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Alexander V. CHERNETSKII

[ Chernetski / Chernetsky ]


Self-Generating Discharge Plasmatron





NOVOSTI press release 03NTO-890717CM04 (17 July 1989 )
Spec. Sci. Tech. 13(4), 273 (1990).

VACUUM ENERGY: A BREAKTHROUGH?
 
by

Andrei Samokhin
 
The model of a plasma generator which can convert physical-vacuum energy into electricity has been developed under Prof. Alexander CHERNETSKI at the Moscow Georgi Plekhanov Institute of the National Economy.  Such generators could lay the groundwork for the future environmentally-benign power industry.
 
Classical physics cannot explain what happens when a plasma discharger placed in the Chernetski circuit is started: for no apparent reason the ammeter pointer shows triple strength-of-current increase [sic] and energy output is several times above input.  The plant's efficiency is much more than 1.
 
No magic is intended.  Additional energy outputs at specific plasma discharges are fixed in several independent expert reportsby the Lenin All-Union Institute of Electrical Engineering.  This effect has been checked by different methods. Whence this mysterious energy?
 
Self-generating discharge

Prof Chernetski, the author of the first ever study paper on plasma-diagnotics equipment (he has been in this field fro 40 years now) and 20 inventions, never knew what he was probing into specific unstable plasma states at strong-current discharges could have led to.  In the early 70s, he and fellow-researcher Yuri
Galkin worked on a basically new type of high-frequency plasma generator which could at high power do without unwieldy energy converters.  In one test, they discovered input-output energy gap. [sic]
 
"I knew electron drift begins in plasma and sought to deduce a combination of variables in which fluctuating plasma instability emerged in discharge," Chernetski says.  "Gas discharge was meant to serve as a powerful stimulator of electromagnetic modes and, all of a sudden and in defiance of the law of conservation of energy, a strange energy imbalance was produced.  Repeated experiments with different circuits proved energy output to be always greater than input."
 
The mysterious discharge stimulating additional energy extraction was called the "self generating discharge (SGD)". Measurements showed that part of the discharge power went back into the network as if two series-connected electromotive forces were at work.
 
In a bid to try to explain the experimental data, the researchers actually tried to prove the impossible.  One of their proofs was very "strong".  The one-megawatt substation of the Moscow Aviation Institute, where Chernetski and Galkin were staging an experiment with a powerful plasma unit, burned out. When the dischrage currents reached criticality, superstrong current was "born" in the generator and went back into the network, playing havoc with the safety devices calculated for short-circuit.  Later on, they read in books that earlier in the century the power plant of prominent Yugoslav electrical engineer Nikola Tesla caught fire under similar circumstances in the United States.  Chernetski and Galkin were sure that Tesla was making such experiments, but did not publish the results.  They are also sure that vacuum energy can explain this mysterious effect.
 
A Vacuum-Powered Lamp
 
The researchers relied on the present-day quantum physics idea of "zero-point oscillations" in physical vacuum.  Such oscillations signifying the birth and annihilation of virtual pairs -- the particle and anti-particle, distinguished from the normal elementary particles by a negligibly short life, a mere 8.10/-21[sic] sec.  Emerging below the zero energy level from "nothing" and returning to "nothing", virtual particles as if defy the law of conservation of energy.  Quantum electrodynamics explains this paradox through the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.  Under it all the precise particle characteristics cannot be learnt simultaneously and, therefore, one must not require from nature "punctual" abidance by the law during such a short time as the life of virtual pairs.  The observer fails to notice anything, while every virtual pair is more than real, carrying an energy of more than half a million electron-volts during its lifetime.  The potential energy in the electric bulb vacuum is enough to boil the earth's oceans, Americans John Wheeler and Richard Feynman have calculated.
 
Until recently the vacuum energy idea was only a daring hypothesis bordering on science-fiction.  The lamp powered by vacuum in Chernetski's basement laboratory in the center of Moscow made it a reality.
 
This is how he explains his miraculous experiment: "The self-generating discharge emerges when the discharge current reach a definite critical density, when the magnetic fields they create ensure magnetisation of plasma electrons and they begin to perform mostly cycloid movements. The interaction of currents with their magnetic fields forces the electrons to deviate to the cylinder-shaped discharge axis and the electrical field emerges. It has proved to 'switch on' the physical vacuum: in this field the vacuum is polarised and consequently the virtual pairs begin to move in a definite direction, instead of chaotically. The virtual positrons accelerate plasma electrons, giving them part of their energy. The current in the circuit builds up and additional energy is discharged on the resistor switched into the discharge circuit. Clearly, only part of the tremendous vacuum energy is extracted.
 
"We've developed several circuit versions which can find application.  In the later experiment with an input power of 700 watts, that extracted by the generator loads resistance was three kilowatts, or nearly five times more. This is by far not the limit and with more powerful plants and the corresponding calculations megawatts of free electricity can be produced from a minimal power source."
 
Self-Generating-Discharge Plasmatron and Space Travel.
 
Yuri Galkin looks at the future of their discovery: "Its applications are wide-ranging. For example, engines based on the self-generating-discharge plasmatron. Until now all attempts to use plasmatrons as engines failed, because strong electron and ion bombardments rapidly burnt out the electrodes. Self-generating discharge leaves them inatct and such engines can be used in aircraft, trains and autos. It would be logical to create a new environmentally-wise power industry. Portable hydros, wind power plants and solar batteries boosted by self-generating discharge could become an enormous source of electricity. With time, they could edge out the costly and hazardous fuel-firing and hydraulic [hydroelectric?] facilities. Already now we can build a plant which would supply electricity for a township or factory.  A vacuum power station comparable to giant facilities could be designed today. Our discovery can revolutionise cosmonautics."
 
