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Clemente FIGUERA, et al.

Infinite Energy Machine












Tecnologia Obsoleta : The Enigma of Clemente Figuera & the Infinite Energy Machine

Interview with C. Figuera

Newspaper / Magazine Articles

Test by Engineer G. Bolibar

 

Patents

Energetic Forum Comments

Patrick J. KELLY : A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices -- Chapter 3: Motionless Pulsed Systems [ Excerpt -- ]

YouTube Videos




Clemente FIGUERA



http://www.alpoma.net/tecob/
http://www.alpoma.net/tecob/?page_id=8258
Tecnologia Obsoleta

http://orbo.es/?p=26

New science or old misconceptions?
1910 AntiGravity News » A Letter From Nicola Tesla


Living down in Tenerife in the Spanish Canary islands it isn’t often one gets to hear of local inventors that have rubbed shoulders with Nicola TESLA. So when a friend of mine mentioned a letter Tesla wrote to a friend which mentioned the Canary Islands my ears pricked up.  Figueras Was unknown to me and to everyone i spoke to. But the press cutting that Tesla sent to his friend was making truly remarkable claims that Figuera had invented a machine capable of extracting electricity from the atmosphere. This was one of Teslas predictions. That was over 2 years ago and it seemed I was the only one with an interest  , that is until this week I found this story , written by someone with the same curiosity as myself who, had encountered this story and had followed it up. Originally written in Spanish but translated by me , it shows  Sr. Figueras was completely unknown to the locals.  I found lots of news paper cuttings , one of which Tesla cut out at the time and sent to his friend.  Beyond the initial press clamor of 1902, I could only find reference to his partner, a Sr. Blasberge having been made director of the local gas works in the 1920’s. This sparked the conspiracy theorist in me and I searched high and low to find out why Blasberg was the director of the gas works while Clemente Figueras was forgotten. I only uncovered part of the story but I am very grateful to this Spanish author who filled in the blanks to a forgotten part of Tesla and Canary island history.

http://es.globedia.com/enigma-clemente-figuera-maquina-energia-infinita

"Mr. Clemente Figueras of Las Palmas, Canary Islands, is credited with having invented a contrivance which generates electricity without the use of any intermediate motive power or chemical reaction, but simply gathers the force from the atmosphere. The report of the invention comes from the Daily Mail correspondent at Las Palmas, who says Mr. Figuera has one of his machines in successful operation in his house. The discovered, Mr. Clemente Figueras, is Engineer of Woods and Forest for the Canary Islands, and for many years professor of physics at St. Augustine´s College, Las Palmas, and long known as a scientific student..."

Well, we have some of the pieces of the puzzle. A canary engineer appears, a machine that extract energy from the atmosphere, although that was an incorrect assessment by the journalist, and also other data such as the condition of physics professor and inventor, as stated later in the article Figuera had the intention of patenting the technology in Madrid and Berlin. The next logical step was to go to the Patent Office to check about what was mentioned, and whether, indeed, there were such patents. But first, a brief mention should be made of what the Spanish press published about the case around those dates. For example, in the May 1902 edition of the journal The Reading in Science and Arts is written:

"In the English newspapers are extensive references to an important discovery conducted by D. Clemente Figueras, forest engineer in Canary Islands and physics professor at College San Agustin from Las Palmas. Mr. Figueras has been working silently in order to find a method to use directly, ie, without dynamos and chemical agent, the huge amounts of electricity which exist in the atmosphere and are being renewed constantly, constituting an inexhaustible reservoir of this form of energy. Our compatriot (…) has achieved his purpose, having managed to invent a generator which can collect and store the atmospheric electric fluid in a position of being able to use later for pulling trams, trains, etc., or to run machinery in factories to light the houses and streets. Although no one knows the details of the procedure that Mr. Figueras reserves until he will get it completely perfected, he states that his invention will produce a tremendous economic and industrial revolution. The apparatus devised by Mr. Figueras has been built in separate pieces, in accordance with the drawings made by him in different companies in Paris, Berlin and Las Palmas. Received the parts, the engineer has put them together and articulate in his workshop. The company from Berlin which built some of the pieces, got curious about what they would be used for, sent an engineer to the Canary Islands, with the pretext of helping set up and with real purpose to study and sketch the whole device, but has not achieved his objective. Apparently, Mr. Figueras´ apparatus consists essentially of three parts: a collector, a transformer and a accumulator, so that, in short, what it does is to collect atmospheric electricity, transforming it from static to dynamic and store it in a secondary battery for later use in the form and amount required. We have understood that the inventor will soon come to Madrid and, later he will depart to Berlin and London, and then you will be able to know the procedure in detail."

La Region Canaria
24 September 1902. Page 4

The Invention of Mr. Figuera

"When rumors about the invention of our dear friend and wise engineer Mr. Clemente Figuera appeared, we were its convinced believers, because knowing Figuera´s character he had not claim for sure an statement of such importance publicly, unless he were mad, until not being fully convinced that he had made a discovery of those which performs a great revolution in the industrial world.

"We had faith in him from the very beginning, and this was increasing while the famous engineer was providing us, by means of his notable work, which was published in these columns, the theories of the invention, keeping, as it is natural, the secret thereof. It is no longer possible for even the most skeptical, doubt the invention of Mr. Figuera, because he has just sold , we assume that for high sum of money, the Spanish patent which were obtained from our government when he arrived at Madrid. The company, which has bought it, will be well ascertained, before handing the stipulated capital between that company and the inventor, that the discovery does not leave any room for the slightest doubt. Here Mr. Figuera´s telegram which has produced so much satisfaction:

Madrid 15-13 h.

“I have just signed sale deed Spanish patent managing world bankers first union formation. Congratulations.” FIGUERA.

"Many celebrate that a discovery of this nature have been done in the Canary Islands which should worry to large companies worldwide and even to governments themselves; We are very satisfied with the patriotism of Mr. Figuera for having obtained the patent for his invention in Spain, perhaps sacrificing his interests, because everyone knows how great discoveries are paid in other nations.

""Mr. Figuera receives our warmest congratulations that we extend to the distinguished family of the wise inventor."

[ Allegedly 30 million pesetas -- about$ 230,000 in 1902 ]

I have no idea where the press got the idea about the “atmospheric electricity” because Figuera´s patents, or at least those that I have been able to review, do not mention anything similar. It was clear to me after reading all the press clippings that the personage deserved to be investigated, albeit briefly. What I found next was completely unexpected. From experience, having collected dozens of stories that sound similar mode on alleged inventors of miraculous machines of all kinds, I always came to the same conclusion, namely, that they were solitary adventurers, most of them without proper training or prestige, they thought that they had invented something great or, simply, they were fraudsters. But, with Clemente Figuera I found the perfect engineer, respected and respectable, a well-known person highly appreciated at that time, and which had nothing to do with “crazy” dreamers who develop meaningless inventions. It was Figuera’s own life which disturbed me, because it has nothing to do with an amateur adventurer.

Following the trail from official papers and press publications I have been able to reconstruct a short biography of Clemente Figuera, in which we can see a person with an unblemished career. The first reference I have located about Clemente Figuera y Ustáriz, the full name of our protagonist, was released in November 1865 as laudatory reference to the future engineer, who at that time was advancing in his studies in the university. He also appears among the aspirants to the Forestry Corps. The Official Spanish Guide settle him in Salamanca around 1872, but I haven´t found more references close to that date.

