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Merle de KREUK, et al.


Waste Water Treatment





Eurekalert.com
26-Jun-2006

Contact: Frank Nuijens, Science Information Officer
f.w.nuijens@tudelft.nl
31-15-278-4259
Delft University of Technology

Delft Water-Purification Method Promises Radical Improvement

Delft University of Technology research has discovered a method that could drastically change the way we purify water within a few years. Delft, in partnership with DHV engineering bureau, has developed a compact and environmentally-friendly purification method, in which aerobic bacteria form granules that sink quickly. An important part of the project's success was the work of Delft researcher Merle de Kreuk, who, on Tuesday, 27 June, will receive her PhD degree based on this research subject.

With the new aerobic granular sludge technology (Nereda TM), aerobic (thus oxygen using) bacterial granules are formed in the water that is to be purified. The great advantage of these granules is that they sink quickly and that all the required biological purifying processes occur within these granules.

The technology therefore offers important advantages when compared to conventional water purification processes. For example, all the processes can occur in one reactor. Moreover, there is no need to use large re-sinking tanks, such as those used for conventional purification. Such large tanks are needed for this because the bacteria clusters that are formed take much longer to sink than the aerobic granule sludge.

According to Delft PhD researcher Merle de Kreuk, a Nereda TM purification installation needs only a quarter of the space required by conventional installations. Moreover, Nereda TM uses 30% less energy than the normal purification process. This Nereda TM purification process is suitable for both domestic and industrial waste water.

Delft University of Technology has a long tradition in researching the possibilities of water purification with aerobic granular sludge. The maturation of the technology is largely due to the research conducted by De Kreuk. During her PhD research with Prof. Mark van Loosdrecht, De Kreuk – working together with DHV engineering bureau and supported by STOWA and STW grants – solved various technological bottlenecks and expanded the capacity of the test installation from 3 litres per hour to 1,500 litres per hour. DHV now has the final design, which is ready for practical implementation.

The aerobic granular sludge technology is very promising, and has been nominated for the Dutch Process Innovation Award 2006. The technology is now in the commercialisation phase. In the coming years, De Kreuk will continue to contribute to the project's trajectory as a Delft researcher. DHV is currently negotiating with water purification companies to test this purification method on a larger scale. The first installations are already in use in the industrial sector.



US 2006032815

Method for the Treatment of Waste Water with Sludge Granules

2006-02-16
VAN LOOSDRECHT MARINUS C (NL); KREUK MERLE K D (NL)
Applicant: STICHTING VOOR DE TECH (NL)
Also published as: WO2004024638 // EP1542932 // CN1705618 // CA2498747 / AU2003271227 (A1)


Abstract
: The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an oxygen-comprising gas, and in a third step, the sludge granules are allowed to settle in a settling step. This makes it possible to effectively remove not only organic nutrients but optionally also nitrogen compounds and phosphate.



US 6,566,119
Method for Acquiring Grain-Shape
d Growth of a Microorganism in a Reactor


2003-05-20
HEIJNEN JOSEPH JOHANNES (NL); VAN LOOSDRECHT MARINUS CORNELI (NL)
Applicant: UNIV DELFT TECH (NL)
Also published as: WO9837027 / EP0964831 /  EP0964831 / EP0964831 /  NL1005345C (C2)



Abstract: The invention relates to a method of acquiring granular growth of a microorganism in a reactor containing a liquid medium. Surprisingly, according to the invention, aerobic microorganisms also can be induced to granular growth by maintaining specific culture conditions. During a first step an oxygen-containing gas is supplied and the reactor contents are kept in turbulence. In a second step, after a short settling period, the top part of the reactor medium is discharged.

Description


FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method of acquiring granular growth of a microorganism in a reactor containing a liquid phase which comprises a substrate, wherein in a first step said substrate is converted by the microorganism resulting in the formation of and growth on a phase comprising the organism while the liquid phase is being mixed, in a second step mixing in the reactor is stopped to allow part of the solid phase to settle, and in a third step the reactor is partly emptied by discharging the top part of the reactor contents, which reactor is subsequently replenished with substrate-comprising liquid, to repeat steps 1 to 3.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Such a method has been described by Sung S. et al. (Laboratory studies of the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, in Water Environment Research, 67 (3), p. 294, 1995). In this method an anaerobic conversion is carried out, the contents of the reactor are then clarified in characteristically 10-30 minutes after which the top part of the reactor contents is discharged. According to this publication work with anaerobically activated sludge has long been known, although it was not recognized in the beginning (1966) that what was occurring was "granulation" of the biomass. Granulation under methanogenic conditions (that is to say in the absence of oxygen) is often explained by the specific need of the respective organisms to exchange substrates the so-called "interspecies hydrogen transfer", or to reduce the toxicity of oxygen.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Surprisingly, applicant has found that granulation can also occur under aerobic and turbulent conditions.