Laboratory experiments have proved the possibility of using the kinetic effect of self-generating discharge for accelerating bodies in space. Galkin has calculated the parameters of a self-generating-discharge plasmatron that could serve as the propulsion engine of the future, replacing the present unwieldy rocket engines. Powered by a minor ten-volt source, it can deliver power enough for the takeoff of a large spaceship. Tapping the ambient space vacuum, it could fly eternally.
 
Unknown Waves
 
"We didn't think of only industrial applications," Chernetski recalls. "Self-generating discharge turned out to produce wave radiation which was hitherto unknown, but evidently existent at all times. Like sound waves, its waves have a longitudinal electric field component and a high penetrability through condcutive mediums, including metals. It turned out that these single waves, 'awakening' the hidden vacuum energy, can alter substance structure. "The experiment staged at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery in Moscow several years ago showed that directional SGD radiation accelerated nuclear beta-decomposition by 5%-6%. This is only one example. We supposed that, like SGD-generator radiation, longitudinal electric-field component waves could also be produced by living beings, man in particular. Comparative experiments were staged to prove the impact on men with extrasensory perception and of our device on different objects. In both cases parallel impact on the high-stability quartz generator made its frequency 'drift' by several orders of magnitude. The filament resistance of the incandescent lamp decreased considerably. Probably we are on the road to explaining such mysterious things as extrasensory perception, telekinesis and bioenergy.
 
Vacuum-Ether
 
The experimentally-verified concept of Chernetski claims to be a theoretical breakthrough in the basic quantum-physics idea of the energy structure of the Universe. It is generally recognised among physicists that all elementary particle interactions, and hence every existing phenomenon, occur with the help of virtual-particle exchange. How does it come about?
 
"Full annihilation of virtual pairs cannot take place in the event of partial energy extraction in self-generating discharge, because a 'certain' virtual dipole must emerge -- two separate charges with a
common negative energy. This means that together with energy extraction vacuum structurisation and ordering takes place. Actually, our concept is a return to the idea of the universal ether at an entirely new level. We say that the ordered dipole vacuum, or ether, is an all-penetrating energy medium in which processes occur which are related to virtual dipoles and subject to the uncertainty principle of modern physics."
 
Chernetski asks: if vacuum structurisation is a constant process, isn't this an opportunity to state the law of conservation of entropy in the Universe in opposition to the idea of its steadfast decrease?
 
What if this work helps to clear up the nature of gravitation, which is as dim now as it was in the times of Newton? What his concept of the vacuum shows the road to the long-awaited explanation of the Grand Unification theory?
 
"As as experimental physicist I won't say our theory is 100 percent correct," Chernetski declares. "It's much more an opportunity now to have indisputable experimental data to prove the opportunity of creating a basically new power industry."
 
Only a rapid switch to new energy can save human civilization from ecological catastrophe.  The research program must be developed immediately and a center set up to coordinate cooperation between world scientists. Natural and unlimited vacuum energy is at our doorstep.



http://www.nuenergy.org/index.htm
http://www.nuenergy.org/video/chernetski.ra


Video



Self-Generating Electrical Discharge

Alexander V. Frolov


I would like to present my comments on well-known paper by Alexander V. Chernetsky  «About physical nature of biological energy phenomenons and its modeling» that was published in 1989 [1]. He showed clear analogy between physical nature of  telepathy and his discovery named as electrical «self-generating discharge» SGD.

The SGD produce longitudinal electromagnetic wave that is not accepted in classical physics since it can be created only in some substance like the sound wave can be created in air. But it is the experimental fact and the substance we have to talk about is the ether or the material space. Alexander Chernetsky used the term «physical vacuum» to show principal difference between his «structured vacuum» and «vacuum as nothing».  The waves we'll discuss are the energy density waves created locally in  space so there is some volumetrical density of this energy. In other words, the space is product or result of some process and its energy density is depend of the parameters of the process. When we'll get the way to generate the wave it means to create some local change of the space or material object structure located in the area of the wave. The experiments proved it.

The development of biological energy science is important direction of medical research in strength of the possibility to correct biological field of the object and it is the correction of the reason of the disease.  Many scientists present the biological field like some special kind of the field but others think it is electromagnetic one.  Academician Vernadsky developed the conception of global energy and information field of our planet that was named as «noosphere» and it is the result of any processes for all  biological objects. In this case the biological field should be high penetrating field through any barrier or screen. Also it should be self-sustaining energy process to keep the information for a long time.  By Chernetsky the energy field of biological objects can be produced by longitudinal electromagnetic waves and they are generating by means of movements of electrical charges (plasma) in energy centers and channels of human, animal or plant [2].  The electrical plasma of SGD he investigated is similar to biological plasma and it demonstrate the negative electrical  conductivity that is the condition for self-sustaining energy mode. So, the medical topic we started is connected with «free energy» topic also, i.e. the wave must be getting energy from surrounding medium to exist and this method can be developed in fuel-less source of energy  technology. By this way of operation the space itself is the source and it become locally more «thin» or more «rare» when the energy is extracted directly from it. The term «rare» is connected with some frequency of the process and I would like to note once more: the space can be considered as some periodical process of some frequency and its energy density is depend of the frequency. The mechanical analogy is some «free energy system» that is taking energy from invisible rotation of surrounding substance. From my point of view, this frequency can be considered also as local rate of  time flow and the «time machine» technology is not impossible idea and it does not require some tremendous power input but it is the secondary effects of the free energy device if it is an «extractor» of power from the process of the existence of the material space.

