rexresearch.com


William H. RICHARDSON, Jr.

Aqualene // AquaFuel





http://tampa.creativeloafing.com/gyrobase/Content?oid=247598

( 5-23-07 )

Water Wheels

A Largo Inventor says he's come up with a way to make vehicles run on H20

by

Alex Pickett

What if I told you there was a reliable, inexpensive, non-polluting gas created from water that could provide a safe and efficient replacement for fossil fuels? And what if I told you this technology was immediately available and, with little modification, could be used in the internal combustion engines we drive today?

Admit it: You're skeptical, at best. If this were a viable alternative fuel source, you would have heard about it already. Right?

After nearly two decades, Largo inventor William H. Richardson is used to being doubted.

"I've been called a magician and a crackpot," says Richardson, the research and development director for Definitive Energy LLC and the original patent owner of a seemingly simple process for turning water into fuel. "There is so much opposition to it."

Richardson calls this alternative energy source Aqualene and claims that the gas created from separating water molecules is better for the environment than any biofuel and less costly than hydrogen fuel-cell technology. For the last 15 years, he has championed Aqualene to NASA, the U.S. government and corporations small and large -- with no success.

Now, a little dejected, Richardson looks to other uses for his patented gas, from powering a more effective cutting torch to purifying water in third world countries. Aqualene, he says, can even cook a mean steak.

The would-be fuel of the future isn't created in some top-secret lab protected by security codes and surveillance cameras, but in a small warehouse space off Starkey Road in Largo. Richardson, a machinist by trade, makes tools in this space to bring in his regular income, while he works with the other members of Definitive Energy LLC to market Aqualene (formerly called Aquafuel until another company purchased the rights to that name). With the understated zeal of Al Gore, Richardson laments the state of the environment and how unrenewable carbon sources -- in forms of coal, oil and natural gas -- are contributing to the problems of global warming and pollution. But with Aqualene, Richardson claims, the only byproducts are water and a small amount of carbon dioxide, which can be recycled by plant life.

"The planet takes care of itself," he says. "It's when we get in the way and start to abuse areas that we have problems."

Anxious to demonstrate, Richardson leads me to a glass bowl full of water sitting on a shop table and attaches two insulated clamps, connected by three 12-volt batteries, to a graphite rod. When he lowers the rod into the water, it produces a bright white light -- the "electric arc" -- furiously sending bubbles to the surface. Richardson places a funnel over the bubbles and ignites the gas spewing out of the narrow end, producing a solid orange flame. That gas -- a combination of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon -- is Aqualene. He claims 100 volts can produce 1,000 cubic feet of Aqualene per hour.

Richardson reaches over for a balloon, fills it from a pressurized tank full of Aqualene and watches it float to the ceiling.

"The gas will dissipate and fly out of the atmosphere," he says, filling another balloon and taking out a lighter. "And it's combustible."

The explosion warms my face; Richardson burns the hair off his hand.

Richardson says Aqualene could replace other combustible gases like acetylene and propane, both of which are less effective and produce more pollution.

Richardson then directs my attention to a lawnmower engine mounted on a table with a tube connected to the tank of Aqualene. He pulls on the lawnmower cord and the engine starts. There's no smell of gasoline (or any other fuel) nor is there any kind of visible smoke or exhaust.

"This engine is just like every other engine on the planet, except it runs on water," he says proudly. "They call it the engine that could."

Later, Richardson shows me home videos of him driving a Ford Escort and Mustang that he says are running off Aqualene. Both cars appear to operate like any gasoline-powered car; in one clip, Richardson peels out in his parking lot with the Mustang, later claiming he's reached 110 miles per hour in the modified roadster. The only design problem, he says, is that Aqualene's water byproduct could easily rust the tailpipe.

Sound crazy?

"So what, we're doing it," Richardson snaps back.

Still, not everyone is quick to accept his claims.

Dr. Mike Zaworotko, chair of the chemistry department at the University of South Florida-Tampa, is quick to point out he does not know William Richardson and has never heard of Aqualene. He admits he's no expert in the electrolysis of water. But still, he's skeptical -- Zaworotko says USF's chemistry department hears similar claims by various groups every few years.

"They portray [water-based fuels] as the answer [to environmental woes]," he says. "It's an attractive proposition to a lot of people. It's easy to sell 'We're above everybody else and everyone is against us.'"

