Adsorption Air Wells
Solar adsorption device for obtaining water
CN2573556 // CN2573555
Inventor: JI JIANGANG [CN] // LI
LIXIN [CN] (+1)
The utility model relates to a solar adsorption type water
obtaining device, which mainly solves the technical problems,
such as the simplification of structure, etc. The utility
model adopts the technical proposal that openings are arranged
at the top part and on the side edges of a tank body, doors
are arranged on the openings on the side edges, an adsorbent
bed is contained in the tank body, the maximum size of the
adsorbent bed is slightly smaller than the corresponding
openings on the side edges, a photic glass plate is fixedly
embedded on an opening at the neck part of the tank body, and
a water guiding gutter which is connected with a water
purifying device is arranged on the oblique lower side end of
the tank body. The utility model is suitable for being used
for obtaining water from air in the fields, such as desert,
sea, or the field with insufficient water source, etc.
High-hydroscopicity adsorbent and its prepn
[ PDF ]
The present invention aims at solving the technological problem of
raising the water adsorbing amount. The solution is using superlarge molecular sieve HAM-W and
to constitute the high-hydroscopicity
adsorbent. The preparation of the high-hydroscopicity adsorbent
includes the steps of preparing material, mixing, sealed setting,
rinsing, heating, etc. The adsorbent is suitable for drying
article in industry and daily life, and may be used in adsorbing
air to produce water.
Volume 212, Issues 1-3, 25 June
2007, Pages 176-182
New composite adsorbent for solar-driven fresh water
production from the atmosphere
J.G. Ji (a,b) R.Z. Wang (a),
a Institute of Refrigeration & Cryogenics,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
b Shanghai Marine Equipment Institute, Shanghai,
- In this paper,
a new highly-efficient water-selective composite adsorbent for
solar-driven fresh water production from the atmospheric air is
presented. It is synthesized by a patented ultra-large pore crystalline material
as host matrices and calcium chloride
as a hygroscopic salt.
Experimental data demonstrate that adsorption capacity of the new
composites is as high as 1.75
kg/kg dry adsorbent
, which is higher than composites
synthesized by silica-gel and calcium chloride, and the adsorption
rate of the new composites is also found attractive. The
desorption characteristics of the new composites are also studied,
and it demonstrates that it can
desorb more than 90% of the adsorbed water at lower heating
temperature at about 80°C
. A solar-driven water
production test unit using the new adsorbent is also presented and
tested. The experimental tests of this developed unit demonstrated
a feasibility of the fresh water production with the daily water
productivity more than 1.2 kg/m2
solar collector area
Preliminarily Study of Extracting Water from Air
Utilizing Ship's Waste Heat from Cylinder Jacket Cooling
Zheng, Q.R.; Pan,
Q.Y.; Jie, C.; Zhi, H.J.;
Inst. of Marine Eng., Jimei Univ., Xiamen, China
This paper appears in: Computer Distributed Control and
Intelligent Environmental Monitoring (CDCIEM), 2011 International
(19-20 Feb. 2011 ) page(s): 1632 - 1636
of extracting water from air on ship's environment was evaluated
on a general cargo ship navigating between Dalian and Hamburg at
May. Firstly, analysis of the energy equilibrium among the heat
evaluated from fuel consumption rate and that distributed to
different parts of the main engine system was carried out, an
experimental unit employing the waste heat of the cylinder jacket
water was then set up on the afterdeck nearby central air
conditioning room. Two adsorption towers with the same size and
capacity were design in consideration of the heat and mass
transfer characteristic of the water vapor within the adsorbent
bed of the silica gel and that of the composite compounded with
calcium chlorate. Daily amount of water produced from the
extracting unit and that from desalination plant were compared in
terms of the main indices prescribed by the National Standard for
Drinking Water. Results show that the waste heat of the cylinder
jacket cooling water under normal working condition is enough to
meet the need of the heat powering the extracting unit, silica gel with pores larger than
mesopore is a better adsorbent in marine environment
composite has a better performance in water vapor adsorption, but
performance in both silica gel and the composite will be weakened
on board. Results also reveals that the indices of water from the
extracting unit and the desalination plant are all within the
permissible range prescribed by the national standard. Conclusions
are drawn that the monolith of the adsorbent and the flexible
connection should be used to dampen the influence from the
vibration and bumping of the ship.