In 1875 Figuera reappears, this time on the occasion of a transfer. It is mentioned that working as Forest Engineer in Malaga and was required to be transfer to Granada. Slowly he rose in his career; in 1880 he was appointed as Second Class Chief Engineer and for several years held that office in the province of Badajoz, moving in 1899 as Chief Engineer in the Canary Island. In 1903 he was promoted to Second Class General Inspector and, in 1904, he was moved to Barcelona with a position as Inspector. Again he was promoted in 1906 to the rank of First Class Inspector, staying in Barcelona until his death, which happened at the end of 1908. It is curious to read the accolades that made his fellow engineers in the press at the time of his death, being considered a flawless and highly respected member of his profession. In various official documents can also read how, throughout his long career, Clemente Figuera received commissions from various governments to do projects of great importance in establishing the economic activities in the Canary Islands and Catalonia. With all this information in my hand, I stood thoughtfully: What necessity had a respected engineer to become inventor and to run the risk of being labeled, at least, as fantasist? Most striking of all it was that his role as inventor was, apparently, something that he carried in the most absolute secrecy, unveiling that part of his life only when he set out to apply for patents and, even then, he decided to pass as unnoticed as possible.

Adventures in the Patent Office

It was time to figure out how the Figuera machine should work. The search results were again surprising because it did not resemble anything I had previously imagined. The first logical step was to find out if it really existed patents whose ownership could be attributed to Clement Figuera. The search soon offered results. Here are all their patents according to the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office. I have divided them into two groups with a very personal notation, depending on the place of residence of the applicant at the time the proceedings were issued. We can say that about Pedro Blasberge, who appears as co-author in some of the patents, I just managed to find out little information, only that he worked as director of a gas plant in Las Palmas:

Patents filed while living in Canary Island (1902)

Patent number: 30375. Title: A process for obtaining electrical currents entirely the same as those given by current dynamos. Date of application: 09/20/1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clemente / Blasberge, Pedro.

Patent number: 30376. Title: Machine no needing motive power which produces electrical currents applicable to all uses. Date of application: 09/20/1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz , Clemente / Blasberge, Pedro.

Patent number: 30377. Title: A new method to obtain electrical currents without using motive power, neither batteries or accumulators nor other similar means. Date of application: 09/20/1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clemente / Blasberge, Pedro.

Patent number: 30378. Title: An electrical generator. Date of application: 09/20/1902. Applicant: Figuera Urtáiz, Clemente / Blasberge, Pedro.

Patent filed while living in Barcelona (1908)

Constantino de Buforn (who was an economical partner of Clemente Figuera) had obtained several patents on the Figuera´s device shortly after his death. These patents, which I have consulted with interest in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office, do not really provide anything which was not already included in the latest patents of Figuera. For information, it is patent 47706, 50216, 52968, 55411 and 57955, filed between 1910 and 1914.

Documents:

Test of practical implementation patent 1910
Clemente Figuera patent 30378 (1902)
Clemente Figuera patent 30377 (1902)
Clemente Figuera patent 30376 (1902)
Clemente Figuera patent 30375 (1902)
Clemente Figuera patent 44267, year 1908
Newspaper report, 9 jun 1902, Chicago Tribune.
La Región Canaria, Press Clipping, 24 sep 1902
Interview with Clemente Figuera, 1902
Buforn patents (1910-1914
Telegrama / Telegram Figuera 1902.
Drawing 1908 patent.

After revising carefully the list but it did not take more than a few minutes to ask the Patent Office for a copy of all of them. Unfortunately, I was informed that all of them were damaged, apparently, by the humidity of an ancient flood which affected the files. They were barely able to give me a copy, with some damage, of patents 30375 and 44267, that is, the first and last of the series. There you can read how Figuera approach is very original and has nothing to do with extracting energy from the atmosphere. Moreover, after having discussed the case with a few engineers, although we agree that possibly it will not be able to run, it bears some intriguing aspect because, at the time these patents were published, was requested to provide a complete operative model which was revised deeply before being accepted as patent application. Knowing the reputation of Figuera, I had in my mind the question: Did really Figuera find a technology that was hardly interesting? The time limitation to check the remaining patents make me keep the doubt, because I am unaware of what it might contain other documents damaged. In the two patents can be seen how ingeniously and by mechanical methods, the engineer tried to generate electrical energy inside a coil by varying the flow of two opposite and opposing magnetic fields, trying to get into the machine the same characteristic behavior of a conventional generator, but without moving parts. I don´t doubt that in the coil induced currents are generated, as he thought, but to pretend that more energy is generated in the coil or set of coils, which is needed to generate the inductive fields, even if they vary over time very rapidly, is an illusion. However, as a curious experiment, those who dare to try something really see that it is easy to implement, you can always learn something from a setup like this. Today it is easier than in times of Figuera, because it can be used electronic components, not mechanical...



INTERVIEW With CLEMENTE FIGUERA ( 1902 )

Mr. Clemente Figuera. - The name of the conscientious and intelligent engineer, Inspector of mountains in Canary, is now universally known, thanks to the news published by the press about the generator of his invention for producing far-reaching consequences, because it constitutes a valuable element in modern mechanics, solving problems which will influence powerfully in most industries.

The meritable engineer states in a recently published work. - "With persistent effort nature keeps its secrets, but man´s intelligence, the most precious gift due to the divine artist, author of all creation, allows that slowly and at the cost of thousands studies and works, the human race realize that God's work is more perfect and harmonious than it looks at first sight.
 
There was no need to create a agent for each kind of phenomenon, nor varying forces to produce the multiple motions, nor so many substances as varieties of bodies are present to our senses; In doing so, it was proceeding worthy of a least wise and powerful creator that that, with a single matter and a single impulse given to an atom, started in vibration all cosmic matter, according to a law from which the others are natural and logical consequences”

And later he adds: "The twentieth century has given us the mercy of discovering its program in general lines. It will stop using the hackneyed system of transformations, and it will take the agents where the nature has them stored. To produce heat, light or electricity, it will rely on the suitable vibratory motion because nature´s available storages are renewed constantly and have no end ever. For the next generation, the steam engines will be an antique, and the blackness of coal, will be replaced by the pulchritude of electricity, in factories and workshops, in ocean liners, in railways and in our homes”

So says Mr. Figueras, who is consistent with his scientific creed, has based his significant invention on harnessing the vibrations of the ether, building a device, that he names as Generator Figueras, with the power required to run a motor, as well as powering itself, developing a force of twenty horse power. Should be noted that the produced energy can be applied to all kinds of industries and its cost is zero, because nothing is spent to obtain it. All parts have been built separately in various workshops under the management of the inventor, who has shown the generator running in his home in the city of Las Palmas.

The inventor holds that his generator will solve a portion of problems, including those which are derived from navigation, because a great power can be carried in a very small space, stating that the secret of his invention resembles the egg of Columbus.

With the generator it may be obtained the voltage and amperage required, as direct or alternate currents, producing light, driving force, heat and all the effects of the electricity. It is said that shortly Mr. Figuera will depart to Paris, to constitute a union in charge of the exploitation of his invention.

Due to the gallantry of our good friend, the distinguished photographer of Las Palmas Mr. Luis Ojeda, we thank for making public to our readers a portrait of Mr. Clemente Figueras, to whom we congratulate on his invention, making fervent hopes to produce the expected beneficial results, for the benefit of mankind, for the sake of science and honor of our country, proud to count him among the number of its illustrious sons.



Test of Prototype Spanish Patent # 47706

July 9, 1913

GERONIMO BOLIBAR
Engineer-Industrial Property Agent
Barcelona

Honorable Sir,

In compliance with Article 100 of the Law of Property May 16, 1902 I have the honor to transmit to you a certificate signed by engineer D. Jose Ma Bolibar y Pinós crediting to have conducted measures of practical implementation of the patent No. 47706 issued on June 6, 1910 in favor of Constantine Buforn by an “Electrical Generator "Universal". God preserve you many years.