Zaworotko says the basic idea behind Aqualene has been around for generations, but not much is known on how effective it is as a fuel source. He cautions that other inventors who have made similar claims forget a basic rule of physics: "It is physically impossible to get more energy than you put in."

With Aqualene, the electricity used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen molecules -- itself created through fossil fuels -- may use more energy than is recoverable from the produced gas.

Richardson has heard this all before.

"Fundamentally, [many chemists and engineers] don't understand it," he says. "We're manufacturing a product that is above the normal chemistry findings."

And, perhaps to his detriment, he quotes a line from Star Trek: "It's chemistry, Jim, but not as you know it."

The opposition to Aqualene as a fuel source has led Richardson to other ventures and eight other patents. His latest is Aquaclean, a device using the heating properties of Aqualene to turn cloudy, polluted water (or salt water) into pure distilled water.

"Presently we're working with some missionary groups out of Africa," he shares. "They're trying to drill holes for clean water, but it's expensive and it's hard to prove you're going to get clean water. But most villages have a source of water -- it's just not usually fit [to drink]. If they run it through this unit, it would be cheaper than drilling a hole in the ground and they would have an accurate supply of clean, drinkable water."

The prototype of his latest invention -- made from all manner of tubes, steel pots and metal piping -- looks like something out of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory. He claims 10 gallons can be produced an hour; the scalability, unlimited.

"This is probably going to be a good market in the future," he says. "Some day, in this country, we're going to need a cleaner source of water."

For the moment, Richardson is more interested in pursuing the water-cleaning apparatus than in trying to convince skeptics of the feasibility of using his alternative fuel to power vehicles (although his colleagues at Definitive Energy LLC have not given up). He remains doubtful a small startup company can beat the government and oil money.

"That's why I'm going after water," he says. "You don't have to put up with all that political nonsense."

With that, he pulls out a letter from ExxonMobil and chuckles.

"We have no interest in ..." the letter begins.

Aquaclean -- Produces potable water


Alexanders Gas & Oil Connections ~ Vol. 3, Issue #27 ( 10-12-1998 )

A New Fuel Produced from Water and Carbon

Toups Technology Licensing (TTL) announced the scientific documentation of AquaFuel Technology: AquaFuel is a reliable, inexpensive, non-polluting gas which is a viable, immediately available replacement for fossil-based fuels. TTL licenses technologies primarily in the energy, environment and natural resource market segments. The Company also makes acquisitions of existing companies which compliment TTL's technology mix.

Since November 1, 1997, the Company has been engaged in scientific documentation relating to the characteristics of the AquaFuel Technology.
The AquaFuel process results in the production of a gas originally identified by patent owner William H. Richardson, Jr. The AquaFuel process encompasses an electric discharge on carbon rods within ordinary, sea or other forms of water. The discharge decomposes the carbon rods, separates the water and creates a plasma of mostly ionised hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms at about 5,000 degrees C. The atoms combine in various forms, cool down in the water surrounding the discharge and bubble to the surface where they are collected and stored.

The AquaFuel Technology is covered by US Patent 5,435,274 ("Electrical Power Generation Without Harmful Emissions"); US Patent 5,692,459 ("Pollution-Free Vehicle Operation"); US Patent 5,792,325 ("Electric Arc Material Processing System"); US Patent 5,826,548 ("Power Generation without Harmful Emissions"); and other US Patents Pending.

Toups Technology has secured the exclusive world- wide rights to all applications covered by the above listed patents.

AquaFuel is inherently safe to produce and store because all oxygen resulting from the separation of the water is combined with the carbon and it is then released only during combustion.

AquaFuel is easy to produce anywhere desired because of the simplicity of the equipment.

AquaFuel can be produced in a large column with consumer-oriented equipment, while unlimited volume can be produced on industrial plants.

All bacteriological activities ceased to exist in 3 gallons of sewage following 1 minute of exposure to the AquaFuel apparatus.

The AquaFuel process provides a new viable form of recycling sewage either by municipalities or by individual households.

An engine running on AquaFuel would have to operate for over 210,000 hours to equal the amount of CO produced in 1 hour while being fuelled by gasoline.

