Adam TROMBLY // Douglas KAHN
Critique of the N-Machine Constructed by Trombly &
Bruce E. DePalma
(11 October 1985)
Recently the International Patent Application of Trombly and
Kahn (assigned to Acme Energy Co. of San Rafael, CA) has become
public property under the Patent Cooperation treaty and can be
obtained from the International Bureau of the World Intellectual
Property Organization. A copy of this patent application is
attached. The difference between the international patents and
the US patent system is that in the US the material of the
patent is secret until the patent is granted, while overseas the
application itself is the basis of the patent, which stands
until challenged by a third party.
Thus although Adam Trombly, the senior designer of the machine,
has received two written gag orders from the Pentagon Department
of Defense, forbidding him to reveal details of the machine ---
upon threat of 10 years imprisonment for violating security
relating to homopolar generator design -- through the very
nature of life itself by a totally automatic process, the
attaché document falls into the public domain.
The attached patent application and drawings represent the
result of the expenditure of $290,000 in two phases. The
DOD-imposed secrecy has prevented any recompense whatsoever from
accruing to the men who performed this work. What is described
is a machine, an electrical generator whose output exceeds the
input by a factor of 4.92.
Summary of Machine Parameters:
Rotor o.d: 14.0 inches
Rotor Length: 9.25 inches
Internal Rotor Diameter: 6 inches
Shaft Diameter (at widest point): 2 inches
Speed: 7200 rpm
Field: 15,000 gauss @ 150 watts field input
Voltage Output: 2.9 volts C @ 15,000 amperes
Drive Motor (DC) input (no load): 1.8 - 1.9 hp (1340-1470 watts)
windage & friction
Drive Motor input (loaded): 10.8 Kw, 14.5 hp
Machine Internal Resistance: 6-10 micro-ohms
Output Power: 43.7 Kw (maximum achieved 45.8 kw)
Power gain of Machine: 45.8 / 9.3 (drag due to current
withdrawal) = 4.92
In the above figure the 150 watts consumed in exciting the
magnet is a negligible factor.
The numbers in the above list of machine parameters which were
not included in the patent application have been obtained in
private communication with Adam Trombly. The US patent
application was rejected twice on the grounds of impossibility
that the machine could work, and then the authors were warned
not to publish any information on the basis of violation of
secret homopolar generator work being done concurrently in the
Trombly and Kahn are two of the brightest young physicists in
America today. Their work is of the very highest quality and is
reflected in the enclosed report. Technically what was done
represents the first stages of the development of the N-machine
as an article of commerce. Particularly two items are important.
Closure of the magnetic field path in the Trombly machine
allows for high magnetic field strength to be obtained with
little effort, i.e., the 150 watts of excitation. Strong
magnetism in the N-machine rotor results in high voltage output
but at the expense of increased drag. Extraction of current from
a machine of this type wherein current is taken out through
holes in the magnets (Be-Cu shaft in iron rotor), as well as
flowing radially outward (to the edge of iron rotor), as well as
flowing radially inward (to the edge of the disk liquid metal
contact), through the outer flux return path causes a reverse
motoring action which increases the drag of the machine. If the
gap between the outer rotor annuli were increased the flux in
the central core would decrease but also would the drag of the
machine brought about by the anti-motoring action.
Experience as well as design philosophy will decide the proper
balance between drag and power gain in a particular machine. In
the earlier "Sunburst" machine drag was minimized by not closing
the flux path and operating the machine in a totally
non-magnetic (brass and wood) environment. Here the measured
power gain was 28:1 at 10 kw output (1.5 v.d.c @ 6700 amperes).
However, much more power was consumed in exciting the magnet of
this machine, i.e., 4 kw vs. 150 watts for the Trombly machine.
A major factor is the construction of the liquid metal brush
system, which makes possible the power potential of a low
voltage, very high current machine.
The solution described by Trombly seems to have been
simultaneously invented by him, DePalma, and the DOD. Without
necessarily having to add specific detail, it should be obvious
how to enlarge the structure to handle more current. The liquid
metal could be circulated to provide additional cooling.
Different metals could be used, i.e., mercury. I estimate that
the Trombly machine should be able to produce 100,000 amperes
Conversion of the low voltage d.c. output to the standard 110
and 220 volt a.c./60 cps requires innovative engineering. The
easiest way is to run a Faraday disk motor at the low voltage
and drive a conventional electrical generator to produce
whatever voltage and current required. Conversion could also be
attempted by interrupting the low voltage high current with some
sort of liquid metal commutator and transforming the voltage
directly without a transformer. These ideas are treated by Tesla
in his patents for the design of liquid metal commutators and
interrupters. The voltage could be transformed electronically
but at this time is beyond the state of the art of low voltage
high current transistors at the present time.
A larger diameter machine could be built. Voltage goes as the
square of the machine radius.
The low internal resistance, 6-10 micro-ohms, reported for the
Trombly-Kahn machine speaks to the quality of the liquid metal
sliding contacts obtained with the construction method
described. Low internal resistance is crucial to obtaining high
power output and avoiding internal heating.
The Trombly-Kahn machine represents what bright young minds can
accomplish given the right circumstances and support. The
attempted suppression of this work only point up the
feeblemindedness of the gerontocracy that rules science in the
Building a useful N-machine is a high-technology
accomplishment. Intelligent designers and craftsmen can take
this information and scale it to appropriate needs. The wish is
to cause this technology to flourish on Earth.
Subject: Re: Adam Trombly, on ZPE, the
transformation of humanity
Date: Sep 20, 2006 3:30 PM
Yes, I've discussed Adam Trombly and his F-E device with some
of my other colleagues. Sofar, he hasn't been bumped off
for his F-E work. He merely went to prison for discussing his
generator with ordinary people against the orders of the "high
pooh-bah". When we were kids, we learned the expression, "Nice
guys finish last". I guess that includes incarceration for doing
the right thing for the public, as Trombly apparently did.
The Truth About ZP Technology -- A Wake-Up Call to the
An interview with Adam Trombly
Adam Trombly is one of the top scientists in the world in the
development and creation of Zero Point Energy technology.
Devices that he built are working today in other parts of the
world. And yet, instead of using Zero Point Energy, Adam
Trombly's own house in Maui is being fitted with a bank of
expensive solar panels.
Why can't Trombly use his own expertise to fuel his own home?
Trombly has spent most of his professional life under one gag
order or another. But he decided, he told us, "that if I was
going to give an interview for this particular publication, I
wasn't going to pull any punches." If much of this seems
overly negative, keep reading. Trombly wants to wake us up, and
to shine a light upon things that have been kept dark. But his
grounding is deeply spiritual. It's just that the Divine forces
that seek to assist us cannot do so unless we call upon them.
"Now, in this moment," he tells us, "we must come out and ask
for help. When we can ask for help, we get it."
Adam Trombly's revelations will shock you to the depths. But it
is his hope, and ours, that it will help you to awaken, or to
assist you in your task of awakening others. Trombly's ultimate
vision is the "redreaming of the American Dream."
Adams: How did you become interested in free energy?
Trombly: I was raised as a scientist and I have spoken
the language of science all of my life. My mother was a blood
specialist, my father was a biochemist, and my sister was at one
time a biophysicist.