One of  many experiments by Chernetsky was dedicated to investigation of biological nature of the longitudinal electromagnetic wave. The experiment was made in Moscow by V.I.Dokutchaev [3], in Novosibirsk by Y.V. Tornouev, and in Moscow by A.V. Chernetsky. Small animal was killed and just at this moment the electrometer detected the changes of electrical field gradient. The animal was submitted in metal box so classical transverse electromagnetic wave (Hertz wave) should be screened and only longitudinal electromagnetic wave (Tesla wave) can penetrate the screen. I have to note the analogy with N.A.Kozyrev's experiments [4]. He investigated the wave that is produced by any non-reversible process, for example by dissipation process or by deformation of elastic matter. The wave was detected by several methods: electrical component of the wave was detected by electrometer. The mechanical effect was detected by special rotational  weight system. The wave produce changes of structure and electrical conductivity of a matter and it can be detected by any balanced electronics circuit when one element of the circuit is placed in the area of the wave. N.A.Kozyrev named the waves as «density of time rate waves». He detected this wave also for the process of fading of the part of a plant. So, the seasonal and daily changes in the energy density of space were described by many scientists as changes of the ether density  can be explained by the changes in biological activity. For some applications it is useful to consider the same wave as the flow of some particles, named as «chronons» by Academician Albert I. Veinik [5]. He detected local changes of the rate of the time by means of two equal quartz oscillators when one of them was submitted in the area of the generated «flow of chronons». Really, we have to talk about some changes in the matter structure (up to inter-atom distance) of the quartz that produce detected frequency difference. The same experiment was described by N.A.Kozyrev for his «wave of the density of the time». To use some common  term let's name this wave as the Energy Density Waves (EDW) in difference from  electromagnetic wave (EMW). It is the longitudinal wave, i.e. the energy density is modulated in the direction from the generator to infinity. The velocity of the wave is the question of investigation but if the space (the ether) is considered as some solid state matter  there are no any doubts to take it as super-luminal or instantaneous velocity. Let's take an example: when one push the table at the same moment all points of the table are moving and the velocity is instantaneous. It is corresponding to Kozyrev's theory and he proved it in the experiments to detect real and imagine positions for  a star. He got information about visible star position by means of electromagnetic waves are spreading with limited velocity of light and the real position was detected by the trajectory of «wave of density of time» that is instantaneous information signal without any spreading.

In other words, we have to use four-dimensional view to consider three-dimensional world as the system of some density of energy and when one create the changes of the density this four-dimensional wave is not spreading along some spatial dimension but it is created in all points of the  Universe at the moment of creation. Sure, the value of the change near of the generator and far from generator is different so it is local changes in some sense.

N.Tesla investigate the standing wave of electrical nature like the wave he observed in process of natural storm. In 1932 he wrote: «...I showed that the universal medium is a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compression and expansion similar to those produced by sound waves in air.» [6].  Now we have few different views to the ether: Is it absolutely solid state body or the gaseous one? There is fine solution to solve the problem and this approach is proved experimentally by A.M.Mishin, St.-Petersburg [7]. He published the results of long-time measurements he produced in his home laboratory. The equipment included  special detector made as auto-oscillating electromechanical system with some biological element to get electrical signals from changes of biological plasma state. By Mishin, the system detected all turbulent disturbances (the temperature) of the ether, anisotropic properties (direction and polarization) of the ether and the ether fluxes (the ether winds). His conclusion is: the ether exist in different states and the state depend of the parameters of the turbulent disturbance. For ether-1 it is solid state body, ether-2 is dense superfluid liquid, ether-3 is connected with molecular motion and it is gaseous body, ether-4 is stellar plasma state and ether-5 correspond to galactical processes. By this view the Tesla's understanding of the ether is true for certain energy level of process in the space. Kozyrev's instantaneous interaction by means of active properties of time is possible in solid state ether.

Let's consider the technology of SGD by Chernetsky to show the source of energy for it. At first, we have to suppose zero point oscillation reality, i.e. vacuum structure is some process of transformation from photons to virtual electron-positron pairs and from electron-positron pairs to photons. When strong electrical field is created on surface of the plasma the vacuum structure should be polarized and by this reason the movement of virtual particles acquire certain direction to increase electrical field intensity and to accelerate plasma electrons. By this way Alexander V. Chernetsky explained his over-unity experimental results. [1, p.16]. He wrote about some kind of radiation that is created in biological over-unity energetics process like SGD, so by his opinion the global energy-information field of the planet (noosphere) is created as superposition of these self-sustaining waves. Also he noted some telekinetic facts can be explained by the hypothesis of vacuum structuring if human brain can produce quite powerful image of some object and this image will get energy from vacuum to interact with real object [1, p.21].

Let's note the term «holography» that is useful for any case of information reproduction when some small part of the interferention structure include information about all sources of the waves. Since the global information field is produced by  energy density waves we discussed above the interferention image will be four-dimensional structure and the notion of «part of image» is different from ordinary holography. In a few words: three-dimensional holography is result of interferention of electromagnetic transverse waves and the information is submitted in thickness of the photography emulsion  so any point of surface of holographical plate can be used to reproduce all image. It is necessary to use some coherent source of electromagnetic waves (laser). Similar technology can be used to reproduce information from four-dimensional interferention structure but it is necessary to use some coherent source of the energy density waves. Also there is the difference: information can be reproduce from any point of three-dimensional holography plate since there is some thickness of the plate, and information can be reproduces from any point of four-dimensional holography structure if we'll use some period of time. The time axis is the analogy for thickness in this case.  This hypothesis include supposition about some elementary period of reproduction for all material structure of the Universe. The Planck constant and discrete laws of quantum world allow to calculate the period of time that is minimal part of four-dimensional structure to reproduce it at whole image. From this point of view any process that is creating the energy density wave also it is production of the «recording» into global energy-information structure. Medical application of this theory is quite simple: it is necessary to produce some compensation «recording» to remove the disease or aging process.