It should be also noted that AquaFuel could be used as a fuel without any catalytic converter and the emission exhausts would still meet EPA requirements.

The minimal value of the energy content of AquaFuel produced from tap water is 380 BTU/cf.

The energy content of AquaFuel from tap water has resulted to be higher than that of hydrogen (300 BTU/cf).

The minimal value of the energy content of BioMass AquaFuel (6.8 lb brown sugar dissolved in 1 gallon water) is 532 BTU/cf.

AquaFuel emerges as a combustible fuel with better ecological features of any other fuel. In fact, all conventional fossil fuels need large amounts of oxygen to burn and release no appreciable oxygen in the combustion exhausts, thus being the primary, undisputed cause of the atmospheric oxygen depletion.

Oxygen consumption for BioAquaFuel is 5 %, which is less than one-third of the oxygen consumption by natural gas.

AquaFuel has the best exhaust characteristics second to no other available fuel (including hydrogen), as well as the smallest oxygen consumption (for instance, natural gas uses 213 % more Oxygen than AquaFuel). As a result, AquaFuel is one of the most environmental friendly fuels in all respects, including pollutants, atmospheric oxygen depletion, health problems and other factors.

Preliminary tests performed using a 1987 Ford Tempo which had been converted to research on natural gas and included a number of measurements via on-board sensors were taken with the following findings:

1. The outstanding combustion exhausts indicated negative readings, that is, recycling of pollutants in the air.

2. A number of octanes of AquaFuel resulted to be higher than 160, the upper limit of the measuring equipment.

3. A reduction of the temperature of the exhaust pipes from 1,340 degrees F for natural gas to 1,160 degrees F for AquaFuel.

The results of the tests establish that AquaFuel can be successfully used to power combustible engines used in cars and trucks.

The cost of the electricity needed to produce AquaFuel has been measured at $ 0.02/cf under the use of 3 welders in series absorbing 39 kW with a discharge at 60V DC and AquaFuel production of 151cfph. Said cost is expected to decrease considerably via the use of power units specifically built for the process.

When AquaFuel results from recycling waste-water, the cost of AquaFuel is $ 0.00.

When compared with acetylene as a cutting gas, the tests have established that AquaFuel is a preferable fuel for metal cutting even when produced from tap water, with better characteristics expected for AquaFuel with higher energy content.

Initial measures of the primary AquaFuel characteristics have yielded the following numerical values:

Energy content of at least 380 BTU/cf;
Molecular weight of 15.24 lbm/mole,
Specific gas constant of 101.4 ft-lbf/lbm- deg;
Correction factor for flow meter of 0.942.

The production of AquaFuel increases nonlinearly with the increase of the discharge voltage and it is at least 20 % more efficient with an AC discharge operating at 20 Hertz as compared to a DC discharge with the same electric energy.

The new chemical structure of AquaFuel implies the emergence of new technologies such as new methods for gas liquefaction, new types of fuel cells, enhanced thermochemical reactions and new methods of producing magnetically polarised gases.

1. AquaFuel is cost competitive, has dramatically less pollutant in the combustion exhaust, and can be more easily and safely produced and stored anywhere desired than any other combustible gas, even neglecting its free production as a by product of sewage recycling;

2. In view of theabove characteristics, AquaFuel is one of the best, if not the best fuel available at this writing for automotive and other uses on a world-wide basis, with particular reference to consumer, but also for municipal industrial and military applications.

3. The AquaFuel process provides a basically novel method for recycling liquid waste which produces AquaFuel as a usable gas, water usable for irrigation and solids usable for fertilisation;

4. AquaFuel is an excellent gas for the production of electricity, particularly in the free form obtained from the recycling of liquid waste from cities and municipalities;

5. Systematic scientific experimentations and theoretical studies have identified a number of anomalies in AquaFuel which are applicable to all other gases, thus permitting a new gas technology with implications and applications to the entire gas industry and consequentially vast, additional economic horizons.

Commercialization ~

The Company is now engaged in the construction of the following products for sale:

The consumer home power generator. A unit approximately the size of a large air conditioning unit designed to be plugged into a 120V outlet overnight so as to produce AquaFuel. The liquid medium used is the daily household sewage which collects in the apparatus during the course of the day. The AquaFuel is captured and stored in a tank. Each morning, the homeowner disengages conventional power source by switching main circuit breakers and engages the AquaFuel powered generator to provide all daytime electricity needs. The homeowner discharges the recycled water into the municipalities' wastewater system and the process begins again.