Barcelona June 5, 1913.
Signed: Gerónimo Bolibar

To: Illustrious Lord Chief Registrar of Industrial Property

D. Jose Ma Bolibar y Pinós, Industrial Engineer, at the request of D. Constantine Buforn, patentee of invention No. 47706.
Certify: That I have examined the material consisting of original memory corresponding to said background patent, issued on June 6, 1910, for "A GENERATOR OF ELECTRICITY" UNIVERSAL "which consists essentially of a series of inducer electromagnets combined with a series of electromagnets or induced coils, a switch and comprising a brush or rotary switch, which makes contact successively on the series of fixed contacts and get a continuous variation of the current flowing through the coils of the inducer electromagnets, developing in this manner a current in induced
coils.

I further certify that provided the necessary reports when they had to come to the knowledge of the conditions under which it is carried out the exploitation of this patent, that D. Constantine Buforn exploitation of this patent in the street Universidad No. 110 ground floor, of this city, having of all the elements necessary for the construction, in the proportion rational for its use, of electricity generators which are described and characterized in the memory of that patent.

For all these reasons, I consider the above patent implementation in accordance with Article 98 provided in the current Industrial Property Law.

And for the record I issue this in the city of Barcelona on June 5, 1913.

Signed: J.M. Bolibar

&c...

Number 47706
July 9, 1913



News / Magazine Articles


The Electrical World and Engineer ( 14 June 1902 )
 
Electricity from Air

The London '' Daily Mail '' hears from its Las Palmas, Canary Islands, correspondant that Senor Clemente Figueras, of the place, has discovered a method of '' directly using atmospheric electricity without chemicals or dynamos and practically applying it without any motive force.''

Senor Figueras is jealously guarding his invention and is not disposed to say anything more about it just now '' than the only extraordinary point about it is that it has taken so long to discover a simple fact.''  The inventor, who is a professor of physics at St Augustin's College, Las Palmas, will according to a dispatch to a New York paper, soon go to Madrid and Berlin to patent his invention. It is stated in the original communication that Prof. Figueras '' has constructed a rough apparatus by which he obtains a current of 550Volts, which he utilizes in lighting his house and driving a 20Hp motor.'' As usual in such cases, '' the whole apparatus is so simple that a child can work it.''

New York Times ( 9 June 1902 )




Chicago Star (  June 1903 )



Chicago [? ] Herald ( 9 June 1907 )


     

Chicago Daily Tribune ( 9 June 1902 )



Los Angeles Times ( 9 June 1902 )



Washington Times ( 9 June 1902 )

Email : P. St-Martin ( 6-2012 )

...An article was published about him in the  Historia de Iberia Vieja Enero 2011 (January)
 
This article can be purchased from this website:

http://www.historiadeiberiavieja.com/noticia/738/Portada/Portada-Historia-de-Iberia-Vieja-n-67-/-Enero-2011-.html



PATENTS :
Clemente FIGUERA / Pedro BLASBERGE / Constantino de BUFORN


Spanish Patent # 30375
NEW PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING ELECTRICAL CURRENTS IN GENERAL AND APPLICABLE TO INDUSTRIAL USES

( 1902 )

DESCRIPTION

All systems adopted, until the present, to produce electric currents, are based on the well-known principle that, when a core of soft iron which approach or moves away from a magnet is magnetized and demagnetized do appear induced current in any copper wire which is coiled in said core. This is the fundamental principle of the Clarke machine, of the company “The Alliance”, and the current dynamos, which, like all others, are machines to transform mechanical force into electricity. In all of them, the magnetizations and successive demagnetizations of the core or cores is achieved approaching and moving away these permanent magnets or electromagnets, called excitatory.

Those who sign, have devised a new method or process for producing magnetic changes in the core, and this procedure consists of making intermittent or alternating the current which drives the excitatory electromagnets, in which case neither the nuclei, nor the induced circuit need to be moved at all.

The whole question comes down to change the state of magnetization of the cores, so that electrical currents could appear in the induced wire. Until now, this result is achieved by making the core or cores approaching or moving from the magnetic centers created by the excitatory electromagnets. We, through an intermittent or alternating electric current achieve a variation in the magnetic state of the cores of the excitatory electromagnets, and also changing, the magnetic state of the cores on which the induced circuit is coiled, where electric currents appear ready to be industrially exploited.

As the soft iron core of a dynamo becomes a real magnet from the time when current flow along the wire of the induced circuit, we think that this core must be formed or constituted by a group of real electromagnets, properly built to develop the highest possible attractive force, and without taking into account the conditions to be fitted in the induced circuit, which is completely independent of the core.

The procedure is thus reduced to establish an independent induced circuit, within the sphere of action or magnetic atmosphere formed between the magnetic pole faces, of opposite name, of two electromagnets, or series of electromagnets driven by intermittent or alternating currents.

In the current dynamos, the coils of the induced circuit cut the force lines which go from the faces of the excitatory electromagnets to the core; in our procedure, the same lines of force, which are born and die cross through the coils on the induced.

The novelty of our procedure is as follows:

In that, you do not need to use any driving force, since the machines built according to these principles will not act as transformers of work into electricity.

In that, until the present, none has tried to change, at industrial scale, from zero, the magnetic power of the excitatory magnets or electromagnets of a running machine.

Note: for which the patent is filed: Procedure to achieve electric currents, establishing a motionless and independent induced circuit, within the sphere of action or magnetic atmosphere formed between the magnetic pole faces of two excitatory electromagnets, or series of motionless electromagnets, powered by intermittent or alternate currents.

Madrid, the 2nd of September, 1902.

Signed: Clemente Figuera.


 
Spanish Patent # 30376
ELECTRICAL MACHINE FIGUERA – BLASBERG

( 1902 )
Clemente FIGUERA / Pedro BLASBERG

DESCRIPTIVE NOTES

By running a dynamoelectric machine, the inducer electromagnets exert attractive action on the soft iron core, but as it is round, it is not too difficult to rotate it more or less quickly. But, as soon as currents appear in the induced circuit coils, the soft iron core becomes a real magnet and the difficulty to turn it increases extremely.

Everyone knows that the current generated by a dynamo is produced because the induced coils cut the lines of force of the magnets, therefore producing induction, and it is supposed that the force required to move the machine is applied to rotate the induced, so that their coils cut the said lines of force.

The undersigned inventors have been persuaded that this view is not accurate, and they also believe that the horsepower consumed by the generator, for its operation, are only used to rotate the core, and to overcome the force of attraction exerted mutually between the poles of the inducer electromagnets and those on the core, which is nothing more than a magnet. The authors believe that, for the existence of magnetic fields, there is no need to rotate the core, and for achieving the induced coils to cut the lines of force it is only needed that the induced circuit rotates, this is, the coils alone, without the soft iron core. But, as currents appears in the coils, the core becomes a real electromagnet, the undersigned inventors think that the electromagnet must be formed in the likeness of the exciter electromagnets, that is, in the best conditions for this core to become a magnet as powerful as possible while passing the current along the wire coiled on the core.

In the construction of current dynamos the copper wire covering the core must be -necessarily of a determined length and thickness in order that the induced current will get the desired voltage and amperage, and the mentioned length and thickness of the wire do not allow to coil it around the core in proper conditions to be a good electromagnet.

By contrast, a dynamo built with motionless core and exciter magnets, and just moving or rotating the coils on the induced circuit, may get an electromagnet in the core in the best conditions to obtain, at its poles, a powerful electromagnetism, and independently of this core-electromagnet, the coils in the induced circuit can be built with the copper wire of such required length and thickness in order that the dynamo can get the desired voltage and amperage.

