Table of Contents
(1) Cold Fusion Transmutations
(2) Nuclear Waste Remediation
(1) Cold Fusion Transmutations
Soon after the phenomena of Cold Fusion (CF, discovered by B. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman in 1989) became widely replicated, researchers began to announce the anomalous production of elements, beginning with helium and tritium and continuing into the heavy atoms. By 1995 about 120 papers had reported the production of tritium in experiments with palladium. For example, several papers on Low-Energy Transmutation (LET) were presented at a conference held at Texas A & M University on June 19, 1995, as described below:
Dr. Thomas Passell (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto CA) gave an "Overview of the EPRI Program in Deuterided Metals" in which he noted:
"After completion of the experiment, the three 6 mm diameter by 60 mm Pd cathodes were found to be mildly radioactive. Upon analysis it was found that all three cathodes contained about 100 billion atoms of Ag, Pd, Rh, and (in one cathode) Ru isotopes having ratios unlike ratios that could have been obtained from bombardment by high energy deuteron or proton beams..." (6, 7)
Dr. T. Ohmori (Hokkaido Univ.) announced "Iron formation in gold and palladium cathodes", with the formation of Fe being a function of the excess heat produced. The ratio of Fe57 to Fe54 was much larger than is natural.
Dr. John Dash (Portland State Univ.) made a "Microanalysis of Pd cathodes after electrolysis in aqueous acids" and found silver and cadmium in the active areas, plus concentrations of gold in spikes that protruded from the Pd electrodes. Cr, Fe and Ca were found in experiments with a Ti cathode.
Dr Robert Bush (Cal Poly) reported the "Electrolytically stimulated cold nuclear synthesis of strontium from rubidium" by proton capture that he accomplished with Prof. Robert Eagleton. The natural abundance ratio of Sr86 to Sr88 was changed by a factor of almost 22 times. (4)
Dr Reiko Notoya (Catalyst Research Center, Hokkaido) described her light-water experiments in which some of the K in the electrolyte was converted to Ca, and Na23 became Na24.
T. Mizuno, et al., confirmed that reaction products with mass number ranging from 39 to 81, 104 to 136, and 177 to 208 were produced by one month of high amperage electrolysis (0.2 to 0.6 A/cm2) with Pd cathodes in a heavy water solution at high pressure and high temperature. Isotopic distributions differed radically from the natural order. For example, the copper found in the cathode was 100% Cu63; no Cu65 was detected. Natural isotopic distribution varies by less than 0.001% for copper (70% Cu63, and 30% Cu65). In general, heavy isotopes increased compared to the natural ratio, and light isotopes decreased in comparison. The phenomenon is highly reproducible; different isotope distributions are obtained, depending amperage. Even all impurities were accumulated in the cathode, the amount would be 10 to 100 times smaller than the total amount detected by Mizuno, et al. The shifts in the isotopic distribution cannot be explained away:
"It must be concluded that some novel reactions occurred, resulting in the reactants which were found abundant in the electrolyte and electrode material. We assume that the cathode palladium was the starting point for these reactions, but is possible that impurities and other cell components such as Li, D2O, Pd, Pt, K, Na, Ca, B, C, Ag and Fe may have provided the starting material for the nuclear reactions..."
In another report on their research, Mizuno, et al., wrote:
"It was confirmed by several analytical methods that reaction products with mass numbers ranging from 6 to 220 are deposited on palladium cathodes subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, high temperature, and high current density for one month. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Isotopic distributions for the produced elements (Pt, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ze, Br, Xe, Pd, Cd, Hf, Pt, Ir, Hg, O, C, Ca, Na, Mg and Al) were radically different from the natural ones." (13, 14)
T. Mizuno et al. also observed the "Formation of 197Pt radioisotopes in solid state electrolyte treated by high temperature electrolysis in D2 gas":
"A proton conductor, a solid state electrolyte made from oxide of strontium, cerium, niobium, and ytrrium, was charged in a hot D2 atmosphere. Anomalous radioisotopes were detected in all samples charged with an alternating current with voltages ranging from 5 V to 45 V, at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700o C. No radioisotopes were observed in samples charged in a hot H2 atmosphere."
