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All About Gravitational Impulses
( R-E Experimenters Handbook, pp. 114-129, 162 )
New data shows repeatable and predictable gravity detected from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Build a simple gravity detector and observe that phenopmena for yourself.
The main problem today in attempting to observe gravity signals has been the insistence by astrophysicists that only the quadrupole radiated gravity signals predicted by Albert Einstein are permissible in the universe; even though quadrupole-type gravity signals have eluded detection. On the other hand, monopole-type gravity signals that exist profusely in the universe are produced by Newtonian gravity gradients, which are easily detected with a simple device developed by the author.
New Scalar Definition
A field in physics may be defined as a region in space which is under the influence of some effect, typically an electric, magnetic, or gravitational effect. Vector type fields must be described in terms of both magnitude and direction. Less understood is the theory of fields that are scalar in nature and described in terms of magnitude alone. A common example of a scalar field is temperature; even though the gradient of such a field will be vectorial. Less well-known are the scalar aspects of gravitational, electric, and magnetic fields.
The authors uses the term scalar in a unique way. When all the vectors of a force are directed parallel to each other, the force can be fully specified by a magnitude only. Therefore, any two faces whose vector fields run parallel to each other will interact (as scalars) in a simple algebraic superposition with no need to use vector analysis.
A scalar electric field is realized by the application of a voltage between two parallel plates, where all the electric lines of force are parallel to each other. A scalar magnetic field is realized in the H-fields that emanate from the end of a bar magnet into the space just beyond the magnet. Such a curl-free magnetic field is scalar for only a short distance because that is the region where the magnetic flux lines are all parallel. Similarly, the earthís gravitational-field is also a scalar field because the gravity flux is parallel and directed downward only.
It is the authorís presumption that scalar gravitational, electric, and magnetic fields may interact with each other only when the fields run exactly parallel. Taking that theory a step farther means that energy can be transferred from one scalar field to an other.
Traditionalists recognize the polarization effect in a dielectric that us placed between the parallel plates of a capacitor, an electric field will develop between the plates. A traditionalist would see the electric field as a vector force directed from the negative plate to the positive plate. The magnitude would depend upon the intensity of the electric field generated by the movement of electrons from one plate to the other. But dew traditionalists recognize the scalar nature of such parallel electric fields, and their possible interaction with each similarly directed A (scalar) fields; primarily, earthís ever-present gravity-field. The presence of a scalar gravity field on the plates of a capacitor will cause the molecules to polarize just as though an external DC voltage were being applied.
In Figure 1, the dielectric in the capacitor us shown polarized by the G-fields; that results in a potential difference across the capacitor that drives a current. Because the G-fields are modulated by various universe and terrestrial processes, the energy components are both DC and AC in nature. Therefore, as long as the vectors of the gravitational and electric fields run parallel to each other, then both fields can be considered scalar fields, which means energy from one field can be transferred to the other. The G-field may be visualized as squeezing the plates, however minutely.
Thermal tests were conducted at an independent laboratory. Heating the electrolytic capacitor in a shielded hot oil bath (75° C.), and cooling in a shielded ice bath (0° C.) had no discernible effect on signal output. However, chilling in a shielded dry-ice bath (-79° C) resulted in a steady decrease in amplitude, frequency, and burst rate until the only signal remaining was the 1.5 volt DC. The question was raised: Shouldnít the burst rate have remained constant if caused by gravity waves? The laboratory found that the total effective capacitance decreases rapidly at temperatures less than Ė30° C. A 300 to 400 fold decrease was observed at Ė79° C, so that 1600 uF at Ė79° C would have an actual capacitance of 4 uF; effectively, there was very little capacitance in the detector at that temperature, which would account for the diminished burst rate.
Brownian agitation of the electron-ion structure in capacitors is attributed only to thermal actions by traditionalists. While thermal actions contribute to some aspects of white-noise, the author concludes that much of the white noise, and especially the low-frequency l/f type impulse noise, is very much independent of the thermal environment. Indeed, the energy causing noise of those types is directly attributable to gravitational fields. The l/f noise is simply the mathematical expression for the rate of occurrence of gravity field events. It is termed l/f noise because the stronger impulses are generated less frequently than the more moderate impulses, and the moderate impulses are seen less frequently than the weaker impulses.