If three-dimensional holography image is copy of real material object that create the interferention structure of electromagnetic transverse waves in thickness of the plate, so four-dimensional holography is copy of real energy process that create interferention structure of  energy density waves in structured vacuum. When three-dimensional holography is reproduced it is possible to see image without real material object. When four-dimensional holography is reproduced the energy process can be detected without  material structure of a «generator» that is connected with original process. The power of reproduced process is depend of used coherent source of energy density waves.
 
Technical aspects of experimental SGD device were not detailed by Chernetsky in [1] but he explained the ways to get SGD. By his definition, self-generating discharge is special type of electrical arc that can be created at certain value of density of discharge current. Since volt-ampere diagram of any arc consist of decreasing and increasing part, Chernetsky noted two ways for self-sustaining electrical oscillations: at first, small current way on the decreasing part of the diagram when the resistance of the arc is negative, and at second, great current way on the increasing part of the diagram when the arc plasma electrons are interacting with strong magnetic field of plasma (so called pinch-effect was found by Chernetsky in 1960th).  First way seems me as most simple and effective way and there were produced some simple experiments to prove it [8]. But Alexander V. Chernetsky used the second way to get the self-sustaining oscillation in plasma. He noted: the pinch-effect produce the radial electrical field in the arc and corresponding radial magnetic field. In development of his explanation let me note: since the primary source create axial movement of changed particles between electrodes, the reason of  radial separation and additional energy of the plasma particles is well-known Lorenz force. Positive feedback in this circuit is the next: pinch-effect compress the plasma in radial direction, then radial electromagnetic field interact with axially moving particles of plasma to increase radial separation, so the energy of plasma particles is increasing up to change of electrodes polarity that stop the arc process. The change is produced by plasma particle and the source is direct current source only. The changes of electrodes polarity are possible only if the energy of the particle is increased in process of the movement in the arc gap between electrodes. Capacity and inductive parameters of experimental device define the resonance frequency of the oscillations. Chernetsky tested 3MHz oscillations and duration of pulses was about 30 microseconds. He used voltage  600VDC (direct current source).  The plasma was created in  hydrogen at pressure about 0.1 T.

To consider the mechanism of creation of longitudinal electromagnetic wave Alexander Chernetsky used Dokutchaev's theory of «charge equivalent» [3]. The effect is explained as result of relativistic changes of distances for two groups of electrical charges those are in relative motion. The distances between moving charges are less than the distances between charges in rest. This change in distances is equivalent to some additional electric charge and it is proportionally to the velocity of motion. The effect was tested in superconductivity circuit that was submitted in metal box (Faraday screen) and when the current was created in it the changes of electrical field were detected out of the box. It is possible only for longitudinal electromagnetic wave to pass through metal screen [3].

I have to note some connection with gravity experiments by Podkletnov who is experimenting with superconductivity circuit. The changes of weight he detected can be explained by interaction with longitudinal electromagnetic wave. The wave is the energy density  wave and in area of the wave all material things will change the structure and the weight. Sure, it can be used for gravity drive design.

Dokutchaev's «charge equivalent» can be created both in superconductivity state metals and biological plasma, Chernetsky wrote. For the self-generating discharge the reason for longitudinal wave is radial component of the current (charges are moving both in axial direction between electrodes and they are oscillating in radial direction). Most important point is property of the wave to get energy from substance where the wave is created. It is based on negative conductivity of the substance Chernetsky calculated for the longitudinal wave. By this reason, the second law of thermodynamics can be discussed: if the vacuum consist of so called «virtual dipoles» so the structure of space can be ordered (structured) or disordered (unstructured).  Chernetsky noted: the entropy is increasing in material world but this changes always is compensated by decrease of entropy (structuring) in physical vacuum. N.A.Kozyrev consider the same balance as changes of «density of time»: if some process, for example, crystallization or dissipation is created in matter, the corresponding compensation changes were detected  in space near of the process [4, page 386].
The waves are generated by biological plasma produce the same structuring of the space and these «mind-forms» can demonstrate interaction with real material objects since the energy density wave are real energetically independent self-sustaining objects.

Experiments were produced by A.V.Chernetsky, Y.A.Galkin, S.N.Kolokoltzev [1, p.84] to find changes in resistance of electronic circuit element if the element was submitted between plates of capacitor of self-generating discharge device. The same experiment was organized to show the changes of the oscillating frequency for quartz oscillator. The frequency was changed in 1000 times and more. It is necessary to note that the changes were unreversible after the structure of the elements was changed by the energy density wave. Other interesting aspect is long-time structuring of the space that was experimentally proved by Chernetsky: the area of space between the plates of the capacitor produced the same effects to change the structure of matter after the capacitor was removed or disconnected from self-generating discharge device.
 
In this short review I tried to join some things to show real perspective ways for new technologies in most important applications for energetics, spacecraft industry, medicine and telecommunication. No matter if one consider it as far future fantastic perspective. It is reality and all you need is to create the arc by Alexander V. Chernetsky technology.
References

1.  Chernetsky A.V., About physical nature of biological energy phenomenons and its modeling, Moscow, publ., by All-Union Correspondence Polytechnical Institute, 1989, ISBN 5-7045-0179-6.

2.  Chernetsky A.V., Systems of electric charges separation and biological energetics, 1981, Magazine «The problems of medical electronics»,  number3, Taganrog.

3.  Dokutchaev V.I., Theoretical investigation and interpretation of some problems are connected with movement of the electromagnetic energy, dissertation, Moscow Area Pedagogical Institute, 1970.