In 1996, T. Clayton, D. Jackson, and D. Tuggle of Los Alamos National Laboratory announced "Tritium production from a low voltage deuterium discharge on Palladium and other metals":
"Over the past year we have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met. Small diameter wires (100-250 microns) have been used with gas pressures above 200 torr at voltages and currents of about 2000 V at 3-5 A. By carefully controlling the sputtering rate of the wire, runs have been extended to hundreds of hours allowing a significant amount (>10's nCi) of tritium to accumulate... Tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch...
"We have found that the tritium output depends on the temperature, pressure and current applied to the cells. Yet, the tritium yield is most sensitive to the purity and metallurgical condition of palladium used in the experiments... CO2 additions had a remarkable effect on the production of tritium... The effect seems to be related to an enhancement of the hydriding of the palladium..." (5)
At the 3rd Russian Conference on Cold Fusion and Nuclear Transmutation in October 1995, Dr. Yuri N. Bazhutov announced the surprising discovery of C14 in the water used in the vortex cavitation machine (YUSMAR) invented by Dr. Yuri S. Potapov (Kishinev, Moldova)
In 1997, A. Yoshiraki and Y-C. Zhang reported these results of their long experiments:
"In a series of studies, a significantly large amount of helium( 4He/D2 ~ (1~0.2) x 10-2 and 4He/3He »4, D2: "fuel" helium: "ash") was clearly detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) as the deuterium nuclear reaction product ("ash") released from the highly deuterated palladium host-solid (Pd-black distributed 0.02 ~ 0.06 [m]: average 0.04 [m]) that had produced large amounts of excess energy (200-500 [MJ/cm3]) through long periods such as 5000 hours...
"A deuterium nuclear reaction was continuously generated inside a highly deuterated solid by showing both the excess energy and corresponding amount of helium as the reaction product generated simultaneously..."
George Miley and James Patterson found evidence of nuclear transmutations in thin-film nickel coatings in their electrolytic experiments:
"Experiments using 1-mm plastic and glass microspheres coated with single and multilayers of thin films of various metals such as palladium and nickel, used in a packed bed electrolytic cell (Patterson Power Cell) configuration, typically employing Pd and heavy or light water with various electrolytes such as Na2CO3 and LiOH), have apparently produced a variety of nuclear reaction products... Following a two week electrolytic run, the Ni film was found to contain Fe, Ag, Cu, Mg, and Cr, in concentrations exceeding 2 atom % each, plus a number of additional trace elements. These elements were at the most, only present in the initial film and the electrolyte plus other accessible cell components in much smaller amounts. That fact, combined with other data, such as deviations from natural isotope abundances, seemingly eliminate the alternate explanation of impurities concentrating in the film." (12)
R. Kopacek and J. Dash experimented with Pd and Ti cathodes in their cold fusion heavy water electrolysis cell and produced heat (1.2 watts) and transmutations which produced S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn. (10)
Ohmori, T., et al, found anomalies in the "Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the light water electrolysis on gold electrodes" in 0.5 M light water solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate for 3-4 weeks at 300 mA/cm3. The isotopic distributions deviated from their natural abundance. (16)
Cold Fusion Patents
John Dash: USP Appln. # 2005/0276366 --- Low Temperature Nuclear Fusion.
Heinrich Hora & George Miley: USP Application # 2003/202623 --- Method and Arrangement for Nuclear Reactions at Low Temperatures.
John Kelly: German Patent # 4,123,995 --- Cold Nuclear Fusion Generation.
Heinrich Hora: German Patent # 4,027,784 --- Cold Fusion Device for Energy Generation - with Metal Layers Forming Interfaces.
Heinrich Hora: German Patent # 4,009,604 --- Cold Fusion Energy Generating Source for Nuclear Reaction Control.