An electrochemical or battery effect does occur in electrolytic capacitors, thereby introducing an additional small voltage component across the capacitor; however, the electrochemical voltages are very small when compared to the G-field effects, and can, therefore, be neglected.
A flat (planar) type of capacitor positioned so that the flat side is up, is more effective as a gravity-detecting element than a tubular-type of capacitor. Different capacitor types (electrolytic, mylar, polystyrene, paper, ceramic, etc) will give the same response to the gravity field provided the effective capacitances are equal.
A scalar G-signal detector is shown in Figure 2. The small G-impulse current generated across capacitor C1 is coupled to the input of IC1 for amplification. C1, and the feedback resistance, R1, are chosen sufficiently high in value so that input circuit resonances are very much less than 1 Hz.
Varying C1ís value will have an affect on the response time to G-field fluctuations; that is because the op-ampís output is a harmonic-type oscillation, where the polarization stress induced in the capacitorís dielectric by gravity flux is also restored by the reverse electric potential developed by the feedback resistance in that circuit. Therefore, the oscillations are a function of both the sensing capacitance and the feedback relationship, and will give have different frequencies for different capacitor and feedback resistor values.
The use of CMOS op-amp ICL7611 enables efficient operation with a 1.5 volt battery supply. The unit is assembled in a small aluminum box with the batteries enclosed within the box, and the output is brought out with a feedthrough capacitor in order to eliminate any possible response to ambient RF-type signals.
An improved gravity sensor is shown in Figure 3. The extra op-amp, IC1-b, will add additional gain and frequency stability. Op-amp output off-set components may be included, however, the author found nulling the op-amp to be unnecessary. The gravity detector is enclosed within an aluminum box which is enclosed within an aluminum box which is also within another heavy steel box in order to shield the detector from any electromagnetic interference (EMI). A highly permeable magnetic mu-shield was also used to guard against the Earthís magnetic field, and stray magnetic fields generated by the power companyís AC line voltage. However, the author found mu-shielding unnecessary. Tests shows apparent difference in data when using a mu-shield, or when the aluminum box was used alone.
Most gravity detection will require additional output filtering, as shown in Figure 4. The cut-off frequencies of the filter will limit the detectorís response to certain astronomical distance ranges. For example, if the output shunt-capacitance is about 470 uF, then the response appears to be largely limited to our own immediate group of galaxies. With lower values of output shunt-capacitance, i.e., a higher filter cut-off frequency, the response will include gravitational effects from deeper in space.
Scalar fields of the gravitational type are generated profusely in the universe. The individual impulses of gravity gradients will be heard as a noise spectrum through an audio amplifier, or seen as grass on an oscilloscope. Figure 5 shows a simple audio amplifier that can be sued with the detector. The readily available LM386 IC has a gain of about 200. The author also used an audio amplifier available from Radio Shack (#277-1008) with good results.
Another simple gravity detector shown in Figure 6 uses a low-cost LM741 op-amp. Here, the l/f noise is generated in a carbon composition resistive element rather than in a capacitative element. The current impulses developed in the resistor by gravity signals are also highly amplified and converted to voltage impulses y the op-amp. To facilitate the more critical adjustment of the Figure 6 circuit, both the input resistance and the feedback resistance are made variable. Input resistance R1 is generally in the order of 100 to 200 ohms for most of the ICs tested. For optimum, results, the feedback resistance R2 is generally in the order of 1000 to 10,000 times R1ís value. The experimenter should first adjust the input resistance to about 150 ohms, and then adjust the feedback resistance for maximum l/f noise response. Then, re-adjust the input resistance for optimum results.
The output voltage from the gravity detector can be used to drive either a chart recorder, or fed to a DMM (Digital MultiMeter) and plotted. The detectorís output voltage varies quite slowly, with most observations taking several seconds or minutes to record.
