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Agriculture






"US Town Uses Hot Water -- Not Herbicides -- To Control Weeds"

Plants with Broad-Spectrum Pesticidal Properties

Agricultural Research (February 2003) :"Radio Frequency Puts the Heat on Plant Pests"

Joel Sternheimer: "French Physicist Creates New Melodies -- Plant Songs"

Joel Sternheimer's Patents

Norman T. Harding, Jr: US Patent # 4,756,755, "Rodent Repellent Liquids"

AstroMeteorology & Agriculture

Biochemical Stimulation of Plant Growth

Biodynamic Activated Ferments

"Termites Repelled By Catnip Oil"; USDA Forest Service (3-26-03)

Companion Plants

Insect-Repellant Plants

Beneficial Insects

ElectroCulture Patents

"Novel Farm Machine Checks Soil Erosion" (Popular Science, August 1937)

"Fruit Grove Protection System" (Pop. Sci., November 1940, p. 20)

"Scientists Find New Plant Growth Booster" (Beaumont Enterprise, May 1985)

"Rubber Coated Seeds Resist Parasites" (Pop. Sci., September 1937)

Robert Martin: "Amazing Machine Picks Seeds That Will Grow" (Pop. Sci., January 1940)

"Shocking Weeds to Death" (Popular Science, September 1946)

"Fence Shocks Fish"  (Pop. Sci., October 1947)

"Electricity Controls Tree Growth" (Pop. Sci., August 1935)

"Electricity as a Tree Pest Cure"; Scientific American (27 May 1916, p. 549)

Thomas G. Hieronymous: "Cosmiculture"



"US Town Uses Hot Water -- Not Herbicides -- To Control Weeds"
Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA)
Carrboro, North Carolina, is killing weeds with water instead of chemicals. The town is using a machine that superheats water and dispenses it in a carefully controlled stream to kill weeds without using toxic chemical herbicides. The equipment, which is made in New Zealand, is in use in several other countries but is almost unknown in the United States.

Carrboro is testing the equipment to implement the town's least toxic Integrated Pest Management policy, adopted in March 1999. The policy calls for phasing out use of conventional pesticides, including herbicides, on town property, but does not apply to the local residents, their property or businesses. City leaders hope to show how beautiful grounds can be achieved without poisoning the environment.

To date, efforts to reduce pesticide use have emphasized alternatives to conventional herbicides. An earlier analysis of Carrboro's pest management practices showed that more €\pesticides were used on weeds than for any other purpose. Weeds are a problem around buildings and parking lots, along curbs and gutters and in parks. The town is using a comprehensive approach, rather seeking a single solution, including a biodegradable herbicide made from corn gluten, propane flamers which kill plants by singing them, thick mulch on plant beds to smother weeds, and now hot water.

The machine in use in Carrboro produces a steady stream of near-boiling water that kills weeds by melting the waxy outer coating of their leaves. The self-contained machine is mounted on a small truck with hoses connected to long-handled applicator wands. A quick spray on unwanted weeds kills them; the plants darken almost immediately and turn brown within a few hours. The flow of water is low and cools quickly. While the results look very much like that of a contact herbicide, there is no toxic residue and the area is immediately safe for play.

"That's what it is all about," said Allen Spalt, Director of the Agricultural Resources Center and a member of the Carrboro Board of Aldermen. "We want to find ways to reduce pesticide use so that we can eliminate the risk of any child being poisoned. Carrboro already uses only small amounts of pesticides; we believe that this hot water system may be part of the solution to reducing use completely."

The hot water system, on loan to Carrboro until the end of June, will be used by town staff, who will also demonstrate it for other interested parties. At the conclusion of the trials, a final decision will be made whether or not the town will purchase the equipment.

http://www.ghorganics.com/HotWeedKiller.htm
http://metalab.unc.edu/arc Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) ~ http://www.panna.org/



Plants with Broad-Spectrum Pesticidal Properties

Source: Grainge, M. & Ahmed, S.:  Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties; 1988, Resource Systems Inst., East-West Center, Honolulu, HI. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Grainge, M. RIC, East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawai, U.S
Ahmed, S. Resource Systems Institute (RIC), East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawai, United States

African Marigold (Tagetes erecta)
American False Hellebore (Veratrum viride)
Angel's Trumpet (Datura metel)
Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)
Castor Bean (Ricinus communis)
Chinaberry, Persian Lilac (Melia azedarach)
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium)
Cockroach Plant (Haplophyton cimicidium )
Custard Apple (Annona reticulata)
Derris (Derris elliptica)
Devil's Shoestring (Tephrosia virginiana)
European White Hellebore (Veratrum album)
French Marigold (Tagetes patula)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides)
Indian Aconite (Aconitum ferox)
Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium)
Mammey Apple Tree (Mammea americana)
Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
Purging Cotton (Croton tiglium)
Sabadilla (Schoenocaulon officinale)
Southern Prickly Ash (Zanthoxylum clava-herculis)
Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)
Sweetcane (Mundulea suberosa)
Sweetflag (Acorus calamus)
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)
Tung Tree (Aleurites fordii)
Vogel Tephrosia (Tephrosia vogelii)
Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica)

Chili Peppers act effectively as a stomach poison, repellent, antifeedant and viroid against: Ants, Aphids, Caterpillars, Colorado Beetle, Cabbage Worm, Rice Weevil, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Cucumber Ringspot Virus, Tobacco Etch, & Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

Derris (D. elliptica) dust is effective against: Adzuki Bean Beetle, Army Worms, American Bollworm, Diamondback Moth, Fruit Flies, Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Melon Aphid,  Pyricularia oryzae (fungus).

Garlic fights against: Aphids, Army Worms, Colorado Beetle, False Codling Moth, Kharpa Beetle, Mexican Bean Beetle, Inported Cabbage Worm, Wire worms.

Mammey Apple (Mammea americana) powdered seeds vs: Aphids, Diamondback Moth, Cucumber Beetle, Imported Cabbage worm, Melon Worm, Mites, Rice Weevil.

Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been found to be effective against about 100 pests including: American Bollworm, Aphids, Brown Rice Plant Hopper, Diamondback Moth, Cabbage Worm, Colorado Beetle, Cutworms, Desert Locust, Fall Arm Worm, Flea Beetle, Green Rice Leaf Hopper, Large Cabbage Worm, Leaf Miner, Mediteranean Fruitfly, Mexican Bean Beetle, Migratory Locust, Mites, Potato Jassid, Rice Stalk Borers, Spotted Stalk Borers, Variegated Grasshopper, White-Backed Rice Plant Hopper, White Fly.

Chrysanthemum  (C. cinerariaefolium) contains pyrethrum, effective against: Aphids, Coffee Bugs, Colorado Beetle, Flea Beetles, Grasshoppers, Cabbage Worm, and many other beetles, caterpillars, beetles, locusts, mites, moths, thrips, etc.

Quassia (Q. amara) is a contact- and stomach poison, insecticide, larvicide, and nematicide, and also acts systematically against: Aphids, Diamondback Moth, Caterpillars, Colorado Beetle, Leaf Miners, Melonworm, Mites, Black Carpet Beetle, and Silkworm. It is not effective against: Codling Moth, Mexican Bean Beetle, or Peach Aphid.



Agricultural Research (February 2003) ~

"Radio Frequency Puts the Heat on Plant Pests"

To prevent influx of pests that could create agricultural problems, produce-importing nations enforce strict rules --depending on the commodity and the infesting insect. The rules often require vulnerable produce to be treated in some way that ensures destruction of pests.

For several decades, methyl bromide has been a mainstay treatment to kill a wide array of quarantined pests as well as those encountered in orchards, packinghouses, and food plants. But this potent chemical fumigant is being phased out because of evidence linking it to damage to Earth's ozone layer.

Although the effectiveness of using radio waves to kill destructive insects in agricultural products has been known for 70 years, the technique has never been applied on a commercial scale. A recent cooperative effort by four ARS research laboratories and two universities aims to overcome the technical barriers for the use of radio wave heating to control pests on a commercial scale.

Electromagnetic waves of radio frequency can make molecules vibrate and heat up -- like microwaves heat food. The trick is to kill pest insects without killing the taste or texture of the food they infest.

Since 2000, a team led by Juming "Jimmy" Tang of Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman, involving four ARS laboratories and the University of California-Davis (UC-Davis), has been working on a 4-year study to see whether radio waves would be an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide and other chemicals to effectively rid fruits and nuts of live, quarantined insects.

In Texas -- It's Chiefly Citrus ~

In Weslaco, Texas, ARS entomologist Guy J. Hallman is checking out use of radio frequency treatment of citrus against the Mexican fruit fly. He's in the Crop Quality and Fruit Insect Research Unit at the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center. Hallman is developing a device to simulate what's needed to heat-treat citrus fruit with radio waves commercially.

"We're trying to bridge the gap between the laboratory and real world," says Hallman. "Once we know how to treat fruit in a commercial situation and how much it will cost, any producer, shipper, or packinghouse operator can use the information to decide whether radio wave pest control is a viable option."

In Hallman's system, citrus fruit would pass through a conveyor between a series of radio frequency heaters. To simulate a commercial system in the laboratory, the fruit are conveyed in a circulating water bath to keep them moving during heating. This would prevent the fruit's overheating from extended contact with any one area of the bath. And to ensure continuous heating from the peel in to the fruit's center --essential to killing all fruit flies that might be present-- a bumper would dunk any fruit that bobbed above the water surface. This prevents dark-black rings from forming around the fruit at the water's surface because of an energy concentration where the water meets the air.

A method using just hot air to treat fruit in boxes or bins has been tried commercially in Mexico with mixed results. It takes hours to complete and puts a strain on the fruit's skin, sometimes causing heat damage. Radio frequency heating can be done in less than half an hour and is less damaging, since the fruit is heated uniformly throughout.

Hallman has focused on grapefruits but is also working with other citrus, including oranges and tangerines. The larger the fruit, he notes, the harder it is to heat uniformly and the more likely to form hot and cold spots.

"This multi-lab project is making a serious effort to take a look at things that haven't been looked at with radio frequency heating," says Hallman. "I think we stand a good chance of finding out how radio frequency disinfestation can be done to a large volume of fruits or nuts -- and if it can be done on a commercial scale." He predicts that by this summer he'll have a good idea of what the treatment will cost.

In Washington -- Apples and Cherries ~

If you're in Wapato, Washington, don't be enticed by the apples floating in the tub in James Hansen's laboratory. You don't want to go bobbing for them.

There are several reasons, says Hansen, an entomologist with ARS' Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory. The first is that this particular tub is filled with salt water. Second, if you were to latch onto one of the apples with your teeth, you might bite the proverbial worm-- a larva hatched from a codling moth egg.

And Hansen wants these apples intact -- no tooth marks, please. Such a mark might skew the results of tests he is conducting on use of radio waves to rid the fruit of live, pesky insects like the codling moth before market -- or shipment to trading partners like South Korea and Japan, where such pests might not already occur. Japan is particularly stringent about what phytosanitary methods it will accept for disinfesting fresh produce.

