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Hodowanec Index


Gregory HODOWANEC

Rhysmonic Cosmology






The Nature of Our Universe

Abstract

The methods of Rhysmonic Cosmology are used to develop a plausible explanation as to the nature and development of Our Universe. The purely intellectual development of the theory is further enhanced with some experimental confirmations which were derived from this theory. It is shown that much of the experimental data agreed quite well with present-day observational material, and also agreed very well with data as predicted by this theory. With the foundations laid here, mankind should be able to further develop a knowledge of our Universe, both for the benefit of mankind, as well as sate the quest for answers to the reason ‘why’ for the existence of man in this, Our Universe.

Introduction

Many theories have been advanced concerning the nature and the development of Our Universe. There is not question that Our Universe has been of concern to mankind from the very beginnings of the development of intellectual reasoning in man. The wonderful beauty and complexity of life and nature here on Earth has inspired mankind, in general, to look toward a Supernatural Force or Supreme being as the Prime Cause of such Existence. Unfortunately, much of the attributes given to such a Supreme being were but human attributes, and thus the many theological explanations for the nature and development of Our Universe simply reflected a particular group’s reflections of itself and its own mores. However, with the development of the scientific method, most present day attempts to understand the nature of Our Universe are divorced from these local mores and proceed on a purely intellectual basis, but many will still recognize the need for a Prime Cause for this Existence.

It was only recently, in the 1920s, that mankind finally realized that Our Universe was very much vaster than had been previously imagined, mainly by optical detection of other galaxies which were ‘island universes’ in their own right and thus separate from our originally recognized Milky Way Galaxy ‘universe’. Developments in physics and astronomy have proceeded rapidly since that time, leading to two general approaches to the nature of Our Universe: the ‘Steady State’ and ‘Big Bang’ universes.

The steady state universe reflects the belief that the Universe is, has been, and always will be, and seeks to back that up with scientific theory and evidence. The big bang universe reflects the belief, in a way, of an ‘instantaneously’ created universe from a very small and very dense ‘mass’ which has sicne expanded to our present day size. There is some question, yet, as to whether this is a one-way process, or an oscillatory process, leading to an eventual contraction, or ‘Big Crunch’, and then to a renewed big bang.

The steady state universe has lost ground in recent years to the big bang version in the development of Our Universe, mainly due to the apparent ‘expansion’ noted in our Universe (in terms of the so-called red shift). This essay, however, will attempt to show that Our Universe is basically a steady state universe and that the expansion noted by the big bang advocates is really based upon a ‘false physics’ for the red shift effect. Rhysmonic Cosmology, as developed by the author, makes no pretense as to the nature and source of the ‘rhysmons’ which fundamentally make up this Universe, and thus must also invoke the need for a Prime Cause. However, on the basis of this theory, the nature and development of Our Universe can proceed from just a few postulates, which are tied in with a fresh view on the nature of the force fields and also their relation to some of the fundamental constants now recognized in physics, primarily the basic Planck related constants. That these could lead to a plausible explanation of the nature and development of Our Universe will be the prime effort of this essay.

Birth of Our Universe

A major premise in Rhysmonic Cosmology is that the original primordial Universe consisted of but a pure rhysmonic matrix structure, which we call the rhysmoid. This rhysmoid contained an extremely large number of rhysmons, the fundamental particle of this Universe. This number probably exceeded 10200 rhysmons, and the energy content of the total rhysmons probably also was in the order of 10200 ergs (See Ref.1 for more details). How this primordial Universe came into existence is a matter of conjecture. It may have resulted from the long-term collection of ‘free’ rhysmons from extremely deep space, or it may have been the result of some Prime Cause. Rhysmonics must accept the existence of such a basic rhysmoid structure as the starting point for this cosmology.

Shown in Figure 1a is the primordial Universe (Stage I) in planar form, although it must be recognized that the actual rhysmoid is spherical in form. A second major premise in rhysmonics is that the matrix structure of the Rhysmoid is describable in Cartesian Coordinates and thus in conventional plane and spherical geometries. The rhysmoid at this time could be described as ‘pure’, that is, free from any density variations which could be described as ‘particles of matter’ in that structure. However, due to the nature of this matrix structure, a ‘focal shell’ region which is located at about the half-radius point in this spherical structure, will exist. This is due to the long-range ‘instantaneous’ vectors in the energy field of the rhysmoid as described in Reference 1. These vectors are really the source of the so-called gravitational fields. Thus, gravity fields are basic to the very nature of this Universe.