Heinrich Hora & George Miley: German Patent # 3,910,806 --- Method and Arrangement for Nuclear Reactions at Low Temperatures.
George Miley: USP Application # 2003/230481 --- Flake-Resistant Multilayer Thin-Film Electrodes and Electrolytic Cells Incorporating Same.
George Miley: US Patent Application # 2003/159922 --- Electrical Cells, Components and Methods.
James Patterson & George Miley: WO # 9919881 --- Low Temperature Electrolytic Nuclear Transmutation.
James Patterson & George Miley: WO # 9803699 --- Nuclear Transmuted Elements Having Unnatural Isotopic Distributions by Electrolysis & Method of Production.
James Patterson & George Miley: WO # 9740211 --- Electrolytic Cell & Method for Producing Excess Heat & for Transmutation by Electrolysis.
Heinrich Hora, et al.: USP # 4,027,784 --- Cold Fusion Device for Energy Generation - with Metal Layers Forming Interfaces.
Heinrich Hora & George Miley: German Patent # 3,910,806 --- Method and Arrangement for Nuclear Reactions at Low Temperatures.
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 6,317,686 --- Low Temperature Nuclear Fusion Method.
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 10039096 --- Production of Positron Emission Isotope.
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 9,197,077 --- Electrode for Cold Nuclear Fusion & Method for Manufacturing Radioactive & Nonradioactive Element...
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 6,317,686 --- Low Temperature Nuclear Fusion Method.
Reiko Notoya & Masyuki Kobayashi: Japan Patent # 2,094,364 --- Electrode for Oxygen Electrode Reaction & Manufacture Thereof.
Reiko Notoya & Tatsumi Nagayama: USP # 4,917,972 --- Electrode for Use in Oxygen Electrode Reaction.
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 7,174,878 --- Negative Electrode for Ordinary Temperature Nuclear Fusion Chain Reaction.
(2) Nuclear Waste Remediation
The disposition of nuclear waste is one of the most serious technical challenges facing humanity. Long-term storage is not acceptable, yet it is all that we can do with the mess at this time. Meanwhile, many physicists are developing methods to render nuclear waste inactive by various forms of transmutation.
The rapid transmutation of radioactive elements to stable daughter elements can be accomplished in several ways. The first such method was proposed by Dr. Radha Roy (Physics Dept, Arizona State Univ.) in 1979. He used a linear accelerator to generate x-rays that knocked nuclei from the target elements (Cesium-137 and Strontium-90), resulting in short-lived isotopes. His work received notice in the New York Times in 1982 (April 6 & 13). Only 20 year later, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a project for "Accelerator Transmutation of Waste". A prototype plant will be constructed within five years. Two US Patents have been granted for the transmutation of nuclear waste with thermal neutron flux: #5,160,696 and #4,721,596 to Charles Bowman and Richard Marriott, et al., respectively.
Scientists at Europe's CERN facility also are experimenting with 'sub-critical" nuclear reactions (they cease when not being triggered by a linear accelerator) that curtail radioactivity. The proposed European system has been named "Energy Amplifier" by Carlo Rubbia, the Nobel Prize winning physicist who designed it. The CERN website offers this explanation for their efforts:
Intense linear accelerators would allow transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste which rapidly decays to become harmless or alternatively provide the beam which drives the Energy Amplifier, a failsafe form of nuclear reactor using relatively innocuous thorium as its fuel.
The CERN Energy Amplifier would work by inserting tubes of radioactive isotopes into a block of lead. Protons fired into the lead by a linear accelerator would generate high-energy neutrons that would fission the target waste. When the neutrons pass through the resonant energy levels of the target isotopes, they trigger transmutation reactions. The molten lead also would serve to cool the system by its passage through a heat exchanger, and the waste heat could be used to generate electricity. The corrosive lead will be bubbled with oxygen to allow the formation of a protective coat of oxide on the reactor walls. The system has been criticized as too complex, and to date the researchers have only performed simulations and conducted a few experiments on isolated aspects of the system. For example, the CERN scientists have transmuted Technetium-99 in a lead block.