This rule also applies to sweet cherries, a tree fruit commodity that generates over $145 million in yearly national export sales, notes Hansen. In cooperation with the team led by Tang, a professor in biological systems engineering at WSU, Hansen plans to "bathe" tubs full of apples and cherries with radio waves to determine exposure times that will kill codling moth larvae without affecting fruit quality.

From two lines of research, one focusing on the insects, the other on fruit quality, and three major disciplines -- engineering, entomology, and plant physiology -- the collaborators hope to position radio wave treatment as a technology that can be readily adopted by commercial packinghouses or quarantine operations in lieu of methyl bromide.

"Without suitable alternatives to methyl bromide, we're going to be up a creek," ARS horticulturist Stephen R. Drake says of the U.S. fruit industry's fight against quarantined pests. He is with ARS' Tree Fruit Research Laboratory in Wenatchee, Washington.

"Ideally, you want to treat the fruit with radio frequency while it's being packed and designated for a particular market," Hansen explains. "Commercial packers can't afford to have produce sitting there, so we want this treatment to kill the insects as soon as it can."

Tang, Hansen, Drake, and Lisa Nevens, an ARS entomologist at Yakima, first began working on the radio frequency project in 1996.

In California -- Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits ~

Meanwhile, in California, entomologist Judy A. Johnson is also keenly attuned to the potential of radio frequency energy to zap destructive insects. Her primary targets? The wiggly larvae of the navel orangeworm, Indianmeal moth, and codling moth. These insects are among the worst enemies of walnuts, almonds, and pistachios and of dried fruits such as figs and raisins. Johnson has newly added red flour beetle to her list of culprits -- a lesser pest of the nut and fruit crops but a major problem in flour mills and food-processing plants.

Johnson is doing the radio frequency work at the ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center at Parlier, near Fresno, in close association with cooperators at WSU and UC-Davis. They have already developed a preliminary picture of the target insects' ability to endure heat -- their "thermal tolerance."

The laboratory experiments that Johnson and her ARS and university colleagues conducted are the first to extensively detail the thermal tolerance of the navel orangeworm, Indianmeal moth, and codling moth.

For one test, Johnson and co-investigators drilled tiny holes in over 500 in-the-shell walnuts; enticed the slender, whitish navel orangeworms to enter the shells; then plugged the holes to block the insects' escape. The scientists then tried some novel combinations of radio waves and hot forced air, that is, air that's heated and blown into the test chamber holding the nuts. Radio waves, alone or combined with hot forced air, were used to heat the nuts to 55° C (131° F) in about 5 minutes. Hot forced air was then used to keep the nuts at 55° C for 5 or 10 minutes.

"All the treatments killed 100 percent of the navel orangeworms," reports Johnson. What's more, tests led by co-researchers Tang at Pullman and Elizabeth J. Mitcham at UC-Davis, showed that the treatments didn't harm the quality of the nuts -- even in long-term storage.

"That's critical," Johnson points out, "because walnuts are often stored for a year or more before they show up at your supermarket."

In addition, walnuts are rich in oil, so they're more vulnerable to heat damage than some other kinds of nuts, such as almonds. "That's why we think that if a treatment is okay for walnuts," Johnson continues, "it will likely be okay for almonds."

Indianmeal moths proved to be more susceptible to heat than navel orangeworms are. "Indian meal moths are silvery, and wedge-shaped. If you open a kitchen cupboard where you keep raisins or breakfast cereals and a little moth flies out at you," Johnson explains, "chances are it's an Indianmeal moth."

For this experiment, Johnson and her colleagues used metal heating blocks, or plates, specially designed by Tang for the radio frequency research. They placed target insects in the small gap between the plates, which were then heated to specific temperatures and held at those temperatures for precise periods.

She and her associates assembled some 15,000 Indianmeal moth larvae for the study, exposing them to temperatures ranging from 44° C to 52° C (about 111° F to 126° F) for 2 to 100 minutes. "In general," Johnson comments, "the lower the temperature, the longer it took to kill the larvae. These readings are the basis for a new, math-based model for projecting the rate of kill at other time-and-temperature regimens. Because of the large number of larvae tested and the range of temperatures that we investigated, we're very confident of the accuracy of the model's projections."

Johnson and her cooperators also used the special heat plates to discover more about the amount of time and heat that it takes to kill navel orangeworms. They exposed 15,000 navel orangeworms to temperatures ranging from 46° C to 54° C (about 115° F to 129° F) for 1 to 120 minutes. Using the new data, they created a mathematical model of the navel orangeworm's thermal tolerances.

The findings from the Texas, Washington, and California experiments are an essential starting point for making the radio frequency energy approach a success, Johnson says. The scientists have published their findings in the Journal of Economic Entomology, Journal of Stored Products Research, and Postharvest Biology and Technology.-- By Alfredo Flores, Jan Suszkiw, and Marcia Wood, Agricultural Research Service Information Staff.

This research is part of Methyl Bromide Alternatives, an ARS National Program (#308) described on the World Wide Web at http://www.nps.ars.usda.gov/.

Guy J. Hallman is in the USDA-ARS Crop Quality and Fruit Insect Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 E. Hwy. 83, Bldg. 200, Weslaco, TX 78596; phone (956) 447-6313, fax (956) 447-6345.

Stephen R. Drake is with the USDA-ARS Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, 1104 N. Western Ave., Wenatchee, WA 98801; phone (509) 664-2280, fax (509) 664-2287.

James D. Hansen is in the USDA-ARS Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit, 5230 Konnowac Pass Rd., Wapato, WA 98951; phone (509) 454-6573, fax (509) 454-5646.

Judy A. Johnson is with the USDA-ARS Commodity Protection and Quarantine Insect Research Laboratory, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 S. Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93468; phone (559) 596-2768, fax (559) 596-2721.



http://www.earthpulse.com/science/songs.html

"French Physicist Creates New Melodies - Plant Songs"

 
Remember those song birds we used to hear in the fields? The sounds of animals in nature singing a symphony of soft and subtle sounds as all things flow together to create a living and vibrant concerto? Science is now showing that these sounds actually do influence the growth of plants. Researchers have demonstrated that plants respond to sounds in pro-found ways which not only influence their overall health but also increase the speed of growth and the size of the plant.

Many people remember hearing in the late 1960's and 1970's about the idea that plants respond to music. There were lots of projects in high schools and colleges which successfully tested the effects of sound on plant growth. It was determined through repetitive testing that plants did respond to music and sound. The first book which brought this idea to most of us was: The Secret Life of Plants, by Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird (Harper & Row 1973). In this best selling book a number of astounding revelations about plant growth were revealed. The idea that plants were influenced by sound in both positive and negative ways was demonstrated by several world class scientists at that time.

When we think of plants being affected by sunlight we are really looking at the effect of a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum on plants ­ that portion which includes visible light. It should not surprise us that sound also impacts plant growth because it is, in essence, an extension to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The science was first disclosed in an article by Andy Coghlan which appeared in New Scientist (May 28, 1994, p.10). The article confirmed old ideas by placing them in a scientific context. It tells an excellent story about the impact of sound on plant growth, bringing to light what was before considered esoteric or mysterious science. After reading this short article and those which follow in this issue of the Flashpoints a good deal more will be thought of "singing gardeners" and "plant communicators."

Many people remember reading accounts of plant growth being stimulated by sound waves. At that time, "talking" to plants and playing plants different types of music was used to influence growth. A number of people were using these techniques without being able to completely explain the phenomena. This article is part of that story ­ a story which could have a profound impact on the way we grow and produce our food.

Eccentrics who sing to their plants? People playing melodies to organic matter with the expectation that it will help stimulate growth? These ideas were the thoughts of some "non-scientists" until French physicist and musician, Joel Sternheimer, discovered the mechanism for how plants respond to the stimulation of sound waves. Sternheimer composes musical note sequences which help plants grow and has applied for an international patent1 covering the concept.

The sound sequences are not random but are carefully constructed melodies. Each note is chosen to correspond to an amino acid in a protein with the full tune corresponding to the entire protein. What this means is that the sounds sequenced in just the right order results in a tune which is unique and harmonizes with the internal structure of a specific plant type. Each plant type has a different sequence of notes to stimulate its growth. According to New Scientist, "Sternheimer claims that when plants "hear" the appropriate tune, they produce more of that protein. He also writes tunes that inhibit the synthesis of proteins." In other words, desirable plants could be stimulated to grow while undesirable plants (weeds for instance) could be inhibited. This is done with electromagnetic energy, in this case sound waves, pulsed to the right set of frequencies thus effecting the plant at an energetic and submolecular level.

Sternheimer translates into audible vibrations of music the quantum vibrations that occur at the molecular level as a protein is being assembled from its constituent amino acids. By using simple physics he is able to compose music which achieves this correlation. Sternheimer indicated to New Scientist that each musical note which he composes for the plant is a multiple of original frequencies that occur when amino acids join the protein chain. He says that playing the right notes stimulates the plant and increases growth. This idea is particularly interesting because it may lead to the eventual obsolescence of fertilizers used to stimulate plant growth. This new method would be cheap and relatively easily provided throughout the world, thereby avoiding many of the problems associated with the extraction, shipping, environmental and economic costs of chemical fertilizers.

Playing the right tune stimulates the formation of a plant's protein. "The length of a note corresponds to the real time it takes for each amino acid to come after the next," according to Sternheimer, who studied quantum physics and mathematics at Princeton University in New Jersey.

In experiments by Sternheimer, he claims that tomatoes exposed to his melodies grew two-and-a-half times as large as those which were untreated. Some of the treated plants were sweeter in addition to being significantly larger. The musical sequences stimulated three tomato growth promoters, cytochrome C, and thaumatin (a flavoring compound). According to Sternheimer in the New Scientist, "Six molecules were being played to the tomatoes for a total of three minutes a day."

Sternheimer also claims to have stopped the mosaic virus by playing note sequences that inhibited enzymes required by the virus. This virus would have harmed the tomato plants.

The note sequences used by the inventor are very short and need only be played one time. For example, the sequence for for cytochrome C lasts just 29 seconds. According to Sternheimer, "on average, you get four amino acids played per second" in this series.

The inventor also issued a warning for those repeating his experiments. He warns to be careful with the sound sequences because they can affect people. "Don't ask a musician to play them," he says. Sternheimer indicated that one of his musicians had difficulty breathing after playing the tune for cytochrome C.

Plant stimulation by sound may have profound implications. The idea that a cheap source of "electromagnetic fertilizer" has been developed should be exciting for many third world countries. At a time when human progress can be made through simple solutions in agriculture, resources are being wasted in the extraction of mineral and oil compounds for fertilizers. If this method of fertilization were followed the human intellect would prove superior to physical capital in terms of distribution and production of this new technology.

The idea that sound can have a healing effect on humans is being explored by a number of independent scientists around the world. The know-ledge of the "sound effect on proteins" offers insights to health practitioners of the benefits to humans. In addition to the favorable economic factors, the increased vitality of the plant substances can positively impact the health of all humans that consume them.