The method according to the invention is therefore characterized in that the microorganism is an aerobic microorganism, in that at least during the first step a third phase is present, which third phase comprises oxygen-containing gas being fed to the reactor during the first step while the contents of the reactor are kept in turbulence, and in that settling occurs in the second step and takes less time than the height of liquid in the reactor at the end of the first step divided by a settling velocity of at least 5 meters per hour.

The formation of granules under turbulent aerobic conditions is unexpected, because organisms in a granule are under very great stress as due to the size of the granule, nutrients have to diffuse over large distances before reaching the interior of a granule. The fact that in addition aerobic organisms require oxygen, increases the stress still more so that one would expect such aerobic organisms only to flocculate. In addition, the expert would expect the granules to disintegrate due to the great shearing forces caused by the turbulence.

In the present application an aerobic microorganism is understood to be both an obligate and a facultative aerobic microorganism.

Preferably the compound is fed to the reactor in pulses. This causes the organisms in a granule to be flooded with compound. As the organisms at the outside of the granule are unable to process such a supply of compound, the compound gets the opportunity to diffuse into the interior of the granule. This is especially important if the compound to be converted is a nutrient. An example of this is carbohydrate fermentation for the preparation of lactic acid.

In accordance with a favourable embodiment the contents of the reactor are substantially continuously mixed during the first step.

To promote the formation of aggregates, Sung et al. prefer periodical mixing during which only slight shearing forces occur. According to the invention, however, continuous turbulent mixing subjects flocs to mixing forces, allowing them to be discharged more easily in the third step. In addition, applicant has established by experimentation that if microorganisms are subjected to great shearing forces, the result is a more robust granule. Thus according to the invention the organisms in the reactor form into granules more quickly.

Turbulent mixing is conveniently carried out by feeding oxygen-containing gas into, for instance, an airlift-reactor or bubbling-bed reactor.

An interesting application of the method according to the invention is characterized in that the conversion is a nitrification-denitrification-conversion in which the oxygen-containing gas is only supplied during the first part of the first step for the completion of the nitrification, and that the reactor operates during the remainder of the first step under substantially anaerobic conditions for the completion of the denitrification. If desired, the gas may during this first step be recirculated over the reactor. Due to recirculation all oxygen is used up and turbulence is maintained.

When applying the method according to the invention, the organism-comprising granules must be present, or at least conditions promoting the formation of granules must be provided before starting up the reactor. It is useful, for instance, to feed the reactor with carrier particles to which organisms adhere, or are able to adhere. It has been shown that a mycelium-forming fungus can also be used as carrier.

According to a very favourable embodiment settling occurs in the second step, taking less time than the height of liquid in the reactor at the end of the first step divided by a settling velocity of at least 10 meters per hour, preferably at least 15 meters per hour. Thus the presence of granules in the reactor is strongly favoured in comparison with the presence of flocs. As mentioned above, Sung et al. describe a clarification step taking characteristically 10 to 30 minutes. The settling velocity is then only 1 meter per hour, and applied to aerobic organisms such a method will not result in granulation. While under anaerobic conditions the clarification step merely serves to separate organisms and treated water, is also the clarification step in the method according to the invention of essential importance for the induction of granulation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will now be explained with reference to an exemplary embodiment and with reference to the drawing, in which

FIG. 1 is a graphical representation of the carbon dioxide percentage in gas discharged from a bubbling-bed reactor during a cycle of the method according to the invention; and

FIG. 2 is an illustration of a granule composed of aerobic organisms.