When my father had just gotten his Ph.D. in biochemistry from
Purdue University -- I was a young child -- he was enlisted as a
biochemist, by a fellow Purdue alumnus named Frank Olsen, into a
U.S. Air Force/CIA joint project. He was stationed at the
biological warfare laboratory in Fort Detrick, Maryland. This
was in 1952 during the Korean Conflict. He had been a highly
decorated U.S. Army Air Corp officer in World War II, but the
government felt that he had a skill of strategic importance to
the national security.
At Fort Detrick, he and Olsen, along with a couple of other
scientists, were working on a very compartmentalized project.
Since he died when I was in the eighth year of this body, I knew
very, very little about what this project involved. On the
seventh anniversary of his death (4/3/1967) I was in my mother's
attic, putting out mousetraps, when I discovered a couple of
boxes that contained journals my father had kept during his time
at Detrick. You weren't supposed to keep journals, but he did.
One of the things he wrote about in his journals was his
exposure to alien technology that totally defied what were
considered, at that time and even still to this day, the laws of
He wrote a letter to Dr. Quackenbush, who was on his
dissertation board at Purdue, saying that what he had seen
challenged even his "most vivid imagination." This was right
after he got there.
After he had been there about a year, the notes he wrote got
really interesting. He specifically described various
technologies which he stated plainly were of "alien origin." He
described not only flying disk-shaped craft and their related
energy and propulsion systems, but Extraterrestrial Biological
Entities. His work was actually concerned with them.
On November 19, 1953, my father (along with Dr. Frank Olson and
a couple of other colleagues) was taken by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb
to a summer camp near Baltimore. While there, he and his
colleagues were involuntarily given large doses of LSD in their
cocktails; doses on the order of 10,000 to 15,000 micrograms.
Olsen knew about the experiment, and out of concern for my
father told him, "Harvey you have been given a psychoactive drug
and you are beginning to feel its effects. Don't worry."
Olsen had also taken a large dose of acid, and later freaked
out because he said he had, "blown the experiment." It was
supposed to be a double-blind experiment for all of the
participants other than Olsen. He was supposed to keep silent.
Frank Olsen continued to feel unsettled, and was rushed by CIA
personnel to New York for psychiatric examination. Something
terrible happened instead. Frank was bludgeoned in the head and
then thrown from his hotel room window. He was murdered. This,
at least, was the conclusion of forensic pathologists hired by
Frank's son Eric in 1994.
My father filed an internal protest demanding an investigation
of his friend's and colleague's death, and that was what
ultimately triggered the events that killed him.
In January of 1954, under the illusion that he was being
immunized from a new retroviral biological warfare agent, he was
injected instead with a live virus that he had discovered during
his research. He became extremely ill. In his notes, he
indicated that he immediately knew. "They killed Frank," he
said, "and now they have killed me. The difference is that I
will die slowly, very slowly."
He died in 1960, from a form of lymphoma as eleven government
labs did morphological workups of his cells.
When I discovered that his death had not been an accident of
nature, I was heartbroken. I despaired of life. I sat with a
knife a quarter inch into my chest, with blood already trickling
down, begging whoever was present at Infinity to reveal the
truth of existence.
And in the next moment, I suddenly had no doubt of God or, if
you prefer, the Buddha Nature, and I saw things with great
Adams: Do you believe that we're in denial about the
involvement of aliens in the affairs of this planet?
Trombly: The American public has been lied to for so
long, they wouldn't be able to recognize the truth if Jesus told
It's very difficult for the American public to know what is
going on. In many ways, we are a nation in denial, and all too
often a nation of alcoholics and drug addicts. We are in
incredible mass denial.
People see what are referred to as flying saucers and UFOs.
Sometimes they are not saucers but triangles. Sometimes they're
small, and sometimes they're huge and look like buildings.
It doesn't matter how many people in remote places or in cities
see them, or photograph or videotape them. The perceptions are
simply shut out.
There are amazing mind-control projects going on. People
literally cannot maintain their attention span. More than once I
have stood and watched crafts 100 or 200 feet over my head and
had people say things like, "Well that's not an airplane," or
"Oh, my God, are we actually seeing this?" "Is that real?"
But by the next day, the whole chemistry of denial has set in
and those same people say, "Wow, that was a strange airplane, it
was going really slow, or really fast, and how did it make that
This is what got me started in free energy technology ? though
I hate the term free energy, because it's anything but free.
Many have paid dearly for its advent. I don't even know what
term I like at this point. I use the term Zero Point Fluctuation
Technology ? ZP Technology.
I used to have a company called Zero Point Technology. As soon
as you put something like that on your shingle, you discover
just how unacceptable this concept is to those whose growth
stopped so long ago.
People are being bombarded with subliminal messages that tell
them that aliens don't exist. Even The "X-Files," which is a
joke (thank God they're canceling it), was originally intended,
by Chris Carter, to be something more than just random
amusement. It was intended to be groundbreaking. But there's
government interference. And this is a huge subject. People
don't understand that the "other U.S. government" has had
contact for decades with cultures that aren't from this planet.
We're like the aboriginal people of New Zealand, or Papua, New
Guinea, or any other remote tribe. When they see an airplane,
they think that it is a God ? or they at least, they used to. Of
course, now they think that it's just people who are more
primitive than they are, but who have technology.
We are the same way with "alien" cultures. We are the same way
with really clean and advanced electrical technologies that
could begin to help us understand just how wonderful and
abundant Being -- simply being -- is.
When I got involved in ZP in 1979, I was warned by Buckminster
Fuller that if we were successful there'd be hell to pay. If we
were actually successful, then it could develop into a real
nightmare, because the humans we're dealing with are a species
that has been kept in the dark. We've been treated like
mushrooms (which are kept in the dark and fed a lot of feces --
there's no nice way of putting this).
The extremes to which these people are willing to go to make
your life miserable are phenomenal. They go out of their way to
torment those who challenge their utter mediocrity.
Then there are certain people who hang around in the so-called
free energy field, who speak at conferences and who have never
discovered, engineered, or invented anything in their entire
lives that is worthy of note. What they have done is mediocre at
best. I won't name them, but they just haven't produced. These
are the people who say, "No one has ever bothered me."
These are the same people who -- behind my back and behind the
backs of those who have actually produced functional
technologies -- say, "Well I've never seen anything that he's
Adams: Can you tell us more about this alien agenda?
Trombly: I know that there's an alien agenda because my
father wrote this in his journals. He said he had discovered
that the U.S. government had become involved in its
implementation. He went further to say that this alien agenda,
in his opinion, was contrary to the good of the human species
and the planet.
He believed that a sector of the military/industrial complex
was involved in a program, basically, to transform our
atmosphere, which is benign to our species and other Earth
species, into one that is greatly reduced in terms of its oxygen
So this is a force which doesn't have good intentions for us.
It is a force that would gladly exterminate us. And yet human
beings act as agents for this force. The "human" species is
exterminating itself, by its own hands.
My father spoke of alien agendas in his most secret thoughts.
This was not something he spoke of in public. He would never
have given this interview, I'll tell you that much.
Adams: What species is this alien force?
Trombly: I can't say, but I can say that the species
that are trying to harm us are a tiny minority of a vast host of
alien species. My father knew of a couple. It wasn't just one,
even back then. This sounds very far fetched ? I know it sounds
nuts. But I decided if I was going to give an interview for this
particular publication, I wasn't going to pull any punches.