4.  Kozyrev N.A., Selected works, 1991, Leningrad, Leningrad University.

5.  Veinik A.I., Thermodynamics of real processes, Minsk, Nauka i technique, 1991.

6.  Nikola Tesla, «Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views on Power», New York Herald Tribune, Sep.11, 1932. Also the concept is developed by Thomas E. Bearden, Gravitobiology, Tesla Book Company, CA, USA, 1991.

7.  Mishin A.M., The Ether Model as Result of the New Empirical Conception, Proceedings of International Conference «New Ideas in Natural Sciences», p.95, by edition of Smirnov A.P. and  Frolov A.V., St.-Petersburg, 1996, publ., by «PiK», St.-Petersburg 1996.

8.  Frolov A.V., The work is created by means of potential field, Proceedings of International Conference «New Ideas in Natural Sciences», p.371, by edition of Smirnov A.P. and  Frolov A.V., St.-Petersburg, 1996, publ., by «PiK», St.-Petersburg 1996.



www.keelynet.com

From: "duca@swcp.com" <David.A.Duca@swcp.com>

INERTIA1.ASC

But the reason I'm writing about this, is because of a fascinating discovery made in Russia by Alexander Chernetski and tentatively called the PLASMATRON. In our past meetings we have discussed MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) and the possibilities it presented as an over-unity device.  An ionized gas that was 'supercharged' with high density magnetic flux seems to exhibit certain properties which Chernetskii claims to take advantage of.

His description of the process;

"The self-generating discharge (SGD) emerges when the discharge current reaches a definite critical density, when the magnetic fields they create ensure magnetisation of plasma electrons and they begin to perform MOSTLY CYCLOID movements.  The interaction of currents with their magnetic fields forces the electrons to deviate to the cylinder-shaped discharge axis and the electrical field emerges.  It has proved to 'switch on' the physical vacuum; in this field the vacuum is polarized and consequently the virtual pairs begin to move IN A DEFINITE DIRECTION, instead of chaotically.  The current in the circuit builds up and additional energy is discharged on the resistor (that is) switched into the discharge circuit (load).  Clearly, only part of the tremendous vacuum energy is extracted."

Note if you will, once the cycloid pattern is achieved, a specific direction of thrust is generated to force all loose electrons to be thrown off at whatever happens to be in its path, in the Chernetskii case, an energy collector absorbs the energy and then switches out the excess energy toload, such as a motor, light bulb or other device that performs a useful service.  So, this is the same process as the inertial drive, except instead of using the rotation of a MECHANICAL part, we are using the spinning of the plasma, and instead of a weight, we are using a magnetic flux of a CRITICAL DENSITY...



File Name : FROLOV1.ASC | Online Date : 09/09/95 | | Contributed by : InterNet | Dir Category : ENERGY | | From : KeelyNet BBS | FAX : (214) 324-3501 | | KeelyNet * PO BOX 870716 * Mesquite, Texas * USA * 75187 | | A FREE Alternative Sciences BBS sponsored by Vanguard Sciences | | InterNet email jdecker@keelynet.com (Jerry Decker) | |----------------------------------------------------------------------------| I think this is a very important and seminal document, please study it carefully and if you choose to duplicate the circuits, we at Keelynet would appreciate it if you would share your findings with us, thanks!...>>> Jerry ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ This superior file was placed by Alexander Frolov on the InterNet and is the first detail I have seen of the early experiments of Chernetskii and Avramenko. Frolov links the experimental results of these two researchers with the high voltage stress principles used in the Testatika. Please note, this is early Chernetskii work, before he creating the cycloid pattern in the plasma as discussed in PLASMAFE.ASC on KeelyNet. Avramenko discovered a means of transmitting power through a single wire. The wire could be cut, tied in a bow and power would still move across the wires. The inventor claimed he used a 'monovibrator' with a transmitter at the power side and a receiver at the load side. I have tried to clean up the file to some degree for a clearer understanding. It is an excellent file with many clues.........>>> Jerry



From: "alex" Newsgroups: alt.sci.physics.new-theories
Subject: Potential-Power transformation
Date: 2 Sep 1995 14:16:58 +0400
Organization: Alexander V. Frolov, Private Account

POTENTIAL-POWER TRANSFORMATION
Theory and experiments
by
Alexander V. Frolov

P.O.Box 37, St.-Petersburg, 193024, Russia
email alex@frolov.spb.su

INTRODUCTION

The present article discusses the extraction of excess power by means of an electric discharge (an arc). This extraction technique relies on the application of a field of electric potential (rather than current) for the creation of power. DEFINITIONS Energy is the ability to do work. Power is the process of work per unit of time. Potential is the value of energy that can be used to make the work.

PREHISTORY

It is clear that any experimental data can be interpreted in the light of different conceptions. Nikola Tesla's research work for wireless power transmission from the point of view of energetics can be described as the transformation of high-voltage and high-frequency electric field energy as output power to make produce useful work in a load. The direction of some of Tesla's patent research [1] was the derivation of excess power from electric discharges. Towards the end of the 1960s Prof. Alexander V. Chernetsky and Uri A. Galkin, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Moscow, carried out experiments using strong arc currents and observed a phenomenon they called, the "self- generating discharge".

Figure 1 shows the voltage U and current I for this special case of arc.

Figure 1

                                 _ _
/ \ current I
/\ \
/ \ \
_ / \ \ _ _
----------------\--------------------------- t
\ --
\ / \
\ _/ voltage U

Note that for part of the cycle the current is increasing while the voltage is decreasing.

dI/dt>0 for dU/dt<0    F.1

Negative resistance takes place

R = U/I    F.2

This fact means that in the process of the self-generating discharge, by Chernetsky, the power

P = I U   F.3

is the inflow into the system from an outside source. Detailed description of Chernetsky's experiments were published in English in [2] and [3]. Power output was up to 500 Kwatts and the proof of a reverse current from the experimental system into the electric station was detected. The Swiss M-L converter described in [4] and [5] uses a high potential source like the Wimshurst machine where it is connected to "spark gap cylinders". These devices are capacitors which have spires between the cylinders to create a "slow electrical arc" between the inner and outer cylinders.