EXAMPLE 1

A bubbling-bed reactor (2.5 liters; height/diameter 20) was fed with 1.25 liters of a solution serving as model for waste water, comprising 8.7 mM ethanol, 5 mM ammonium chloride, 4.7 mM potassium phosphate, 2.4 mM magnesium sulphate, 0.48 calcium chloride and per liter solution 1.5 ml of a standard solution of trace elements. The solution was inoculated with aerobically active sludge from a water treatment plant. The model waste water in the bubbling bed reactor was subjected to a cyclic treatment at pH 6-8 and a temperature of 20.degree. C. The treatment consisted of i) aerating for 4 hours at a flow rate of 1.5 liters air per minute (FIG. 1 shows the carbon dioxide percentage in the gas discharged from a bubbling-bed reactor during this phase. This percentage is a measure of the conversion of the ethanol), ii) the one-minute stoppage of aeration, and iii) draining model waste water from the bubbling-bed reactor at the half-way point of the column of liquid. Any biomass present during draining in the top half of the solution, was discharged together with the effluent. Finally, iv) the bubbling-bed reactor was replenished with a volume of model waste water equal to that of the discharged effluent. The cycle was then resumed with four hours aeration of the solution.

FIG. 2 shows the granules comprised of aerobic microorganisms, obtained by the method according to the invention. The average size is 3 mm.




US 6,183,642
Biological Treatment of Wastewater


2001-02-06
HEIJNEN JOSEPH JOHANNES (NL); VAN LOOSDRECHT MARINUS CORNELI (NL)
Applicant: GRONTMIJ ADVIES & TECHNIEK BV (US)


Abstract: A method is described for the biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater in at least one reactor which has a temperature of at least 25 DEG C., which involves the wastewater being passed through the said reactor(s) with a population, obtained by natural selection in the absence of sludge retention, in the suspended state of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to form, in a first stage with the infeed of oxygen, a nitrite-rich wastewater and by the nitrite-rich wastewater thus obtained being subjected, in a second stage without the infeed of oxygen, to denitrification in the presence of an electon donor of inorganic or organic nature, in such a way that the contact time between the ammonium-rich wastewater and the nitrifying bacteria is at most about two days, and the pH of the medium is controlled between 6.0 and 8.5 and the excess, formed by growth, of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria and the effluent formed by the denitrification are extracted. In addition the growth rate of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is expediently controlled by means of the retention time, in the reactor, of the wastewater to be treated which is fed in.



US 5,863,435

Biological Treatment of Wastewater


1999-01-26
HEIJNEN JOSEPH JOHANNES (NL); VAN LOOSDRECHT MARINUS CORNELI (NL)
Applicant: GRONTMIJ ADVIES & TECHNIEK BV (NL)
Also published as: EP0826639 / EP0826639 / NL1003866C (C2)

Abstract:
A method is described for the biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater in at least one reactor which has a temperature of at least 25 DEG C., which involves the wastewater being passed through the said reactor(s) with a population, obtained by natural selection in the absence of sludge retention, in the suspended state of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to form, in a first stage with the infeed of oxygen, a nitrite-rich wastewater and by the nitrite-rich wastewater thus obtained being subjected, if required, in a second stage without the infeed of oxygen, to denitrification in the presence of a carbon source such as methanol, in such a way that the contact time between the ammonium-rich wastewater and the nitrifying bacteria is at most about two days, and the pH of the medium is controlled between 6.5 and 8.5 by the infeed of the said carbon source, and the excess, formed by growth, of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria and the effluent formed by the denitrification are extracted, the demand for the said carbon source during the treatment being controlled as a function of the amount of heat produced in the reactor. In addition the growth rate of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is expediently controlled by means of the retention time, in the reactor, of the wastewater to be treated which is fed in.



Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a method for the biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater in at least one reactor which has a temperature of at least 25.degree. C., by the wastewater being passed through the said reactor(s) with a population, obtained by natural selection in the absence of sludge retention, in the suspended state of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria to form, in a first stage with the infeed of oxygen, a nitrite-rich wastewater and by the nitrite-rich wastewater thus obtained being subjected, if required, in a second stage without the infeed of oxygen, to denitrification in the presence of a carbon source such as methanol, in such a way that the retention time of the ammonium-rich wastewater is at most about three days, and the pH of the medium is controlled between 6.5 and 8.5 by the infeed of the said carbon source, and the excess, formed by growth, of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria and the effluent formed by the denitrification are extracted.

Such a method is known from a publication in Delft Outlook, 95.2, pp. 14-17. However, the research reported in this publication was carried out on a laboratory scale and does not provide any suggestion whatsoever on the measures required for using such a process in practice to achieve adequate cleaning of the wastewater in question.