The patent includes melodies for cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome C which are two proteins involved in respiration. It also includes sound sequences for troponin C which regulates calcium uptake in muscles. Further, a tune was developed for inhibiting chalcone synthase which is an enzyme involved in making plant pigments.




http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/%7Edr.fuk/IndexE.html

Joel Sternheimer Patents




 



US Patent # 4,756,755

Rodent Repellent Liquids
July 12, 1988

Norman T. Harding, Jr

Abstract ~

Rodent repellent liquids are disclosed which are comprised of thujone oil in pure form or in the form of cedar leaf oil in a suitable low odor liquid carrier such as mineral oil.

FIELD OF INVENTION

The present invention relates to a liquid having rodent repellent characteristics.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART

For many years numerous attempts have been made to keep rats and mice away from homes, storage bins and other areas. Most commonly, traps or poisons are used to kill the vermin. In addition to creating dead animal disposal problems, traps and poisons also pose dangers to children, pets and animals. Furthermore, traps and poisons must be monitored. Sprung traps must be reset and consumed poison must be replaced. Also, many people have found that for each rat they kill with traps or poison there are others in the area who survive.

Rather than try to kill the rodents which are present, a better approach is to deter them from entering the area. Certain plant extracts have been found to have repellent properties Bottrell in U.S. Pat. No. 1,871,949 uses oil of peppermint to repell rodents. Cross in U.S. Pat. No. 2,159,550 teaches that extracts from the wood and fruit of the Areca catechu plant have repellent properties. Yet, neither of these materials have had any commercial success.

The art has also recognized that certain plants repel rodents. For example, pieces of the wormwood plant (Artemsia Absinthium) have been used as moth and rodent repellents. But, these pieces are only effective for a relatively short period of time, typically a few days.

The art has generally attributed the repellent characteristics of the wormwood and other plants to the presence of alkyloids in the plant. Apparently, these alkyloids are poisonous. However, I have discovered that thujone oil, a natural oil of the wormwood plant and a component of cedar leaf oil from the cedar tree, not alkyloids, will repel rodents when used in the manner here described.

In my U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,668,294 and 4,654,080 I disclose liquid rodent repellents in which thujone oil is combined with sodium silicate, lacquer or kerosene. Although these products work well they are not suitable for warm environments. The flash points of lacquer and kerosene are so low that there is a risk of ignition. Thus, there is a need for a liquid rodent repellent which is non-flammable.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

I provide a rodent repellent in liquid form by combining pure thujone oil or cedar leaf oil which contains thujone oil with a low odor liquid carrier. Several liquids such as mineral oil, alcohol, kerosene or lacquer are suitable.

I prefer to use a liquid comprised of thujone oil in the form of cedar leaf oil and a low odor liquid carrier, such as mineral oil, in a mixture having from 0.5 to 10 ounces carrier per 1 ounce cedar leaf oil. If pure thujone oil is used the mixture should contain a higher percentage of carrier.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

I have found that certain compositions of thujone oil or cedar leaf oil and a low odor liquid carrier will repel rodents for a significant period of time. A combination of thujone oil or cedar leaf oil and liquid when used like a paint will keep rodents away from the painted area for between three and five years.

To make these products, I first extract the oil from the plant source. Thujone oil is extracted from the wormwood plant and cedar leaf oil is obtained from the cedar tree. Thujone oil is also commercially available as it is used in perfume. Both oils have a similar aroma and can be used interchangeably. Then the oil is combined with a suitable, low odor carrier such as mineral oil, alcohol, white kerosene or any of the low odor solvents sold by Exxon under the trade name ISOPAR.

I have found that mineral oil is a suitable carrier for thujone oil and cedar leaf oil. Cedar leaf oil and mineral oil are combined to provide from 0.5 to 10 ounces mineral oil per ounce of cedar leaf oil. Then, the combination is applied to a surface like any standard paint.

Other low odor carriers in addition to mineral oil could also be used as a carrier. These solvents must be non-reactive with thujone oil and evaporate at room temperature or lower. They also must not leave an odorous residue which would overpower the odor of thujone oil.

I have conducted several experiments to show the effectiveness of my rat and mice repellents. The first experiment consisted of three boxes with the entrances to each blocked with sheets of screen. The rats were placed in the middle box. The box on the left contained food and the walls of the box were stained with the rat and mice repellent. This repellent was a mixture of 12% thujone oil and 88% lacquer. The box on the right contained only food and the walls were not stained. At the end of five days, the metal screens were lifted. The rats would not enter the box with the rat and mice repellent, but ate from the box that contained no repellent.

I have also applied my liquid repellent to underfloor areas of homes that I identified as rodent nests or pathways. A few days later I returned and saw no signs of rats or mice. The owners of the homes I treated also reported no signs of rodents after treatment.

In a second experiment, I used two boxes separated by a metal screen. A neutral box without repellent on the walls housed the rats. The remaining box contained the rat and mice repellent and contained the food. After five days the metal screen which separated the boxes was lifted. The rats would not enter the box stained with the rat and mice repellent to get the food. The repellent used in this experiment was a mixture of 12% thujone oil and 88% lacquer.

While I have described certain present preferred embodiments of my invention, it should be distinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto but may be variously embodied within the scope of the following claims.


AstroMeteorology & Agriculture

By Robert Nelson

"All things have their season, and a time to every purpose under heaven: a time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to reap". (Ecclesiastes 3:1-2)

Many biodynamic cultivators plant and harvest with respect to lunar phases and planetary aspects, and they swear by the results. Almanacs and calendars offer traditional lore for the consideration of farmers. Some of these practices are ancient and universal, occurring with variations in many cultures around the world.

Many of these beliefs are grounded in fact. The sun, moon, and planets are surrounded by magnetospheres which trail behind them for millions of miles like wakes behind ships. These fields affect life on earth by modifying atmospheric electrical field conditions and the geomagnetic field.

In 1938, Dr Harry Marvis announced the discovery that stars exercise a daily influence on terrestrial weather. Sidereal air pressure, or barometric variations in relation to the positions of stars, is sometimes as high as 3% of that occurring in common storms.

The zodiacal signs exert a fruitful or barren influence upon Earth through the channel of Luna, according to the nature of the sign through which the moon is passing. The time to plant is when the Sun and Earth’s horizon (the Ascendant or Rising Sign) are in favorable signs (Figure 1). The optimal day for planting is when the Moon also enters that sign.

Leafy vegetable crops that grow above ground should be planted during a new or waxing moon in Pisces, Taurus, Cancer or Scorpio. Trees and crops requiring longer than one year to produce should be planted during a full or waning moon in Taurus. Subsoil crops (potatoes, peanuts, carrots, etc.) should be planted under a waning moon.

Figure 1: Astrological Ascendant Calculator ~

Figure 2: Lunar Phases & Plant Growth ~

As indicated in Figure 2, seeds that have a short (up to 7 days) or extra-long (one month) germination period should be sown two days before the new moon, up to 7 days later.

During the first week of its cycle, the moon’s light increases, and its gravitational pull decreases. The relative influence of terrestrial gravity increases at that time, stimulating balanced growth of leaves and roots. In the second week, lunar gravity increases, and its light increases to a maximum. Leaf growth increases during that period. During the third week, both moonlight and lunar gravity decrease, and root growth is enhanced accordingly. Transplant at that time. In the fourth week, lunar gravity increases, and moonlight decreases. Both leaf and root growth decrease during this rest phase.

Traditional sources suggest that flower seeds should be plants during the crescent moon unless seeds are desired; in that case, sow just before the Full Moon. Seeds planted when Luna is in Capricorn produce rapid growth, but poor yields. Seeds planted under an Aquarian moon will rot or produce watery fruit.

Cancer and Scorpio are fruitful signs which prompt germination and assure abundant yields. Leaf growth is greater when water signs are effective. Root growth is best in Earth signs. The Fire signs stimulate the rapid growth of seeds and fruit. Air signs promote the growth of lowers.

Prepare the soil, pull weeds, and fight pests during the new moon phase in a barren sign (Aries, Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, or Aquarius). Lay mulch under the Full Moon, and turn manure and compost piles during the waning moon. Apply it at the new or half moon. Irrigate and feed plants when the moon is in a Water sign.

Harvest under a full or waning moon in a barren sign. If timber is cut under the full moon in Leo, it will last longer than wood cut at any other time, and it will not become worm-eaten. Trees planted under a waxing moon will produce more fruit, while trees planted during the dark phase of the moon will produce better quality fruit.

Astro-Meteorology ~

Weather prediction by astro-meteorology is a highly refined area of sidereal science which has claimed an amazing 90%-plus record of accuracy for both short- and long-term forecasts of weather patterns. This system is an accumulation of tried-and-true observational data going back several millennia.

The subject was widely popularized by Joseph Goodavage in his book, Our Threatened Planet (1978, Simon & Schuster), in which he represented the work of pioneers such as Dr Irving Krick, Dr Andrew Douglass, George McCormack and others. According to Goodavage, the sun has entered a period of prolonged and violent instability with which we must cope. Modern astronomy has confirmed Goodavage’s prediction.

Classical horoscopic weather prediction is based on forecasts of the influences of the planets in solstice or equinox horoscopes. Each zodiacal sign colors the characteristics of the planets occupying that region. For instance, a "wet" planet such as Luna indicates extra-wet weather when it is located in a water sign; much drier conditions are indicated when Luna is in a fire sign.

Half of the total influence of a weather horoscope should be judged from the 4th house cusp and planets therein, and their aspects. The 4th house governs the locale.

One quarter of the total influence of ingress weather charts should be judged from the first house, from its occupying planets and their aspects, from the sign on its cusp, and from the planet ruling the cusp sign, the sign it is in, and its aspects.

One-eighth of the influence of a weather chart is judged from the planet for which the chart is erected. Sol = temperature, Luna = moisture, Mercury = air. For example, if Sol is in Aries, then Mars, the ruling planet of Aries, and its aspects also must be considered.

One-eighth of the influence on weather is to be judged by the planets in angular houses, their aspects, and the signs they occupy.

The temperature chart gives an average indication of the weather, but indications of storms should be compared with both air and moisture charts for that time.

The primary mutual aspects are the conjunction, opposition, square and trine, but even the minor aspects are effective. Trines and sextiles are not necessarily beneficial, but they tend to exert a more gentle influence than the inharmonious aspects (square and opposition). Interpretation depends on the planetary positions in the signs and houses, and the aspects and parallels of declination to other planets, and the ascendant of the chart and the aspects to it by transiting planets. Table 1 lists indicators of weather attributes of the planets and signs.

Table 2 is Dr Adam Clark’s system for predicting the weather throughout the lunations forever. It foretells the weather that is most likely to occur during each phase of the moon.

The nearer to midnight that the moon changes its phase in the full and last quarter, the better the weather will be for the seven days following. The time span for this calculation of from 10 pm to 2 am.

