energy source. In this case, it is a sort of "excited Dirac
Just as the spacetime/vacuum possesses a negative energy sea of
Dirac electrons, so it possesses a negative energy sea of
photons. When it's flat, all the negative energy "holes" are
filled with virtual photons. When it's curved in one direction,
some of the holes are empty, and the local spacetime will
"absorb" some available photons. When it's curved in the other
direction, an excess of virtual photons/antiphotons are crammed
in there in excess of the holes, so the spacetime will emit
photons and serve as an energy source.
Remember that spacetime/vacuum to first order is just scalar
potential. We can have a negative or a positive potential, as a
delta compared to the normal or ambient vacuum potential. And
when we speak of curved spacetime, we are just talking about a
surplus or shortage of trapped photon energy coupling density to
comprise the local vacuum/potential.
Potential, Vacuum, Spacetime, and Energy
The four words, potential, vacuum, spacetime, and static energy
turn out to be essentially identities. Also, all of them have a
dynamic substructure. That is, a vacuum per se is
structured/ordered, since it is essentially a scalar potential.
To first order, it is an electrostatic scalar EM potential, in
the manner shown by Whittaker to have an internal bidirectional
EM wave harmonic structure.
A spacetime is internally structured; this provides direct
access to "hyperspace" engineering, since the "internal" part of
spacetime is hyperspatial, mathematically. But with the
Whittaker approach, it is straightforward to directly engineer
this internal hyperspace aspect.
The ultimate engineering is hyperspatial engineering, vacuum
engineering, engineering of potentials, engineering of vacuum
engines, energizing the vacuum, energizing spacetime,
structuring the local curvature of spacetime, engineering the
internal electromagnetics, etc. All these things are identically
the same thing. They are all part of scalar electromagnetics.
Interference of vacua/potentials generates what we call EM
waves in vacuum. These waves may move either time-forward or
time- reversed (antiwaves). You can also engineer this direct
scalar interferometry to produce, stabilize, and control EM
energy, in static or dynamic form, as Whittaker showed in 1904,
even at a distance.
Overunity Condition: Tapping The Potential
So, as you might surmise, in scalar EM we can curve local
spacetime, and use it as either a source or a sink of EM energy.
Once we pay to move a set of charges so as to establish a
particular excitation and structure to the local or distant
spacetime, so long as we do not allow the depletion of the
charges, they continue to "pump" virtual photons (that is what
electric charge is, according to QM) and sustain that particular
active/excited/ energetic spacetime/vacuum/potential. If virtual
EM photon energy is removed from that excited/activated vacuum
region, the surrounding activated vacuum instantly replaces it,
continually and forever.
Now we are free to build a device which (1) establishes the
excited vacuum/spacetime/potential in the first place, and (2)
then taps off the virtual photon energy of the excited vacuum
potential itself, without allowing depletion of the sustaining
charged particles that are fixed in position and
creating/pumping the virtual photon flux that creates the
potential. We can tap the continual power of the Whittaker EM
biwaves flowing through the excited vacuum potential forever,
without exhausting it. It is simply comparable to putting a
paddlewheel in a river, where in this case the Whittaker
bidirectional EM wave structure is the river, and a special
tapping device or process is the "paddlewheel." We can extract
all the energy we wish, forever, from the stream, and the vacuum
itself will continually and forever replenish the stream as fast
as we extract the power.
So we can build an over-unity machine, IF WE TAP THE LOCALLY
ALTERED VACUUM POTENTIAL'S HIDDEN WHITTAKER RIVER, rather than
releasing the sustaining electrical charges/VPF spray pumps we
accumulated to create that altered potential.
If you release the charges (the electrons, e.g.) as normal
electrical engineers are trained to do, the charges translate
and mechanically bang and clang their way through resistances,
etc. on the way to electrical ground, depleting the potential in
the process. This banging and clanging produces scattering of
the order/energy in the potential and hence does work. But that
way you only get one shot of it. It's a one-time thing, and then
you've got to pay to move in some more charges, build another
potential, and release the potential and the charges so the
charges will go banging and clanging through the circuit again,
scattering energy (order) and producing one-time work again.
That's a very poor way to do business. It's rather like having
some free, self-powered pumps, building a dam to hold some water
pressure, moving in some of the pumps and pumping up water
behind the dam to provide the pressure, then knocking down the
dam and releasing the pumps and the water simultaneously, so
that the water will rush out and push the pumps along to bump
into things along the flow channel and do "banging and clanging"
work. Yes, you can get some work done by the pumps one time that
way. But it's a "hell of a way to run a railroad!" Yet all our
present electrical engineers and electrical scientists are
trained to plan, develop, build, and utilize just such crude EM
Nature's Engines: Charged Particles Are Pumps
Charged particles, in quantum mechanics, are engaged in a
violent virtual particle flux exchange with the vacuum. The
violent virtual photon exchange between vacuum and mass particle
is what creates and constitutes the electrical charge on that
particle of mass. In other words, the electrically charged
particle is nature's little "spray engine" or "spray pump," with
respect to virtual photon flux or spray.