In summary: in the machine that it is requested to have a privilege, the excitatory magnets are constructed as those in the current machines, and in the number, size and desired arrangement. The core consists of a group of as many electromagnets as those of the excitatory side, and the wires in the excitatory electromagnets and core electromagnets disposed in series or parallel or as required for the excitatory current, whose aim is to convert them in powerful magnets and to create the magnetic fields which are formed between the poles of each excitatory electromagnet and its corresponding electromagnet in the core. Both, exciter electromagnets as those in the core, which are also exciters, are terminated by expansions of iron or steel, placing face to face these expansions and disposing them in such a way that in front of a pole of a name there is placed a pole of opposite name. The core is composed of motionless electromagnets around shaft, and nor those magnets neither the exciter ones rotate. The induced circuit formed by wires coiled in a drum type configuration rotates around its axis, inside the magnetic fields, accompanied by a collector and a pulley, so that any motor may put them into movement.

As copper is diamagnetic, the force required to rotate the induced coils will be very small, even taking into account the friction of brushes, air resistance, bearings, and higher or lower attracting electric currents, so that, a relatively weak electric motor, powered by either an independent current, or by a portion of the total current produced by the machine can be used to put the induced circuit into quick rotation movement.

Therefore Mr. Clemente Figuera and Mr. Pedro Blasberg, on name and on behalf of society "Figuera-Blasberg" according to the principles established by the law request respectfully for definitive privilege or patent of invention which is described as:

The inducer or exciter circuit is formed by two series of multiple electromagnets, motionless them all, and conveniently placed so that each pole of a series will be at short distance in front of a pole of opposite name in the other series. In the small separation between the expansions of these magnets the induced coils rotate, dragging, in its turn, the collectors and transmission pulleys. The figure of the attached drawing, which is only theoretical, gives an idea of the arrangement which is requested for privilege. The excitation of the electromagnets is made by either known means, or by combinations thereof.

The object of the patent consists in the following note:

NOTE

Invention of an electrical machine capable of giving the same effect as the current dynamos, and in which only the induced coils rotate, but not the core which is fixed without movement, and comprised of a group of exciter electromagnets which are similar to those in dynamos today in use, so that the motionless exciter circuit is formed by the external electromagnets and by the internal electromagnet placed in the core, and rotating only the induce circuit, with the collector and motion transmission pulleys.

Barcelona on September 5, 1902

Signed: Clemente Figuera and Pedro Blasberg

a-Electroimanes excitadores fijos exteriores ( Fixed external exciter electromanets)
b-Electroimanes excitadores fijos interiores (Fixed internal exciter electromagnets)
c-Colector o Colectores (Collector or collectors)
P- Polea o poleas de transmisión (Transmision pulley or pulleys)
e-Circuito inducido rotatorio (Rotating induced circuit)
hh- Eje de rotación (Axis of rotation)



Spanish Patent # 30377
OTHER NEW PROCEDURE TO OBTAIN ELECTRICAL CURRENTS APPLICABLE TO ALL USES

( 2 September 1902 )
DESCRIPTIVE NOTES

On all magneto and dynamo-electric machines, from Clarke´s machine to the most sophisticated ones, there is a copper wire, called induced circuit, which is wound, in a more or less convenient and ingenious way, on a soft iron core. This core, under the successive action of the poles, of opposite name, of several electromagnets undergoes very rapid magnetic changes which produce the induced electrical currents, and in practice, these effects are achieved thanks to the rotation or revolution, more or less rapidly of the induced circuit joined to its core, or rotation of the exciter circuit with its core, needing, in both cases, a high amount of mechanical force to overcome the force of attraction exerted between the exciter electromagnets and the core of the induced.

But, as the distribution and establishment of magnetic fields is always the same and independent of the rotation, the undersigned inventors have thought that it is not needed to move the core for the induced coils to cut the existing lines of force between the pole faces of the exciter electromagnets and the core, producing this way the induction, and it is enough that the induced circuit will be separated by a very tiny distance from this core, only rotating the induced coil, for which, it is not required a great strength since, with copper being diamagnetic, simply it is sufficient with the necessary effort to overcome the air resistance, friction of brushes, and higher or lower attraction from currents to currents, effort which is easily obtained using a suitable electric motor driven by an independent current, or by a part of the total current given by the machine. This procedure allows to obtain currents remarkably identical to those existing today in dynamos, but without using driving force which is today used and wasted away, almost entirely, in rotating the soft iron core.

Therefore what we do is to let still the exciter circuit, the core of this circuit and the core of the induced, and rotate only the induced circuit within the sphere of action, or existing magnetic fields, between the pole faces of the exciter electromagnets and the core of the induced circuit.

In order that the magnetic fields will be more intense we build this core by a group of real electromagnets in the likeness of the exciters ones, and this design has the advantage that the induced circuit, as being independent and separated from the core, is constructed in the most convenient shape and arrangement. The collector and the pulley or pulleys for transmission of motion rotate also with the induced drum.

NOTE, for which a patent is applied

Procedure for obtaining electrical currents originated in an induced circuit which rotates, with collector and transmission pulleys, cutting its coils the lines of force which flow from the pole faces of a series of motionless electromagnets to the pole faces of other electromagnets, analogous to the first and also motionless, which are placed in front of the first.



Spanish Patent # 30378
ELECTRICAL GENERATOR FIGUERA - BLASBERG

( 5 September 1902 )

Since 1833, when, in France, Pixii built the first magneto-electric machine, to the present time, all machines magneto and dynamo-electric that inventors’ knowledge has materialized in the industry are based on the law of induction that says "all magnet which approaches or moves away from a close circuit, produces in it induced currents" In Gramme ring and in the current dynamos, current is produced by induction exerted on the wire of the induced circuits as its coils cut the lines of force created by the excitatory electromagnets, this is, as the induced circuit moves, quickly, inside the magnetic atmosphere which exists between the pole faces of the excitatory electromagnets and the soft iron core of the induced. In order to produce this movement, mechanical force need to be employed in large quantity, because it is necessary to overcome the magnetic attraction between the core and the excitatory electromagnets, attraction which opposes the motion, so the current dynamos are true machines for transforming mechanical work into electricity.

The undersigned, believe that is exactly the same as the coils in the induced cut the lines of force, or that these lines of force cross the induced wire, because not changing, by rotation, the arrangement of the magnetic fields, there is no necessity to move the core, for induction to occur. Leaving still both the induced circuit and the core, it is essential that lines of forces to be born and die, or being removed, which is achieved by making the excitatory current intermittent or alternating in sign.

The current dynamos, come from groups of Clarke machines, and our generator recalls, in its fundamental principle, the Ruhmkorff induction coil. In that machine the induction machine is created by movement of the induced circuit: in the generator, induction occurs because of the intermittences of the current which magnetize the electromagnets, and in order to achieve these intermittences or changes in sign, only is required a very small quantity or almost negligible force, we, with our generator, produce the same effects of current dynamos without using any driving force at all.

In the arrangement of the excitatory magnets and the induced, our generator has some analogy with dynamos, but completely differs from them in that, not requiring the use of motive power, is not a transforming apparatus. As much as we take, as a starting point, the fundamental principle that supports the construction of the Ruhmkorff induction coil, our generator is not a cluster of these coils which differs completely. It has the advantage that the soft iron core can be constructed with complete indifference of the induced circuit, allowing the core to be a real group of electromagnets, like the exciters, and covered with a proper wire in order that these electromagnets may develop the biggest attractive force possible, without worrying at all about the conditions that the induced wire must have for the voltage and amperage that is desired. In the winding of this induced wire, within the magnetic fields, are followed the requirements and practices known today in the construction of dynamos, and we refrain from going into further detail, believing it unnecessary.

The inventors, who subscribe, constitute their generator, as follows: Several electromagnets are arranged opposing each other, and their opposite pole faces separated by a small distance. The cores of all these electromagnets are formed in such a way that they will magnetize and demagnetize quickly and not retain any residual magnetism. In the empty space remaining between the pole faces of the electromagnets of these two series, the induced wire passes in one piece, or several, or many. An excitatory current, intermittent, or alternating, actuates all the electromagnets, which are attached or in series, or in parallel, or as required, and in the induced circuit will arise currents comprising, together, the total generator current. That allows suppressing the mechanical force, since there is nothing which needs to be moved. The driving current, or is an independent current, which, if direct, must be interrupted or changed in sign alternately by any known method, or is a part of the total current of the generator, as it is done today in the current dynamos.