The overnight automotive power generator. Available for conventional cars retrofit for AquaFuel in a manner similar to that used to retrofit cars to natural gas. A unit approximately the size of a large air conditioning unit designed to be plugged into a 120V outlet overnight so as to produce AquaFuel. The liquid medium used is the daily household sewage which collects in the apparatus during the course of the day. The AquaFuel is captured and stored in a tank. Each morning, the consumer refills the automotive tanks with the AquaFuel produced overnight providing enough fuel for typical daily usage. The automobile owner discharges the recycled water into the municipalities' wastewater system and the process begins again.

AquaFuel Desk-Top Production Unit. A unit approximately the size of a large briefcase which encompasses the production and storage of AquaFuel. The unit is designed to demonstrate the concept and practical production methods of AquaFuel for sale to high school and college laboratories as well as interested persons world-wide.

Recycling Demonstrator. A unit identical in shape to a six-foot-long, twelve-inch-diameter pipe into which polluted water is introduced at the point of entry, passes through the AquaFuel process (electric arc across carbon rods in water) and cleaned water leaves at a point of debarkation.

"A stated goal of TTL has been to use our technologies for the improvement of our planet and the protection of our natural resources," said TTL CEO Leon Toups. "We are proud to be at the forefront of delivering the fuel for the next century: AquaFuel. The implications of our science that the AquaFuel process can clean polluted waterways while producing a reliable, affordable, pollution-free fuel for both consumer and industrial uses goes a long way toward helping us achieve our stated goal. In our commercialisation phase we now intend to engineer the application that can be scaled up for practical use."


jlnlabs.imars.com/bingofuel/html/aquagen.htm

The AquaFuel Generator by JL Naudin


http://www.gsenet.org/library/07eng/aquafuel.php

AQUAFUEL - NEW CLEAN FUEL FOR POWER GENERATION

( 22 Feb 1997 )

From: raj@aol.com (RAJ)

AQUAFUEL - A Newly Patented, Ultra-Clean-Burning, Fuel Technology

Bill Richardson - Inventor 1496 Giles St., Palm Bay, FL 32907 Phone: 407-723-1163, Fax: 407-723-4114