The magnitude of the electrostatic scalar potential created by
the accumulated charges (spray pumps) represents the local
magnitude (flux/spray density) of that virtual photon "spray."
It has nothing to do with the mass of the charges, except that
nature has built those particular masses to be "little
self-powered spray pumps."
When we "charge up" an accumulator, such as a steel sphere or a
capacitor, we push in the electrons so that they pack closer
together, and we thus increase the virtual photon spray density
because we've accumulated more sprayers in a confined volumetric
region. The volumetric spray density represents the magnitude of
the electrostatic scalar potential (ESP), in this analogy.
Contrary to conventional wisdom, Whittaker proved that this
scalar potential - this "spray density" --- is internally
organized into hidden, flowing, bidirectional EM waves. EM
forcefield wave Energy is flowing in both directions. In the
electrostatic scalar potential, the net Poynting vector
resultant is zero, but it is a "sum-zero system" composed of an
infinite set of opposite but equal finite Poynting vectors. That
zero vector resultant is a scalar EM potential. It's got lots
and lots of EM energy flowing both in and out simultaneously,
but these flows are normally balanced and in equilibrium.
The Overunity Electrical Machine's Secret
However, if we could tap the EM energy in those hidden EM waves
flowing oppositively inside the ESP, we could extract EM energy
from the vacuum. We could "gate" some of the spray energy, that
comes in from the vacuum to the charged particle, into the
external circuit instead of back out to the vacuum. If so, we
can use that "extracted and externally gated EM energy" to power
a load. The "nucleus as a Whittaker-pumped phase conjugate
mirror" mechanism I found in 1986, furnished to Floyd Sweet in
early 1987, an released in 1991 allows precisely that tapping
and gating capability.
Here's the magic secret of all electrical over-unity machines:
1) TAP THE VIRTUAL PHOTON SPRAY.
2) TAP THE ENERGY IN THE MASSLESS VACUUM POTENTIAL.
3) DO NOT RELEASE THE SPRAY PUMPS.
4) DO NOT ALLOW CURRENT FLOW IN THAT PART OF THE CIRCUIT WHERE
THE CHARGE PUMPS ARE COLLECTED TO CREATE THE POTENTIAL.
5) OR AT LEAST ALLOW ONLY THE ABSOLUTE MINIMUM OF
FLOW/BLEED-OFF THERE, OF THE PUMPS.
6) ORGANIZE, GATE, AND APPLY THE POTENTIAL SPRAY TO THE
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT, WHERE IT WILL ATTACH TO AVAILABLE ELECTRONS,
FORMING FORCE FIELDS, VOLTAGE, AND CURRENTS TO PUMP ELECTRONS
AROUND THE CIRCUIT.
7) USE THOSE EXTERNALLY POWERED FIELDS AND CURRENTS TO POWER
You can freely tap the potential's VPF "spray" forever, once
one is created in the vacuum. As fast as you scavenge out the
power in the spray, it is just renewed by the continued pumping
of the charged particle "spray pumps." Nature and nature's
excited vacuum potential "flux-spray" provide and replenish that
pumping and that power, for free, forever.
So the altered vacuum (potential) is a universal
"virtual-photon- flux fuel" if you construct your power units
correctly. But you must engineer things one step deeper than the
present seriously flawed electromagnetics prescribes.
Similar constructions give the secret of gravity and
antigravity, and how to engineer them as well. However, that is
beyond the scope of this paper.
All Systems Are Open To Vacuum Flux Exchange
As we stated, our attention is no longer directed to scalar EM
weapons, but to the Phase II operation. That is progressing;
there are at present several legitimate devices or processes
that produce overunity. We reiterate that this is nothing
mystical; none of these systems or processes is a closed system,
so closed-system energy conservation need not apply locally.
Indeed, there is really no such thing in the universe as a
truly closed system, anywhere. Every system is open to the
vacuum's virtual particle flux, and is in fact already in a
fantastic virtual particle exchange with the vacuum. Normally,
however, the influx and the outflux are equal in absolute
magnitude; hence the system is in internal equilibrium vis-a-vis
However, if one breaks the equilibrium in this internal flux
exchange, and organizes and gates a portion of that influx on
out of the atom and into the external circuits, one can power an
external electromagnetic load directly from the extracted vacuum
energy. It is no more mysterious than placing a paddlewheel in a
flowing stream, to extract some useful energy as shaft
horsepower. We just have a more esoteric stream and a more
We also point out that there are no irrevocable "laws" of
nature. Every so-called "law of physics" is just a great and
useful generalization, based on certain fixed assumptions, that
holds in a broad area. If the assumptions are violated, however,
the law need no longer hold, and it can be violated.