The Americans and Europeans refuse to cooperate on the project; each group claims the other has copied their ideas. Fortunately, there are several other, simpler ways to solve the problem.
In the early 1990s, physicist Kenneth Shoulders received five US Patents for his High Density Charge Cluster (HDCC), "a relatively discrete, self-contained, negatively charged, high density state of matter... [a bundle of electrons that] appears to be produced by the application of a high electrical field between a cathode and an anode" (i.e., 2-10 kv at the tip of a sharply pointed electrode). It can also be described as "a spherical monopole oscillator". Shoulders has given it the name "Electrum Validum" (EV), meaning "strong electron", from the Greek "elektron" (electronic charge) and the Latin "valere" (to be strong, having power to unite). EVs have been credited with accomplishing the aforementioned cold fusion transmutations. (19)
Shoulders also invented a method of Plasma-Injected Transmutation for the remediation of nuclear waste by EVs. They apparently function as a collective accelerator with sufficient energy to inject a large group of nuclei into a target and promote nuclear cluster reactions. The composition of EVs allowsfor the inclusion of some 105 nuclides. Ions can be added to EVs until the net charge becomes positive. Such EVs are called NEVs (Nuclide-EVs). Shoulders states:
"The NEV acts as an ultra-massive, negative ion with high charge-to-mass ratio. This provides the function of a simple nuclear accelerator. Such nuclear reactions are fundamentally an event involving large numbers and not one of widely isolated events working at an atomic level."
NEVs can be produced by mechanical energy that is stored in and released from a brittle metal lattice by fracto-emission of electrons. In the case of acoustic/aqueous systems, they are generated by charge separation in a collapsing bubble. Analysis of palladium foils after they were struck by NEVs has revealed increased quantities of Mg, Ca, Si, Ga and Au. Locally produced fracto-emission induced by NEV strikes contribute a considerable amount of energy to the reactions and can initiate a "wildfire" propagation of energy which either triggers or fuels the events. These events occur within a few tenths of a picosecond. The first step is a loading process that renders the material brittle. Then a very rapid fracture generates a NEV, compression-loaded with available nucleons (i.e., 100,000 deuterons in an electrolytic cold fusion cell). The NEV is accelerated into the parent material by the applied voltage which, though it is only in the kilovolt range, has a velocity equivalent to megavolts due to the mechanism of the acceleration in the fracture. Shoulders offers an ad hoc explanation of these results as being "due largely to a nuclear cluster reaction having an unknown form of coherence." Ken Shoulders has demonstrated the complete elimination of radioactivity in high-level nuclear material. (14, 20)
Other researchers (Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, "The Cincinatti Group", William Barker, etc.) also applied for patents on similar applications. The Neal-Gleeson Process has been shown to stabilize naturally radioactive solutions of thorium and uranium compounds up to 70% within a few hours in an electrochemical reactor. Thorium can be fissioned into mercury and neon. Valve metals (whose oxides emit electron) can be excited to produce galvano-luminescence in aqueous solution. When the charge gradient exceeds a critical threshold (i.e., 1 million volts), sparks are produced in the form of charge clusters that are believed to be the active mechanism in this method of transmutation.
In their reports of the experimental results, Neel and Gleeson, et al., noted:
"Because there is a close agreement between the reduction in thorium and the reduction of radioactivity of the thorium daughter products, it is assumed that the Neal-Gleeson Process has about the same capability to change both thorium nuclei and the nuclei of the daughter products into other elements which are not radioactive...
"A process which can cause the higher atomic number elements to be split into smaller elements appears to be a desirable method by which certain radioactive elements can be handled. It is highly desirable to be able to select process-control parameters so that only stable daughter nuclei of the parent elements are produced. In this way, the radioactivity of today's highly radioactive slurries can be ameliorated."