The nearer to noon (from 10 am to 2 pm) that the moon changes phase, the more wet weather may be expected for the next week. These observations are for the summer season, though they also are adaptable to spring and fall observations. Changing phases of the moon occurring from 4 pm to 10 pm may be followed by fair weather, depending on the wind, as indicated in Table 2.

Table 1 ~ Astro-Meteorology

Planet ~ Temperature ~ Wind ~ Moisture

Sun ~ warm ~ still ~ dry
Moon ~ cool ~ breeze ~ wettest
Mercury ~ cold ~ windy ~ dry
Venus ~ pleasant ~ light ~ rain
Mars ~ hot/cold ~ still/storm ~ wet/drought
Jupiter ~ warm ~ calm, light ~ dry
Saturn ~ cold ~ still/storm ~ wet/drought
Uranus ~ cold snaps ~ gusty ~ dry, lightning
Neptune ~ cool ~ still/storm ~ mist, fog
Pluto ~ cool ~ windy, extremes ~ moist, sleet

Sign ~ Temperature ~ Wind ~ Moisture

Aries ~ hot ~ windy ~ dry (1st or 4th moon: violent)
Taurus ~ moderate ~ calm ~ wet
Gemini ~ cold ~ fickle windy ~ dry
Cancer ~ cold ~ calm, zephyr ~ steady rain
Leo ~ hot ~ still ~ dry
Virgo ~ cold ~ cutting wind ~ dry
Libra ~ cool, windy ~ dry
Scorpio ~ cold/hot ~ violent ~ drier/wetter
Sagittarius ~ warm ~ moderate ~ dry
Capricorn ~ extremes ~ increasing wind ~ wet
Aquarius ~ cold ~ moderate ~ dry, lightning
Pisces ~ cool ~ calm ~ rain

Table 2 ~ Dr Adam Clark’s System of Astro-Meteorology

Time of Change
Between ~ In Summer ~ In Winter

12 midnight-2 am ~ fair ~ frost unless wind S or W
2-4 am ~ cold, showers ~ cold, storm
4-6 am ~ rain ~ rain
6-8 am ~ wind, rain ~ stormy
8-10 am ~ change by 6 pm ~ cold if wind W, snow if E
10-12 noon ~ showers ~ cold wind
Noon-2 pm ~ rain ~ rain, snow
2-4 pm ~ changing ~ fair
4-6 pm ~ fair ~ fair
6-8 pm ~ fair if wind SW ~ frosty if wind N or NE
8-10 pm ~ rain if wind SW ~ rain, snow if wind S or SW
10-12 midnight ~ rain if wind SW ~ fair, frosty

References ~

Marvis, Dr H. B.: Journal American (NY), 1 Oct. 1938
Goss, M.: J. Geophysical Reviews, March 1953.
Jevons, W. S.: Nature, 14 Nov 1878.
Hove, Jim Ten: Astrological J. 15 (3): 17-23
Luby, W. A.: Popular Astronomy, Dec. 1940.
Nelson, John H.: Cosmic Patterns: Their Influence on Man and His Communications; 1974, American Federation of Astrologers.
Nelson, J. H.: RCA Review, April 1951.
Nelson, J. H.: J. Geocosmic Research, Summer 1974.
Abbot, C. G.: Scientific Monthly, April 1946.
Clough, H. W.: Monthly Weather Review, April 1946.
Gillette, H. P.: Water & Sewage Works, June 1946.
Gree, Joseph: Astrological Almanac; Pyramid Communications, NY



Biochemical Stimulation of Plant Growth

by Robert Nelson

Besides the Biodynamic Formulas, there exist several other methods of stimulating seed germination and plant growth with non-toxic substances. Several other methods are in general use by farmers:

(1) Nutrient Presoaking ~ Presoak seeds in a solution of nutrients that will add to the vigor of the seeds. Pure water tends to dissolve out substances contained in the seeds’ shells that are needed for the germination and growth. One easy method of stimulating the germination of seeds is to soak them in an aqueous extract of the full-grown plant from the preceding crop. Low-voltage direct electrical current can facilitate the electrophoresis of nutrients into the seeds, as described in the review of ElectroCulture.

(2) Acid Scarification ~ This technique is recommended for thick-shell seeds. Place dry seeds in a glass container and cover them with concentrated sulfuric acid (sp. gr 1.84) for 5 minutes. Pour off the acid and wash the seeds very thoroughly with fresh water to remove any residual acid. Never add water to the acid; it will spatter violently. Always add acid to the water. The seeds should be planted immediately while wet.

(3) Moist-Chilling ~ Also known as Vermiculization or Stratification, this technique of preconditioning seeds accelerates the after-ripening of seeds by exposing them to low temperature (0-10 degrees), moisture, and air for a period of time. Moist chilling is most effective when applied after hot water presoaking. Seeds are mixed with two volumes of sand and are kept in plastic bags in a refrigerator or outdoors. At the end of the after-ripening period some of the seeds may begin to germinate while in storage. The seeds can be separated from their medium by shaking the mixture on a screen. The seeds should be planted immediately before they dry out.

(4) Thiourea ~ Aqueous solutions (0.5-3%) stimulate germination, but inhibit later growth. Therefore seeds should be soaked no longer than 12 hours, and must be thoroughly rinsed with fresh water.

(5) Potassium Nitrate ~ Seeds will germinate faster when placed in sand moistened with 0.2% aqueous potassium nitrate. Rewater with pure water rather than additional nitrate solution.

(6) Hydrogen Peroxide ~ 30% hydrogen peroxide also is effective as a stimulant of germination. Very dilute hydrogen peroxide also accelerates later growth if used only occasionally.

(7) Gibberillin ~ When seeds absorb water, the hormone gibberillin appears in the embryo and is translocated to the aleurone layer, where it activates the metabolism to initiate sprouting. Gibberillin causes the rapid growth of beans and bamboo, which contain large amounts of the hormone.

Gibberillin is not, however, appropriate for application to all plants. In most cases, gibberillin increases the thickness and internodal length of the stalk. Sometimes the terminal nodes are weak branching is suppressed, and the roots develop poorly. The number of flowers increase, and they are larger. Germination and flowering are stimulated, but leaf growth and chlorophyll production are reduced proportionately.

Gibberillin is extracted from cucumber seeds, fresh cantelope seeds, dried corn kernels, and from pencil rod, lupine, and pinto beans. Soak 200 gr of powdered seeds for one week in 110 ml of a mixture of acetone (10 parts), isopropyl alcohol (5 parts) ethanol (2 parts) and water (5 parts). Filter the mush and rinse it with 20 ml acetone and 20 ml isopropyl alcohol. Combine the rinse and mother liquor, evaporate the solvent, and dissolve the residual gum in alkaline water for experimental use.

(8) Auxin ~ Auxin is the general name of a group of plant hormones that includes indole-acetic-, -propionic-, and -butyric-acids. Auxins are active in many platn functions, such as stem growth, root development, and flowering.

The sexual expression of plants is strongly influenced by the amount of auxin present during the flowering phase. Other factors being equal, females develop with higher levels of auxin.

Combine auxin (1:5000 water) with vitamin B-1 (1 ppm) to increase the effect of both nutrients, which are available in commercial preparations.

(9) Triacontanol ~ This fatty acid is found in many plants. It increases growth rates and yields up to 25%, and increases the protein content, even in darkness, when most plants are dormant. It seems to enhance the growth of plants without increasing their consumption of nitrogen.

Triacontanol is non-toxic, and incredibly potent. The applied dosage is one part in 10 million of water, applied as a foliar spray. The simplest way to use triacontanol is to plow under a crop of alfalfa, which contains relatively large amounts of the substance. Other common sources include cotton, apples, and sunflower seeds (which contain up to 8% in the fatty acid fraction).

Triacontanol is extracted from dried plants by chloroform, which is then filtered and evaporated. Extract the residue with acetone, filter and evaporate the acetone, and extract the residue with petroleum ether to yield crude triacontanol. It can be purified by reverse chromatography.

Other stimulants of plant growth include: ascorbic acid (vitamin C); use one to five parts in 10,000 of water. Dilute camphor also stimulates plant growth.


Biodynamic Activated Ferments

by Robert Nelson

Biodynamic cultivators stimulate plant growth and enlive compost and manure heaps with "activated ferments" of select plants: Oak bark, Dandelion, Yarrow, Stinging Nettle, and Valerian.

The preparation of these activated ferments may seem bizarre, yet they are very potent and virtually magical in effect when concocted correctly and applied in homeopathic dilution as described elsewhere in this article.

Activated Oak Bark ~

Obtain the skull of any domestic animal. The skull must be new and undamaged. Remove the brain through the occipital foramen of the cranium with a small stick, then immediately fill the skull with pulverized oak bark. Close the opening with a piece of bone, and bury the skull in a wet place during winter. The skull can be buried in a leaky barrel filled with compost. The activated oak bark will be ready by spring. It is to be diluted by homeopathic potentization and applied as a spray to the soil, copost pile or manure heap. The activated oak bark influences the calcium process in plants.

Activated Dandelion ~

Dandelion ferment affects the relationships of silicic acid and potassium in the plant organism. Collect young dandelion flowers, dry them, and fill the mesentery of an ox with them. Keep this in a cool, dry place covered with peat moss until October, then bury it in the soil during winter. By Easter it will be ready for use in the compost heap. The dandelion ferment is applied at a rate of one or two grams in 10-20- ml water per 2 cubic meters of compost.

Chamomile Preparation ~

Collect the flowers in May or June, dry them carefully, and store them in glass jars until autumn. Then obtain a large, fresh piece of cow intestine, cut it into 12-inch sections, and stuff them with the flowers to form sausages. Bury them in good soil during the winter, and dig them up in the spring. Use one or two grams of ferment per three cubic meters of compost.

Activated Yarrow ~

Obtain the fresh bladder from a stag and fill it with yarrow, then dew the hole. Hand the bladder in the sunlight during the summer. It must be protected from birds by a cloth-covered wooden frame. During the autumn and winter it must be buried in the earth until spring. Keep the finished preparation in the bladder, and use one or two grams to enliven manure or compost heaps by sulfur processes.
Stinging Nettle Preparation ~

Collect as many young nettles as you can, let them fade a little, then bury them in the ground. Isolate the plants from the soil with a layer of peat moss above and below. They must remain buried for one winter and summer. They are to be added in small amounts to the compost pile, Activated nettles affect silica processes in their sphere of influence.

Activated Valerian ~

This plant is prepared in a simple manner: collect its flowers, moisten them with lukewarm rain water, and keep them in a loosely stoppered jar for several days. Then squeeze the juice from the flowers, and preserve this tincture. Prepare a 7x or 8x potency solution of this tincture and apply it as a spray.

Silica Preparation ~

Fill a cow’s horn with a paste of fine mesh silica gel. Bury the horn about 3 feet deep in good soil, leave it for the summer, and dig it up in the autumn. Keep it intact until it is needed. Use one gram of this silica preparation dissolved in one liter of lukewarm rain water. The silica must be very well stirred for at least two hours. Then dilute the solution with an additional 9 liters of rainwater. Spray the plants at the rate of 10 liters per acre. Silica applied in this manner protects plants from insects, and gives seeds greater resistance to harsh weather.