Adams: Many of the people who read this will share your
Trombly: Well, this is not about a belief system. I
don't like belief systems! This is about reality! We are the
ones who are collectively destroying the womb of the Earth in
which our species gestates, in which we evolve.
There are real terrorists in Washington, and even, I dare say,
in the White House. And we are very rapidly approaching the time
when that statement will be considered criminal. The incident we
call 9-11 was a mockery. Now, every time someone dials 911
they'll think of the evil demon Osama bin Laden who in fact is
someone we helped to create.
Alkhaida was largely financed by the U.S. government. We gave
the Taliban 128 million dollars last year to suppress the growth
of opium in Afghanistan. Where do you think that money came
from? Where do you think it went?
Everyone thinks the 9-11 was caused by Osama bin Laden and his
cronies. There's no doubt that some of his money comes from
Saudi Arabia, but the fact is that the U.S. government is the
primary source of funding for the Taliban. Why? Because Dick
Cheney and his cohorts want to build an oil pipeline through
Adams: What has happened to the free-energy technologies
that you've produced?
Trombly: Every single technology that I have either
invented or co-produced is no longer in my possession. There's
one in Arizona that has supposedly become a national security
A former colleague of mine once went off on his own with a
design that he and I had come up with. He built a device that
was very successful -- and is now in a can, and he is a shell of
his former self.
Forget about whatever technologies I have had a hand in
reducing to practice. We have heard from very credible sources
that these are nothing compared to the technologies already
being produced by certain prime contractors right here in the
Why is it a national security issue? Why is a generator that
generates several times more output than input a security issue?
Why is it that the American people cannot enjoy what their tax
dollars are paying for? Why is it that we have a government that
is willing to deny the American people access to the very
technologies they themselves are secretly producing?
It's not a joke. Our government has produced technologies, with
our tax dollars, that could immediately begin to reverse the
damage done by the irresponsible use of fossil fuels, and they
are not allowed to be used.
They continue to pollute this atmosphere, and they continue to
reduce the amount of metabolically available oxygen. Who could
possibly benefit from that? What species do you know of that is
actually better off today than, say, fifty years ago?
What is it that we do when we burn these fuels? We make fire.
What is fire? Fire is a rapid oxidation process that releases
heat. The real destroyers of the equatorial rain forest are
forest fires, because of the incredibly poor husbandry. There's
nothing good you can say about what's being done to this planet!
There are far too many people in the U.S. government and other
national governments who are acting in a way that is completely
moronic and self-destructive. It is not a human agenda! This is
what I'm trying to get you to see. There is this whole other
We are exploited by a corporate structure -- by the
"military/industrial complex" Dwight Eisenhower warned us
against in his farewell address to the nation. Eisenhower got
the term "military/industrial complex" from Mussolini, who was
describing Fascism. These are words you don't want to use in our
At Project Earth we get mail from all over the world, and the
one word that keeps coming up since our last so-called
presidential election ? about that debacle, that tragedy ? is
the word "coup." From the perspective of the vast majority of
the human species, it was a coup. They say this in India, Japan,
South Korea, France, Holland, Spain ? everywhere. In spite of
the fact that we never posted an article on our website that
said or even suggested that we had a coup, people write to us
and say, "How come the American people don't realize that they
just had a coup?"
Then, following on that coup, we have 9-11. Everybody is
terrified, but people don't want to talk the way I'm talking
now. They think it's self-destructive.
I tell you truly, it is our collective silence that is truly
The United States of America is a sacred idea. It is a sacred
thought-form. What was America to the people who risked and
frequently lost their lives to create it? It was the New
Jerusalem. The spiritual foundation of the United States of
America is an absolute necessity of our spiritual dimension. It
was founded on the basis of the absolute need of the human
spirit for freedom.
But freedom brings with it great responsibility and demands
We do not want to live in hell, but we are creating hell for
ourselves. We are tormenting each other and ourselves. We're
doing these things as if we have no choice. We are truly
The real ultimate cult that's going on in America is this one
of jingoistic, flag-waving, unquestioning patriotism. We can get
ourselves all hyped up on Zoloft, and that still doesn't change
the fact that we as a nation have lost an incredible amount of
prestige and trust because of what happened in 2000.
No matter how much money we put into the military budget, we
will not be able to restore that trust in our own people or in
the rest of the world until, through grace or the incarnation of
the Divine Process, our democracy is resurrected from its
present contrived state. It is a travesty.
When Dick Cheney refuses to turn over documents to
investigators, he gives comfort to our enemies. Truly dangerous
and deranged people in truly difficult countries like Pakistan
cite the actions of our corrupt public officials as
justification for their actions.
If we say to the world that we represent Freedom and Democracy,
then by God we have an obligation to be Free and Democratic.
In the meantime, the world laughs, because perfectly capable
intelligence officers in the United States are oppressed for the
sake of short-term political agendas.
The Central Intelligence Agency attempted to warn the White
House before September 11. The entire affair was handled with
what can only be called incompetence. While three-oletter
agencies spent our tax dollars listening to my calls, true
terrorists were going to flight. And in spite of over an
18-minute warning crash, a second full-size passenger jet went
into the World Trade Center.
Even so, we are all supposed to fall into line and cheer.
Once, in 1986, I was introduced to a man in Toronto, Canada,
who turned out to be a major Soviet technology spy. When he
offered me a lot of money and a lot of benefits if I would turn
over mechanical drawings for an electrical generating technology
I had co-invented, I told that agent to go screw himself. I told
him I was under a gag order, and that I would not violate that
He responded by saying, "What loyalty do you owe to your
country? They have done nothing to help you or your work. If you
cooperate with us we will appreciate you and take good care of
you and your family. Three hundred million people will benefit
from your technology. Who cares if a shaft is made in Leningrad
or if assembly occurs near Moscow?"
Once again, I told him to go screw himself, to go back to the
totalitarian hell that he came from -- and then I got the
hell out of his office.
In September of 1986, I turned this man in to the FBI -- and as
a consequence, I ended up under investigation myself!
In February of 1987, the counter-intelligence unit of the FBI
contacted me. During my second so-called "interview," one of the
special agents who interviewed me was Robert Hanson, now known
as a famous spy for the former Soviet Union.
Hanson interviewed me about whether or not I was a spy. But he
knew I wasn't a spy, because he was!
It's not just the U.S. government that's suppressing all this
stuff, it's the whole theater of this species. The "human"
species has rarely demonstrated qualities that say that it
should be maintained or can be sustained.
This species has never acted in a way that is consistently to
its own benefit. For thousands of years, this species has acted
in a manner that can only be described as both sadistic and
masochistic, and on a planetary scale. It has not acted
At the same time, there is no decision to change, because the
vast majority of the human species don't even realize that we
have a choice to do that. They don't realize that we have the
choice [to] live intelligently. They don't even know or what
that would entail.
My protests to the "powers above" are consistently related to
this central fact: "I know there's a choice, you know there's a
choice, but the general population on this planet has no clue
that there's a choice. We can choose to live in a completely
abundant and pollution-free environment. We can make that choice
and have more abundance, and not less abundance. We can stop
spending money for fuel. The capital expenditure for fuel could
be completely eliminated. That would free up trillions of
dollars annually, globally, from the world budget, from the
If you want to know why I got involved in this technology, it's
because we have a way to generate almost boundless levels of
electrical power without any pollution or fuel, without even the
need for solar panels or wind power.