AquaFuel Association - Joseph E. Bollent, Tampa, FL. Phone: 813-837-0214

Rob Jaeger E-mail: RAJ@aol.com

In the race for buckyballs, Nobel prize winning scientists discovered a third form of carbon - C60 - created by striking an electric arc in a gap between carbon electrodes within a vacuum. This new carbon molecule has fantastic properties and holds tremendous promise for creating great new carbon-based materials and products. Leading scientists and authorities initially scoffed at the discovery and dismissed it as "junk". Beyond buckyballs, a new carbon electrode arc technology is now being used UNDERWATER to produce ultra-clean-burning, low-cost alternative synthesis gas, or syngas called AquaFuel. This simple method of producing a hydrogen/carbon/oxygen gas holds great promise for energy and chemical production. AquaFuel is being produced in demonstration units and is now undergoing tests in engines and research labs. The electric power industry can now produce their own fuel on demand and on sight. EPA's tough new rules to fight smog, electric utility deregulation, and even the new world’s push to cut atmospheric carbon dioxide means a period of change unparalleled in all of the history of power generation. Survival will require being aware and taking action to form new technology partnerships. AquaFuel technology can become the perfect solution to the upcoming fuel burning dilemma. This could be the ultimate weapon in the EPA's war on SO2 and NOX and even the new PM 2.5 particulate standard rules and future proposals. The petroleum industry can now increase the value of the petroleum coke product resulting from crude oil processing. Coke may now be economically combined with hydrogen and oxygen from water with this new efficient electro/chemical process. Coke and water can become the perfect pollution solution. Other carbon sources including the growing mountains of old tires have been recycled and the carbon reclaimed and used for this clean fuel production process. Even the carbon from biomass is being converted to fuel with this technology. This process is similar to MIT's work on the plasmatron (See Plasma Reformer-Fuel Cell Systems For Decentralized Power Applications International Journal of Hydrogen Energy -January 1997) where various hydrocarbons are subjected to an electric arc and reformed into H and CO. EPRI has chosen a demonstration 2MW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) unit as most suitable for urban needs. Because of the high operating temperature, hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be used as fuels for the MCFC. Instead of reforming complex hydrocarbon chains however, the AquaFuel process obtains hydrogen and oxygen from water and consumes the graphite electrodes. To make AquaFuel - a low voltage/high amperage ac or dc electric arc tunnels through water between the tips of carbon electrodes. The 5,000 to 7,000 oF heat from the arc dissociates nearby water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon atoms break loose from the electrodes and form bonds in this high energy plasma soup. The resulting hydrogen/carbon/oxygen molecules cool and bubble up to the surface in the surrounding water. AquaFuel burns in conventional engines so cleanly that internal combustion engine exhaust gas emission is actually cleaner than any fossil fuel, as confirmed by Briggs & Stratton, one of the nations leading dynamometer emission test labs. Nontoxic carbon dioxide and water vapor are the exhaust products from AquaFuel and air combustion. Hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide emissions are negligible even without any pollution control equipment of any type. Automobile engine oil stays clean and lasts long - reducing the need for frequent oil changing and cutting waste oil disposal problems. AquaFuel combustion creates lower exhaust gas and engine oil temperatures - helping to preserve oil integrity while the system runs cooler than burning gasoline in the same engine producing nearly the same power. Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen are the dominant atomic components in AquaFuel. While pure hydrogen should be looked to as the ultimate fuel of the future, many technical hurdles need to be overcome before hydrogen can be useful as a general purpose fuel. Hydrogen does not burn well in conventional internal combustion engines because of high combustion temperatures which lead to a host of problems including the creation of nitrogen oxides - proven pollutants. Most commercial hydrogen used today is found with or made from fossil fuels such as natural gas. Hydrogen is very expensive to produce by other methods and it is difficult to store sufficient heat energy power in view of the very low energy density of even highly compressed hydrogen gas. Today, vehicles equipped to run on natural gas can run on compressed AquaFuel. While natural gas is among the cleanest burning vehicle fuels, it still is an air polluting fuel and can't be manufactured locally on-site at refueling stations. With AquaFuel - cars may some day be able to simply fill-up with non-flammable water and carbon, with no danger of spills, fire and explosions. AquaFuel may eventually be produced on-board and only when needed to power the engine. Ships would need only to stock-up on carbon, since water is readily available. Vulnerability from stored fuel explosions would be eliminated. AquaFuel could be marketed for use in all engines, needing only the addition ofsimple intake adapters such as found on fleet vehicles converted to run on natural gas or propane. AquaFuel can supply the market requirement for fueling thermal electric power generation, internal combustion engines, furnaces, heaters, stoves, and desalinization systems. Pollution control equipment can be stripped from existing fossil fueled engine and boiler systems. The potential market for AquaFuel includes supplementing natural gas, propane, and most all fuels derived from oil and coal. The market was identified by observing the ever increasing need for a pollution free alternative to today's poisonous fuel combustion byproducts. It was determined that a non-polluting fuel would have to be cheap and easy to make with low-tech equipment and the raw materials would need to be readily available, abundant, and recyclable. Also, the fuel would need to be compatible and adaptable to existing fuel consuming equipment. Fossil fuels emit tremendous amounts of carbon dioxide - but they also emit huge quantities of deadly poisons as well. Non-toxic carbon dioxide is the only gas produced from burning AquaFuel. Poisonous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and other poisons are not produced when AquaFuel is burned with air. No pollution control equipment of any type is needed to achieve pollution-free emissions. Global warming fears from carbon dioxide could be cut with further research on AquaFuel using an internal combustion steam engine. Research may unlock the vast potential of both creating and then burning fuel underwater to produce heat and power with no atmospheric pollution. AquaFuel is basically a technology that uses carbon to free-up hydrogen and oxygen in an underwater process. Both creating fuel and burning fuel in the same water bath yields high efficiency and chemical control. Heated water can be converted into work through steam power. Water can dissolve carbon dioxide gas which can be precipitated out in the form of marketable product solid carbonates - just as the oceans capture and process atmospheric CO2. Contact inventor and patent-holder Bill Richardson for more information about project development and joint ventures.


adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998physics...5031S
eprint arXiv:physics/9805031
Hadronic Journal Supplement, Vol. 13, pp. 1-22, 1998

AquaFuel: An example of the emerging new energies and the new methods for their scientific study

by

Ruggero Maria Santilli

Abstract --- In this paper we initiate studies of the emerging new forms of energy by using as a representative example the new combustible gas called AquaFuel, discovered and patented by William H. Richardson, Jr., whose rights are now owned by Toups Technology Licensing, Inc. (TTL), of Largo, Florida. In essence, AquaFuel is a new energy converter capable of transforming Carbon and water into a new combustible gas via an electric discharge. We show that AquaFuel can be produced easily, safely and rapidly in large amounts, and exhibits greatly reduced emission pollutants as compared to fossil fuels of current use. Despite its simplicity, the chemical and physical characteristics of AquaFuel are largely unknown at this writing. We then review nine basic experimental measurements which are necessary for a scientific appraisal of AquaFuel. We outline the limitations of quantum mechanics and chemistry for the treatment of it new forms of energy, namely, energies which by definition should be beyond said theories. We finally point out the availability of broader theories specifically constructed for the study of new energies and point out available applications.


http://zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=115

by Anonymous
December 28, 2002 @ 16:22:53 PST

Tony Verde (cosmicpoet2002@yahoo.com) writes:

I am CEO of Richardson Energy Inc., an alternative energy company anchored by its flagship product, AquafuelTM; Aquafuel is a product of over 29 years of R&D by its inventor, Bill Richardson. The fuel is made from water and can power any vehicle (auto, boat, plane etc.) without the noxious emissions when burning gasoline or other hydrocarbons; it will also easily replace acetalyne as aquafuel is safe and cuts steel faster (much higher BTU content) and better. We are seriously interested in partnering or licensing/distribution relationships for Aquafuel; we are also seeking venture capital to obtain additional patents for the exploitation of other market applications. The potential ROI is atronomical, considering the market value of the transportation/energy sectors of the global economy. Aquafuel is eco-friendly, much cheaper than gasoline/diesel/propane/acetalyne etc., and its by-products are cleaner air and water!

Please contact me asap at e-mail address indicated above, or better, call me personally at (813) 787-3182 or write to REI, 11266 W. Hillsborough Ave., #233, Tampa, FL 33635.


AQUAFUEL: An Example Of The Emerging New Energies And The New Methods For Their Scientific Study [ PDF Format ]

by

Ruggero M. Santilli


USP # 6,299,738

Fuel Gas Production by Underwater Arcing

2001-10-09
Classification: - international: C01B3/00; C01B3/04; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): H05F3/04; - European: C01B3/00; C01B3/04B; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04

Abstract -- Fuel gas production by underwater arcing bubbles up from the vicinity of the arc and is collected by an overlying hood and used or stored for use as a fuel, as in operation of a cutting or welding torch, or in operation of an internal-combustion engine. A reactor or production unit for such fuel gas contains a body of water, which may be open to the ambient atmosphere and be at ambient temperature. The arc is established in a spark gap between carbon electrodes and is facilitated by introduction of successive carbon rods end-on into the spark gap, as by dispensing them successively from a magazine.


USP # 6,113,748

Non-Fossil Fuel without Harmful Combustion Effluents

2000-09-05
Classification: - international: C10L3/00; C10L3/00; (IPC1-7): C07C7/144; - European: C10L3/00

Abstract -- Non-fossil fuel without harmful combustion effluents, the only effluents being water and carbon dioxide. The compositions of which the fuel is made are carbon and water only, which are converted in an underwater electric arc into hydrogen and carbon monoxide as the major and predominant minor gaseous molecular constituents. The fuel also contains pseudo-molecular aggregates, as yet unidentified, of higher weight which are seemingly electromagnetically bound, instead of chemically bound, tentatively called magnecules.