Scientific proof is proof by the experimental method, not by
the authoritarian pronouncements of orthodox scientists.
Unfortunately, orthodoxy as yet knows nothing of the process we
are advancing, or of scalar electromagnetics. In the unorthodox
experimental arena, however, scalar EM is still a newborn infant
in the womb, but it is thriving and advancing. It is up to us to
serve as midwives and get the infant born.
NOTES AND REFERENCES ---
1. T.E. Bearden and Walter Rosenthal, "On a testable
unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum
mechanics," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy
Conversion Engineering Conference, August 4-9, 1991,
2. Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing scalar
electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy," Proceedings of the
26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
(IECEC '91), August 4- 9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts.
3. E.T. Whittaker, "On the partial differential equations of
mathematical physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57,
1903, p. 333-355. See also V.K. Ignatovich, "The remarkable
capabilities of recursive relations," American Journal of
Physics, 57(10), Oct. 1989, p. 873-878. See also Richard
W. Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy," Proc.
SPIE Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam sources and
Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397.
4. This self-oscillation in barium compounds is well-known in
nonlinear optics, although it is usually experimentally
accomplished in the optical frequency regime. Sweet brilliantly
discovered how to initiate this self-oscillation or self-pumping
at ELF frequencies, such as 60 Hz.
5. For a statement of the distortion correction theorem, see
Amnon Yariv, Optical Electronics, Third Edition, Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1985, p. 500-501. See also David
M. Pepper, "Nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Optical
Engineering, 21(2), March/April 1982, p. 156-183 for a
good overview of optical phase conjugation.
6. Shortly below, energy will be defined as a certain kind of
order. So the present "definition" of energy actually is stating
that "order is the disordering of order." In that form, the
logical contradiction in the "definition" is immediately
7. E.T. Whittaker, 1903, ibid.
8. This is true because the wave and antiwave are interferring.
Such interference produces galloping waves, whose instantaneous
velocity varies from the speed of light.
The galloping wave slows to, say, 0.01 c, then rushes forward
again at 100 c, then slows, then speeds up, and so on. Its
average velocity is c. But its instantaneous velocity is usually
anything but c. See William G. Harter, John Evans, Roberto Vega,
and Sanford Wilson. "Galloping waves and their relativistic
properties." American Journal of Physics, 53(7), July
1985, p. 671-679.
9. Occasionally yet another physicist discovers that photon
interaction is actually binary, and that we ignore or discard
half of almost all of our measurements. For example, see Richard
Kidd et al, "Evolution of the Modern Photon," American
Journal of Physics, 57(1), Jan. 1989, p. 27-35. See also
R. Chen, "Cancellation of Internal Forces," American Journal
of Physics, 49(4), Apr. 1981, p. 372.
10. Essentially this has been experimentally proven. E.g., when
one has a phase conjugate material, it may emit either photons
(a normal wave) or antiphotons (a time-reversed or
Now, if I am right as to the genesis of Newtonian 3rd law
reaction force, then when the material emits a time-reversed
wave, or an antiphoton, the material should not recoil. Such
experiments have in fact been done in nonlinear optics
experiments, and "inexplicably" a phase conjugate mirror
material does not recoil when it emits an antiphoton or a phase
conjugate wave, seemingly violating Newton's third law! So it
seems I am correct after all.
11. In the modern GR view, all trapped energy is gravitational.
It is the trapped EM energy in mass, e.g., that is
gravitational. Mass is in fact a highly intense mass potential.
Since any scalar potential is also a form of trapped EM energy,
that energy --- and hence the potential also --- is
gravitational in nature.
12. E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the electromagnetic
field due to electrons by means of two scalar potential
functions," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society,
Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372. Here Whittaker demonstrates
that the present forcefield electromagnetics can be replaced by
scalar potential interferometry. And I'm called a lunatic for
speaking of scalar interferometry!
Rigorously the scalar potential is composed of a dynamic,
opposing vector forcefield wave internal structure. Internally
it's vectorial; externally it's scalar. Whittaker 1903 tells how
to make standing scalar potentials; these can be made as beams.
And one can then interfere the two scalar EM beams to produce
EM force fields directly in distant charged particle systems, by
13. E.T. Whittaker, 1904, ibid.
14. Mathematically these hidden waves may be modeled as