It's ridiculous that I am installing solar panels in my home,
when I have spent the last 23 years of my life in the field of
ZP Fluctuation Technology research and development and have on
more than one occasion successfully demonstrated it along with
colleagues who have also learned the same hard lessons that I
Adams: Can we still restore this planet?
Trombly: We can if we act with great clarity and great
speed. No obstacle could stand in our path.
We could even reclaim the Sahara Desert. It didn't used to be a
desert. It was destroyed by people who cut down the forest and
overgrazed the grasslands that were once there. Now the same
thing is happening in Brazil, Indonesia, China and South East
These forests and grasslands are like your skin. What does the
skin do? It keeps us from becoming dehydrated. When a person
gets third-degree burns, one of the leading causes of death is
dehydration. The same thing is true of the forests and
It's about maintaining that tissue and understanding that it is
very vulnerable. These membranes are being taken away.
We can also reclaim the desert that is forming in the
northeastern corner of Brazil, where there was rainforest a
hundred years ago. The Brazilian desert exists because the
Brazilian people won't stop cutting down their own trees. I say
this very bluntly. If the Brazilian people want to demonstrate
that they have some intelligence, then they'll stop cutting down
the rainforest, which is the equatorial life support of our
If the United Nations and if the American government want to
demonstrate their intelligence, then they will suggest that we
should give credits to these countries for their oxygen
We can reclaim the deserts by these new technologies, by taking
the water out of the oceans and using it on the desert.
Where you run into the logjam, over and over with all these
issues, is the question of energy.
How can we heal the ozone layer? It's going to take a
tremendous amount of energy to do that. We have to replenish the
oxygen that's not getting into the stratosphere.
One of the fundamental points that I try to make is about
chlorine. It is a molecular demon once it gets into the ozone
layer. One chlorine ion can interfere with the production of
100,000 molecules of ozone. So we have to eliminate as much free
chlorine and bromine as possible.
But even if we entirely eliminated chlorine and bromine
production, that would still not be enough to heal the
stratospheric ozone layer.
Another significant cause of ozone depletion, one that is often
overlooked, is the reduction in the amount of oxygen that should
be transported into the stratosphere over the equatorial
rainforests. Project Earth has been trying to educate people to
this fact since the mid-eighties. The oxygen source has
literally been cut off by deforestation. But we can heal that by
reintroducing a tremendous amount of oxygen up there, and
replanting the forest down here, on Earth.
It will take energy. Lots of it.
Adams: Can you describe how your life has been
endangered because of your perspectives on free energy?
Trombly: If I had described my life to you since 1980,
it would be a long, long story, and it would sound like a bad
I've had a number of attempts on my life through really serious
poisonings. My wife has had to revive me and give me CPR.
So we've had a whole nightmare component to our life. But we
don't live in a nightmare at all. It's quite the opposite.
However, I must say that it has been almost unimaginable at
Once, in 1988, I was visited by a couple of scientists at my
home in Colorado. One of them was Bob Dratch, a man who has done
a lot of work in creating microwave detection equipment, which
is widely used by the Department of Defense.
Basically, I was standing in my office, which was a large room,
27 feet long, and Bob Dratch was shaking change in his pocket,
to demonstrate that his very sensitive microwave detector could
pick up the signal this jingling generated. The signal would
appear on the meter and the printout.
I pointed the horn of the device at Dratch to measure the
effect. And then, as I pointed the horn away, I kept my finger
on the trigger and happened to point it out the window of my
office. To our surprise, the alarm went off on the machine! The
red light went on, and the meter peaked.
My office was being microwaved!
We walked into my back yard and found the place where the
signals were being broadcast. It was right behind my house, in a
little forest, right next to an engineering company that is well
known for making satellite antennas.
We clipped the cable to the antenna that was broadcasting
microwaves at my house, and I called the FCC in Denver and I
said told them that this was illegal and I wanted it stopped
now. I said, "Stop microwaving me." I already had cancer.
Within three weeks, this engineering company was totally gone.
I assume they themselves had something to do with the broadcast,
or they wouldn't have left so suddenly.
So dozens of people had to relocate to Kansas, or whereever.
But why were they trying to kill this body? We are perplexed at
times by the strange modus operandi of this group.
The world is not going around very well right now, because
people aren't loving. When people love, they become geniuses.
Intelligence isn't about thinking, it's about feeling. I don't
care how many times the force of darkness, which resists love,
has attacked you and made you feel separate.
I don't care how difficult anyone's life has been. I guarantee
you, I can match it. But suffering is finite, it's limited, it's
not eternal. You can transcend suffering through love.
The resurrection we are called to is our resurrection. Once
Jesus stood in front of Lazarus' tomb, and commanded, "Lazarus,
come out." And we are told that Lazarus came out.
That is similar to what is happening right now. Surrounding
this planet, there is a gathering which is inviting the human
species into a new dimension. They are saying, "Lazarus come
out, come out of your subjective tomb and out of your
corruption. Come out of your doubt of God and out of your doubt
of Love. In the midst of Infinity and Eternity, We command you."
Now, in this moment, we must come out and ask for help. When we
can ask for help, we get it.
People don't understand that you become realized by incarnating
love. We live only as expressions of love, in eternity. The only
thing that is eternal is Love. Love as the presence of
consciousness is eternal and infinite.
Time and space are subsets of eternity and infinity. Space and
time are subjective states, and they have nothing to do with
limiting the ultimate reality of consciousness, not even a
little bit. They have to do with the gnarled subjective states
of the contracted world.
Scientists talk about the accelerating expansion of the
universe, but it's not that, it's the unremitting transformation
of the universe that's happening, the inescapable transformation
of the universe.
You don't have a choice about it this time. It isn't the same
as it was two thousand years ago. We are in the midst of the
time of the resurrection. It involves you and me and everyone on
this planet, I don't care who they are.
There will be miracles everywhere. The most powerful thing is
love. The whole astrophysical community is now acknowledging
this power, but they call it the "dark energy." They give it
this Darth Vader quality, because they don't know how to relate
to the Light. It is the contraction of form and the denial of
the Infinite Divine that causes the appearance of darkness.
Adams: How long has there been a conspiracy to prevent
the development of free energy?
Well, if you are referring to the technological side of things,
I guess you could say it started with Nikola Tesla. (Although
the crucifixion was really an attempt to stop Free energy as
Nikola Tesla was given the vision of infinite electrical power,
without fuel, in the 1880s. He demonstrated it in 1886 and 1889,
and then throughout the 1890s. He tried to give this gift, but
the fossil fuel boys decided he couldn't give it. The fossil
fuel boys decided that maybe they could make use of him, so they
didn't kill him right away. They killed Tesla in 1943.
One of the detectives approached me in 1981, at a conference.
This man told me that Tesla had been murdered. So I guess you
could say that it all began right there. When I was a kid in
school, nobody knew about Tesla. Tesla was the father of
alternating current electricity. Tesla said he was inspired by
aliens, beings from other dimensions. He was anathematized
because he refused to kowtow; he refused to attend the same
temple that the others worshipped in.
Adams: How can we make free energy available to the
Trombly: There is no such thing as free energy without
enlightenment and liberation. The technologies point to free
energy. We are the technology. We are the free energy.
Great yogis like Sri Babaji demonstrate this. Yogananda talked
about him. He was the physical demonstration of free energy. He
was the physical demonstration of what the Tibetans called the
Rainbow Body. He was transparent and transfigured in God
realization, the realization of the Buddha Nature.