As a result of discharge standards having become more stringent, in particular for nitrogen, there is a need for efficient, cost-effective purification systems for the treatment of wastewater. Examples of these concentrated industrial wastewater streams are, wastewater streams like those released with off-gas treatment etc. Another example of the concentrated nitrogen-rich wastewater stream is the so-called rejection water. This rejection water stream is formed after dewatering of fully digested sewage sludge and has not only a high ammonium concentration (about 1000 mg of NH.sub.4 -N per litre) but also a high temperature (usually about 30.degree. C.). The ammonium in the rejection water may account for as much as 15% of the total nitrogen loading of a wastewater treatment installation, while the volume flow of the rejection water is only less than 1% of the wastewater volume flow to be processed. This rejection water therefore makes a considerable contribution to the nitrogen loading of the treatment installation.

The biological treatment of such wastewater streams normally makes use of treatment processes in which the high sludge concentrations required are obtained by employing a form of sludge retention such as settling, membrane filtration, attachment to filter media, etc. In that context it is worth drawing attention to the STOWA report 95-08, which relates to the treatment of nitrogen-rich return streams in sewage plants, and to the Proc. 18th IAWQ Biennial, Water Quality International '96, 23-28 June 1996, Singapore, pp. 321-328.

An, as it happens, frequently used treatment process is known as the activated-sludge system. Such a system is characterized on the one hand by employing sludge retention by sludge settling and, on the other hand, by the bacteria mainly being present in so-called activated-sludge flocculae. Such flocculae usually have a size of 0.1-2 mm.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It should be noted that the present process of biological nitrogen removal preferably proceeds in two successive stages, an aerobic and an anoxic stage. Both stages can, in the present invention, take place in one reactor, separated in time, or in separate reactors which may or may not involve a return stream to the first stage. In the first stage the nitrogen present as ammonium is largely converted into nitrite, with the aid of oxygen and nitrifying bacteria. The second stage comprises the conversion of nitrite into molecular nitrogen, said conversion being anoxic and taking place with the aid of denitrifying bacteria. These denitrifying bacteria require a carbon source such as methanol, to carry out the said conversion.

We have now found, surprisingly, that the method as set forth in the preamble can be carried out on an industrial scale, with an ammonium removal efficiency of more than 90% being achieved, by controlling the demand of the denitrifying bacteria for a carbon source, in this case methanol.

More in particular we have found that the methanol demand during the treatment can be controlled as a function of the amount of heat produced in the reactor. These parameters proved to be directly proportional to one another. As will be explained hereinafter, the pH of the medium is controlled at the same time by means of the methanol being metered.

It should be noted that during the nitrification two moles of protons are produced per oxidized mole of ammonium. The pH drops as a result. The pH is usually controlled by feeding alkali and/or acid into the reactor. During denitrification, on the other hand, protons are consumed. Denitrification furthermore takes place under anoxic conditions, nitrite being used as an electron acceptor. For denitrification to be possible, the presence of not only an electron acceptor, but also of an electron donor is required. Methanol, for example, is indeed added at the same time in the present process as an electron donor.

In addition, the following may be noted with respect to the present process. For the purpose of nitrogen removal, the ammonium present in the wastewater is not nitrified to nitrate but only to nitrite. Indeed, the term of nitritifying bacteria is sometimes used, to indicate more clearly that what takes place predominantly is the formation of nitrite. The denitrifying bacteria which are capable of anoxic conversion of both the nitrate and the nitrite into molecular nitrogen, consume a carbon source such as methanol, as explained above. The conversion of nitrite into molecular nitrogen requires on its own, however, about 40% less methanol than the conversion of nitrate into nitrogen. Moreover, the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate costs oxygen. Indeed, direct conversion of nitrite into nitrogen provides another (approximately) 25% savings on the oxygen account. The conversion via nitrite instead of nitrate is therefore very advantageous in economic terms.

If, under certain circumstances, the conversion via nitrate is more attractive, however, than the conversion via nitrite, this can obviously be achieved by extending the retention time, of the wastewater to be treated, in the present process.