Figure 1a --- The Primordial Universe is yet a pure rhysmoid region and does not contain density variations which can be called 'particles' or mass.

Shown in Figure 1b is Stage II in the development of this Rhysmonic Universe. Here, due to certain internal instabilities, or some ‘outside’ influence, density fluctuations in the rhysmoid may exist, and these may result in the formation of ‘stabilized’ density variations which can now be called particles or mass. These form primarily due to various ‘field’ effects in the rhysmoid geometry, and collect mainly near the focal shell region of the rhysmoid. Further, shielding effects between these particles result in ‘impelling’ mechanisms between the particles, the so-called gravitational attractions, and thus a movement of the particles toward each other as well as toward the central regions of the rhysmoid. Unequal particle densities will result in a circular movement, or ‘curl’, in the particle concentrations. This curl is thus the very beginnings of spiral formations in these concentrations.

Figure 1b ---The Primordial universe develops the first particles near the foacl shell. Particles move toward the core of the universe as well as toward each other due to gravitational effects. Due to uneven particle densities, a rotational movement or 'curl' will develop in these movements.

Shown in Figure 1c, Stage III, is the next generalized stage in the formation of Our Universe. Here, the continued generation of particles and the resulting migration toward the central regions, as a function of the universal gravity field, causes a buildup of matter in the central regions. A ‘material’ universe now exists and with a definite spiral structure due to the initial unequal density conditions. However, while matter now tends to concentrate in the central regions, the outer regions of the Universe tends to remain a pure rhysmoid region.

Figure 1c --- The material Universe continues to develop and now shows a definite spiral structure. A heavier concentration of particles will develop here adn there, but much tends to collect in the core area due to gravity.

Shown in Figure 1d is Stage IV in the development of this Universe. While the universe retains its ‘birth’ structure, i.e., the spiral form, it now has a very dense central core, as well as some lesser cores dispersed here and there. Some of these outer cores have also developed their own spiral structures, i.e., galaxies, and thus the universe is now a system of galactic structures superimposed upon a master galactic structure, with regions of space in between which are rather devoid of mass or other structures, and thus may be the so-called holes in space.

Figure 1d --- The Material Universe develops may clusters and galxies now, but retains its Super Galaxy form. The core region is now a very dense mass region but does not develop a spiral form.

Shown in Figure 1e is Stage V, probably the present day stage, where a now well-defined system of galactic structures exists. The central core mass has since gone ‘supernova’ (probably several times) and now contains an extremely massive black hole, or holes, as well as a well-defined shock-formed ring of concentrated mass, both debris and galaxies. Shown here also (dotted) is the probable limit of the ‘visible’ universe, due to the nature of the propagation of electromagnetic wave signals (Ref. 5). While some matter could have also migrated into the pure rhysmoid region, that region probably remains a pure rhysmoid region. Thus, Our Universe should now show some traces of a super spiral galactic structure, the central extremely massive black hole structure, as well as regions devoid of concentrations of mass. It will be shown that gravitational signal astronomy, as was developed by the author, appears to indicate that such structures actually exist. There is also reason to believe that the detection of quasar-type events in the Universe lends credence to the fact that the pure rhysmoid regions also exist (Ref. 5). Other verifiable structures in Our Universe will also be noted here. Therefore, there is both theoretical and experimental evidence for the existence of such a postulated Universe. These will now be further considered.

Figure 1e --- The Universe is now in a steady-state condition. The Super Galaxy form remains, but the central mass has undergone a supernova type of interaction and now has developed a black hole structure as well as a well-defined shock-ring structure, Is this Our Universe today?