Hal Fox and Atul Bhadkamkar reviewed the technology and concluded:
"Sparking at the electrode is necessary but not sufficient for the production of nuclear events. Apparently a charge can produce an observed spark but fails to have sufficient energy to promote a nuclear reaction... The charge cluster must carry piggyback positive charges and must achieve a critical energy level to promote nuclear reactions.
"The molarity (and the resulting conductivity of the electrolyte) may be an important operational parameter. The charge cluster must be able to persist for some short time period and energetically impact a nucleus in the electrolyte to be able to produce a nuclear reaction.... The potential gradient between the electrodes must be kept at some critical value for nuclear reactions to be favored. A lower field gradient (higher conductivity) in the electrolyte may lead only to Joule heating and not to the desired level of nuclear reactions.
"Experimental evidence suggests that the hydrogen and oxygen nuclei are involved in the sometimes multiple or sequential nuclear impacts that result in the nuclear reactions..." (3, 21)
The Australian inventor Yull Brown developed a novel method of electrolyzing water to produce a compressed (up to 100 psi) stoichometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen ions (popularly known as "Brown's gas") that is burned in a 2:1 ration. Since the early 1980s, long before cold fusion was discovered, Yull Brown claimed to be able to transmute radioactive material into inert forms by fusing it in the flame produced by his form of hyfuel. His 1977 patent mentions that, "The invention also relates to atomic welding..." (US Patents #4,014,777; see also # 4,081,656).
Yull Brown's first successful experiment with Co60 radionuclides reduced the activity by about 50% in 10 minutes. The process was replicated by the Baotou Nuclear Institute (China) in 1991.
In a demonstration witnessed by US Congressman Berkeley Bedell, the radioactivity of Americium was quickly reduced by 2500% with Brown's Gas torch. The Geiger counter reading registered 16,000 curies/minute before, and less than 100 curies/minute afterwards. Congressman Bedell said:
"It has been my good pleasure to witness experiments done by Prof. Yull Brown in which it appeared to me that he significantly reduced the radioactivity in several nuclear materials. Under the circumstances, I believe it is very important for our federal government to completely investigate Dr. Yull Brown's accomplishments in this area."
If the US government is completely investigating Brown's Gas, it is doing so secretly.
In August 1992, Yull Brown made another demonstration before several members of the Department of Energy and Hon. Dan Haley at the request of Congressman Bedell. The geiger counter reading from Co60 was reduced to 0.04% of the original level.
Another demonstration was conducted for a group of Japanese nuclear scientists, at which time Co60 was reduced from 24,000 mR/hr to 12,000 mR/hr with one brief treatment. (2, 8, 17)
Dr. Paul Brown (Nuclear Solutions, Aurora CO) has developed a novel method to remediate nuclear waste by photonuclear reaction with gamma rays. The technology utilizes principles of physics --- giant dipole resonance --- that have been overlooked in their possible application in treatment of nuclear waste. Brown states:
"Photonuclear reactions induced by gamma ray absorption by the nucleus, do not suffer the shortcomings of neutron reactions. Simply stated, the process is gamma irradiation with energies greater than the binding energy of the neutron to the nucleus. That is, a gamma photon of an energy equal to or greater than the binding energy which comes close to the nucleus is absorbed through giant dipole resonance resulting in the emission of a neutron. This well-known nuclear reaction has dramatic application to waste remediation...
"The neutrons produced by the processing may in turn be used for neutron transmutation by the processes... For many fission products the neutron capture cross sections in a thermal spectrum can give substantial transmutation rates..."
Brown has proposed another application of giant dipole resonance in a theoretical"Photon Reactor" that would produce power by burning nuclear waste:
"A linear accelerator, preferably of the monochromatic type, accelerates electrons which are directed onto a high Z target such as tungsten to generate gamma rays about 9 MeV, which are directed onto the fuel material such as U-238 which results in the... reaction, thus releasing about 200 MeV. A reactor built according to this principle requiring an accelerator driven by 1 MeV will develop about 20 MW of power. The reaction is not self-sustaining and stops when the beam is turned off. This accelerator driven reactor may be used to burn up spent fuel from fission reactors, if simply operated at 10 MeV. The photo-fission results in typical spent fuel waste products such as Cs137 and Sr90, which undergo photodisintegration... resulting in short-lived or stable products. Chemical separation of the spent fuel isotopes is not necessary..."