Natural Resources, Vol.2 No.1,
Application of Solar Energy for Recovery of Water
from Atmospheric Air in Climatic Zones of Saudi Arabia Open
Author(s) -- Ahmed M. Hamed,
Ayman A. Aly, El-Shafei B. Zeidan
-- In the present
work, an investigation on the application of solar energy to heat
a sandy bed impregnated with calcium chloride for recovery of
water from atmospheric air is presented. The study also aimed at
evaluating the effects of different parameters on the productivity
of the system during regeneration. These parameters include system
design characteristics and the climatic conditions. An
experimental unit has been designed and installed for this purpose
in climatic conditions of Taif area, Saudi Arabia. The
experimental unit which has a surface area of 0.5 m2, comprises a
solar/desiccant collector unit containing sandy bed impregnated with calcium
. The sandy layer impregnated with desiccant is
subjected to ambient atmosphere to absorb water vapor in the
night. During the sunshine period, the layer is covered with glass
layer where desiccant is regenerated and water vapor is condensed
on the glass surface. Ambient temperature, bed temperature and
temperature of glass surface are recorded. Also, the productivity
of the system has been evaluated. Desiccant concentration at start
of regeneration is selected on the basis of the climatic data of
Al-Hada region, which is located at Taif area, Saudi Arabia.
Experimental measurements show that about 1.0 liter per m2
water can be regenerated from the desiccant bed at the climatic
conditions of Taif. Liquid
desiccant with initial concentration of 30% can be regenerated
to a final concentration of about 44%
concentration at start of regeneration is selected on the basis of
the climatic data of Al-Hada region. The climate of Taif city is
dry compared with that for Al-Hada region. This method for
extracting water from atmospheric air is more suitable for Al-Hada
region especially in the fall and winter.
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from the Atmosphere,” Solar Energy, Vol. 66, No.2, 1999, pp.
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Composite Adsorbent for Solar-Driven Fresh Water Production from
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the Atmosphere in Arid Humid Regions
E. Elserrag & Y. Al Horr
Carbon (2006), vol 44, Issue: 13,
The performance of two adsorption ice making test
units using activated carbon and a carbon composite as
by L W Wang, R Z Wang, Z S Lu,
C J Chen, K Wang, J Y Wu
[ See also : ELLSWORTH / Air Well ]
COMPOSITE DESICCANT AND
AIR-TO-WATER SYSTEM AND METHOD
A composite desiccant material is formed by a porous, absorbent
substrate of PVA foam or non-woven fibrous sheet is soaked in a
solution of a hygroscopic desiccant such as CaCl. The desiccant is
held in pores or fibrous entraining areas sized ranging from 50
microns to 1000 microns. Thin sheets are arranged in a stack in a
multi-chamber system, while in an absorption state, uses this
stack in a main chamber to absorb H2O from atmospheric gas flowing
through that chamber. In a regeneration state atmospheric flow is
stopped and low-grade energy releases the H2O from the desiccant
into that chamber. Fans circulate moist air through the main
chamber and into an adjacent chamber for H2O transfer through or
past a partially permeable barrier into a cooling/condensing area.
Both H2O and dry gas may be produced.
 The subject relates to materials, methods, and apparatus
for extracting water vapor from a gas. Particularly it includes
methods and devices related to extracting water from atmospheric
air via a hygroscopic material dispersed within an absorbent sheet
material of effective form factor for sorption and for
 There are many materials identified as desiccants and many
known configurations and systems employing desiccants to dry a
gas. Systems include those using a solid desiccant and those using
a liquid desiccant. In the case of systems based upon liquid
desiccants, many existing concepts increase the exposed surface
area of desiccant by spraying the desiccant in a mist. Besides the
mechanism and energy required for such schemes the resulting
chemical mist might, undesirably, be present in the output gas and
output water. Solid forms of desiccant avoid these problems but
generally do so at the cost of a relatively small exposed surface
area per unit of mass leading to inefficiencies. Solid desiccants
can also have relatively long regeneration times.