In an expedient variation of the present process in addition the growth rate of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is controlled by means of the retention time, in the reactor, of the wastewater to be treated which is fed in. This retention time is an important parameter, since the stability of the nitrifying process may be put at risk as a result of the maximum growth rate of the biomass decreasing as the temperature decreases. This therefore requires a higher temperature than with known, more conventional processes. In practical trials the influent of the reactor was found to have a temperature of 30.degree. C. The biological conversion such as the nitrification will cause the temperature to rise by about 15.degree. C. per gram of nitrogen per litre removed. Increasing the process control temperature beyond 40.degree. C., however, is not advantageous to the stability of the present process. By controlling the amount to be fed in of wastewater to be treated it is therefore possible to control the growth rate of the biomass; the temperature in the system and consequently the heat production therein then reflects the conversion in the system.

It was found that a retention time of the amount of wastewater to be fed in of 0.5-2.5 days, preferably of 1.3-2.0 days, affords optimum results, i.e. an overall removal efficiency of more than 90%.

Expediently, the retention time in the aerobic phase is from 0.5 to 2 days and in the anoxic phase from 0.4 to 1 day. A reduction in the retention time in the aerobic phase may lead to an improvement in the ammonium conversion ratio. This is caused by a longer retention time for the denitrifying bacteria then being achieved with an identical cycle time of the aerobic and anoxic period. This produces a higher average pH, as a result of which the ammonium conversion rate is increased. If the retention time in the aerobic phase is extended at the expense of the retention time in the anoxic phase, the pH is not sufficiently stabilized by the denitrifying bacteria and the conversion ratio drops again. However, if the retention time in the aerobic phase is reduced too far, the nitrifying bacteria will be flushed out and as a result the conversion ratio again drops.

Although control of the pH of the process according to the invention is effected by methanol being metered as a function of the amount of heat produced by the biological treatment, monitoring of the pH is obviously possible by the pH of the medium being measured directly. As explained above, protons (or acid ions) are produced during the nitrification process, as a result of which the pH of the medium drops in accordance with the equation

The nitrification rate is therefore pH-dependent, so that conversely the pH can be regarded as a relevant process parameter. It was found, incidentally, that during the nitrification buffering may take place by bicarbonate (HCO.sub.3.sup.-) which is present in the rejection water fed into the reactor or is added, in accordance with the equation

For an optimum effect it is important, in this context, that the carbon dioxide is transported (stripped) from the liquid phase to the gas phase. With respect to dimensioning the reactor to be used in the method according to the invention it was indeed found, in this context, that in the case of a ratio of volume to bottom area of the reactor in the range of 2-10 very beneficial results are achieved in terms of the nitrification-denitrification process according to the invention.

The characteristic feature of the invention is that the process takes place without sludge retention being employed, i.e. the sludge retention time is equal to the liquid retention time. To achieve this, both the mixing and the discharge of the treated water need to be effective. Good mixing can be obtained by employing, for example, aeration in the aerobic phase, and in the anoxic phase, for example, by employing mechanical agitators, liquid injection, introduction of low-oxygen or oxygen-free gases etc. As a result of these measures a very active bacterial population is obtained, which is mainly present in the liquid phase as free cells and/or very small clusters of a limited number of cells, rather than activated-sludge flocculae.

It should further be noted that the denitrification in the reactor is carried out under essentially oxygen-free conditions. Such conditions can be formed spontaneously as a result of denitrifying bacteria consuming the oxygen present, the environment consequently automatically becoming anoxic. Expediently, and to accelerate the process if required, the denitrification is carried out, however, with recycling of the nitrogen already formed previously by denitrification. An additional advantage of this is that the nitrogen stream through the reactor at the same time strips the carbon dioxide from the reactor.

As indicated above, the excess, formed by growth, of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is extracted. In practice this involves these bacteria being entrained by the effluent from the reactor and being added to the main stream of the wastewater treatment process, after which the further removal of residual ammonium is carried out.

It should be noted that the effluent from the reactor is preferably withdrawn therefrom at a point below the liquid level prevailing in the reactor, expediently with local intensive mixing. While at the moment this cannot be stated with certainty, this measure may be essential for a process without sludge retention.

According to an attractive variation of the method according to the invention, the nitrite-rich, acidic effluent formed by nitrification is used, at least in part, for the neutralization of ammonia. This ammonia can be present both in the rejection water to be treated and, alternatively, in a process stream of whatever origin. The treatment can be carried out, for example, in a gas scrubbing installation known per se, whereas the effluent obtained after treatment can be recycled, for further treatment, to the nitrification reactor according to the invention.