Homeopathic Potentization ~

Biodynamic farmers apply the activated ferments in extremely dilute solutions, called "homeopathic potencies", to stimulate plant growth and the fermentation of compost.

Homeopathic preparations work by virtue of the specific "vital essence" of a substance, liberated from the material form by the process of "potentization" (dilution and vibration). The quintessence permeates the compost, soil and plants like astral perfume, and affects plant growth with subtle yet powerful forces of the cosmos.

Homeopathic formulas are prepared by grinding the substance into fine powder; one part of this powder is mixed by grinding with nine parts of lactose (milk sugar), thus forming a "1x potency". The grinding process is called "trituration". By another method of preparation, the substance is diluted with nine parts of water or alcohol. The solution must be stirred vigorously, and/or stimulated with select frequencies by a signal generator. This treatment with vibrations is called "succussion".

Homeopathic remedies are prepared in successive dilutions on a decimal scale. A 1:9 dilution is a 1x potency; 1:100 is 2x; 1:1000 is 3x, and so on. Each time the next higher potency is prepared, one part of the preceding potency is diluted with 9 parts of water or lactose. Some triturated powders can be prepared in a lapidary tumbler, using steel balls to do the grinding. A blender also can be used to prepare both triturations and successions.

From a chemical standpoint, the quantity of the triturated substance in a homeopathic dose of 6x or higher is negligible, being scarcely a trace, yet the effects are clearly pronounced. Homeopathic theory posits that the mechanical energy applied by trituration and succussion distends the molecules of the original substance, thus altering the fundamental nature and releasing its essential energy.



 

"Termites Repelled By Catnip Oil"


Source: Southern Research Station - USDA Forest Service
Date: 2003-03-26

NEW ORLEANS, LA - Known for its intoxicating effects on felines, catnip oil may also have a future in termite control. Recent experiments by USDA Forest Service researcher Chris Peterson show that catnip oil repels and even kills termites in a laboratory setting.

Peterson, a researcher with the Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS), and fellow researcher Janice Ems-Wilson, a chemist at Valencia Community College in Orlando, FL, presented the results of their research at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society held March 23 - 27 in New Orleans.

An entomologist with the SRS Wood Products Insect Research unit in Starkville, MS, Peterson has been testing essential catnip oil as a possible replacement for the more toxic pesticides presently used to control termites. Probably the most common termite control method is treating the soil next to wood structures with chemical compounds: some of the active ingredients of traditional termiticides, such as chlordane and chlorpyrifos, have lost their registrations in the U.S. due to their toxicity. New, more eco-friendly compounds are being sought to fill the void.

The search for new termiticidal products is active. "The USDA Forest Service routinely tests about three new termite formulations for effectiveness every year, with a new active ingredient tested about once in every two years," said Peterson. "Natural compounds from plants, bacteria, and fungi could provide new commercial products that are less toxic to humans and the environment."

For their termite study, Peterson and Ems-Wilson infused sand with catnip essential oil--the kind routinely sold in pet stores--to test the effectiveness of the oil as a barrier to termite tunneling. To test vertical tunneling, the researchers placed yellow pine sapwood in the bottom of a test tube filled with sand. A two-inch barrier of catnip-treated sand separated the termites in the top layer of untreated sand from the pine. To test horizontal tunneling, the researchers constructed a barrier of treated sand across the middle of a transparent box of sand, again with the tempting pine placed across the barrier from the termites. In both tests, catnip oil reduced or eliminated termite tunneling.

Peterson and Ems-Wilson also tested the catnip oil for its toxicity to termites by treating them directly with a dilution of the oil, fumigating them, and exposing them to catnip-infused soil. The researchers carefully counted the termites in the multiple tests on barriers to make sure the barrier-effect they found was not due to termite mortality.

"At higher concentrations, the oil does kill termites, but not as effectively as the commercial compounds currently used in soil treatments," said Peterson. "Our results show that catnip oil is a very effective deterrent to termite tunneling, with the effective doses tested much lower than those reported for similar natural products."

Unfortunately, catnip oil breaks down quickly in the environment. The chemicals now used to prevent termite infestation must remain effective for more than five years in government testing. "There is the inevitable tradeoff," said Peterson. "Chemicals that last a long time also have greater potential for environmental damage. We hope that the active ingredients in catnip oil can eventually be modified to last longer."

Peterson emphasizes that his experiments are preliminary: catnip oil has not been officially tested for safety and effectiveness in the field. "The other factor is cost," said Peterson. "Catnip oil is much too expensive to use at effective rates when compared to other compounds. Until a way is found to produce the oil competitively and formulate it for long-term use, its only practical use would be for controlling isolated populations of termites."

The mission of the SRS Wood Products Insect Research unit is to improve the protection of wood products from subterranean termite damage, define the role of termites in forest ecosystems, and understand their impact on forest health. For more information: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/termites/research.htm



 

Companion Plants

Amaranth -- Corn, Onion, Potato
Angelica -- Incompatible with Dill
Anise -- Beans, Coriander /// Incompatible with Basil, Rue
Apple -- Chives /// Incompatible with: Potato
Asparagus -- Basil, Marigold, Nasturnium, Parsley, Tomato /// Incompatible with Mint, Onion
Basil -- Beans, Cabbage, Marigold, Pepper, Tomato -- Incompatible with Rue
Beans -- Beets, Borage, Cabbage, Carrot, Cauliflower, Celery, Collards, Corn, Cucumber, Nasturnium, Petunia, Potato, Squash, Strawberry, Summer Savory, Sunflower, Tomato /// Incompatible with Chives, Onion, Garlic, Fennel, Gladiolus, Leek
Bee Balm -- Tomato /// Incompatible with Field Mustard
Beets -- Basil, Bush beans, Cabbage, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Onion, Sage, Tomato /// Incompatible with Pole beans, Mustard
Borage -- Squash, Strawberry, Tomato
Broad Beans -- Corn /// Incompatible with Kohlrabi
Broccoli -- Beans, Celery, Chamomile, Dill, Mints, Nasturtium, Onion, Oregano, Potato, Rosemary, Sage /// Incompatible with Lettuce, Strawberry, Tomato
Brussel Sprouts -- Beans, Celery, Dill, Hyssop, Mints, Nasturtium, Potato, Rosemary, Sage /// Incompatible with Strawberry
Cabbage -- Aromatic herbs (repel Cabbage Worms), Bush Beans, Beets, Celery, Chamomile, Dill, Geranium, Hyssop, Lavender, Marigold, Mint, Nasturnium, Onions, Oregano, Potato, Rosemary, Sage, Tansy, Thyme, Tomato /// Incompatible with Dill, Grapes, Mustards, Rue, Strawberries, Tomatoes
Calendula -- Tomato (Repels tomato worms, asparagus beetles)
Caraway -- Peas /// Incompatible with Fennel
Carrots -- Chervil, Chives, Leaf lettuce, Leeks, Onion, Peas, Radish, Rosemary, Sage, Tomato, Wormwood /// Incompatible with Anise, Dill
Cauliflower -- Beans, Beet, Celery, Chamomile, Dill, Hyssop, Lavender, Mints, Nasturtium, Onion, Oregano, Radish /// Incompatible with Dill, Strawberries, Tomatoes
Celery --Beans, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Leek, Onion, Spinach, Tomato /// Incompatible with Corn
Chamomile -- Cabbage, Mint, Onion, Squash
Chervil -- Carrots, Radish
Chives -- Carrots, Grapes, Parsley, Tomato /// Incompatible with Peas, Beans
Collard Greens -- Tomatoes
Coriander -- Anise, Potato /// Incompatible with Fennel
Corn -- Amaranth, Beans, Cucumber, Geranium, Lamb's Quarters, Melons, Morning Glory, Peas, Potato, Pumpkin, Sow Thistle, Squash, Sunflower  /// Incompatible with Celery, Tomato
Cucumbers -- Beans, Broccoli, Celery, Corn, Lettuce, Marigold, Nasturnium, Onion, Peas, Radish, Savory, Sunflower, Tomato  /// Incompatible with: Potato, Rue, Sage
Dill -- Cabbage, Lettuce, Onion /// Incompatible with Carrot, Tomato
Eggplant -- Amaranth, Beans, Peas, Spinach, Tarragon, Thyme
Fennel -- Incompatible with Beans, Caraway, Dill, Fennel, Kohlrabi, Tomato, Wormwood
Fig -- Incompatible with Rue
Flax -- Carrot, Potatoes
Garlic -- Beets, Carrots, Chamomile, Lettuce, Raspberry,  Roses, Tomato, Summer savory /// Incompatible with Beans, Cabbage, Peas, Strawberries
Grapes -- Clover, Geranium, Hyssop, Oregano /// Incompatible with Cabbage, Radish
Hyssop -- Cabbage, Grape
Kohlrabi -- Beets, Cucumber, Onion /// Incompatible with Pole Beans, Pepper, Strawberry, Tomato
Leek -- Carrots, Celery, Onions /// Incompatible with Beans, Broccoli
Lettuce -- Beet, Cabbage, Carrot, Clover, Corn, Cucumber, Melon, Onion, Peanuts, Peas, Radish, Strawberry, Sunflower
Lovage -- Beans
Melons -- Corn, Nasturnium, Radish
Mint -- Cabbage, Tomatoes  /// Incompatible with Chamomile, Parsley
Nettle -- Increases the oil production of herbs
Onions -- Amaranth, Beets, Cabbage, Carrot, Celery, Chamomile, Leeks, Lettuce, Pepper, Potato, Roses, Sow Thistle, Strawberry, Summer savory, Tomato /// Incompatible with Beans, Peas
Oregano -- Cabbage, Cucumber
Parsley -- Asparagus, Carrot, Chives, Onions, Roses, Tomato /// Incompatible with Mint
Petunia -- Beans
Peanuts -- Squash, Corn
Peas -- Aromatic herbs, Beans, Carrots, Corn, Cucumber, Eggplant, Lettuce, Potato, Radish, Spinach, Turnips /// Incompatible with Garlic, Gladiolus, Leek, Onion, Potoato, Shallots
Peppers -- Basil, Carrot, Lovage, Marjoram, Onion, Oregano /// Incompatible with Fennel, Kohlrabi
Plum -- Horseradish
Pole Beans -- Radish // Incompatible with Beets, Sunflower
Potatoes -- Amaranth, Beans, Corn, Cabbage, Eggplant, Flax, Horseradish, Lettuce, Lima Beans, Marigold, Onion, Petunia  /// Incompatible with Cucumber, Pumpkin, Radish, Raspberry, Sunflower, Squash, Tomato
Pumpkin -- Corn, Dastura /// Incompatible with Apple, Potato, Raspberry, Rosemary, Tomato
Radishes --  Beans, Beets, Carrots, Chervil, Cucumber, Lettuce, Melons, Nasturnium, Parsnips, Peas, Spinach, Squash  /// Incompatible with:  Brussels sprouts, Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Grape, Hyssop, Kohlrabi, Potato, Turnips
Raspberry -- Tansy /// Incompatible with Potato
Rhubarb -- Columbine, Garlic, Onion, Roses
Rose -- Beans, Cabbage, Carrot, Sage /// Incompatible with Potato
Rosemary -- Beans, Cabbage, Carrots, Sage /// Incompatible with Potatoes
Rue -- Figs, Raspberry, Rose, Strawberry /// Incompatible with Basil, Cabbage, Sage
Sage -- Beans, Cabbage, Carrot, Marjoram, Peas, Rosemary, Strawberry, Tomato /// Incompatible with Cucumber, Rue
Savory -- Beans, Onions
Southernwood -- Cabbage
Sowthistle -- Corn, Onions, Tomato
Soybeans -- Everything
Spinach -- Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celery, Eggplant, Onion, Peas, Strawberry
Squash -- Beans, Corn, Cucumbers, Icicle radishes, Mint, Nasturnium, Onion /// Incompatible with Potatoes
Strawberries -- Beans, Borage, Comfrey, Lettuce, Onion, Spinach /// Incompatible with Broccoli, Brussle Sprouts, Cabbage, Califlower, Kohlrabi
Sunflower -- Cucumber /// Incompatible with Cabbage
Tansy -- Fruits, Peppers, Potato, Rose, Raspberry
Thyme -- Cabbage
Tomatoes --  Asparagus, Basil, Bee Balm, Carrot, Celery, Chives, Garlic, Lemon Balm, Onions, Marigold, Mint, Nasturtium, Parsley, Peas, Sage /// Incompatible with Cabbage, Cauliflower, Corn, Dill, Fennel, Kohlrabi, Potato
Turnip -- Peas