There are alien cultures and cultures in other universes who
happen to be attentive to the events on this planet because this
is one of the last archetypal moments. This will not continue
anymore. This entire kind of universe is obsolete and will not
occur again, because it would be masochism and sadism to allow
it to be perpetuated.
There's a transformation that is occurring. It is about the
liberation of all the energy that has been bound up in all of
these worlds that are subject to corruption. That is the real
physics. This is what is really important.
In the meantime, by understanding that this is true, we can tap
into a field that we call Zero Point Vacuum Fluctuation or the
quantum ether, and we can generate electrical power. Electrical
power exists in complete abundance, without any capital cost for
Solar technology is so very expensive. We have 108 solar panels
in our two facilities on Maui and it takes up a great deal of
space. I would love to have ZP Technology here, but the fact of
the matter is, if I had that working right now, this place would
become a target.
The other side of this story is always the same thing. Just
when Light appears on this planet, the subjective forces of
darkness manifest with great tenacity. This government was
overthrown and nobody knows anything about it. People are silent
On the cover of Newsweek, on September 11, was an article about
the secret vote that made Bush president. The article was about
a conspiracy in the Supreme Court. Newsweek at that time was
willing to challenge the Supreme Court. The Executive Branch of
the United States government was about to fall, because it was
going to be exposed.
But then the planes hit the World Trade Center.
If Al Gore had been elected, I know the man well enough to know
that we would have been in a different economy after four years.
We would've begun to implement these technologies.
The United States government has, right now, the technology to
eliminate the energy crisis. This consoling gesture that George
Bush made the other day, about developing hydrogen fuel-cell
technology, is just a carrot that he's dangling before the
Now there are military people who have come forward and are
talking about the presence of aliens and alien technology on
this planet. They are even talking about the fact that we are
making our own flying saucers. This Disclosure Project is
extremely important for people to know about (see Secrets from
the Stars elsewhere in this issue).
We could be having the greatest economic boom in the history of
history. We could actually do that. The technology exists. As
early as the 1970s, Henry Kissinger, George Bush, Richard
Nixon-- all kinds of these guys -- knew about this physics. But
the downside is that we are on the brink of oblivion.
Parents are paying all this money to educate their children
into the lie of physics instead of the truth of physics.
Meanwhile, they are taking Prozac. We have legalized the
anesthetization of our species. Depression is appropriate.
Adams: What is the purpose of your organization, Project
Trombly: The original foundation of Project Earth was to
reveal to the human species the actual condition of our planet.
We're not being told the truth about it. For the most part, the
scientific community doesn't know the truth and has been so
disempowered by their so-called education that they've lost
Vision is the only thing that will save us. You have to be able
to see where you're going.
The agreement that I made with the Divine is one that Bucky and
I talked about. We would never just illuminate the problem, we
would always offer a solution. If we talked about an energy
crisis, we would talk about only it in the context of the fact
that there is no energy crisis.
Electrical power is already abundantly available, pollution
free. We like electricity. We can power our cars and flying
saucers with infinite electrical power. We could have so much
fun that living on earth wouldn't be a drag, but would be really
Your eyes would be so open that you would walk out the door and
you wouldn't see the smog in Los Angeles, but you'd see the
clear, sacred air.
Project Earth is not just about communicating the problems.
It's about the transformation of humanity.
Adam Trombly, Director of Project Earth, is an
internationally acknowledged expert in the fields of Physics,
Atmospheric Dynamics, Geophysics, Rotating and Resonating
Electromagnetic Systems, and Environmental Global Modeling.
Taking the advice of his friend and mentor R. Buckminster
Fuller, Adam has maintained a "synergistic, global view" within
a multi-disciplinary scientific background. From this
perspective, Adam offers unique insights into the changes
humankind has effected on our environment, and the adjustments
our future requires of us.
For further information about Project Earth, please visit
Trombly and Celeste Adams spoke on 21 January, 2002.
Closed Path Homopolar
Inventors: Adam D. Trombly & Douglas Kahn
Acme Energy Company: 25 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael,CA 94903
International Patent Application Number: PCT/US81/01588
International Patent Classification: H02K 31/00, 39/00
International Publication Number: WO 82/02126
International Publication Date: 24 June 1982
Abstract -- A co-rotating homopolar generator has a
rotor (12) comprising a disk conductor (30) and co-rotating
coaxial electromagnets (32a and 32b) on either side, and
achieves improved operation by utilizing a low reluctance
magnetic return path for the magnetic flux that passes through
the disk conductor (30). The low reluctance path permits the
electromagnets (32a and 32b) to produce a high field with a
relatively low value of coil excitation current. Thus
overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar
generator is achieved. The low reluctance magnetic return path
(220) is preferably provided by a relatively high permeability
co-rotating enclosure (having enclosure halves 37a and 37b) of
sufficient radial and axial dimensions to enclose the
electromagnets and disk conductor of the rotor. The disk
conductor (30) is preferably constructed from a high
permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and can
indeed be integral with the electromagnet cores (35a and 35b).
Field of the Invention:
The present invention relates generally to electric generation,
and more particularly to a homopolar machine having high
Background of the Invention:
Electrical generation typically involves the conversion of
mechanical work to electrical energy. In these energy conscious
times, it is most important to achieve as high a conversion
efficiency as possible.
It is well known that if a conducting disk is rotated about its
axis in the field of a fixed magnet such that the magnetic flux
lines intersect the plane of the disk, a voltage is induced
between radially distinct portions of the disk. Such a device is
known as a homopolar generator. Although less well known, it is
also known that if the magnet is fastened to the disk, and the
whole assembly co-rotated, a voltage is also induced between
radially distinct portions of the disk. M. J. Crookes, et al.,
recent article in the American Journal of Physics 46
(7): 729-731 (1978), note with amusement that while the
co-rotating type of homopolar generator seemed to the authors to
be a brilliant new invention, it was "belatedly discovered that
Faraday got there first". According to the published results of
an experiment performed by Michael Faraday in 1832, "a copper
disk was cemented upon the end of a cylinder magnet, with paper
intervening; the magnet and disk were rotated together and
collectors (attached to the galvanometer) brought in contact
with the circumference and the central part of the copper plate.
The galvanometer needle moved as in former cases, and the
direction of motion was the same as that which would have
resulted, if the copper only had revolved, and the magnet had
been fixed. Neither was there any apparent difference in the
quantity of deflection. Hence, rotating the magnet causes no
difference in the results; for a rotary and a stationary magnet
produces the same effect upon the moving copper".
Bruce E. DePalma, in an article in Energy Unlimited 5:
16-23 (1980), makes the further statement that unlike a
conventional generator which resists rotation when current is
drawn, a homopolar generator having the magnet and disk
conductor rigidly coupled to one another operates in a manner
free of such rotational drag. More particularly, it is suggested
that due to the fact that the torque is absorbed in the
assembly, conversion efficiency beyond that normally achievable
should be possible. To date, there have been attempts to build
co-rotating homopolar generators, but the devices appear to have
been troubled by overheating and other engineering difficulties
that have tended to mask the potentially high efficiency.