SURVEY OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying FIGS. 1 and 2 schematically show the progress of the nitrification/denitrification process according to the invention. More in particular, FIG. 1 provides a sketch of the pH profile in the reactor, the pH being controlled between 8 and 7 with the addition of methanol.

FIG. 2 also represents the change in time, produced by methanol being fed in, of the nitrite concentration and ammonium concentration for one cycle.

It should be noted that if it is undesirable or less desirable for the bacteria present in the effluent to reach the main stream of the wastewater treatment process when the effluent is recycled to said main stream, said effluent, according to a very expedient embodiment of the method according to the invention, is first subjected to a treatment with protozoa. Such a variation is of interest, in particular, if the influent of the reactor is a COD-containing wastewater. The term COD refers, as usual, to chemical oxygen demand; the component relevant thereto in solution is primarily formed by carbon bound in organic compounds. This material acts as a nutrient for the bacteria present in the reactor. By subjecting the effluent of the biological treatment to a treatment with protozoa it proved possible to largely remove the bacteria suspended in the effluent and entrained from the reactor.

It should also be noted that the principle, employed in the method according to the invention, of the absence of sludge retention can also expediently be employed in the treatment of COD-containing wastewater. More in particular this then means replacing the present nitrite route by the COD route, in which case an overall removal efficiency of more than 50% was obtained.

The invention is explained in more detail with reference to an exemplary embodiment.

EXAMPLE

In this example a continuous flow reactor without sludge retention was employed. Such a reactor makes it possible for the bacterial population having the lowest maximum growth rate to be flushed from the system selectively.

The reason for this is that a retention time can be used which is lower than the maximum reciprocal growth rate of the one bacterial population (in this case the nitrite oxidizers which oxidize the nitrite present to nitrate), but is higher than the maximum reciprocal growth rate of the other bacterial population (in this case the ammonium oxidizers). Flushing out the nitrite oxidizers therefore leads to a build-up of nitrite in the reactor.

The reactor used had a diameter of about 20 m and a height of 6 m and therefore an effective volume of about 1150 m.sup.3.

The influent for the reactor, the so-called rejection water, had a temperature of about 30.degree. C. and an ammonia concentration of about 1000 mg of N/l, while the total amount of rejection water fed in was about 760 m.sup.3 per day.

For the purpose of converting ammonia into nitrite, followed by the conversion into nitrogen, the reactor contained about 120 kg of biomass.

The treatment of the rejection water took place in the reactor with a cycle configuration as shown in FIG. 2, i.e. a cycle time of about 2 hours consisting of an aeration period of .+-.80 min, followed by a period involving recycling of the nitrogen gas formed in a first period of bout 40 min.

In the steady state of the process the amount of rejection water fed to the reactor was such that the retention time was about 1.5 days. The infeed of methanol was about 1 kg per kg of nitrogen bound as ammonium and was effected in such a way, while the temperature difference between the input and the output of the reactor was being measured, that the pH of the medium could be kept between about 7.2 and 7.7.

The rejection water thus treated had a nitrogen concentration of as little as about 80 mg of total N.multidot.l.sup.-1, which could be recycled for treatment to the main stream of the treatment installation. The result of the treatment of this rejection water was therefore a purification efficiency of about 90%.




US 6,383,390

Method of Treating Ammonia Comprising Waste Water


2002-05-07
VAN LOOSDRECHT MARINUS CORNELI (NL); JETTEN MICHAEL SILVESTER MARIA
Also published as: WO9807664 / EP0931023 / EP0931023 / EP0931023 / PL187475



Abstract: The invention relates to a method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water in which the bicarbonate ion is the counter ion of the ammonium ion present in the waste water. According to the invention half the ammonium is converted into nitrite, yielding an ammonia and nitrite-containing solution, and in the second step the nitrite is used as oxidant for the ammonia. In the method according to the invention the conversion of half the ammonia into nitrite occurs automatically, providing a method which requires fewer controls. Also, the method according to the invention requires no external additive.



NL 1003860C

Ammonia-Containing Waste Water Treatment


1998-02-26
LOOSDRECHT MARINUS CORNELIS MA (NL); JETTEN MICHAEL SILVESTER MARIA (NL)
Applicant: UNIV DELFT TECH (NL)



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