Insect-Repellant Plants


Basil -- Flies, Mosquitoes, Asparagus Beetle
Borage -- Tomato Worm
Calendula -- Asparagus Beetles, Tomato Worms
Catnip -- Ants, Aphids, Cockroaches, Flea Beetle, Japanese Beetles
Chrysanthemum -- Mexican Bean Beetle
Cosmos -- Mexican Bean Beetle
Coriander -- Aphids
Dandelion -- Colorado Potato Beetle
Dead Nettle -- Potato Beetle
Fennel -- Fleas
Flax -- Potato Beetle
Garlic -- Aphids, Apple Scab, Borers, Japanese Beetles, Peach Leaf Curl Disease, Spider Mites
Geranium -- Cabbage Worm, Red Spider Mite
Henbit -- General insect repellant
Horseradish -- Potato Beetle
Hyssop -- Cabbage Moth
Lavender -- Mice, Ticks, Moths
Marigold -- Mexican Bean Beetle, Nematodes
Mint -- Ants, Aphids, Cabbage Moth, Fleas, Mice
Mole Plant -- Mice, Moles
Nasturnium -- White Flies, Squash Bugs, Striped Pumpkin Beetle, Wooly Aphid (apple)
Oregano -- Cabbage Butterfly, Cucumber Beetle
Parsley -- Beetles
Pennyroyal -- Fleas, Flies, Mosquitoes
Pot Marigold -- Asparagus Beetle, Tomato Worm
Radish -- Cucumber Beetle
Rosemary -- Bean Beetles, Cabbage Moth, Carrot Fly
Rue -- Flies, Japanese Beetle, Cats, Dogs
Sage -- Bean beetle, Cabbage Moth, Carrot Fly, Slugs
Southernwood -- Cabbage Moth
Sunflower -- Armyworm
Tansy -- Ants, Fleas, Flies, Japanese Beetle, Moths, Striped Cucumber Beetles, Squash Bugs
Thyme -- Cabbage Worm
Wormwood -- Animals

Beneficial Parasitoid Wasps and Hoverflies are attracted to: Alyssum, Buckwheat, Cilantro, Fennel, Mustard, Phacelia, and Yarrow (J. Luna, et al., Organic Farming Research 6:7-9)

"Pollen and Nectar plants" that attract beneficial predator insects: Carrot, Catnip, Coneflowers, Daisy, Dill, Fennel, Goldenrod, Lemon Balm, Mint, Parsley, Peppermint, Spearmint, Thyme, Yarrow.

Note: Whiteflies are a vector for Tomato Yellow Leaf Virus. Several people on GardenWeb have experimented with cups of liquid Sevin bainted with clove oil or tayuya root powder to control cucumber beetle, and recommend it for whitefly also.


Beneficial Insects


Assassin Bug -- Caterpillars, Flies
Big-Eyed Bug -- Aphids, Caterpillars, Leafhoppers, Mites; attracted by Clover, Goldenrod, Soybeans.
Braconid Wasp -- Aphids, Armyworm, Cabbageworm, Cornborer, Codling Moth, Elm Bark Beetle, Horn Worm; Attracted by Dill, Parsley, Yarrow.
Damselbug -- Aphids, Caterpillars, Leafhoppers, Thrips; Attracted by Alfalfa.
Ground Beetle -- Caterpillars, Cabbage Maggot, Colorado Potato Beetle Larvae, Cutworms, Slugs, Snails; Attracted by Clover.
Honeybee -- Pollinator
Hover Fly (Syrphid Fly) -- Aphids
Ichneumon Wasp -- Beetle larvae, Caterpillars, Sawfly,
Lacewing -- Aphids, Corn Earworms, Mites, Thrips
Lady Beetle -- Aphids
Minute Pirate Bug -- Leafhopper nymphs, Spider mites, Thrips
Predatory Mite -- European Red Mites, Spider Mites
Praying Mantis -- Also predates beneficials
Rove Beetle -- Aphids, Cabbage Maggot, Flies, Mites, Springtails
Soldier Beetle --  Aphids, Beetle larvae, Caterpillars, Corn Rootworm, Cucumber Beetle, Grasshopper eggs ; Attracted by Goldenrod, Milkweed, Hydrangea
Spined Soldier Bug -- Caterpillars, Sawfly larvae
Tachinid Fly -- Caterpillars
Tiger Beetle -- General predator
Yellowjacket -- Flies, caterpillars
ElectroCulture Patents (US Cl. 47/1.3)

 
USP # 3,935,670
Apparatus for Selectively Applying Electrical Current to Plants
Ricks H. Pluenneke /  Willis G. Dykes
February 3, 1976
Abstract ~ Apparatus for destroying selected plants by the application of electricity thereto. A source of high-voltage electrical current is mounted on a moveable platform, and a grounding wheel or the like is provided for insuring safety of the apparatus by grounding various electrical source components. A conductive tip portion of a non-conductive staff member may be connected to the source of current by a cord, and an operator controlled switch in a secondary control circuit is mounted on the staff member. The switch is normally open so that the conductive tip portion will not be energized should the operator release his grip on the staff member. By actuating the switch and bringing the tip portion into mere touching engagement with a plant stem, plant destruction may be effected.
 

USP # 3,940,885
Process and Equipment for Treating Seeds and Product Thereof
Oscar S. Gray
March 2, 1976
Abstract ~ Seeds are subjected to microwave energy and a coolant gas, then subjected to a partial vacuum to stimulate growth and stabilize such stimulation. Seeds so treated have superior growth characteristics and are more resistant to disease and weather hazards. Apparatus for effecting this process is also disclosed.
 

USP # 4,007,794
Top Desiccation of Crop Plants
Ricks H. Pluenneke /  Willis G. Dykes
February 15, 1977
Abstract ~ The above-ground growth of potatoes and like root crops are contacted with high voltage electricity several days prior to harvesting, the electricity desiccating the above-ground portion of the crops while not harming the tubers. A no-load voltage of about 20 kv with an energy density of about 11-15 kw/foot of width treated is effective. Low-bush blueberries, and like perennial crops, are pruned by contacting the above-ground growth thereof with electricity. Pruning, in the case of blueberries, is most effective when done approximately every other year in the case of blueberries, a no-load voltage of 10-20 kv with an energy density of about 2-3 kw/foot of width treated being effective.
 

USP # 4,020,590
Apparatus and Method for Exposing Seeds to a Magnetic Field
Albert R. Davis
May 3, 1977
Abstract ~ Apparatus for magnetically treating seeds comprises a magnet for producing a unipolar magnetic field, an enclosed generally cylindrical housing having a closable access opening therein in which said seeds are placed for treatment, drive means associated with the housing for rotating said housing and imparting rolling and tumbling motion to the seeds within the housing, the housing being disposed with respect to the magnet such that the seeds move through the magnetic field as they roll and tumble. By magnetically treating the seeds in a unipolar magnetic field while rolling and tumbling the seeds, the characteristics of plants grown therefrom are favorably altered.
 

USP # 4,047,326
Vascular Contact Rotating and Stationary Abrading Electrode Devices for Electric Weed Killing
Robert C. Tibbs
September 13, 1977
Abstract ~ Undesirable vegetation or weeds are destroyed by electrical current conducted therethrough by prolonged contact with electrodes. Internal plant tissues of the vegetation are exposed for electrode contact by removal of electrically resistant external layer portions through abrasion of the plant stems or stalks along a path of movement of the apparatus to reduce the electrical energy requirements for plant destroying purposes.
 

USP # 4,092,800
Vegetation Control
James R. Wayland, Jr., et al.
June 6, 1978
Abstract ~ Microwave transmitters generate electromagnetic energy at a desired frequency in the range of from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Energy derived from the microwave transmitters is coupled into a waveguide for transmission to an energy radiator coupled to the waveguide. The energy radiator, waveguide and microwave transmitters are vehicle mounted such that the radiator is made to pass over areas in which it is desired to control vegetation. Vegetation, including seeds, in the path of energy emitting from the radiator absorbs the energy from the field resulting in internal changes in the plant or seed causing death or debilitation of the vegetation or seed.
 

USP # 4,094,095
Method and Apparatus for Using Electrical Current to Destroy Weeds...
Willis Dykes
June 13, 1978
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for destroying weeds growing in and around crop rows without destruction of crops growing therein. A plurality of electrically conductive spring members are disposed in a generally horizontal plane and connected to a high voltage source of electricity. The spring members have a spring constant such that relatively stiff crops plants will deflect the spring members while relatively flexible weeds will not deflect them. Substantially all of the plants in and around the crop rows are contacted with current-carrying portions of the spring members by moving the spring members relative to the crop rows parallel to the crop rows. A larger dwell time of contact is provided between the spring members and the relatively flexible weeds then the dwell time of contact between the spring members and the relatively stiff crop plant so that the weeds receive sufficient electrical energy to result in destruction thereof, while the crop plants do not receive sufficient electrical energy to result in destruction thereof. The difference in dwell time is provided by forming each spring member so that it has one end connected to a supporting member and the first portion extending from the connected end making a first angle .alpha. with a line along the direction of movement of the spring member, and having a free end with a second portion adjacent the free end making a second angle .beta. with a line along the direction of movement of the spring member, the angle .beta. being substantially greater than the angle .alpha., and by disposing the connected end of the spring member between crop rows while the free end extends into a crop row during movement of the spring member to affect contacting.
 