Founded on these considerations, Mr. Clemente Figuera and Mr. Pedro Blasberg, in the name and on behalf of the society "Figuera-Blasberg" respectfully requests to be granted final patent of invention for this generator whose form and arrangement are shown in the attached drawings, warning that, in them, and for clarity are sketched only eight electromagnets, or two sets of four excitatory electromagnets in each, and the induced circuit is marked by a thick line of reddish ink, being this way the general arrangement of the appliance, but meaning that you can put more or less electromagnets and in another form or grouping.

The invention for which a patent is applied consists in following note.

Note

Invention of an electric generator without using mechanical force, since nothing moves, which produces the same effects of current dynamo-electric machines thanks to several fixed electromagnets, excited by a discontinuous or alternating current which creates an induction in the motionless induced circuit, placed within the magnetic fields of the excitatory electromagnets.

Barcelona, the 5th of September of 1902
Signed: Clemente Figuera and Pedro Blasberg

(EXTERNAL EXCITER ELECTROMAGNETS)
(INTERNAL EXCITER ELECTROMAGNETS)
(PLACE FOR THE INDUCED)




C. BUFORN PATENTS

Spanish Patent # 44267
ELECTRICAL GENERATOR “FIGUERA”

( 1908 )

Ministry of Development General Board of agriculture, industry and Commerce. Patents of Invention. Expired. Dossier number 44267. Instruction at the request of D. Clemente Figuera. Representative Mr. Buforn. Presented in the register of the Ministry in the 31st of october of 1908, at 11:55 received in the negotiated in the 2nd of November of 1908.


BACKGROUND

if within a spinning magnetic field we rotate a closed circuit placed at right angles to the lines of force a current will be induced for as long as there is movement , and whose sign will depend on the direction in which the induced circuit moves.

This is the foundation of all magnetic machines and electric dynamos from the primitive, invented by Pixii, France and modified and improved later by Clarke until the current dynamos of today.

The principle where is based this theory, carries the unavoidable need for the movement of the induced circuit or the inductor circuit, and therefore these machines are taken as transformer of mechanical work into electricity.

PRINCIPLE OF THE INVENTION

Watching closely what happens in a Dynamo in motion, is that the turns of the induced circuit approaches and moves away from the magnetic centers of the inductor magnet or electromagnets, and those turns,  while spinning, go through sections of the magnetic  field of different power, because, while this has its maximum attraction in the center of the core of each electromagnet, this action will weaken as the induced  is separated from the center of the electromagnet, to increase again, when the induced is approaching the center of another electromagnet with opposite sign to the first one.

Because we all know that the effects that are manifested when a closed circuit approaches and moves away from a magnetic center are the same as when, this circuit being still and motionless, the magnetic field is increased and reduced in intensity;  since any variation , occurring in the flow traversing a circuit is producing electrical  induced current .It was considered the possibility of building a machine that would work, not in the principle of movement, as do the current dynamos, but using the principle of increase and decrease, this is the variation of the power of the magnetic field, or the electrical current which produces it.

The voltage from the total current of the current dynamos is the sum of partial induced currents born in each one of the turns of the induced. Therefore it matters little to these induced currents if they were obtained by the turning of the induced, or by the variation of the magnetic flux that runs through them; but in the first case, a greater source of mechanical work than obtained electricity is required, and in the second case, the force necessary to achieve the variation of flux is so insignificant that it can be derived without any inconvenience, from the one supplied by the machine.

Until the present no machine based on this principle has been applied yet to the production of large electrical currents, and which among other advantages, has suppressed any necessity for motion and therefore the force needed to produce it.

In order to privilege the application to the production of large industrial electrical currents, on the principle that says that “there is production of induced electrical current provided that you change in any way the flow of force through the induced circuit,” seems that it is enough with the previously exposed; however, as this application need to materialize in a machine, there is need to describe it in order to see how to carry out a practical application of said principle.

This principle is not new since it is just a consequence of the laws of induction stated by Faraday in the year 1831: what it is new and requested to privilege is the application of this principle to a machine which produces large industrial electrical currents which until now cannot be obtained but transforming mechanical work into electricity.

Let’s therefore make the description of a machine based on the prior principle which is being privileged; but it must be noted, and what is sought is the patent for the application of this principle, that all machines built based on this principle, will be included in the scope of this patent, whatever the form and way that has been used to make the application.

DESCRIPTION OF GENERATOR OF VARIABLE EXCITATION “FIGUERA”

The machine comprise a fixed inductor circuit, consisting of several electromagnets with soft iron cores exercising induction in the induced circuit, also fixed and motionless, composed of several reels or coils, properly placed. As neither of the two circuits spin, there is no need to make them round, nor leave any space between one and the other.

Here what it is constantly changing is the intensity of the excitatory current which drives the electromagnets and this is accomplished using a resistance, through which circulates a proper current, which is taken from one foreign origin into  one or more electromagnets, magnetize one or more electromagnets and, while the current is higher or lower the magnetization of the electromagnets is decreasing or increasing and varying, therefore, the intensity of the magnetic field , this is, the flow which crosses the induced circuit.

To fix ideas is convenient to refer to the attached drawing which is no more than a sketch to understand the operation of the machine built using the principle outlined before.

Suppose that electromagnets are represented by rectangles N and S. Between their poles is located the induced circuit represented by the line “y” (small). Let be “R” a resistance that is drawn in an elementary manner to facilitate the comprehension of the entire system, and “+” and “-” the excitatory current which is taken from an external and foreigner generator. The different pieces of the resistance will connect, as seen in the drawing, with the commutator bars embedded in a cylinder of insulating material that does not move; but around it, and always in contact with more than one contact, rotates a brush “O”, which carries the foreign current, revolves. One of the ends of the resistance is connected with electromagnets N, and the other with electromagnets S, half of the terminals of the resistance pieces go to the half of the commutator bars of the cylinder and the other half of these commutator bars are directly connected to the firsts.

The operation of the machine is as follows: it has been said that the brush “O” rotates around the cylinder “G” and always in contact with two of their contacts. When the brush is in touch with contact “1? the current, which comes from the external generator and passes through the brush and contact “1?, will magnetize electromagnets N to the maximum but will not magnetize the electromagnets S because the whole resistance prevents it. Therefore, first electromagnets are full of current and the second ones are empty. When the brush is in touch with contact “2? the current won’t entirely go to electromagnets N because it has to pass through part of the resistance; In contrast, some current goes to the electrodes S because it has to overcome less resistance than in the previous case. This same reasoning is applicable to the case in which the brush “O” closes the circuit in each of the different contact until finished those in a semicircle, and begins to operate in the other half, which are directly connected to each other. In short, the resistance makes the function of a splitter of current because those current not going to excite some electromagnets excites others and so on; it can be said that electrodes N and S works simultaneously and in opposite way because while the first ones are filling up with current, the seconds are emptying and while repeating this effect continuously and orderly a constant variation of the magnetic fields within which is placed the induced circuit can be maintained, without any more complications than the turning of a brush or group of brushes that move circularly around the cylinder “G” powered by the action of a small electrical motor.

As seen in the drawing the current, once that has made its function, returns to the generator where taken; naturally in every revolution of the brush will be a change of sign in the induced current; but a switch will do it continuous if wanted.  From this current is derived a small part to excite the machine converting it in self-exciting and to operate the small motor which moves the brush and the switch; the external current supply, this is the feeding current, is removed and the machine continue working without any help indefinitely.

The invention is really new; very daring and above all has huge technical and industrial consequences under all sights, we didn’t ask for privilege of invention until having a machine working based on these principles which gives the practical realization without which these claims will be useless.