SCHEMES FOR EXPERIMENTS

 Let us find what is the common observations we can extract from all the above technologies. Chernetsky's scheme was published in the magazine Energy and Ecology '86 in Russian, along with the following circuit:

Figure 2

            I           L1             I
I I
I________/\ /\ /\ ______I
\/ \/ \/
===============
___ /\ /\ /\ /\ /\ ___
I \/ \/ \/ \/ \/ I
I L2 I
I I
__I__ _I_
_____ C1 I I (R1 is the Load consisting of
I I I R1 5 lamps in series)
I arc gap I___I
I__________ ___________I
I I
I Sw1 I
I____/ _____I

Figure 2

A.V. Chernetsky used 5 lamps for 220 AC in series as the load. So, the stepup transformer was rated at 220/1000 Volt, at 50 Hz. The discharge gap had carbon electrodes. When switch Sw1 is open the power in the load is increasing. I used a hand-made stepup transformer rated at 28/2800 VAC at a 5 KHz input and using a high-voltage lamp as the load and metal electrodes. The gap was 2- 3 mm. A voltmeter and ammeter were used to check the input power. You will find in this experiment that the output power is increasing when the arc is energized, while the power in the primary circuit is decreasing. You can check that the Conservation Law is right: when Sw1 is closed and the current of conductivity is in force, the connection to the load will lead to an increase of the power consumed. So, the "plasma element" in the circuit allows for the extraction of additional power from OUTSIDE of the system and NOT from the primary source. Now let us consider another simple experiment that is closely connected with the scheme above. A more detailed description of it is published in [6].

Use a high voltage metal piece, for example a screw-driver and create an arc between the end of it and one wire of a high-voltage transformer.

Figure 3


I I
high I L1 I
voltage I_ /\ /\ __I
transformer \/ \/ \/ _____________
================ ______________[ \
__/\ /\ /\ ____________ I metal [ insulator /
\/ \/ \/ arc I______________[ \
L2 [_____________/

Figure 3

Check the power input and be sure that the power process of the arc is free from the input source. (I think he means no direct short) There will be no power consumption increase despite the powerful arc, which is sufficient to heat up the screwdriver. The next version of the experiment is possible if you have a single-polarity potential at the end of the wire for a pulsed current transformer. You will note that with a positive potential on one wire the arc is more powerful than for the other wire. This difference is not demonstrated using an AC transformer. Both ends of an AC coil can be used for creation of the arc. This difference will show the nature of this type of free power arc. Positive potential on the wire will provide for the attraction of free electrons from the metal of the screw-driver. It is not the current of conductivity that you are witnessing, but the DISPLACEMENT CURRENT.

Application of the above effect into a useful form can be made like the well known Avramenko-Zaev-Lisin experiments [7].

The scheme is

Figure 4

                  I    L1        I               VD1
I /\ /\ /\ I ____|/|_____
\/ \/ \/ \/ I |\| I
================== A I _I_
_/\ /\ /\ /\____________I I I
\/ \/ \/ I I I R (load)
L2 I I_ _I
I____|\|_____I
|/|
VD2
Figure 4

The alternating potential as measured at point A is sufficient to establish a current of conductivity in the closed circuit of VD1-VD2-R. This diode pair configuration is called 'Avramenko's plug'. I used for this scheme a 30 VAC hand-made generator (variable oscillator) to supply the input for L1, at a frequency of 10 KHz. The transformer was rated at 30/3000 Volts and the diodes rated at 1.5 KV. The ammeter can be used as load R. Note that an ammeter placed between the transformer and point A does not show any current drain. CONCLUSIONS These circuits have experimentally proved the possibility of producing power in a load by means of POTENTIAL ONLY! Using a similar approach, mechanical motion, rotation and even a propulsion force can be created. So, free energetics can be formulated as the transformation of potential into power or Energy-Power Transformation. Since the power is a process, the question is the parameters of the process only. Alexander V. Frolov REFERENCES 1. Speculations in Science and Technology, Vol.13, Number 4, 1990, p.249, Donald Kelly, A Review of the Free-Energy Scenario. 2. EFE-Denver Report, p.94-B22-02, Vacuum Energy Developments, Andrew Michrowski, Published by Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Inc., 100 Bronson Av., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario K1R 6G8, Canada. Order by email 100276.261@compuserve.com 3. A.V. Chernetsky, About physical nature for bioenergy, Moscow, 1989, in Russian. 4. Newsletter of Space Energy Association, Vol.2 p.3 Published by SEA/US, P.O.Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616, USA. 5. Dr. Patrick G. Bailey, Proceeding of Denver'94 Conference, "Other voices: A Summary of Research not Present. Re: Paul Baumann's Methernitha Free-Energy Machine. Institute for New Energy email address: INE@padrak.com. 6. The single-wire electric power transmission, A.V. Frolov, published by New Energy News, December 1994, p.13-14. P.O.Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639, USA. Email INE@padrak.com. 7. N.E.Zaev, S.V.Avramenko, V.N.Lisin, "The measuring of Conduction Current that is stimulated by Polarization current, Journal of Russian Physical Society, No.2'1991, in Russian.