The Active Universe

Our Universe today appears to be in a relatively stable equilibrium state, i.e., in a ‘steady-state’ condition. This appears to be confirmed in the many electromagnetic wave observations of Our Universe, out to the so-called ‘visible’ universe limit. These are the observations being made at visible light frequencies, as well as ultraviolet, infrared, millimeter and radio frequencies. Unfortunately, due to the limitations in the propagation mode for EM-waves, we cannot obtain information on the nature of Our Universe beyond that visible limit with our present observational techniques. However, EM-wave techniques have, nevertheless, provided us with much knowledge about the nature of Our Universe. Due to the finite times for transmissions of EM-waves, these methods can provide us with a ‘picture’ of Our Universe as it existed back in time. Surprisingly, most data indicated that Our Universe, even back to this limit in time, has been very similar to the conditions seen in more recent times, implying that Our Universe has been in a steady-state condition for at least this period of time. These observations have indicated a very active and dynamic Universe, made up of stars, gas, dust and molecules, galaxies, and galactic systems, to name a few. Some of the observations will be noted here:

Stars: Stars are the most prevalent EM-wave observable objects in the Universe. These are luminous hot balls of gas, in general. While some stars are ‘loners’, most are members of vast clusters or galaxy systems. Stars may be ‘born’ primarily in contracting gas and dust clouds, and ‘live’ long lives, but eventually die, like may humans, either rather peacefully, or also quite violently. The more violent deaths are in terms of nova or supernova type events. These are, at times, quite dramatically observed with EM-wave methods.

Galaxies: Vast collections of stars, such as clusters or galaxies, also appear to have long lives and a very definite development history. Many are believed to have ‘monster energy sources’ in their nucleus (cores). Some of these have since come to be termed ‘black holes’, since their extreme mass, and thus very strong gravity, does not allow EM-wave radiation to leave; thus the name.

While the history of astronomy and astrophysics is replete with observations of an EM-wave nature, confirming that Our Universe is very active, indeed, the author has also developed a gravitational signal method of observing our Universe, which not only confirms much of the EM-wave observations, but also has opened a ‘new window’ to the Universe. This has disclosed other unsuspected aspects in Our Universe which will also be considered here.

Universe Observation Modes

EM-waves, as has already been noted, are the prevalent method for observing our Universe. EM waves are a propagating disturbance in the Rhysmoid, i.e., the vacuum, which proceeds at the speed of light. This disturbance is recognized as crossed electric and magnetic fields, with the direction of propagation normal to these crossed fields. Thus, it is considered to be a transverse wave type of propagation.

Gravitational signals, however, are fundamental to the very fabric of the Universe; it exists because the Universe exists and thus it cannot be divorced from it. The signals are basically monopolar and proceed essentially radially (and longitudinally) from the source of the disturbance in essentially instantaneous fashion. Therefore, these signals, while basically due to the same rhysmonic sub-structure, actually are quite different in nature and have not been utilized previously. EM-waves, moreover, may be created or destroyed (dissipated). The electric and magnetic components interact strongly with matter, and thus their propagation can be quite lossy in a material medium. Gravitation, however, interacts with mass on a much smaller scale, and thus generally requires large masses (or mass effects) to become a significant factor in the Universe. Most normal materials are therefore quite transparent, in terms of gravity. Thus gravitational effects usually are associated with very dense or massive bodies, but their effects may also be noted at much less massive levels under the proper methods. For example, each person notes the effects of the earth’s g-field on his own body mass as his weight or ‘heaviness’. However, there is an interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic fields, which is at low levels, but can be made useful with proper techniques. Devices, known as gravity meters (gravimeters) can provide much information about Our Universe in terms of the many gravitational signals emitted by or introduced by massive gravity events in the Universe. Moreover, due to the essentially instantaneous response times for these signals, the observations in terms of gravity signals are now, i.e., in real time, and thus indicative of Our Universe in the present and not the remote past as is the case with most EM-wave observational methods.

The author refers the reader to his many pertinent articles as listed in the References, and will thus describe only a few special experimental gravity observations here, primarily to indicate to the reader the power of these methods.