ADVANTAGES OF THE ELECTRICAL GENERATOR “FIGUERA”

First. Give completely for free, electrical currents continuous or alternate of any voltage and applicable to:

1. Production of  driving force.
2. Production of light.
3. Production of heat.
4. All the previous uses.

Second. No need whatsoever of driving force of any kind nor chemical reactions nor fuel.

Third. Does not need lubrication, only in small amounts.

Fourth. Be so Simple that vigilance that can be overlooked.

Fifth. Does not produce smoke, noise, nor vibration in its operation.

Sixth. Indefinite operational life.

Seventh. Apply to all uses, home management and industrial.

Eighth. Easy of construction.

Ninth. Cheap to produce in the market

NOTE

The applied patent for 20 years is requested upon a “NEW GENERATOR OF ELECTRICITY, so-called “FIGUERA” of variable excitation, designed to produce electrical currents for industrial applications without using neither driving force, nor chemical reactions.

The machine is essentially characterized by two series of electromagnets which form the inductor circuit, between whose poles the reels of the induced are properly placed. Both circuits, remaining motionless, induced and inductor, are able to produce a current induced by the constant variation of the intensity of the magnetic field forcing the excitatory current (coming at first from any external source) to pass through a rotating brush which, in its rotation movement, is placed in communication with the commutator bars or contacts of a ring distributor or cylinder whose contacts are in communication with a resistance whose value varies  from a maximum to a minimum and vice versa, according with the commutator bars of the cylinder which operates, and for that reason the resistance is connected to the electromagnets N by one of its side, and the electromagnets S at the other side, in such a way that the excitatory current will be magnetizing successively with more or less strength to the first electromagnets, while, oppositely, will be decreasing or increasing the magnetization  in the second ones, determining these variations in intensity of the magnetic field, the production of the current in the induced, current that we can use for any work for the most part, and of which only one small fraction is derived for the actuation of a small electrical motor which make rotate the brush, and another fraction goes to the continuous excitation of the electromagnets, and, therefore, converting the machine in self-exciting, being able to suppress the external power which was used at first to excite  the electromagnets. Once the machinery is in motion, no new force is required and the machine will continue in operation indefinitely.

All in accordance with the described and detailed in this report and as represented in the drawings which are attached.
Barcelona, the 30th of October, 1908. Signed: Constantino de Buforn.



Spanish Patent # 57955

( 1914 )
[ Click to Enlarge ]





Spanish Patent # 55411

( 1913 )





Spanish Patent # 47706

( 1912 )




Spanish Patent # 50216




Spanish Patent # 52968





FORUM COMMENTS

http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/12439-re-inventing-wheel-part1-clemente_figuera.html
Energetic Forum     

Re-Inventing The Wheel -- Part1 -- Clemente Figuera
    
wonju
Senior Member
In accordance with Mr. Figuera, you can obtain not only 200% but infinite amount of energy. Mr. Figuera wrote that once the generator starts, the excitation power can be derived directly from the output and the external battery can be eliminated. THIS IS NOT ONLY THE SIMPLEST FE DEVICES I'VE EVER SEEN, BUT ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT. I CANNOT WAIT TO SEE A TEST OF THIS DEVICE!
I am having problems in getting the quadratic voltage generator. I thought that maybe I can use two inverters and make one of them 90 degrees out of phase. However, I have not been able to find inverters with that capability. The last resource is to modify the winding connections of a dynamo.

penno64
Senior Member
I have been reading the PDF and can understand most of it.
The one item I would appreciate some clarification on is the fixed cylinder "G" with the connections 1 to 16 that connect to the brushes.
The bridging contacts and the brush arrangement are what I am unable to visualise.

john_g
Senior Member
With reference to the commutator arrangement, do you think that the brush running around the outside edge contacted only one connection at a time or do you think it covered at least 2? I ask because the first arrangement would give a pulse of increasing / decreasing current, whereas the second option would be a more linear increase/decrease.

Regards
wonju
Senior Member
That is an important question I missed to address in my paper. If your planning to use the taps configuration as shown in the patent, I think the brush should be two-contact one. The problem with one contact is that at times the brush will be between two taps – not in contact with the resistor R. And, that is a problem because the primary coils will be switched on/off, and you know that when this happens to a coil, it generates a lot of sparks and voltage surges. On the other hand, with the two brushes configuration, when one is in between taps the other is in contact. This configuration will practically eliminate the generation of sparks and high voltage spikes. That fellow (Mr. Figuera) was really smart!

pault  
Senior Member
- In paragraph 5 you say that Vs is zero in fig. 1. I don't follow where you have explained why this is the case (is it because there's no load?).
- In fig 12, you show Br in the same direction as Bp. If that's true, then I don't understand - maybe you can help clarify?
If I understood correctly, the secondary voltage/current is caused by the see-sawing of Bp across the portion of the secondary coils contained within the gap. 3/4 of the secondary windings are "wasted". Would it make sense to consider winding the secondary coil only within the air gap, not around the other side of the core? Would this double the output frequency? Is there an opportunity to put a secondary core at right angles to the main core, completely outside of the main core (eg. The secondary windings spill outside of the main air gap)?

wonju
Senior Member
Paragraph six explains the reasons why Vs shall be zero. As shown in figure 1, the magnetic field B is not interacting with the wires of the secondary coil. First, for a voltage Vs to be induced, the Faraday’s induction law requires the magnetic field B and the wires of the secondary coil to interact as shown in figure 2. And second, if the magnetic field of each turn of the secondary increases/decreases in a closed loop, no way the magnetic field B only flows within the iron core IC.
Remember that Bp is the magnetic field inducing the secondary voltage Vs. The magnetic field B in the iron core always stays constant. Because the induced magnetic field Bs is cancelling the primary magnetic field Bp, the primary current Ip increases to compensate for the cancelling effect of the secondary magnetic field Bs. As I explain in the paper, this self-regulation effect is due to the self-inductance.
If a magnetic field B crosses the secondary coil on both sides (completely), then Vs would be equal to zero. The reason for this is that the magnetic field induces two voltages with opposite polarities within the same coil.
The frequency induced in the secondary coil is always the same as the magnetic field Bp that induces it.
I am not sure I understood that last question but I think you may be interested in the next paper (part 2). In part two I show some iron cores with angles.
The function of the cylinder G and the brush O is in the patent description that is available. I was also very confused with this device. I was expecting the cylinder G to rotate in contact with a fixed brush, which is the standard configuration of any motor with brushes. The description states that two brushes O (not one) rotate around the fixed cylinder G. As it rotates, the contacts of the cylinder (resistor's taps) are selected sequentially. I do not know if these brushes rotate in the outer or inner part of the cylinder.
However, I would not be too concern about it. The important issue here is to understand the role of these devices. The role of the resistor, cylinder, and brushes is to generate two excitation voltages with 90 degrees out of phase as shown in figure 21.
Once you understand its function, it can be implemented in many ways. Personally, I do not like the implementation using resistor taps because it generates a lot of harmonics. When the changes in resistance are discrete, the voltages and currents through the N and S electromagnets are stepped sinusoids, and so is the output voltage Vsy.

&c...