Present-day communication systems largely make use of the interaction of electric and magnetic flux fields in a vector type radiation field, i.e., electromagnetic waves, to convey information between distant points at the speed of light. Such systems range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the very low frequencies (VLF) to the super high frequencies (SHF), reaching past the microwave frequencies and well into the optical range of frequencies. Such vector-type radiation fields have been extensively developed over the years and are in common use today. However, according to the authorís theories, scalar-type radiation fields, such as the gravitational field, might eventually be useful to convey information instantly.
Scientists recognize the physical universe in basic terms such as mass, energy, fields, etc., and all else is but an integration of such factors. The author theorizes that gravitation has infinite wavelengths and are thus not wave-like. Moreover, gravitational impulses travel at Planckís time interval of about 5.4 x 10-44 seconds, and do not propagate at the speed of light --- a slow speed when compared to Planckís time constant. The gravity impulse is a monopole and appears to travel almost instantaneously everywhere in the universe.
Listening to the sounds of scalar gravity signals with an audio amplifier can be quite impressive. Adjust the amplifierís sound level for best response to the particular sound being studied. Of particular interest may be some of the coherent musical sounds which appear to come from the same direction of space on a daily basis. At the authorís location of 42° N Latitude, those sounds appear to originate from the Perseus and Auriga regions of our Galaxy when those regions appear in the authorís zenith.
Perhaps some of those signals might be ET intelligence signals, and experimenters interested in SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) might want to investigate that aspect of the detection process. Since gravity impulses travel everywhere almost instantaneously, communication between different galactic cultures would not be limited by the long time intervals required by speed-of-light communication by radio-wave.
Man-made scalar flux signals are largely due to oscillating or rotating masses. A translation of mass will generate signals that are due to the perturbations of an apparent standing-wave pattern in the universeís background radiation. That those modulations are truly due to mass in motion can be seen by oscillating a pendulum, or roiling a mass, which will disturb the gravitational background. The author has detected the oscillation of a pendulum 150 feet away that appeared to have the same response in detected intensity as when the pendulum was only 5 feet away. A local translation of mass will appear as a strong rushing sound in the detectorís audio output.
As shown in Figure 7, an interesting pendulum experiment can be performed with a 2-pound weight that is suspended by a light-weight string from a height of 6 feet. Set the pendulum in motion with about a 5-foot arc length. Adjust the volume of the detector for a good response to the swinging disturbance of the vacuum, i.e., the universe. Even though the pendulum will eventually stop swinging, the disturbance in the universe continues to remain! That effect appears to be typical of gravitational perturbation in the universe. Apparently, once gravity disturbance is generated, the gravity impulses tend to propagate continually until dissipated or over-ridden in some way. It appears that gravitational communications will probably require some sort of modulation that can defeat the continuing propagation characteristics of the vacuum.
Astronomy, in recent years, has undergone a revolution in both theoretical considerations and observational methods. The revolution has not only opened new observational techniques at electromagnetic frequencies other than light, but has also given evidence that our universe, in its furthest reaches, also obeys the same scientific principles as those observed here on Earth. Among the new observational methods were attempts to detect gravitational signals. Such signals would be a new window into the universe, and would disclose many aspects not observable with the present day electromagnetic techniques.
The astronomical gravity signal detection units are special modifications of the basic gravity detector. The modifications are: the input resonance frequency is normally kept much les than one hertz per second, additional amplification is used, and the output is passed through a low pass filter.
The effectiveness of the capacitor element as a detector in gravity-signal astronomy is shown in Figure 8. The earthís gravity field is in parallel with the polarized electric field in the planar capacitor dielectric. Furthermore, it can be shown that any gravity component arriving from other directions such as vectors a and b will be largely canceled because those vectors components are not parallel with the electric field in the capacitor, leading to reduced gravity components a' and b'. Only the gravity components arriving along a line through the observerís meridian and the center of the earth will be most effective in exciting the capacitor element of the gravity detector.
The gravity-signal detector sees the zenith of the observerís celestial sphere through a very small aperture. That small aperture beam sweeps across the celestial sphere (at the observerís latitude) at the rate of the Earthís rotation. In that respect, the Earthís rotation has a period of 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.1 seconds of civil (ordinary) time, and that period is called a sidereal day.