Gerardo International, Inc. is developing an Accelerated Decay Energy Converter (ADEC). The system utilizes stimulated radioactive decay to extract electrical energy directly from the atom:
"ADEC does not change the mechanism of spontaneous radioactive decay; it changes the probability of which atoms will undergo decay and when the decay will occur. As atoms exhibit no statistical memory, the event of a neighboring atom's spontaneous decay in no way influence the likelihood or unlikelihood of decay of a selected atom. As the extraction of power from the nuclear is accelerated, the material's natural emissive lifetime will be exhausted in direct relation."
Ronald Brightson (Clustron Sciences) has presented theoretical and experimental evidence for the validity of his own "Nucleon Cluster Model" (NCM), which predicts that a relatively low-energy photon can promote a nuclear reaction under certain specific conditions. Brightson analyzed the periodicities and systematics of atomic numbers and masses and deduced that all b-stable nuclides are composed of deuterons (NP clusters), tritons (NPN), and He3(PNP) nuclei.
Brighton's patent application includes a method of remediating nuclear waste by the induction of fission in the radioactive isotopes. The imposition of an external magnetic field that is in resonance with the magnetic moment of a particular nucleon cluster (NP, NPN, PNP) can excite the select cluster (without disturbing other clusters in the target) to burst from the nucleus and perform a transmutation to daughter products of smaller mass and greater stability.
A catalytic process for transmutative remediation of nuclear waste was invented by Jack Keller in 1993.
Roberto Monti (Burns Development Ltd.) announced a method of transmutation to neutralize radioactive material at a congress on low-energy transmutation (ICCF-5 in Monaco) in 1996. He utilized ignition methods such as those developed by Joe Champion. When applied to radioactive materials, the radioactivity was greatly reduced after the ignition.
In their analysis of the "energy gain and nuclear transmutation by low energy p- or d-reactions in metal lattices", Heinrich Hora, George Miley, and J. Kelly offered hope for the "programmed transmutation of added nuclides, especially long-lived nuclear waste and plutonium":
"One can actively incorporate nuclides into the surface area of the active metals or nearby. These additional nuclides can then be subject to low-energy nuclear transmutation...
"One application of the mentioned transmutation is the long-lived nuclear waste from nuclear fission reactors... It is an important aim to make plutonium fully extinct by nuclear transmutation into chemically different nuclei... These kinds of nuclear transmutations are indeed possible by using ion beams... of more than 10 MeV per nucleon or spallation processes with up to 10 GeV protons. In view of the very expensive accelerators needed for this purpose, and [because] the ion currents are very small, there is no economic possibility in sight from this method. The invention described in this (Clean Energy Technology) patent [for] the low-energy transmutation by protons provides a low cost method for converting the long-lived waste nuclides and plutonium into harmless non-radioactive elements." (9)
Beginning in 1958, Russian geophysicist Dr. Georgiy S. Rabzi developed methods of transmutation that combined geo-electric and artificial fields and temperature control to direct transmutation in solids and liquids. For example, a 99.5% Pb was treated at 650o C to yield up to 3% Ag, plus Cd and Ge (15 March 1994). No radioactivity was observed in any of the experiments. At the ICCF-5 meeting, Dr Rabzi claimed that his "natural cold fission" is a safe method with which to stabilize nuclear waste.