USP # 4,177,603
Plant Destruction Using Electricity
Willis Dykes
December 11, 1979
Abstract ~ A machine and method for destroying plant growth. A specialty application is provided for plant growth around and between railroad tracks, and a general description is provided for preventing damage to the high voltage source of electricity used for the plant destruction, and for minimizing the number of fires started in dry material accessory to plant destruction. A vehicle with a high voltage electricity source is mounted on railroad tracks, with wheels of each wheel set for the vehicle being electrically isolated, and the high voltage source being grounded through one of the wheels. Special plant contacting devices comprising rounded end generally cylindrical contacting members are provided. The current output of the high voltage source is limited to prevent damage to the high voltage source, and the no-load voltage of the high voltage source is held to generally the same level as the full-load current limited voltage to minimize the number of fires started by the plant contactors.
 

USP # 4,188,751
Magnetic Seed Treating Device
Minoru Saruwatari
February 19, 1980
Abstract ~ A device for magnetically treating seeds prior to planting so as to increase the yield of plants grown from the seeds. The device includes a tubular member provided with an internal support for securing a permanent magnet therein so that as seeds are poured through the tubular member, they are magnetically treated. The magnet, which has opposite poles disposed at opposite ends thereof, is oriented with its longitudinal axis extending in the direction of the passage, the passage adjacent the magnet being of substantially annular shape in cross-section whereby a uniform cylindrical shaped magnetic field occupies the annular passage through which the grain must pass. The tubular member has a converging portion in the direction of seed travel so as to provide an area of maximum constriction adjacent the magnet which results in the seeds being funnelled radially inward towards the more concentrated magnetic field closest to the magnet. The converging or constricted portion may be shaped to provide the flow of seeds along streamlines so that the rate of flow is enhanced.
 

USP # 4,198,781
Plant Destruction Utilizing Electrically Conductive Liquid
Willis Dykes
April 22, 1980
Abstract ~ A machine is provided for destroying plants with electricity comprising a tank adapted to hold electrically conductive liquid, an electrode for placing the electrically conductive liquid in the tank at high electrical potential, including a high voltage source of electricity; nozzles for spraying the electrically conductive liquid on plants to be destroyed; and a structure for grounding the high voltage source. Air pressure provided over the liquid in the tank provides the motive force for spraying, and pneumatically operated valves in line with the nozzles are provided for selectively supplying liquid to the nozzles. In this way, there are no moving parts which are electrically charged. Condition-responsive structures, responsive to plant position, are provided for controlling operation of the pneumatic valves, such as air limit proximity switches. The current output of the high voltage source is limited so that damage to the source is prevented, and the no-load voltage of the high voltage source also is preferably controlled.
 

USP # 4,240,365
Magnetic Seed Planter
Raymond D. Amburn
December 23, 1980
Abstract ~ Planting apparatus including a supporting frame adapted to be connected to a tractor or similar vehicle; a seed hopper mounted on the supporting frame for containing a supply of seeds, and seed metering mechanism spaced beneath the discharge outlet of the seed hopper for controlling the movement of the seeds discharged from the hopper on the ground. A magnetic seed treating device is disposed in the path of seeds discharged from the hopper for causing the seeds to pass through a magnetic field to magnetically treat the seeds as the seeds are planted.
 

USP # 4,291,125
Method for Electronic Control of Infections Using Silver Ions
Wilson Greatbatch
September 22, 1981
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for killing plant and animal bacteria and plant viroids by electrically generated silver ions. The silver ions serve as germicidal agents in infection control and are generated by very slow electrical anodic corrosion of a silver wire located closely adjacent the infection site. In particular, a silver anode and a cathode of non-corroding metal are located in an electrolytic nutrient medium with the silver anode being within five millimeters of the infection site, and a direct voltage is applied to the anode and cathode in a manner passing a positive current in the microampere range into the silver anode causing it to corrode slightly and give off silver ions which produce a germicidal environment about the infection site.
 

USP # 4,302,670

Electrogenic Seed Treater
Andrew Zaderej / Claude E. Corson
November 24, 1981


Abstract ~ Method and apparatus for treating seeds, such as corn, soy beans and rice, in which the seeds are first coated with a mixture of water and enzyme and then subjected to a series of electrical potentials that causes water, ion particles, and nitrogen components to be impregnated within the seed for the purpose of improving the embryonic and growth potential of the seeds.
 

USP # 4,338,743
Safety System for Weed Destroying Apparatus...
Thomas P. Gilmore
July 13, 1982
Abstract ~ Weed destroying apparatus carried on a vehicle has a generator; a step-up transformer having its secondary winding coupled to electrodes for contacting and killing weeds; a programmable semiconductor logic array; a first contactor coupled to an output of the logic array for connecting the generator to the transformer primary winding in the weed killing mode; a second contactor coupled to an output of the logic array for connecting the generator to electrical outlets for supplying electrical power to auxiliary farm equipment in a standby mode; a run/standby switch for providing binary signals to the logic array indicative as to whether the apparatus is to operate in the weed killing mode or the standby mode; a plurality of safety systems each of which has redundant interlock means for preventing an unsafe condition in which high voltage would be a hazard in the weed killing mode and sensing means for providing binary signals to the logic array indicative of whether each interlock means is in the safe condition or an unsafe condition; and a generator frequency interlock for detecting generator frequency in the standby mode and for applying binary signals to the logic array indicative of whether generator frequency is within a predetermined range.
 

USP # 4,338,744
Safety System for Weed Destroying Apparatus
Thomas P. Gilmore
July 13, 1982
Abstract ~ A weed destroying system carried on a vehicle and having electrodes for contacting weeds and a high voltage generator and a step-up transformer for supplying high voltage to the electrodes is provided with a tamper-proof safety system having redundant safety interlocks to effectively ground the vehicle and redundant safety interlocks to prevent energization of the generator until the vehicle is traveling at a predetermined speed and which de-energizes the generator if any one safety interlock is bypassed or fails in an unsafe condition, thereby requiring plural simultaneous failures to create a condition that is hazardous to the operator or to a bystander. The safety system also provides immediately-visible warning of the electrical hazard created by the apparatus and provides visual and aural indications to the operator when a safety interlock has been bypassed or is jammed closed.
 

USP # 4,428,150
Electrode Arrangement for Electric Weed Killing Apparatus
Allois F. Geiersbach
January 31, 1984
Abstract ~ Apparatus for destroying weeds in and around crop rows has a high voltage source of electricity mounted on a vehicle; a coulter wheel for connecting the high voltage source to the ground; a plurality of weed contacting electrodes carried on the vehicle and insulated therefrom; and a plurality of isolating electrical reactance inductors each of which connects a weed contacting electrode to the high voltage source and limits the magnitude of current flowing through the high voltage source when the electrode contacts a weed to thereby minimize the voltage drop across the high voltage source and maintain substantially constant voltage on the remaining electrodes.
 

USP # 4,633,611
Process and Apparatus for Disinfecting Seeds
Siegfried Schiller, et al.
January 6, 1987
Abstract ~ An apparatus and process for the disinfection of seeds, preferably those of grains, to prevent pathogenic organisms from being planted with the seeds, and to provide reliable disinfection without using toxic agents. The seed is irradiated by low-energy electrons with energy and dosage controlled so that the surface and regions close to the surface are exposed to the radiation with fungicidal effect. A beam of the low-energy electrons is provided by an electron gun aimed at a region within a seed-receiving chamber at which the seeds to be irradiated are caused to intercept the radiation repeatedly and on all sides. The chamber may be at atmospheric pressure or be evacuated, the latter condition requiring vacuum locks at seed inlet and outlet ports of the chamber.
 

USP # 4,680,889
Process for Treating Plants
Dan R. Carlson
July 21, 1987
Abstract ~ The present invention is a process for stimulating or inhibiting plant growth and includes the steps of applying a plant growth stimulant or inhibitor and subjecting the plant to high frequency sound waves.
 

USP # 4,758,318
Method for Improvement of Soil
Tadayuki Yoshida
July 19, 1988
Abstract ~ The molds infesting a given soil are extirpated by the flow of a pulsating direct current of not less than 50 mA to prevent a farm product from diseases causable by the aforementioned molds.
 

USP # 4,785,575
Horticultural Device for Raising Garden Plants Utilizing Magnetism
Kazuhiro Shioi
November 22, 1988
Abstract ~ A horticultural device utilizing magnetism for raising plants includes a plate-shaped section in which a fertilizer is imbedded, and a rod-shaped section extending from the bottom side of the plate-shaped section and having a fluid flow passageway, at least a portion of the device having a magnetic property. The rod-shaped section is thrust into soil surrounding a plant until the plant-shaped section contacts the soil surface. The fertilizer carried in the plate-shaped section is gradually dissolved and converted into a magnetized fertilizer solution by watering, the fertilizer solution dispersing itself into the soil through the liquid flow passageway of the rod-shaped section.
 

USP # 4,891,317
Magnetic Alternation of Cellulose During Its Biosynthesis
Malcolm Brown, Jr., et al.
January 2, 1990
Abstract ~ A method of producing cellulose of amorphous character by subjecting cellulose-producing organisms to a magnetic field substantially greater than 0.5 gauss and preferably at least about 500 gauss. The cellulose produced in the presence of a magnetic field is of an amorphous nature with increased water absorptivity and decreased crystallinity.
 

USP # 4,915,915
Water-Powered Piezoelectric Unit for Producing Nitrogen Fertilizer
Richard W. Treharne
April 10, 1990
Abstract ~ A system for producing nitrogen fertilizer using an electric arc process is described in which the electric arc necessary for the process is generated by piezoelectric elements actuated by a hammer mechanism powered by water pressure such as from a garden hose. The nitrogen oxides produced by the arc discharge are drawn into the water to serve as a source of nitrogen fertilizer. The net result of the invention is that the operator can provide nitrogen fertilizer as he supplies water to the same area. The only inputs to this system are air and a source of water under pressure.
 

USP # 5,060,414
Phytotoxicity of a Combined RF and Microwave Electromagnetic Field
J. Robert Wayland
October 29, 1991
Abstract ~ A method and device for vegetation control. More particularly a technique of a plurality of steps in the application of electromagnetic fields of two or more selected but different frequencies, at least one in the ratio frequency range being first applied followed by application of others in the microwave region, to the area in which vegetation is to be controlled.
 

USP # 5,077,934
Method and Apparatus for Controlling Plant Growth
Abraham R. Liboff, et al.
January 7, 1992
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for controlling plant growth is provided. The apparatus includes a magnetic field generator for producing a controlled, fluctuating, directionally oriented magnetic field parallel to a predetermined axis projecting through viable plant material. In one aspect, a magnetic field detector measures the magnetic flux density along the predetermined axis. The applied magnetic field may comprise a full-wave rectified signal oscillated at predetermined frequencies to maintain a preselected ratio of frequency to the non-zero average value of the flux density, where the ratio is effective in altering the natural growth characteristics of the target plant material, such as accelerating growth rate. This ratio is maintained by adjusting the frequency of the fluctuating magnetic field and/or by adjusting the intensity of the applied magnetic field after nulling out or measuring and accounting for the local magnetic field in that region containing the target plant material.
 