As shown in Figure 9, the Milky Way galaxy center as observed on the authorís meridian appears predictably about four minutes earlier each day with respect to civil (standard) time. Also note that another gravity event occurs 35 seconds before the galaxy center appears, which was used by the author as a marker. The author suggests that the chart recordings are gravity signals emitted from the Milky Way galaxy center, and not random electrical fluctuations that traditionalists call noise.
To locate astronomical objects, use a circular-type star finder, which is more generally known as a planisphere. The charts are calibrated for different Earth latitudes in standard (civil) times for each day of the years.
The sky charts, or planispheres, are also calibrated in terms of right ascension and declination, so that objects may be located in terms of those parameters if they are known. For example, the galaxy center is known to be located in the Sagittarius constellation region in the southern hemisphere at about 17.7 hours right ascension and about Ė29° declination. Locating that spot on the meridian of the observerís celestial sphere will enable the experimenter to use the planisphere to determine the day and time of day when the Milky Way galaxy center will appear there.
The gravity detection process is shown in Figure 10 [Not available] for two common galactic gravity events. A supernova implosion will generate an oscillatory modulation of the g-field to an observer at position A. Black holes, on the other hand, will actually reduce the g-filed for an observer at position B. The effects of those cosmic events, and others, will now be considered in more detail.
A few of the more prominent galactic events will be briefly described to aid the experimenter in recognizing their signatures.
Nova: A nova is believed to be a star that ejects its outer layers in a violent explosion. As shown in Figure 11 [Not available], the large transit movement of mass creates two prominent features (or signatures) for that explosive event; the blast itself is then followed by the tailing of the blasted material as the gravity detector moves away due to the rotation of the Earth. A nova generally does not leave a lasting gravitational trace because the amount and density of the expelled material is not that great; although new nova explosions are commonly observed.
Supernova: A supernova is believed to be a star that exceeds a certain critical mass and then collapses to a small dense neutron star, or a black hole structure and, in that process, expels much of its gaseous material. The entire collapsing process, which occurs only in a few hundred milliseconds, is observable with the authorís gravity detector. As shown in Figure 12 [Not available], a plot of a supernova has certain prominent features. First, there is the actual collapse of the core of the star that generally appears as a sharp dip. The expulsion of the gaseous mass layer is now much more pronounced, which again gives rise to the tailing effect like the one of an ordinary nova. Supernova, however, also shows a mass build-up due to shock wave action, and that might appear as a bump in the tailing response.
Black Hole: A black hole type structure is generally developed by a very massive supernova event, and is usually developed 24 to 48 hours after the event. An ancient black hole, as shown in Figure 13, appears as a rather deep gravity shadow of very narrow width (time of response) since it is rather small in size --- being only a few miles in diameter.
Galaxy Center: The Milky Way center collectively generates a massive and predictable gravity response, as shown in Figure 14.
Solar System Events
Those who possess a strip chart recorder may wish to observe the planets that make up our solar system. The outer planets while massive are of low density and thus difficult to observe unless their exact time of transit on the observerís meridian is known, and even then the results often are difficult to plot. The inner planets, while denser, must be observed in a background relatively free of other cosmic events. It is unfortunate, but the gravitational background of cosmic events tend to mask solar system gravity sources.
Probably the easiest local astronomical body to observe will be our sun. It is located on the observerís meridian at noon and at midnight. Using a low system gain, a typical scan of the Sun is shown in Figure 15. The twin peaks of the scan seen in the center of the scan seen in the center of the scan are believed to represent the nuclear core. The body of the sun is gaseous (low density), and thus, gravitationally transparent. The sunís mass shows little differential from the averaged background level, except for the core, which shows an increase in density that measures about 50 mV above the averaged background level of about 1.5 volts.
The Moon is not an interesting object gravitational observation because itís difficult to detect against a background of gravity events that tend to mask the moonís transit.
To catch the planet Venus you must know the right ascension location for the day you want to scan. A scan for Venus is shown in Figure 16. It appears to indicate that Venus has a dense core.
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