Numerous reports in the literature of physics describe deviations (from 0.1 to 5%) from the standard constant decay rates of natural radioactivity, some by extra-nuclear influences (including the human mind). Physicists Elizabeth Rauscher, Glen Rein, and associates have investigated the interactions of Co60 with non-Hertzian energies such as the scalar fields generated by the "Smith Coil" (a Caduceus-wound coil invented by Canadian engineer Wilbur B. Smith in the 1960s). When energized (3 mA/5 W), The non-inductive Smith Coil (8.2 ohms) reduced the background radiation by 97% (from 0.5 mR/hr to 0.0015 mR/hr). Yet when applied to Co60, the radioactivity increased from 150 to 250 mR/hr! (11, 18)
Other possibilities may exist for the transmutation of nuclear waste. For example, it is reasonable to hope that the legendary Philosophers' Stone is capable of performing this feat, but the Stone remains a gift of God, who determines when and to whom it is bestowed (despite the objections of conventional physicists). A few exotic human technologies are immediately available for research and development, such as the radionic transmutations demonstrated by the amazing DeLaWarr Camera. Tom Beardon and others have recommended the use of scalar interferometry to extract energy from the nucleus in a gentle manner, or by outright dematerialization.
The radioactivity of elements also can be increased by relatively simple means. The German Dr. Alois Gaschler applied for a British patent in 1925 (Specification 239,509) for the enrichment of uranium:
"This invention relates to a process of and means for transforming elementary atoms particularly of uranium and thorium with a view to hasten their spontaneous disintegration and to increase their radioactivity, and the invention consists in subjecting small quantitites of the metal in a vaporizing chamber to very high pressure and temperature and in subjecting the vaporized metal vapour to the electrostatic or electrolytic effect of strong, preferably direct electric currents.
"Successful experiments have been made with an electric energy of about 100 kilowatt-seconds per gramme of uranium or thorium. The electric current can be used for the heating of the metal as weall as for the electric splitting up of the atoms.
"In order to generate a very high pressure during the heating of the metal and to obviate heat and light radiation as far as possible, a thin filament of metal, weighing about 1 gramme, is placed in a duct in a massive block of quartz or granite or other refractory mineral insulating substance. The two ends of the filament are extended through the block and clamped between two thick metal plates which at the same time act as closures for the duct. Terminals are provided on the metal plate for connection to the electric circuit. The duration of the individual electric shocks is generally about 1-2 seconds. After the conclusion of the process, the evaporated metal is recovered mechanically or chemically and will be found to be much more radioactive than the original substance.
"The more the separated metal vapour comes into contact with the pole surfaces and the higher the electric pressure, the greater is the transformation effect. It is advisable, therefore, to employ a heating circuit of low voltage and high amperage, and a separate electrolyzing circuit of relatively low amperage and high voltage. For this purpose a pair of electrodes having a large surface is arranged in the vaporizing chamber and connected to the high-pressure circuit which, in order to produce a high resistance, includes a Crooke's or Geissler tube.
"When artificial metals are to be produced on a large scale, the use of a filament is not practicable as it requires too frequent replacement. It is therefore better to supply metallic vapour through a valve into the space containing the electric arc and to withdraw it therefrom in the same way."
Dr. Gaschler gave more details of his process in an article published in the journal Nature:
"The behavior of uranium and thorium and their salts in the electric arc and in the glow discharge has been examined. In no case could there be observed an alteration in the radioactivity or in the chemical activity. A perceptible transmutation effect was, however, unexpectedly found when strong rushes of momentary high-tension currents were sent through a narrow fused quartz tube provided with tungsten electrodes and containing mercury and uranium oxide. The tube was fixed vertically in a stand, so that the mercury filled the lower part of the tube and one tungsten electrode was completely covered by it. On the surface of the mercury was a relatively thin coating of uranium oxide which had been carefully freed from radioactive by-products, especially from uranium-X, before it was introduced into the quartz tube. The sparking distance between the tungsten electrode and the mercury-uranium oxide electrode was about 15 cm. The intensity of the electric discharge varied between 0.3 and 0.4 amps.
"Under the influence of repeated electric discharges during about 30 hours, relatively strong and increasing radioactivity [b and l rays] showed itself. The b and l ray activity varied between 1.4 and 20 times the radioactivity of an equally large amount of uranium oxide in equilibrium with its decay products, and increased proportionally to the energy applied and to the time.