Summary of the Invention:
The present invention provides a co-rotating homopolar
generator that avoids the heating problems of prior machines and
renders possible and convenient the generation of electricity at
extremely high efficiency. The generator has a rotor comprising
a disk conductor and co-rotating coaxial electromagnets on
either side. The present invention achieves the improved
operation by providing a low reluctance magnetic return path for
the magnetic flux that passes through the disk conductor.
The low reluctance path permits the electromagnets to produce a
high field (limited to 2.2 tesla by the saturation of iron) with
a relatively low value of coil excitation current. Thus
overheating is avoided and the full potential of the homopolar
generator is achieved.
In the preferred embodiment, the low reluctance magnetic return
path is provided by a relatively high permeability co-rotating
enclosure (designated a "flux return enclosure") of sufficient
radial and axial dimensions to enclose the magnets and disk
conductor of the rotor. Additionally, the disk conductor itself
is preferably constructed from a high permeability, low
resistivity material such as iron, and can indeed be integral
with the electromagnet cores.
Output power is drawn between the periphery of the disk
conductor (within the flux return enclosure) and the rotor shaft
through fixed disk and shaft brushes. The disk brush protrudes
through an annular slot in the flux return enclosure, and is
geometrically configured so as not to add a large amount of
reluctance to the flux return path. To this end, the disk brush
is formed with a relatively thin web portion that passes through
the enclosure gap. The web portion still has sufficient
thickness so that the mechanical strength o the brush is not
compromised. Moreover, the web portion has sufficient thickness,
and hence conductance, that the saving in magnet power is not
offset by excessive ohmic heating in the web portion.
For a further understanding of the nature and advantages of the
present invention, reference should be made to the remaining
portion of the specification and to the attached drawings.
Brief Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectional isometric
view of a homopolar machine according to the present invention;
Figure 2 is an
electrical/mechanical schematic view of the homopolar generator;
Figure 3 is a sectioned oblique
view of the rotor and shaft;
Figure 4A is an isometric view
showing the construction of the disk brush
Figure 4B is a fragmentary
enlarged view showing a portion of the disk brush;
Figure 5A and Figure 5B are exploded isometric
views of the shaft brushes;
Figure 5C is an isometric view of
the magnet brush;
Figure 6 is a sectioned isometric
view of the magnet brush;
Figure 7 is a sectioned oblique
side view showing the brushes, bearings, and casing, with the
rotor shown in phantom; and
Figure 8 is a sectioned isometric
view of the shaft end seal.
Detailed Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectioned isometric
view showing a homopolar generator according to the present
invention. Figure 2 is an
electrical and mechanical schematic of the generator system
incorporating generator 10. Generator 10 comprises a rotor 12
mounted to a shaft 15 journaled in bearing assemblies 17 and 18
for rotation within a casing 20. The casing maintains rotor 12
within a controlled atmosphere (slightly pressurized nitrogen).
One end of shaft 15 protrudes outside casing 20 through a shaft
seal assembly 21 and is provided a drive sheave 22 to
communicate mechanical energy from a drive motor 25 of any
conventional desired type. A shaft end bearing 27 takes up
radial loading on drive sheave 22 due to the coupling with motor
Broadly, rotor 12 comprises a central disk conductor portion
30, flanking electromagnet coils 32a and 32b with respective
associated iron core portions 35a and 35b, and a flux return
enclosure having enclosure halves 37a and 37b. When high
currents are involved, the disk may more closely resemble a
cylinder. However, the term "disk" will still be used for the
conductor that corresponds to the disk of Faraday’s experimental
device. Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are series connected
between shaft 15 and an electrically isolated shaft portion 40.
Excitation current is provided by a magnet excitation power
supply 42 which is coupled between a magnet brush 45 which rubs
on electrically isolated shaft portion 40, and a pair of
parallel connected shaft brushes 47 and 48. An outer portion of
disk conductor 35 engages a disk brush 5 and output power is
drawn between disk brush 50 and shaft brushes 47 and 48. As will
be described more fully below, generator 10 has the capability
of operating at extremely high efficiency.
Rotor & Shaft:
Referring to the sectioned oblique view of Figure
3, the detailed construction of rotor 12 and shaft
15 may be seen. While there is no particular significance to
absolute dimensions, the description that follows will be in
terms of an illustrative generator whose rotor has an outer
dimension of 14.0 inches and an axial length of 9.25 inches,
with the rotor being being carried on a shaft of diameter 2.0
inches. Where practical, suitable proportions will be maintained
in isometric and oblique views so that other dimensions may be
ascertained from the drawings. Disk conductor portion 30 and
electromagnet core portions 35a and 35b are constructed of high
permeability, low resistivity material such as iron, and may be
integrally formed as a single iron rotor core, designated 55.
Rotor core 55 is brazed to shaft 15 which is preferably made of
a copper-beryllium alloy. A suitable shaft material may be
obtained from Brush Wellman Company under the name of Brush 3
Alloy. This is an alloy characterized by a high electrical
conductivity (50% of copper standard) and a high module of
elasticity. A circumferentially extending copper contact 57 is
brazed to the outer surface of rotor core 55 at the axial
midpoint thereof and contacts disk brush as will be described
Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are wound with
epoxy-impregnated wire which may be no. 12 size in the
illustrative embodiment. Iron annuli 60a and 60b are bolted to
opposite ends of rotor core 55 to define therewith a spool which
axially confines the coils. The series connection between
isolated shaft portion 40 and shaft 15 is defined by first,
second, and third magnet conductors 62, 62, and 64. First magnet
conductor 62 runs from shaft portion 40 along the axis of shaft
15, and then radially outward to coil 32b. Second magnet
conductor 63 runs between coils32a and 32b, passing through
brush contact 57. Third magnet conductor passes radially outward
from coil 32a to shaft 15. Electromagnet coils 32a and 32b are
provided with respective high tensile strength wrappings 65a and
65b, preferably fiberglass-epoxy tape, to prevent centrifugal
destruction of the coils.
The flux return enclosure provides a low reluctance magnetic
path for the magnetic flux lines passing through rotor core 55
and should therefore be made of relatively high permeability
material. For example, enclosure halves 37a and 37b may be
constructed of medium-high permeability, high tensile strength,
forged silicon steel. Enclosure halves 37a and 37b are bolted to
rotor core 55, and together define a cylindrical enclosure
within which are located electromagnet coils 32a and 32b, rotor
core 55, rotor core 55, copper brush contact 57, and magnet coil
wrappings 65a and 65b. Facing portions of enclosure halves 37a
and 37b are spaced apart to define a circumferentially extending
slot 66 that permits disk brush 50 to engage copper contact 57.
Slot 66 is approximately 9/32-inch thick in the region between
enclosure halves 37a and 37b, but broadens to approximately 1.0
inch thick in the region between electromagnet coils 32a and
32b. Enclosure halves 37a and 37b are provided with respective
high tensile strength wrappings 67a and 67b.
As stated above, shaft 15 is characterized by a 2-inch diameter
in the rotor region. Axially away from rotor 12, shaft 15 is of
lesser diameter, being reduced to 45 millimeters in the region
of bearing assemblies 15 and 17. Proceeding axially away from
rotor 12 in a first direction toward isolated shaft portion 40,
shaft 15 is formed with radially relieved portions 68 and 69 to
define therebetween a first annular collar 70 for engagement
with shaft brush 47. Proceeding axially in the other direction,
shaft 15 is formed with an annular groove 71 spaced from the
shaft end to define a second annular collar 72 for engagement
with shaft brush 48.