Experimental Confirmations

Much EM-wave observational data is available on aspects of the ‘visible’ universe now, but most of it is as the Universe was, back in time, due to the relatively slow propagation time for electromagnetic effects. However, since the Universe is believed to have been in a steady-state condition in that time period, these observations also provide much data on the present state of the nature of Our Universe. While visible light observations have been used primarily in the past, observations today at other frequencies, such as the radio frequencies, e.g., radio astronomy, provide much additional information which my not be available at the light frequencies. For example, some radio astronomy data is very striking and supports much of the optical data. In a similar manner, gravitational signal data can also be quite striking and also supports much of the EM wave type data. However, due to its very nature and ‘instant’ time of response, the gravitational signals can disclose much new aspects which cannot really be determined by the EM wave observational method. Thus this new 'window' to Our Universe is a very valuable supplement to astronomy and astrophysical techniques, and it is unfortunate that the professionals are not presently making use of these techniques. The author is presently endeavoring to get the more open-minded experimenters and amateur scientists to become more involved here, especially since the techniques are so simple and very low in cost. The author has released much information on these techniques and their observations and the reader is again referred to the References for additional information. This essay will refer to but some of the larger-scale astronomical structures noted, primarily to indicate to the reader the power and scope of these techniques.

The gravitational signal detection methods used in these observations are with devices which may be called gravity meters (gravimeters). Most of the presently available gravimeters are of the mechanical type and the reader is referred to Reference 4 for some of the author’s experiences with a simplified version of such a device. Emphasis here, however, will be with an electronic-type gravimeter as developed by the author. While there is much more information on this device in the listed References, the author will briefly describe the basic operation of the device here.

Figure 2 --- Basic Electronic-Type Gravimeter

The basic electronic-type gravimeter is shown in Figure 2. It is based upon readily available operational amplifier integrated circuit devices and, as can be seen here, it is extremely simple in its circuitry. Active gravitational flux gradients, e.g., gravity ‘winds’ developed by supernova events, or passive gravity events, the gravitational ‘shadows’ cast by black holes, for example, affect the electron-ion structure of the detecting capacitor elements, C, and thus create current fluctuations from that capacitor. These current fluctuations are highly amplified and converted to voltage fluctuations by op-amp, IC1. The DC output from IC1, with some AC fluctuations superimposed, is further amplified with op-amp, IC2. The output of IC2 is passed through a low-pass filter section, the characteristics of which will determine the response time for the system (and thus the response time to certain astronomical events). The gravity variations may then be followed on an output voltmeter, or recorded on other systems, such as a strip chart recorder or a computer system. That such a detector system is viable is seen in that while ‘transient’ astronomical events are ‘caught’ at arbitrary times, ‘permanent’ astronomical events are repeatedly seen whenever these events cross the observer’s meridian position on earth.

The power of this system will be illustrated by observations of two very large structures in this Universe. One is the Milky Way Galaxy system, our home Galaxy, which is also observable visually, as well as quite strikingly in terms of EM wave radiations. The other observation, which was originally but a conjecture in Rhysmonics, has been confirmed with both the mechanical and electronic types of gravimeters. This is the apparent Super Galaxy System of Our Universe, and it appears to have a structure which closely parallels the structure seen (gravitationally) in our own Milky Way Galaxy System.

Figure 3 --- Overall g-factor response as determined by the electronic-type gravimeter

The electronic gravimeter, when the output is heavily filtered to suppress the more active short-term gravity responses, discloses the presence of these two systems rather dramatically as shown in Figure 3. Under such conditions the gravimeter is basically a g-field meter and responds mainly to long-term variations in the g-factor, mostly those due to astronomical events. The ‘modulations’ in the g-factor seen here are those due to our own Galaxy (due to its close proximity) and that due to the Super Galaxy (due to its over-riding concentration of mass).