Vanguard Note... If what this paper purports is true, then Bearden is correct in his theory that potential alone can drive a useable load. Many people have had problems with this claim, including me, because every power appliance we use requires current and not just potential (voltage). From my admittedly limited understanding of the matter, any energy can be 'translated' into a scalar form, which can be thought of as a stress soliton (bubble) in space, rather hyperspace. That soliton can simply exist in one location, can be 'thrown' like a ball, or sequentially streamed in a wavetrain to a given location where a receiver captures the solitons and translates them back into 3space. The nature of the energy sent using this method can be totally different from the nature of the energy received. Once translated to the 'base medium' of a scalar bubble (soliton), it can be re-translated from hyperspace to 3space in a form which is determined by the receiver characteristics. For instance, you could use magnetic energy to create the stress wave, send it to a receiver and re-translate it back into 3space IN THE FORM of light, electrical current, sound, heat, physical vibration, whatever you choose. To quote from an old book 'Light, when properly resisted, can be made to yield sound', from 'Dweller on Two Planets', available for about $18 from Health Research, PO BOX 70, Mokelumne Hill, CA 95245. Ask for one of their superb catalogs. It is interesting to note the work of Hooper, who used a moebius form to produce what he called a 'motional field', a PURE ELECTRIC FIELD or wave if streamed in a wavetrain. Would not a pure electric field be pure potential? Such a signal is INVISIBLE to matter and normal instrumentation, therefore can be transmitted vast distances without loss of energy by inductive, capacitive or resistive sapping. I think there is a distinct possibility that a pure motional (electric) field is in fact, a scalar stress bubble! Our friend Peter Kelly, of Georgia, also indicates this by claiming 'information as energy' where the signature of a mass is held in a pure electric field. To alter (transmute) a mass, you must suppress the magnetic to allow access to the electric. Once the changes have been made in the electric field, you restore the magnetic and the mass slowly transmutes to fit its new pattern. So, the potential which Frolov refers to, is probably a pure electric field which is 'translated' from its hyperspace form to CURRENT. Over the past couple of years, I have been toying with the idea that electricity is nothing more than a resistance to the flow of magnetic force and that electricity simply would not exist without resistance to its flow. But that's another tall tale.....have fun and please share your findings should you decide to experiment in this area!...............................thanks...>>> Jerry




http://www.qualight.com/ecomm/frolov/longwave.htm

"Application of Ether Longitudinal Waves
for Telecommunication Systems"

by
 
Alexander V. Frolov

Scientific Expert of the Russian Physical Society
P.O.Box 37, 193024, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Tel: 7-812-2747877
Email: frolov@mail.dux.ru

By the ether concept, space is a physical substance that has a known (electric constant e and magnet constant m) and unknow, as of yet, properties. In any substance can be created so called longitudinal waves. In a general case, these are oscillations of the energy density in the direction of the wave spreading. In Alexander Chernetsky's paper "On the Physical Nature of Bioenergy Phenomenons and on their modeling", published in 1989, is described the properties of longitudinal waves which are created in so called "working bodies" (superconducting metal, plasma (electric discharge) and biological plasma). The theory of 1960, named as the "charge equivalent theory" was proposed by V.I.Dokutchaev, Russia (1932 - 1990). Relative motion of charges, according to Lorentz scale transformations, make the change of distance between charges of a moving frame of reference equivalent to an increase in charge density of the current. In a moving system there is created an additional equivalent charge:
q = (q0 / 2) (u2 / C) by Dokutchaev
where q0 is the charge in a motionless system, u is the velocity of the system and c is the velocity of light. Dokutchaev's dissertation of 1970 described some experiments: superconductors were placed in an electromagnetically screened box (Faraday cage) but some signal was detected outside of the box when current was created in superconductor. The main conclusion is: longitudinal waves can be created in space (in vacuum) by means of electric energy and such sort waves is not screened by metal screens. Alexander Chernetsky also described some experiments in which longitudinal waves were created. In his version "the working body" is an electric discharge. There is a known pinch - effect (interaction between the electric current and magnetic field of this current) that leads to high frequency oscillations of the plasma. Radial components of the density current oscillations is responsible for longitudinal waves which are spreading in radial direction also [ 1 ]. More than 60 years ago Nikola Tesla wrote: " I showed that the universal medium is a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air. Thus, a wireless transmitter does not produce Hertz waves, which are a myth, but sound waves in the ether, behaving in every respect like those in the air, except that, owing to the great elastic force and extremely small density of the medium, their speed is that of light." It is part of N.Tesla's article "Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views on Power", published in New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 11, 1932, [ 2, p.94]. American scientist Thomas E. Bearden explained this statement of Tesla in this way: An ordinary receiver uses so called "precessia of electrons" a phenomenon that is result of interaction between the electron gas of antenna metal wires and longitudinal waves [ 2 ]. Tesla wrote about a great mistake of modern science: "The Hertz wave theory of wireless transmission may be kept up for a while, but I do not hestitate to say that in a short time it will recognized as one of most remarkable and inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind which has ever been recorded in history", article "The True Wireless" [ 2, p.95 ]. The technology of Tesla requires high potential sources (up to millions of Volts) that produce high frequency oscillations. The terminals that creates the longitudinal waves are spherical metal surfaces (sphere capacitor). The synthesis of Tesla's scheme and Dokutchaev's concept allows us to make the conclusion: longitudinal waves are generated by means of a changing energy density (electric charge density). Let's call it the function r(t). In a Hertz transmitter there is a changing energy density also, but it is linear density r1(t): the density of electric current in the wire of the antenna. It is a one-dimensional density of energy. In Tesla's sphere capacitor there is a change of charge value that is placed on the surface of the capacitor. So, it is a two-dimensional density of energy r2(t). N.Kozyrev [ 3 ] created so called "waves of density of time" by means of non-electrical methods: rotation plus axial vibrations of a gyroscope, deformation of a material body, diffusion and dissolving or crystallization of the matter, fading of plants and so on. Different detectors for such sort waves were used: the electrical component of the was were detected by means of a galvanometer, the gravitational component of the wave was detected by means of the weighing-machine, the chronal component of the wave was detected by means of an electronic scheme that used so called "Winston bridge" since electrical properties of the electronics components are changing in the wave area. These three methods showed the next: any type of change of matter structure that can be presented as r(t) (i.e. a change of density of energy) is the method for generation of the longitudinal wave. For example, if it is a change of volume density of matter, we can write the three-dimensional density function r3(t). It is connected with the well-known Poisson equation for gravitation. There are more complex methods for longitudinal wave creation. R. Ziolkovsky, Physical Review A, vol.39, p.2005, wrote in the paper "Localized Transmission of Electromagnetic Energy" about his experiments. Before the electromagnetic version, R. Ziolkovsky created an analogy in liquid to study the properties of wave and to create an optimum antenna system. What method of the energy density modulation is the best for telecommunication systems? Some experiments prove the possibility that living biosystem create longitudinal waves [ 1 , p. 50 ]. By this analogy there is the possibility for creation of a technical system.