Figure 4A is an isometric view
showing the construction of disk brush 50. Disk brush 50
comprises symmetrical halves 75a and 75b which, when bolted
together in coplanar relationship, completely encircle rotor 12.
Disk brush half 75b is shown only in phantom. Since disk brush
halves 75a and 75b are similarly constructed, brush half 75a
only will be described. Brush half 75a is in the form of a
1-inch thick rigid copper plate with a semicircular opening 77
along an edge thereof, opening 77 being adapted to cooperate
with a similar opening in brush half 75b to form a circular
aperture. A semi-annular web portion 80 of reduced thickness
surrounds opening 77 in a spaced concentric relation thereto,
and defines an inner brush portion 82 between opening 77 and web
portion 80. Web portion 80 is approximately 1/4-inch thick while
inner brush portion 82 is approximately 13/16-inch thick. Web
portion 80 has a radial extent that is only slightly greater
than the radial extent of the facing portions of flux return
enclosure halves 37a and 37b and their associated wrappings 72a
and 72b. At the same time, web portion 80 is sized to fit within
slot 66 of rotor 12 with a small clearance (for example
1/64-inch on either side). Inner brush portion 82 is sized to
fit within the broadened slot portion between electromagnet
coils 32a and 32b, and engages brush contact 57. Axial
clearances are somewhat broader than those surrounding web
portion 80. A clearance of 3/32-inch on either side is suitable.
The outside dimensions of disk brush halves 75a and 75b are not
critical, nor are the particular outside configurations.
However, it is important that the brush halves have portions
that extend sufficiently beyond the outside surface of rotor 12
to permit proper mechanical support with respect to casing 20. A
height of 18 inches and a width of 20.5 inches (total brush
width of 21 inches) is suitable.
As will be described below, generator 10 is operated under
conditions of very high current so that brush resistance must be
minimized. This is accomplished by wetting the brush contact
areas with liquid metal, and providing a structure to hold the
liquid metal in place. To this end, inner brush portion 82
carries a fixed contact assembly 85, which may be seen with
reference to the fragmentary oblique sectional view of Figure 4B. More particularly, inner
brush portion is formed with an inwardly opening recess 87 which
broadens beneath the surface to define opposing lips 90 and 91
spaced to receive copper contact 57 therebetween. Lips 90 and 91
confine mixed contact assembly 85 which comprises a strip of
ground braid material 92 (1/2-inch x 1/16-inch cross-section is
suitable) and a copper strap 95 that is crimped around it to
provide structural integrity. Strap 95 surrounds ground braid
strip 92 to the same extent as lips 90 and 91, so that the
inwardly facing portion between the lips is exposed ground braid
material which engages contact 57. In use, ground braid strip 92
is wetted with a liquid metal such as a sodium/potassium
eutectic (NaK-78). Operation is optimum with a small and
precisely controlled clearance (e.g., 0.002 inches) between
braid strip 92 and contact 57. This may be achieved by a
break-in run that is carried out prior to wetting braid strip 92
with the liquid metal. The purpose of braid strip 92 is to hold
the liquid metal in place and to alter its velocity
characteristics so that it does not experience dynamic turbulent
flow phenomena or migrate away from the surface of brush contact
57. While the use of ground braid material is a useful
expedient, fixed contact assembly may utilize any construction
that provides a finely convoluted surface. For example, screen
material could be used.
Figure 5A and Figure 5B are exploded isometric
views of shaft brushes 47 and 48. Turning first to Figure 5A, shaft brush 47 is of
two-piece construction including an elongated rectangular bar
member 100 (1-inch x 4-inch cross-section) and an abutting short
member 102, members 100 and 102 having respective semicircular
openings 105 and 107 along facing, abutting edges thereof. Thus,
when brush members 100 and 102 are bolted together, as for
example by bolts 110, they define a circular bore of a diameter
corresponding to that of radially relieved shaft portions 68 and
69. The surface of the circular bore is recessed and houses a
contact assembly 112 (which may comprise eutectic wetted braid)
in the same manner as inner brush portion 82 houses contact
assembly 85. If braid material is used, a 3/4-inch x 1/16-inch
cross-section is suitable. Contact assembly 112 engages annular
collar 70 to conduct current between shaft 15 and shaft brush
47. The outside dimensions of brush members 100 and 102 are not
critical, but brush member 100 is preferably of sufficient
length to extend outside casing 20.
Turning next to Figure 5B, shaft
brush 48 includes cooperating brush members 120 and 125 which
are generally the same as brush members 100 and 105 with the
exception tht the semicircular bores do not extend all the way
through, but rather terminate within the brush members. A
contact assembly 127 engages annular collar 72.
Figure 5C is an isometric view of
one of two identical support elements 130 for shaft brushes 47
and 48. Support element 130 is formed of insulative material and
provides an electrically insulated mounting of the shaft brushes
to housing 20. Support element 130 includes a rectangular
channel section 131 for receiving and supporting a respective
shaft brush and flange section 132 for mounting to housing 20.
Figure 6 is an isometric sectional
view illustrating the construction of isolated shaft portion 40
and magnet brush 45. Magnet brush 45 is a cylindrical element of
sintered copper-graphite or equivalent material. As described
above, conductor 62 runs in an axial bore along shaft 15. The
end of shaft 15 is formed with a cylindrical recess into which
is epoxied an undersized metal cylinder 135 which is bored to
receive an uninsulated metal cylinder 135 which is bored to
receive an uninsulated end of magnet conductor 62. Isolated
shaft portion 40 is a circular plate of the same diameter as the
adjacent portion of shaft 15, an is soldered to cylinder 135 to
form a mechanical and electrical coupling thereto.
Figure 7 is a side oblique view,
sectioned vertically along the axis of rotor 12, with the shaft
and rotor shown only in phantom. Figure 1
and Figure 7, taken together, show
the construction of housing 20, bearing assemblies 17 and 18,
and the mechanical support of the disk, shaft and magnet
brushes. Housing 20 comprises a central rotor chamber 150 and
axially outboard shaft brush chambers 152 and 153. Rotor chamber
150 includes a pair of end walls 155a and 155b, and pair of side
panels 157a and 157b. Shaft brush chamber 152 includes a pair of
side walls 160a and 160b, and an end panel 162, while shaft
brush chamber 153 includes a pair of side walls 165a and 1665b,
and an end panel 167. housing 20 further comprises a floor 170
and a roof 172. End walls 155a and 155b, side walls 160a and
160b, side walls 165a and 165b and floor 170 are preferably
1/2--inch stainless steel plate and are welded together to
provide a rigid load-bearing assembly. Side panels 157a and
157b, end panels162 and 167 and roof 172 are of lighter material
such as 1/8-inch stainless steel, and are bolted in place so as
to be removable. Bolted connections are gasketed, using, for
example, 1/8-inch thick cloth-impregnated butyl rubber gasketing
material, chosen for its minimal outgassing characteristics.
Disk brush halves 75a and 75b are supported between a lower
brush support channel 175 and an upper brush support channel
177, both of which are fabricated from a fiber reinforced
thermosetting plastic material. Lower brush support channel 177
is bolted to appropriate structural angle members, not shown.
Shaft and bearing 27 is mounted to a housing extension 178 which
carries a magnet brush support bracket 179. Magnet brush 45 is
held in a cylindrical bore within an insulating brush support
block 180, and is kept in contact with isolated shaft portion 40
by a spring 181.