The response shown in Figure 3a is the overall response in the g-factor as seen on that date and at the times shown. Short-term responses in this plot were largely eliminated in the slow scan period used with the D’Arsonval-type strip chart recorder used to obtain this plot. Here, the Super Galaxy response is dominant except where the ‘local’ Milky Way Galaxy system also crosses the observer’s meridian position. If the effects of the Milky Way Galaxy ‘transit’ are removed from this response, as shown in Figure 3b, the characteristics of the Super Galaxy become that much more apparent. These plots appear to show that like our Sun’s location in an outer spiral section of our Galaxy (and somewhat off the plane of that galaxy), our Milky Way Galaxy also appears to be in an outer spiral section of the Super Galaxy (and also somewhat off the plane of that galaxy). The nucleus sections are prominent in each scan, indicating similar concentrated masses and ‘black hole’ cores in each galaxy scanned. The nucleus masses and black holes for the Super Galaxy are located in the Leo region of our celestial sphere, while the Milky Way Galaxy concentrated nucleus mass and black hole is located in the Sagittarius Region of our celestial sphere. It should also be noted that the Super Galaxy nucleus region was in our zenith region at the time of its scan and this resulted in a reduction in the g-factor, while the Milky Way nucleus region was underneath our Earth position and thus this resulted in an increase in the g-factor as shown.

That massive gravitational effects in Our Universe can have effects on our weather systems here on earth appears to have been noted by a major Milky Way Galaxy Center event on abut December 5, 1986, ad another major Super Galaxy Center event noted on March 14, 1988. These events apparently introduced ‘gravity wind’ effects which affected our normal jet stream patterns. It is believed that the December 5, 1986 event introduced a new tangential component to gravity in the Northern Latitudes, and this results in the somewhat colder and stormier winter of 1986-87. However, it is believed that the event of March 4, 1988 introduced a new more vertical component to gravity in the Northern Latitudes and this may have been responsible for the long, hot summer seen in the USA in the year 1988.

Conclusions

Monitoring of the g-factor with either the mechanical or the electronic types of gravimeters can give not only much new information on the nature and development of Our Universe, but also can forewarn Earthlings of possible EM-wave dangers from the more ‘local’ gravity events. This is because gravity events are detected as they occur, but the EM-wave components will generally take a much longer time to reach the Earth, depending on the location of the originating gravity event. For example, shown in Figure 4 are some scans of our Galaxy Center region. In Figure 4a is shown a typical EM-wave scan of this region while in Figure 4b a typical gravity scan made prior to December 5, 1986 is shown. While the EM-wave scan (by radio astronomy) is in terms of radio wave propagation, the plots show it coincided quite well with the mass concentrations as shown in the gravity scan made by the author. However, after December 5, 1986, the gravity scan of the form shown in Figure 4b disappeared and was replaced by a new deep black hole and ring structure as shown in Figure 4c. While that gravity event occurred about December 5, 1986 (and affected the Earth in gravitational fashion then and ever since), the EM-wave effects will not reach us for about another 30,000 years. However, we may not be so lucky with a more ‘local’ gravity event. For example, it is also suspected that perhaps the star Betelgeuse in Orion may have also gone supernova as a result of the galaxy Center event of about December 5, 1986, but the EM waves from that event (if real) will reach us in about 300 years rather than the 30,000 years for the Center event. In addition to its radiation effects which will be much more intense, it will also be one ‘helluva’ visual supernova display! The author is releasing much data and information on these techniques for the benefit of mankind. However, the author regrets that but very few are heeding him at present. The author cannot do all these observations alone, and thus much data and knowledge is being lost.

Figure 4 --- Typical scans of the Milky Way Galaxy Center region

One final note: the data of Figure 3a is plotted over a two-day period in Figure 5. This plot appears to show the observed cosine variation noted in the measured microwave background radiation may be related to the highly averaged variation in the g-factor also. Rhysmonic cosmology predicted that such a variation in the MBR would be due to our off-center position in this Universe and that such a variation would exist even if the structure due to mass variations as seen in Figure 5 did not exist. Careful measurements and plots like those shown here could very well detail the actual structure of Our Universe when used in conjunction with data obtained by the other observational methods. Much can be accomplished here!

Figure 5 --- Correlation between the g-factor variation  and the cosine variation noted in the microwave background radiation

References

(1) Gregory Hodowanec: Rhysmonic Cosmology 91985).

(2) Ibid.: All About Gravitational Waves; Radio-Electronics (April 1986).

(3) Ibid.: All About gravitational Impulses; Radio Electronics Electronics Experimenters Handbook (January 1989).

(4) Ibid.: Simple Gravimeter Detects Gravity Shadow Signals; Tesla ’86, vol. 2, No. 2 (March-April 1986).





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