However, many experts debate whether money should be
spent on cold fusion research or applied to more realistic
alternative energy solutions. For decades, researchers around the
world have been simply trying to show that cold fusion is indeed
possible, but they´ve yet to take that important first step.
Now, esteemed Physics Professor Yoshiaki Arata of Osaka
University in Japan claims to have made the first successful
demonstration of cold fusion. Last Thursday, May 22, Arata and
his colleague Yue-Chang Zhang of Shianghai Jiotong University
presented the cold fusion demonstration to 60 onlookers,
including other physicists, as well as reporters from six major
newspapers and two TV studios. If Arata and Zhang´s
demonstration is real, it could lead to a future of new, clean,
and cheap energy generation.
In their experiment, the physicists forced deuterium gas into a
cell containing a mixture of palladium and zirconium oxide,
which absorbed the deuterium to produce a dense "pynco"
deuterium. In this dense state, the deuterium nuclei from
different atoms were so close together that they fused to
produce helium nuclei.
Evidence for the occurrence of this fusion came from measuring
the temperature inside the cell. When Arata first injected the
deuterium gas, the temperature rose to about 70° C (158° F),
which Arata explained was due to nuclear and chemical reactions.
When he turned the gas off, the temperature inside the cell
remained warmer than the cell wall for 50 hours, which Arata
said was an effect of nuclear fusion.
While Arata´s demonstration looked promising to his audience,
the real test is still to come: duplication. Many scientists and
others are now recalling the infamous 1989 demonstration by
Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, who claimed to produce
controlled nuclear fusion in a glass jar at room temperature.
However, no one - including Fleischmann and Pons - could
duplicate the experiment, leading many people to consider cold
fusion a pseudoscience to this day.
But one witness at the recent demonstration, physicist Akito
Takahashi of Osaka University, thought that the experiment
should be able to be repeated.
"Arata and Zhang demonstrated very successfully the generation
of continuous excess energy [heat] from ZrO2-nano-Pd sample
powders under D2 gas charging and generation of helium-4,"
Takahashi told New Energy Times. "The demonstrated live data
looked just like data they reported in their published papers [J.
High Temp. Soc. Jpn, Feb. and March issues, 2008]. This
demonstration showed that the method is highly reproducible."
In addition, researchers will have to repeat the experiment
with larger amounts of the palladium and zirconium oxide mixture
in order to generate larger quantities of energy.
Dr Zhang : Dr Arata :
May 27th, 2008
Cold fusion success in Japan gets warm
reception in India
Bangalore, May 27 (IANS) Researchers in Japan have given a live
public demonstration of their cold fusion device, a historic
experiment that is likely to revive global interest in this
controversial method of energy generation that was earlier
debunked as nonsense. A report in the California-based New
Energy Times says the tabletop device built by Osaka University
physicist Yoshiaki Arata and his associate Yue Chang Zhang
continuously generated excess energy in the form of heat and
also produced helium particles.
“The demonstration showed their method was highly
reproducible," the report quoted physicist Akito Takahashi, one
of the 60 persons from industry and universities who witnessed
it, as saying.
The demonstration held on May 22 has drawn immediate praise
from Mahadeva Srinivasan, a cold fusion pioneer and formerly
associate director of physics at the Bhabha Atomic Research
Centre (BARC) in Mumbai.
“The cold fusion community is excited and is reverberating with
news of a live public demo," Srinivasan told IANS from Chennai.
“The field is truly ripe for Indian labs to enter and it is
hoped that we won’t miss the bus once again."
The fusion process that powers the sun requires extreme
temperature and pressure to force hydrogen nuclei fuse and
release energy. Achieving fusion at room temperature was
considered impossible until 1989 when American scientists Martin
Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with their
They connected a battery to a pair of palladium electrodes
immersed in a jar of water containing deuterium (heavier form of
hydrogen) and showed their electrolytic cell produced heat
energy in excess of what was consumed. They claimed that
deuterium nuclei were being packed into the palladium’s lattice
in such a way for fusion to take place.
Later it was shown by several groups including Srinivasan and
Padmanabha Krishnagopala Iyengar at BARC in the early 1990s that
the reaction produced tritium as well as helium indicating that
cold fusion was real. However, further work at BARC was
abandoned due to denunciation of cold fusion by mainstream
scientists and the US government.
Srinivasan hopes that Arata’s public demonstration in Japan
will give new birth to cold fusion research in India.
Arata, who is the recipient of Japan’s highest award, the
Emperor’s Prize, is the first person to have performed
thermonuclear fusion research in Japan. Arata and his colleague
Zhang have been reporting their work on cold fusion at various
conferences and in Japanese journals for the last 10 years.
In recent years, they have moved away from electrolysis and
switched over to direct loading of deuterium gas into a matrix
of zirconium oxide containing palladium nanoparticles. In their
latest demonstration, they showed excess heat production
commenced almost instantaneously when pure deuterium gas at high
pressure was let in.