"One obtains an even greater proportion of uranium X if one makes the electric discharges pass within a thick-sided quartz or porcelain vessel between a tungsten point and mercury covered with a thin coat of vaseline and uranium oxide. This coating possesses such a high electric resistance that, even when applying the highest tensions which can be obtained, one is obliged to diminish greatly the sparking distance in order to obtain a discharge. This proceeding offers the advantage that the energy is concentrated into a very small space. Consequently one can show, after half an hour’s work, the production of relatively large quantities of uranium X.
"The production of uranium X considerably in excess of that produced by spontaneous decay is to be explained only by the fact that, under the influence of the electric force, an acceleration of the radioactive transmutation of uranium takes place." (23)
In the 1950s, Thomas H. Moray developed a method for enriching uranium by high-energy bombardment. He proceeded by treating the ore (in a chemical solution) with x-rays (up to 24 MeV). The average ore contained 0.23% uranium oxide. After irradiation, the ore yielded from 7-75% uranium oxide! In 1953, Moray proposed that the Atomic Energy Commission investigate the "aging" of atomic ores by a "breeding type reaction with high-energy particles or x-rays in the presence of a proper environment." The AEC declined to grant a contract.
Fortunately, the technologies invented by Gaschler and Moray are dormant. Meanwhile, it is imperative that we develop every possible pathway to the deactivation of nuclear waste and weapons.
Nuclear Waste Remediation/Transmutation Patents
Paul M. Brown: USP Application # 2002169351--- Remediation of Radioactive Waste by Stimulated Radioactive Decay.
Ronald Brightsen, et al.: WO Patent # 9,403,906 --- Methods for Manufacturing & Producing Products.
John Dash: WO 03/098640 --- Processing Radioactive Materials with Hydrogen Isotope Nuclei
Heinrich Hora: German Patent # 19803629 --- Transmutation of Isotopes with Long Half Life.
Reiko Notoya: Japan Patent # 9,197,077 --- Electrode for Cold Nuclear Fusion.
William Barker: US Patent # 5,076,971 --- Method for Enhancing Alpha Decay in Radioactive Materials.
V.S. Buttsev, et al.: Russian Patent # 2,169,405 --- Method for Transmutation of Long-Living Radioactive Isotopes into Short-Living or Stable Ones.
Sidney Soloway: US Patent Appln. # 2002186805 --- Accelerated Radioactivity Reduction.
Vladimirovich, Kinderevich, et al.: US Patent Appln. 20040238366 --- Method & System for Acceleration of Activity Decrease and Radioactive Material Deactivation.
1. Arata, Yoshiraki, & Zhang, Yue-Chang: Proc. Japan Acad. 72, Ser. B 1996): "Deuterium nuclear reaction process within solid"; ibid., 73 (Ser. B) 1997: "Helium within deuterated Pd-black"
2. Batou Nuclear Institute Report #202 (24 August 1991): "The results of experiments to dispose of radiation materials by Brown's Gas"
3. Bhadkamkar, A. & Fox, H.: J. of New Energy (1996), p. 62-68.
4. Bush, R. & Eagleton, R.: Trans. of Fusion Technology 26 (4-T): 344 (Dec. 1994)
5. Claytor, T.N., et al.: Infinite Energy (March-April 1996) #7, p. 39-42; "Tritium production from a low voltage deuterium discharge on Pd..."
6. Fox, H.: Fusion Facts (July 1995)
7. Fox, H.: Infinite Energy (July-August 1995), p 8-11.
8. Haley, Dan: Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter 6 (4): 8-9 July 1993); "Transmutation of radioactive materials with Brown's Gas"
9. Hora, H., et al.: Infinite Energy #12: 48-52 (January-February 1997);"Energy gain and nuclear transmutation by low energy p- or d-reactions in metal lattices"
10. Kopecek, R. & Dash, J.: J. of New Energy, pp. 46-49 (1997); "Excess heat and unexpected elements from electrolysis of heavy water with Ti cathodes".
11. Michrowski, A.: J. of New Energy (1996), p. 122-129
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