Patrick J. KELLY : A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices
Chapter 3: Motionless Pulsed Systems

[ Excerpt -- ]

CLEMENTE FIGUERA AND HIS INFINITE ENERGY MACHINE

The High-power Motionless Generator of Clemente Figuera

Clemente Figuera of the Canary Islands died in 1908. He was a highly respected individual, an Engineer and University Professor. He was awarded several patents and was known to Nikola Tesla. Figuera’s design is very simple in outline. He has avoided the performance-killing Lenz Law magnetic feedback by splitting a transformer into three parts. Two parts form the primary winding and are shown on the left and on the right. The third part is the secondary winding which is located in the centre. Because of the splitting of the primary into two parts, Lenz’s Law has been abolished for this design, allowing a spectacular performance where the current drawn from the secondary winding has no effect on the current flowing in the two halves of the primary winding. There is also, no back-EMF as current flows continuously in both halves of the primary winding. The very clever method used by Clemente makes the strength of the current in the two halves of the primary to oscillate with one side repeatedly having first much more current and then far less current than the other half. This generates alternating current in the secondary, current which can be drawn off and used for useful work, powering lights, heaters, motors, etc. The following information comes from a man who wishes to remain anonymous. On 30th October 2012, he made the following comments about his repair to a Figuera patent which was missing some of the content. He says:

I heard of Clemente Figuera for the first time from one of the Tesla articles. In 1902 the Daily Mail announced that Mr. Figueras (with an “s”), a Forestry Engineer in the Canary Islands, and for many years Professor of Physics at St. Augustine’s College, Las Palmas, had invented a generator which required no fuel. The newspaper article says that “He claims to have invented a generator which can collect the electric fluid, to be able to store it and apply it to infinite purposes, for instance, in connection with shops, railways and manufacturers. He will not give the key to his invention, but declares that the only extraordinary point about it is that it has taken so long to discover a simple scientific fact. Señor Figueras has constructed a rough apparatus by which, in spite of it’s small size and it’s defects, he obtains 550 volts, which he utilises in his own house for lighting purposes and for driving a 20 horse-power motor. Señor Figueras is shortly coming to London, not with models or sketches, but with a working apparatus. His inventions comprise a generator, a motor, and a sort of governor or regulator, and the whole apparatus is so simple that a child could work it.” [Taken from “Perpetual Motion – A History of an Obsession”].



I was in one of the forums when someone mentioned Clemente Figuera and provided some links to documents referring to his work [1]. In one of the documents, I found what looks to be the only page showing sketches from one of his patents. After restoring the faint lines which show the wire connections, I was very surprised to see the similarities between the embodiment of Mr. Figuera’s drawing and one of my own for over-unity transformers.

I was very eager to read any information about Mr Figuera's work and the operation of his ‘Infinite Energy Machine’. It looks very suspicious that the pages describing the most important part of the machine have been ‘lost’. I then decided to just figure this machine out for myself.

Please note that the rotating contact brush needs to be a “Make Before Break” type. That is, it needs to bridge across the gap between adjacent stator contact strips so that there is no sparking due to the current flow being interrupted.

According to Mr. Figuera, an over-unity transformer can be built without using permanent magnets, and based on a very simple concept. Figuera’s generator consists of three rows of electromagnets, where each row is connected in series. The rows of “S” and “N” electromagnets function as the primary of the transformer, while the row of “y” electromagnets, located in the centre, functions as the secondary. The “S” and “N” stand for South and North poles, respectively. The apparatus includes a resistor “R” having multiple taps connected to a type of distributor formed by a cylinder “G” and brush “O”. The brush “O” rotates inside the cylinder “G” changing the connection to the resistor taps. When the brush “O” rotates around the eight taps, it generates two stepped half-cycle sine waves which are 90° out of phase with each other. I suggest that Fig.15 is the wiring diagram as originally disclosed by Mr. Figuera in his patents. The most significant component of the system is the arrangement of the electromagnets shown in section A-A of figure 14. Keep in mind that each electromagnet shown in figure 15 corresponds to a row of seven electromagnets connected in series as shown in figure 14. In addition, I recommend that when building this apparatus, at least for the first implementation, that you try to replicate all of the details of the device shown in the patent. For example, figure 14 shows the top area of the “S” and “N” electromagnets being approximately equal to twice the top area of the “y” electromagnets.






Even though Mr. Figuera used stepped sinusoidal currents Ips and Ipn, I consider the resistor shown in Fig.15, to be a linear variable resistor having infinite ‘taps’ and the voltage and current generated to be pure half-cycle sine waves which are 90° out of phase. The coils of the “S” and “N” electromagnets are connected together and attached to the negative terminal of the battery. The other ends of both electromagnets are connected to both ends of the resistor “R”. The sliding contact “O” is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and is rotated continuously making electrical connections repeatedly from left to right and then back from right to left across the multi-tap resistor “R”. The position of the sliding contact “O”, determines the magnitude of the DC currents Ips and Ipn passing through the primary coils “S” and “N”. For instance, when the brush is in position 1, the “S” coils receive the full voltage of the battery, producing the maximum current Ips and maximum magnetic field Bps, while at the same time, the current Ipn and magnetic field Bpn of the “N” coils are at their minimum values because they are now connected to the battery through the maximum value of the resistor “R”. Figure 21 shows the voltage, current, and magnetic field waveforms flowing through these coils. The voltage induced in the secondary coils “y” is a sinusoidal alternating voltage. The secondary voltage should be zero when the magnitudes of the currents Ips and Ipn are equal. At this point, the magnetic fields Bps and Bpn induce two voltages of the same magnitude and opposite polarity.



The magnetic interaction of the “S”, “N”, and “y” electromagnets is shown in Fig.16 to Fig.20. Figure 16 illustrates the situation when the brush “O” is at position 1. Here, the current Ips and magnetic field Bps are at their maximum, while the current Ipn and magnetic field Bpn are at their minimum values. When the secondary current Isy starts flowing, the “y” coils generate a magnetic field Bsy which opposes the magnetic field Bps in accordance with Lenz’s law. As a consequence, a South pole is created at the top of the “y” electromagnet and a North pole at the bottom. Because magnets of the same polarity repel and opposite polarities attract, it is likely that some of the induced magnetic field Bsy2 is diverted through the iron core of the “N” electromagnet, which represents a lower reluctance path. And, if the induced magnetic field Bsy can be rerouted so as to avoid opposing the magnetic field Bps which generates it, then, it might be possible to have an over-unity transformer



Fig.17 illustrates the situation when the sliding contact “O” is at position 3. The primary current Ips and the primary magnetic field Bps are decreasing in magnitude while the magnitude of the primary current Ipn and magnetic field Bpn are both increasing. The primary current Ips (and Bps) is still larger than primary current Ipn (and Bpn). As shown in the figure, part of the induced magnetic field Bsy2 is still coupled to the “N” electromagnets.



Fig.18 illustrates the scenario when the brush is at position M. This position is exactly at the centre of the resistor “R” and both currents Ips and Ipn are of equal magnitudes, and as a result, the magnetic fields Bps and Bpn are also equal. The net voltage Vsy, current Isy, and magnetic field Bsy induced in the secondary coils “y” are all zero.



Figure 19 shows the situation when sliding contact “O” is at position 6. The primary current Ips and the primary magnetic field Bps are still decreasing in magnitude while the magnitude of the primary current Ipn and the magnetic field Bpn are increasing. The primary current Ips (and Bps) is now of lower magnitude than primary current Ipn (and Bpn). Because the magnetic field Bpn of the “N” electromagnets is stronger than the magnetic field Bps of the “S” electromagnets, the polarity of the induced voltage Vsy, current Isy, and magnetic field Bsy are reversed in accordance with Lenz’s law. In this situation, the secondary electromagnets “y” present the north poles at the top and the south poles at the bottom making the “y” and “N” electromagnets to repel and the “y” and “S” to attract. Because of the now higher reluctance of the “N” electromagnets and lower reluctance of the “S” electromagnets, it is expected that part of the induced magnetic field Bsy will couple with the “S” electromagnets, and therefore, the effect of Lenz’s law is minimised.



Fig.20 illustrates the situation when the brush “O” is at position 8. The primary current Ipn and the magnetic field Bpn are at their maximum values. The induced secondary voltage Vsy, current Isy, and magnetic field Bsy are also maximum and of opposite polarities to those which they had at position 1. Again, part of the induced secondary magnetic field Bsy is attracted by the “S” electromagnet mitigating the effect of Lenz’s law.