USP # 6,263,838

Vehicle Fuel Generation and Pollution-Free Operation

2001-07-24
Classification: - international: B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08;- European: B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04

Also published as:   US5792325 (A1)

Abstract -- Mechanically or electrically driven vehicles suitable for air, land, or sea transport are operated substantially pollution-free on a fuel gas derived by pyrolysis of carbon and water via underwater arcing between electrodes, optionally on-board. A carbon rod may serve as an electrode or preferably be inserted end-on between a plurality of electrodes, preferably composed of graphite. The fuel is combusted in an engine having mechanical output useful directly as motive power for the vehicle or indirectly to operate a generator of electrical output to motors driving the vehicle motive means.


USP # 6,153,058

Production Means for Fuel Gas Apparatus

2000-11-28
Classification: - international: C01B3/00; C01B3/04; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08; - European: C01B3/00; C01B3/04B; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04

Also published as:   US5435274 (A1)

Abstract -- Water-derived fuel gas. An underwater carbon arc operated in the absence of hydrocarbons results in a mixture of gases, being non-self-combustible but combustible as a fuel gas in the presence of air, and comprising gaseous hydrogen in major amount and carbon oxides in minor amount, predominantly carbon monoxide. The fuel gas is adapted along with air to run an internal combustion engine, and along with oxygen to operate a cutting or welding torch.


USP # 5,435,274

Electrical Power Generation without Harmful Emissions

William H. RICHARDSON, Jr.

7-25-1995

Classification: - international: C01B3/00; C01B3/04; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08;- european: C01B3/00; C01B3/04B; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04
Also published as:  US6153058 (A1)

Abstract --- Method of generating electrical power without emission of harmful substances from combustion of a water-derived fuel gas mixture. An underwater carbon arc operated in the absence of hydrocarbons results in a mixture of gases, being non-self-combustible but combustible as a fuel gas in the presence of air, and comprising gaseous hydrogen in major amount and carbon oxides in minor amount, mainly carbon monoxide. The fuel gas is adapted, along with air, to run an internal combustion engine driving an electrical generator and so to provide useful electrical power without the harmful emissions usual in combustion of fossil fuels.


USP # 5,692,459

Pollution-Free Vehicle Operation

William H. RICHARDSON, Jr.

12-02-1997

Classification: - international: C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08; - european: C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04

Abstract --- Operation of mechanically or electrically driven vehicles, whether suitable for air, land, or sea transport, substantially pollution-free by operating their internal-combustion engines on a leak-resistant fuel gas derived by pyrolysis of carbon and water.


USP # 5,792,325

Electric Arc Material Processing System

William H. RICHARDSON, Jr.

8-11-1998

Classification: - international: B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): B01J19/08; - european: B01J16/00; C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04
Also published as: US6263838 (B1)

Abstract --- Electric arc material-processing system wherein an underwater spark gap is defined in a reactor by spaced graphite electrodes and a conductive carbon rod provided endwise to the gap. The electrodes are rotated by mechanical means, intermittently or continuously. Carbon and water are thereby converted into fuel gas, evolving from the arc, and comprising hydrogen as the major constituent and carbon monoxide as predominant minor constituent. Both the fuel and its combustion products are substantially free from contaminants found customarily in petroleum-based fuels and their combustion products. Surplus heat enables water from any source to be rendered potable.


USP # 5,826,548

Power Generation without Harmful Emissions

William H. RICHARDSON, Jr.

10-27-1998

Classification: - international: F02B43/08; F02B63/04; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08; - european: F02B43/08; F02B63/04

Abstract --- Method of generating electrical power without emission of harmful substances from combustion of a water-derived fuel gas mixture. An underwater carbon arc operated in the absence of hydrocarbons results in a mixture of gases, being non-self-combustible but combustible as a fuel gas in the presence of air, and comprising gaseous hydrogen in major amount and carbon oxides in minor amount, mainly carbon monoxide. The fuel gas is adapted, along with air, to run an internal combustion engine driving an electrical generator and so to provide useful electrical power without the harmful emissions usual in combustion of fossil fuels.


USP # 5,692,459

Pollution-Free Vehicle Operation

1997-12-02
Classification: - international: C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04; C01B3/00; F02B43/00; F02B63/00; (IPC1-7): F02B43/08; - European: C01B3/00; F02B43/08; F02B43/10; F02B63/04

Abstract -- Operation of mechanically or electrically driven vehicles, whether suitable for air, land, or sea transport, substantially pollution-free by operating their internal-combustion engines on a leak-resistant fuel gas derived by pyrolysis of carbon and water.



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