“The high operating temperature, instant response and
reliability of this device make it the most practical form of
cold fusion yet developed," said Jed Rothwell, author of a
popular book on cold fusion and another witness to the
The Japanese demo comes three months after some of India’s
leading nuclear physicists at a meeting in Bangalore formally
recommended to the government to revive cold fusion research in
“The long neglect of this area (of research) by India must end
now," Malur Ramaswamy Srinivasan, former secretary to the
Department of Atomic Energy, told the meeting held at the
National Institute of Advanced Studies in Bangalore on Jan 9.
According to Mahadeva Srinivasan, the Central Electrochemical
Research Institute in Karaikudi, the Indian Institute of
Technology in Chennai, and the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic
Research near Chennai have shown interest in restarting the
He said the field of cold fusion (which has been renamed as low
energy nuclear reactions or LENR) has matured sufficiently to
claim recognition as a valid new branch of science.
“If all that is claimed by the LENR community is validated," he
said, “the prospects of this being developed into a ‘third
alternative option’ for generating nuclear energy in the 21st
century, besides fission and thermonuclear fusion, are bright."
HEAT ENERGY GENERATING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Abstract -- Super-fine powder (2) of palladium is packed
in a pressure resisting vacuum container (1) made of palladium,
the container (1) is then vacuum sealed with a cover (1a) made
of palladium, and a lead wire (3a) to serve as a cathode (4) is
provided. A cylindrical platium anode (7) is provided around the
cathode (4). These parts are installed in a liquid bath (5)
filled with a heavy water solution (6) containing heavy lithium
hydroxide LiOD. The liquid bath (5) is installed in a proper
temperature retaining means (8) and a cooling water coil (9) for
taking out generated heat energy is provided between the anode
(7) and cathode (4). An electric current is passed between the
cathode (4) and anode (7) to carry out electrolysis and generate
heavy hydrogen, which is transmitted to the palladium super-fine
powder (2) through the inner wall of the pressure-proof vaccum
container (1). At the same time, the palladium super-fine powder
(2) is saturated with under a high pressure of the heavy
hydrogen accumulated in the inner space of the container to
generate abnormal reaction heat with a high efficiency.
METHOD OF GENERATING HEAT ENERGY AND APPARATUS FOR
GENERATING HEAT ENERGY
Abstract -- A practical method of generating heat energy
which attains an excellent efficiency of heat energy generation;
and an apparatus for generating heat energy. The apparatus for
heat energy generation has a first space and a second space
which are separated from each other by a first vessel having
permeability to heavy hydrogen. In the method for heat energy
generation, the apparatus is used to generate heat energy. The
second space is in a vacuum state and has, placed therein, a
substance having the property of absorbing heavy hydrogen. The
method for heat energy generation comprises a step in which
heavy-hydrogen gas is fed to the first space and a step in which
the temperature of the heavy-hydrogen gas present in the first
space is kept within a given temperature range so that
heavy-hydrogen molecules of the heavy hydrogen gas present in
the first space permeate as heavy-hydrogen ions through the
Hydrogen Storage Alloy Material and
Process for Producing the Same
Also published as: WO2004090182 (A1) // CA2521694 (A1)
Abstract -- Disclosed is a hydrogen storage alloy
material which is prepared by subjecting an amorphous alloy to a
heat treatment in air or an oxygen atmosphere. The amorphous
alloy has a composition, in atomic %, expressed by the following
formula: Zr100-a-bPdaMb (wherein 15<=a<=40, 0<b<=10,
and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting
of Pt, Au, Fe, Co and Ni). The Pd, the metal M and one or more
compounds thereof are dispersed in a parent phase of ZrO2 in the
form of ultrafine particles. This alloy material exhibits a
hydrogen storage amount of 2.5 weight % or more in a weight
ratio relative to Pd contained in the material, and suited to a
hydrogen storage/transportation medium. The alloy material can
be produced by preparing a melt of a master alloy formed through
a melting process, rapidly solidifying the melt at a cooling
rate of 10<4 >K/s or more to form the above amorphous
alloy, and subjecting the amorphous alloy to an oxidizing heat
treatment in air or an oxygen atmosphere at 250 to 350 DEG C. to
selectively oxidizing the alloy element of Zr so as to allow the
hydrogen storage metal of Pd or a Pd compound to be dispersed in
a parent phase of ZrO2 in the form of nanoparticle-size
Hydrogen Condensate and Method of
Generating Heat Therewith
Also published as: EP1551032 (A1) // WO2004034406 (A1) //
Abstract --- The present invention provides a method of
generating heat using a hydrogen condensate. The hydrogen
condensate comprises a plurality of metal atoms contained in a
metal nano-ultrafine particle and a plurality of hydrogen
isotope atoms solid-dissolved among the plurality of metal
atoms. At least two of the plurality of hydrogen isotope atoms
are condensed so that the inter-atomic nuclear distance between
two hydrogen Isotope atoms is smaller than or equal, to the
internuclear spacing of a molecule consisting of two hydrogen
isotope atoms. The heat generation method comprises applying
energy to the hydrogen condensate and generating heat by causing
the at least two hydrogen isotope atoms to react with each other
due to the energy.