References: 1. Alexander Chernetsky, "On The Physical Nature of Bioenergy Phenomenons and on Their Modeling", published in 1989 by Moscow Politechnical Institute. 2. T.E. Bearden, Gravitobiology, 1991, published by Tesla Book Company, P.O. Box
121873, Chula Vista, CA 91912, USA. 3. N.Kozyrev, collection of papers, published by Leningrad University, 1991.



http://www.scribd.com/doc/18953940/Work-of-Potential-Field-to-

Work of Potential Field to ..

A. Frolov



http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0643932

STINET (Scientific Technical Information Network) -- the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC)

Accession Number : AD0643932

Title :   

GAS DISCHARGE SOURCES OF IONS AND ATOMS WITH A GLOWING CATHODE,

Corporate Author : FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OHIO

Personal Author(s) :

Kozlov, O. V. ; Skoblo, Yu. A. ; Chernetskii, A. V.

Report Date : 29 AUG 1966

Abstract : The article introduces the results of work on sources with uninterrupted and pulsed regimes. Special attention is devoted to obtaining a well focused ion bundle and significant densities of the ion flux on a collector that is some distance (from several tens of centimeters to several meters) from the source. The source was used for probing the plasma with beams of fast particles. (Author)



http://www.ssf-technologies.com/html/english.htm
http://library.timacad.ru/sources/electr_izd/kovalev/6_vvodnie.htm
http://library.timacad.ru/sources/electr_izd/kovalev/6_upravl.htm

Chapter 6 -- “Theory of Harvest”

by

Prof . V. M. Kovalev



Chapter 6.1 TECHNOLOGY OF FUTURE

Controlling the live organisms and systems while using the low energy factors

...In our investigations for increasing the functional activeness of plants, the quantum resonance radiator was used (Kovalev, Kalashnikov, Belov, 1998). The the field generated by the hydrogen gas discharging generator (HGG) has definite energy informational characteristics (power, frequency, periodicity and duration of radiation, wavelength), the change in the parameters of which ensures the address ness of its action and optimization of physiological biochemical processes considering the genetic features of the organism. The power of HGG flow onto the object constitutes - 0.5 – 1.5 W/m 2 in the field of invisible radiation with maximum 200 – 300 hm and frequency of waves from 10 to 100 MHz.

This electrophysical generator of action (patent of Russian Federation: No 2033200 dt 28.07.94, No 2045881 dt 28.11.94, No 2057552 dt 19.04.95) presents an electron block, the purpose of which is the creation and maintenance of plasma of high frequency arc discharge (effect, invented by A. V. Chernetskii, 1989) in the mode of oscillatory arc discharge in hydrogen plasma, leading to the creation of electric field of larger intensities, directed perpendicular to the axis of discharge. The discharge is realized inside the ceramic bottle of cylindrical shape (discharge lamp). The acting factor, leading to the increase in the functional active ness of live organisms, shall be the signal of special form (SSF)*, which is translated with the help of informational – acting complex, presented as a device on the base of a LAPTOP type computer with original soft ware. The device has the provision of recording system and transfer of primary action of generator in time and space. The form, orientation and properties of reproduced space of primary action – such as, of initial field.



http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976AvTek..19R.110C

Title:
Plasma Acceleration in Nonuniform Magnetic Fields

Authors:
Chernetskii, A. V.

Publication:

 ( Aviatsionnaia Tekhnika, vol. 19, no. 3, 1976, p. 110-114.) Soviet Aeronautics, vol. 19, no. 3, 1976, p. 81-84. Translation.

Publication Date: 00/1976
Bibliographic Code: 1976AvTek..19R.110C



See also re: Correa --

http://www.aspden.org/reports/Es8/Rep8.htm


ENERGY SCIENCE REPORT NO. 8 ( 1996 ) : "POWER FROM SPACE: THE CORREA INVENTION"
 


http://www.jeanemanning.ca/articles/russian_discoveries.php
Atlantis Rising ( June 2002 )

FORMER IRON CURTAIN HID REVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH

CONFERENCES REVEAL ENERGY DISCOVERIES FROM FORMER SOVIET UNION

... A focus on the East must include the late Professor Aleksandr Chernetskii of Moscow. He developed a plasma generator said to convert vacuum energy into electricity. A press release at the time quoted Chernetskii as saying experiments with different circuits proved that the energy output was always greater than the input. The mysterious effect was called the self-generating discharge. One experiment with a powerful plasma unit burned out the huge megawatt electrical substation of the Moscow Aviation Institute. The discharge had reached a critical point in which superstrong current flowed from the generator and back into wires to the substation. In an experiment with an input of 700 watts, the generator produced nearly five times as much.



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