USP # 5,097,625
Seeding and Seedling-Growing Sheet and Seeding and Seedling-Growing Method
Tadao Kaneko
March 24, 1992
Abstract ~ The present invention is to provide a seeding and seedling growing sheet and a seeding and seedling-growing method comprising using the sheet, which are to be used for seeding and growing seedling of grain, vegetable, flower and the like, and which are suitable for efficiently seeding at a desirable position and a desirable density with a higher positional precision and for promoting the growth at germination, by employing the seeding and seedling-growing adhesive sheet comprising a sheet support body composed of water-soluble or water-dispersible paper or water-soluble polymer film, an adhesive agent containing a powdery ferromagnetic substance being coated in spots or in stripes on the support body, and by applying the seeding and seedling-growing method comprising using the adhesive sheet.
 

USP # 5,117,579
Method and Apparatus for Applying Fixed Nitrogen to Plants
Willis A. Tellefson
June 2, 1992
Abstract ~ An electrical ion emitting farming implement to be moved over a field of crop planted in earth for above ground atmospheric treatment of growing plants comprising a frame. A series of bell-shaped members are mounted at spaced intervals on a boom across its transversely extended length and with the bell-shaped members opening in a downward direction toward underlying plants in a field of crops. A wire brush-like ion emitter is centrally mounted in each of the bell-shaped members. An electrical circuit ion generating mechanism operatively connected to the wire brush-like ion emitters for emitting electrical ions in the 30 to 50 KV range through the wire brush-like ion emitters. A power source is provided for energizing the electrical circuit means. A control is provided for activating the electrical circuit means for causing ion emission through the wire brush-like ion emitters upon placement of the bell-shaped members in spaced overhead position relative to the plants being treated. The electrical circuit ion generating means includes a pulsed high output ion generator. The generator has at least of pair of selectable frequencies operable in a range of 90 HZ through 400 HZ. is positioned forwardly of the emitters to be dragged in the earth to complete the circuit.
 

USP # 5,141,059
Method and Apparatus for Controlling Agricultural Pests in Soil
Leland C. Marsh
August 25, 1992
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for controlling agricultural pests in soil by the use of microwave energy. By using an agricultural-type implement for the controlled application of microwave energy to the topsoil prior to the planting of crops, germination of weed and other seeds is inhibited and insects are destroyed. Use of microwave energy has no residual effects, thereby practically eliminating any adverse effects on the environment.
 

USP # 5,271,470
Plow Apparatus and Method Using Acoustics
Billy R. King / Walter F.Rausch
December 21, 1993
Abstract ~ The plow apparatus has plow blades to break up the soil in the plowed field. The broken up soil is scooped up with scooper blades by the forward motion of the plow apparatus and then conveyed to rotating tillers. The tillers break up the soil into smaller clumps. The tilled soil is then exposed to acoustical energy provided by acoustical transducers. The acoustical energy is of a sufficiently high intensity so as to kill or destroy weed seeds and insect larvae in the soil. The soil is then returned to the ground.
 

USP # 5,464,456
Electronic Stimulation of Plants
M. Glen Kertz
November 7, 1995
Abstract ~ The invention relates to the electronic stimulation of plant development. More particularly, it relates to the stimulation of plant development through electrifying the environment around a plant or part of a plant with an electrical field, preferably a pulsed field. The present invention also relates to an electronic method of stimulating the active membrane transport systems of growing plants and harvested plant products in order to promote growth and extend the shelf life of harvested material. The invention is of particular interest as it relates to shipment and marketing of cut flowers, greens and trees and more particularly to methods and apparatus for handling, shipping, and marketing of cut flowers.
 

USP # 5,600,918
Apparatus for Killing Weeds
Edwin R. Carr
February 11, 1997
Abstract ~ Apparatus which comprises a housing having a compartment and a shaft, a piezoelectric crystal captured in the compartment of the housing and an actuator assembly slideably disposed in said shaft for selectively applying a compressive force to the crystal is used to kill weeds by impressing a voltage across the roots of the weed. An electrically conductive path is formed between one end of the crystal and ground. A second electrically conductive path is formed between the other end of the crystal and a probe adapted for insertion into the roots of a weed. When a compressive force is applied to the crystal, the voltage generated is passed through the root to ground to kill the root, thereby destroying the weed.
 

USP # 5,740,627
Method and Apparatus for Enhancing Growth Characteristics of Seeds Using Ion-Electron Avalanches
William C. Levengood
April 21, 1998
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for treating seeds with self-organized avalanches of electrons between electrodes (11, 12) as a cathode and an anode with seeds (13) between the anode and cathode or on the anode. Apparatus circuit (200) in a box (20) provides simultaneous DC and AC between the electrodes which creates the avalanche of electrons which project into the seeds. The seeds must be stored before planting. The seeds so treated have enhanced growth characteristics.
 

USP # 5,806,294
Weed Electrifier
Louis C. Strieber
September 15, 1998
Abstract ~ A portable, hand held tool for trimming and electrifying vegetation. The portable, hand swingable, weed trimmer passes electricity through its cutting or trimming element so as to pass electricity into the weeds to kill the roots of the weeds. The tool includes a power unit for rotation of a cutter drive. A pancake generator generates electricity via rotation of the cutter drive. Brushes between the pancake generator and the cutter blade conduct current to the cutter blade, which in turn permits the current to pass into the vegetation as the cutter blade trims the vegetation.
 

USP # 5,819,467
Method of Stimulating Plant Growth
Jonathan M. Zucker
October 13, 1998
Abstract ~ A conductive helical coil is spaced around the stem of a growing plant, and alternating current is passed through the coil to induce an electromotive force in the stem and stimulate growth.
 

USP # 5,868,919
Method and Apparatus for Dissociating Materials
Peter D. Babington, et al.
February 9, 1999
Abstract ~ An apparatus and method of use for dissociating materials includes a power supply, high energy capacitor, high energy trigger device and an probe and reactor arrangement for treating both solid and medium/media materials. A near instantaneous discharge of the electrical charge stored in the capacitor via the probe can be used to dissociate the material, either medium/media or solid, for a desired result. Hazardous materials can be treated to be rendered non-hazardous, rocks or other solid material can be treated for reduction in size, plant seeds can be treated to enhance plant growth surfaces of granular material can be scored or thermally polished and milk, juices and blood could be treated for sterilization.
 

USP # 6,023,880
Method and Apparatus for Enhancing Growth Characteristics of Seeds Using Ion-Electron Avalanches
William C. Levengood / John A. Burke
February 15, 2000
Abstract ~ A method and apparatus for treating seeds with self-organized avalanches of electrons between electrodes (11, 12) as a cathode and an anode with seeds (13) between the anode and cathode or on the anode. Apparatus circuit (200) in a box (20) provides simultaneous DC and AC between the electrodes which creates the avalanche of electrons which project into the seeds. The seeds must be stored before planting. The seeds so treated have enhanced growth characteristics.
 

USP # 6,055,768
Apparatus for Electrically Charging Fluids
Joe E. Burkett
May 2, 2000
Abstract ~ The present invention relates to a method and apparatus to energize a fluid. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a housing defining a bore therethrough within which is disposed an antenna so as to define an annulus between the housing and the antenna, the antenna being electrically coupled to both the housing and an electrical power source so as to create an electrical field through which water or other fluids may be passed [to feed plants].
 

USP # 6,192,622
Mobile Device to Eradicate Red Palm Weevils and Trees Stem Borers
Yosri Moh'd Taher Haj-Yousef
February 27, 2001
Abstract ~ A high frequency power source (4) and (5) supplies electromagnetic waves (10-100 MHz) that are supplied to a single or a pair of plates  that surround a trunk of the infested tree. The electromagnetic waves are used to kill red palm weevils and trees stem borers within the trunk of the tree. The plates are cylindrical, half cylindrical or flat, with insulated metal sheets that surround the trunk and upper roots of the infected tree.
 

USP # 6,237,278
Method and Device for Weed Control
Bertil Persson, et al.
May 29, 2001
Abstract ~ Weed seeds are controlled by high voltage pulses with short duration which electropermeabilize the cell membranes of weed seeds in the ground. The device is selective and damages only germinating weed seeds and plants early in their life cycle. The required amount of energy is small; with rectangular pulses the optimal field strength is between 100-300 kV/m with a duration of (10-100 microseconds). A transformer placed on a sowing machine transforms electrical energy to high voltage pulses. The energy may be taken from the pulling tractor via a transmission or from an integrated power source. The high voltage pulses are applied to electrically conducting via applicators to two or more fixedly spaced plates to the soil around newly sown seeds.
 

USP # 6,539,664
Method and Devices for Treatment of a Biological Material with a Magnetic Field
Alexander Katsen, et al.
April 1, 2003
Abstract ~ A device for the manipulation of a biological material [seeds] by a magnetic field is presented. The device comprises a magnetic field source coupled to a current source. The current source is of a kind supplying an electric current of at least two electrical degree shifted phases. The magnetic field source comprises a two-part inductor, each inductor part producing a coordinate varying magnetic field (CVMF). Each inductor part is formed by at least two conductors aligned in a spaced-apart relationship, wherein each of the at least two conductors is connectable to a different phase of the current source, and has two spaced-apart parts arranged such that when the conductor is connected to the current source, the electric current flows in its two parts in opposite directions, respectively. The conductors of each inductor part are arranged such that each two locally adjacent conductor parts are associated with two different phases of the electric current source. A distance between the two conductor parts coupled to the same phase of the current source defines a half-wavelength .lambda./2 of a wave of magnetic induction of the CVMF. This distance is selected in accordance with a predetermined relation between the wavelength .lambda. and an effective space .DELTA. within the magnetic field region defined by the dimensions of the biological material and its distance from the magnetic field source.

 

Popular Science (August 1937)

"Novel Farm Machine Checks Soil Erosion"



Popular Science (November 1940)

"Fruit Grove Protection System"




Beaumont Enterprise (May 1985)

"Scientists Find New Plant Growth Booster"




"Rubber Coated Seeds Resist Parasites"

Popular Science (September 1937)


"Amazing Machine Picks Seeds That Will Grow"

Popular Science (January 1940)





"Novel Farm Machine Checks Soil Erosion"

Popular Science (August 1937)





"Shocking Weeds to Death"

Popular Science (September 1946)




"Fence Shocks Fish"

(Popular Science)




"Electricity Controls Tree Growth"

Popular Science (August 1935)




"Electricity as a Tree Pest Cure"

Scientific American (27 May 1916)




Fruit Grove Protection System

Popular Science (November 1940)




Dr Thomas G. Hieronymous

Cosmiculture
 




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