Bearing assemblies 17 and 18 are mounted into, and supported by
respective end walls 155a and 155b. Since the bearing assemblies
are generally identical, only one will be described. Bearing
assembly 17 includes a lightly preloaded duplex pair of angular
contact ball bearings 180a and 180b mounted within a rectangular
housing having a mounting flange 185 on three sides thereof.
Suitable bearings may be obtained from Fafnir Company under the
designation 2MM209 WI CR DUL. These are very high precision
grade (ABEC-7) bearings characterized by a 1.7717-inch bore, a
3.3465-inch outer diameter, and a 1.4960-inch width. These
bearings are able to run at 8000 rpm in grease under the loading
imposed by rotor 12 and shaft 15. The bearings are held in place
by opposed retaining plates 187a and 187b and a retaining collar
190. Shaft end bearing 27 may be a prehoused two-bolt flanged
unit such as that obtainable from SKF under the designation
FYTP-100. This is a bearing having a 1.000 inch bore and capable
of operation at 8700 rpm in grease. Such a bearing has labyrinth
seals which do not actually touch, thus avoiding problems of
excessive wear and heating at high speeds.
Figure 8 is a partially cut away
isometric view showing details of shaft seal assembly 21 which
maintains a seal during operation when casing 20 is filled with
slightly pressurized nitrogen. Shaft seal assembly 21 comprises
an elastomeric seal 195 held in place within a shaft seal
housing 196 by a retaining plate 197. A suitable elastomeric
seal may be obtained from Johns-Mansville Company under the
designation 10058LUP, which signifies a seal facbricated from
buna-N material and characterized by a 2.0000-inch outer
diameter, a 1.2500-inch bore, and a 0.3750-inch width. At the
high angular velocity of operation, the elastomeric seal would
rapidly wear away portions of the beryllium-copper material of
shaft 15. Accordingly, shaft 15 is provided with a stainless
sleeve 198, such as that obtainable from Chicago Rawhide under
the designation 99125 Speedi-Sleeve. This is a sleeve
characterized by a 1.250-inch bore, and a 0.010-inch wall
thickness with a special outer finish designed expressly for
efficient sealing action.
However, in order to fill housing 20 with pressurized nitrogen,
the housing must first be evacuated and purged. Elastomeric seal
195 is incapable of maintaining a vacuum, so an o-ring sealing
mechanism utilizing an axially movable gland 202 is provided.
Moving gland 202, shown in its sealing position, has a
frustoconical bore 205 adapted to engage a corresponding
frustoconical portion 205 of shaft 15 (see also Figure 3). Movable gland 202 is
grooved within its frustoconical bore to carry a first o-ring
210 for sealing to shaft 15, and is grooved on its face to carry
a second o-ring 212 for sealing to shaft seal housing 197. After
housing 20 is filled with nitrogen, gland 202 is moved away from
shaft seal housing 197 so that o-ring 210 does not engage the
shaft during operation.
Having described the structure of the present invention,
suitable operating parameters may be set forth by way of
example. By way of background, for a machine of the type
described, it is readily shown that the voltage, V, generated
between the shaft and the outer circumference of the rotor core
is given by the following equation:
V = B w (r22 - r12) / 2 (in mks units)
Where B is the magnetic field strength, w is the angular
velocity of the rotor, r2 is the motor core radius, and r1 is
the shaft radius. For rotation at 7200 rpm (754 radians per
second), a 1-inch radius shaft, a 3-inch radius rotor core, and
a magnetic field of 1.5 tesla, the voltage may be shown to be
equal to approximately 2.9 volts. In order to render the pattern
of output current relatively symmetrical within the device, it
is preferred to couple the load to both disk brush halves and
both shaft brushes. If two similar loads are used, one may be
coupled between disk brush half 75a and shaft brush 48 (which
protrude through the casing on the same side) and the other
between disk brush half 75b and shaft brush 47.
Due to the brush design, the total internal resistance of the
generator is in the neighborhood of 6-10 micro-ohms. Assuming
that the machine is capable of dissipating no more than 2.25
kilowatts of internal heating, the maximum test load current is
about 15 kiloamperes. At this current, the power output is 43.7
kiloamperes. However, the anticipated load current permissible
for continuous operation may be more realistically in the
neighborhood of as low as 8 kiloamperes, which corresponds to a
power output of 23.3 kilowatts. As stated above, motor 25 may be
any suitable prime move, and for the operating conditions
described herein, should be capable of developing approximately
In view of the present invention and the operation of generator
10, the advantages of the configuration of rotor 12 may be
understood. In particular, it will be noted that enclosure
halves 37a and 37b cooperate with rotor core 55 to provide a low
reluctance magnetic circuit. That is, energization of coils 32a
and 32b causes magnet flux lines, denoted schematically by loops
220 in Figure 3, that are contained
within a low reluctance magnet circuit comprising a
substantially closed path of high permeability material. The
only high reluctance portion is slot 66 which is kept as narrow
as possible consistent with web portion 80 of brush halves 75a
and 75b having sufficient mechanical strength and electrical
conductance. With this configuration, a total excitation input
power of approximately 150 watts is sufficient to produce a 1.5
tesla field in portion 30 of rotor core 55. The excessive
consumption of power in producing a high magnetic field level is
eliminated, making possible sustained operation at high levels
of magnetic induction (and therefore of output voltage).
In summary, it can be seen that a generator according to the
present invention is characterized by high efficiency and low
magnet power requirements, achieved by the use of a rotor
configuration having a low reluctance path. While the above
provides a full and complete disclosure of the preferred
embodiments of the invention, various modifications, alternate
constructions, and equivalents may be employed without departing
from the true spirit and scope of the invention. For example,
housing 20 could be constructed with a cylindrical configuration
to minimize the internal volume. Moreover, while a brush
geometry that encircles the rotor and shaft is desirable, other
configurations could be used. Therefore, the above description
and illustration should not be construed as limiting the scope
of the invention which is defined by the appended claims.
Claims [ Not included here ]
Figure 1: Sectioned Isometric View of Homopolar
10 = Homopolar Generator; 12 = Rotor; 15 = Shaft; 17, 18 =
Bearing Assemblies; 20 = Casing; 21 = Shaft Seal Assembly; 22 =
Sheave Drive; 25 = Drive Motor; 27 = Shaft End bearing; 30 =
Central Disk Conductor; 32A, 32B = Electromagnet Coils; 37A, 37B
= Flux return Enclosure; 40 = Electrically Isolated Shaft
portion; 42 = magnet Excitation Power Supply; 45 = Magnet Brush;
47, 47 = Shaft Brushes; 50 = Disk Brush
Figure 2: Eelctrical/Mechanical Schematic View of the
Figure 3: Sectioned Oblique View of the Rotor &
Figure 4A: Isometric View showing the construction of the
Figure 4B: Fragmetary Enlarged View showing a portion of the
Figure 5A: Exploded Isometric View of the Shaft
Figure 5B: Exploded Isometric View of the Shaft Brushes
Figure 5C: Isometric View of a Shaft Brush Support
Figure 6: Sectioned Isometric View of the Magnet Brush
Figure 7: Sectioned Oblique View showing the Brushes,
Bearings, & Casing, with the Rotor shown in phantom
Figure 8: Sectioned Isometric View of the Shaft End
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