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR CREATING LARGE QUANTITY OF HEATING
AND HELIUM, BY NUCLEAR FUSION USING SUPER-HIGH DENSITY
Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method
and a device for creating a large quantity of heating and helium
by nuclear fusion reaction using a super-high density deuterated
SOLUTION: Deuterium is solid-dissolved into an ultramicro metal
nanoparticle, and a deuterium aggregate is formed to obtain the
super-high density deuterated nanoparticle having 200% or more
of atomic ratio(deuterium/metal), energy is imparted thereafter
to the particle and/or the deuterium aggregate, and the nuclear
fusion reaction is set up to create the large quantity of
heating and the helium.
Method of Producing Ultrahigh Pressure Gas
Also published as: JP8176874 (A)
Abstract -- A method of producing ultrahigh pressure
gas statically and stably without using a dynamic driving unit
such as a pump. A container formed with a closed space is made
of a palladium, which is a metal having a high permeability to
hydrogen and deuterium. A solution present around the container
is electrolyzed by producing an electric field between the
container which serves as a cathode and an anode. The gas
element produced by electrolysis penetrates into the container
body, so that the hydrogen/deuterium ion concentration in the
container increases. This solid-air equilibrium reaction is
carried out until the ion concentration increases to a level at
which the pressure in the closed space reaches a predetermined
ultrahigh level. Thus, an ultrahigh pressure gas is produced in
the closed space of the container.
THERMAL ENERGY GENERATING METHOD AND
Abstract -- PURPOSE: To generate thermal energy at a
high efficiency with high reproducibility by causing an abnormal
reaction based on normal temperature nuclear fusion by absorbing
highly dense liquid heavy hydrogen with super fine palladium
powder in saturated state of a super high concentration.
CONSTITUTION: Super fine palladium powder Pd is sealed in a
pressure resistant vacuum container 1 made of a stainless steel
and after the inside of the container is evacuated to vacuum by
a vacuum pump 6V, heavy hydrogen gas D2 is introduced into the
container by a pressure pump 6P. After being filled with heavy
hydrogen gas D2 , the container 1 is cooled by a cryostat 10 to
liquify the heavy hydrogen gas D2 , and after the liquified
heavy hydrogen is absorbed in the super fine powder until
becoming the saturated state of a super high concentration to
cause an abnormal reaction, the whole body of the container is
heated. While retaining the heavy hydrogen in high concentration
in the super fine powder by inner pressure produced at the time
of heating, normal temperature nuclear fusion occurs to generate
COLD NUCLEAR FUSION APPARATUS
Abstract -- PURPOSE:To enable efficient deuterium
nuclear fusion by using a container filled with powder of a
great deuterium absorption property as a cathode, and effecting
electrolysis in a deuterium solution serving as an electrolyte.
CONSTITUTION:A pressure vessel 1 made from Pd is filled with Pd
powder 2 and a lid 3 made from Pd is welded to the container 1
to constitute a cathode 6. A liquid vessel 7 is filled with a
heavy water solution 8 of LiOD and the cathode 6 and a
cylindrical platinum anode 9 surrounding the cathode are both
immersed in the solution 8. When electricity is passed between
both electrodes 6, 9 via lead wires 5, 10, part of generator
deuterium generated by electrolysis gets into the wall of the
vessel 1 and then starts to be absorbed into the powder 2 while
generating heat of dissolution. The remaining deuterium atoms
are bonded together and float up as bubbles of deuterium gas.
During electrolysis, the electrolyte 8 has a temperature rise
near the surface of the cathode 6 because of resistive heating,
raising the temperature of the cathode 6. As the concentration
of deuterium in the powder 2 approaches a saturated state at
elevated temperatures, the deuterium atoms undergo nuclear
fusion reaction together, so continuously generating heat in
excess of the resistive heating and the heat of dissolution.
Laboratory Evidence Demonstrating d-d Cold
Fusion in Metals
70B, p. 106 (1994); Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Solid State
Plasma Fusion. ('Cold Fusion')", J. High Temperature Soc. Japan.
23 (Special Vol.), p. 1 (1998). ...
A New Energy caused by
Proceedings of the Third and Fourth International Conference on
Cold Fusion: ICCF 3 and 4. 3. Arata, Y., and Zhang, Y. C.:
Kakuyugo Kenkyu: J. Japan Soc. ...