 There is a need for a form of desiccant that provides a
high ratio of surface area to mass in a convenient to deploy form
factor. Also needed are systems employing such a material to dry a
gas, preferably using low-grade energy in an efficient manner.
 Deficiencies in previous desiccant and air-to-water systems
can be solved by a desiccant subsystem that can include a stack of
spaced-apart thin sorbent sheets of a composite desiccant. The
composite desiccant can be a sheet of a porous material with small
pores for retaining moisture and larger pores allowing the flow of
moist gas within its structure. The composite desiccant material
is made up of a substrate of the sorbent sheet that contains
dispersed particles of a hygroscopic chemical.
 To enhance water retention capacity, the stack can be
mounted perpendicular to the direction of gravity or acceleration.
This can engender a more even distribution of held water with no
low spot for water to collect and drip from.
 A system of efficiently extracting water from air can be
constructed with the desiccant stack attracting and retaining
moisture in air fed to it and through it by fans. A control system
can chose to operate the fans when conditions of humidity and the
remaining capacity of the desiccant stack are conducive to
efficient charging operation. A control system can further
initiate a regeneration cycle when the availability of low-grade
heat energy and the fullness of the desiccant stack are conducive
to efficient regeneration operation. Further, a control system can
initiate a condensing mode when the degree of moisture in a
regeneration chamber is high enough relative to the temperature of
an available cold source for efficient condensing operation. The
condensing operation can involve a filter or membrane to
differentially engender the passage of water molecules to be
condensed versus other warm gases.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1A shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of a PVA foam dry;
 FIG. 1B shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of the PVA foam of
FIG. 1A damp;
 FIG. 1C shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of the PVA foam of
FIG. 1A saturated with water;
 FIG. 2 shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of a human hair;
 FIG. 3A shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of a PVA foam with
CaCl dispersed within its pores, dry;
 FIG. 3B shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of the PVA foam with
CaCl of FIG. 3A, damp;
 FIG. 3C shows a
photomicrograph at a magnification of 400* of a non-woven rayon
 FIG. 4 schematically
illustrates a sheet of a composite desiccant formed from a PVA
foam with disbursed CaCl;
 FIG. 5 schematically shows
a stack of desiccant sheets in perspective and an airflow
 FIG. 6 illustrates, in
elevation, a stack of desiccant sheets mounted together by
spacers with openings; the stack viewed from the front, air
 FIG. 7 shows a side view
of the desiccant stack of FIG. 6;
 FIG. 8 illustrates an
alternative stack of desiccant sheets mounted together by solid
spacers that extend partially over the width of the stack viewed
from the front, which is the air input side;
 FIG. 9 is a plan view of
the stack of FIG. 8 seen with the uppermost sheet removed;
 FIG. 10 is a schematic
diagram of a system for extracting water from air showing the
air circulation patterns in three distinct modes;
 FIG. 11 is a block diagram
view of a control system for an air-to-water system;
 FIG. 12 is a schematic
diagram of a condenser portion of the system of FIG. 10 with a
 FIG. 13 is a schematic
diagram of an alternate condenser portion of the system of FIG.
10 with a membrane;
 FIG. 14 is a state diagram
of the states of the control system of FIG. 11;
 FIG. 15 is a table showing
criteria for transitioning states;
 FIG. 16 is a flow chart of
the actions of the system of FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 in the charging
 FIG. 17 is a flow chart of
the actions of the system of FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 in the
 FIG. 18 is a flow chart of
the actions of the system of FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 in the
 FIG. 19 is a flow chart of
the actions of the system of FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 in the