References:

[1] http://orbo.es/?p=26
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/tesla/esp_tesla_27.htm
http://globedia.com/enigma-clemente-figuera-maquina-energia-infinita



There are some practical points which have not been included so far and which need to be mentioned. The Figuera patent shows the electromagnets as just rectangles, and while C-shaped electromagnet cores have been indicated and discussed, there is a distinct possibility that the electromagnet cores are just I-shaped or even a short cylinder which is several times wide than it is tall. These more simple shapes could make it very much easier to construct, although the C-shaped core need only be three straight sections placed together.

While it is definitely possible to construct each of the cores of the electromagnets from a solid block of iron, doing that will certainly allow eddy currents to generate heat in the cores, wasting useful energy in the process. It would be advisable therefore, to use the standard manufacturing method of assembling each core from a number of thin iron pieces, each separated from it’s neighbour by a thin layer of insulating material. These components are available from companies which manufacture transformers.

[ Information discovered after the text was written indicates that Figuera specifically says not to use laminated cores ]

I have to agree wholeheartedly with the anonymous contributor when he recommends that any attempted replications stay as close to the arrangement shown in the patent drawing, and have seven separate sets of three electromagnets. However, for subsequent experiments, a somewhat easier construction with just one set of electromagnets might be tried, making the electromagnets equal in length to the seven separate units:



This arrangement has advantages if the design is taken on into manufacturing as less construction is needed.

Figure 15 shows two electromagnets connected at the top to the battery Minus and at the bottom to the battery Plus. But, one is marked with a North pole at the top and the other with a South pole at the top, so perhaps some explanation would be helpful. If the coils are connected that way, then one will have to be wound in a clockwise (“CW”) direction and the other in a counter-clockwise (“CCW”) direction:

Or the alternative is to have all of the electromagnets wound in the same way, and adjust the connections:



The Figuera design was implemented more than a hundred years ago, and so Clemente did not have any semiconductors available to him, and so he used a motor-driven commutator arrangement to produce the electrical switching which he needed...

Experienced experimenter ‘Woopy’ has posted a video of a quick experiment to test the working principle of this Figuera design. It is at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlOGEnKpO-w&feature=g-u-u

and in it, he short-circuits the secondary winding, showing that the input power is totally unaffected by the current draw from the secondary.

He shows some very interesting oscilloscope shots:



The first screen shot surprises me as it shows clearly that the output is actually an excellent square wave while I would have expected it to be a sine wave as it is coming from a coil which has inductance. The second shot shows very clearly, how the two banks of primary electromagnets operate out of phase with each other thanks to Woopy’s mechanical 6-way switching arrangement. It is reported that Mr Figuera ran a 20-horsepower motor with his prototype and if that motor were fully loaded, then that is 15 kilowatts of power, easily enough to power a household.

Please bear in mind that if the electromagnets are made from iron, whether laminated or not, that iron restricts the frequency, probably to 500 Hz or less, and so it is necessary to keep the frequency that low if using a solid-state circuit to drive the transformer. For 60 Hz output with mechanical switching, requires the motor to run at 3,600 rpm which is fairly fast although definitely achievable. Also, the output power will be limited by the current handling capacity of the wire in the secondary winding. The first page of the Appendix shows the current capacities for the standard AWG and swg wire sizes.

Because this Figuera design is so important, being low-voltage, high power and not needing tuning I have recently been asked to explain it in greater detail and suggest some component values for people starting to experiment with it. I am not an electronics expert, and so my suggestions need to be taken as just that, namely, suggestions for a possible starting point for experimentation.

The first point is that the two halves of the primary winding of the transformer become electromagnets when current flows through their windings. The strength of an electromagnet increases as the current flow increases. Large current: strong magnet. Small current: weak magnet.

Clemente Figuera’s circuit is arranged so that the current through the windings is made to vary so that when one magnet is strong, the other one is weak. It works like this:



When the mechanical (or transistor) switching connects the battery to point ‘8’ in the previous diagrams, we get the situation shown above. Current from the battery flows directly through the right-hand electromagnet “A”, making it the strongest magnet that it can be at that battery voltage. The electromagnet “B” on the left gets current flow from the battery all right, but that current is reduced because it has to flow through the resistor.

When the switching changes and the battery is connected to point “1” in the previous diagrams, we get this arrangement:



Here, electromagnet “B” is free of the resistor and gets it’s maximum possible current, making it the strongest magnet which it can be at that battery voltage, while electromagnet “A” has it’s current reduced by the resistor getting in the way, making it the weakest magnet it can be when the system is running.

If we switched between these two positions, we would get a square wave style of operation, but Clemente did not do that. Instead, he split the resistor into seven parts (if Fig.14 is drawn correctly, one part having only half the resistance of the other parts). This makes the arrangement like this:



When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “2”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistor R1, but the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistors R2 and R3 and R4 and R5 and R6 and R7, which together, have a far higher resistance than R1 on its own. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” far greater than the current flow through electromagnet “A”.

When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “3”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistor R1 and resistor R2, but the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistors R3 and R4 and R5 and R6 and R7, which together, have a far higher resistance than resistors R1 and R2. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” still greater than the current flow through electromagnet “A”.

When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “4”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistors R1, R2 and R3, and the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistors R4, R5, R6 and R7, which together, have a higher resistance than resistors R1, R2 and R3. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” somewhat greater than the current flow through electromagnet “A” (nearly a balanced flow as resistor R7 is only half the value of each of the other resistors.

When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “5”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistors R1, R2, R3 and R4, while the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistors R5, R6 and R7, which together, now have a lower resistance than resistors R1, R2, R3 and R4. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” somewhat less than the current flow through electromagnet “A”.

When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “6”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistors R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5, while the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistors R6 and R7, which together, now have a much lower resistance than resistors R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” much less than the current flow through electromagnet “A”.

When the battery negative “N” is connected to point “7”, then the current flow through electromagnet “B” is hindered by resistors R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6, while the current flow through electromagnet “A” is hindered by resistor R7, which has a very much lower resistance than resistors R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 together. This makes the current flow through electromagnet “B” very much less than the current flow through electromagnet “A”.

Clemente has arranged the battery switching sequence to be to points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, repeating over and over again. This makes the connections to points 1 and 8 to be twice as long compared to the connection times for the intermediate points, giving a sine-wave shape rather than a sawtooth shape.

There is current flow through both electromagnets at all times. The current flow is never broken although, as you can see, the intensity of the current flow varies all the time with each electromagnet getting stronger than the other one repeatedly.

The mechanical switching used by Clemente will work perfectly well, although there will be motor noise and wear on the switch contacts. A solid state version will be silent, more reliable and much longer lasting. There are many different way to build most electronic circuits and each builder will have his own favourite way of constructing the circuit. This Figuera circuit does not specify the battery voltage and so some people will want to use a twelve volt battery. As many FET transistors need as much as ten volts in order to switch on properly, a twelve volt supply is probably a little low for them, and so I suggest using the older bipolar transistors.

As the transistor has to carry the current which passes through the electromagnets, it needs to be able to handle considerable current flow. The very common 2N3055 transistor can do that (as can many other suitable transistors). The switching rate is very, very slow for a transistor and so speed is not an issue. The voltage is very low, and so that is not an issue either and so the 2N3055 transistor is definitely a possible choice.

In common with most high-power transistors, the current gain is low being between 20 and 30 typically. That means that to switch it on properly, a current of one twentieth of the switched current has to be fed into the base of the transistor. That base current is too high to be convenient, so we can raise the transistor gain to around 6000 by adding in a low-power transistor such as the 2N2222 transistor. The two transistors are connected together in a configuration called a ‘Darlington Pair’ which looks like this:



In this arrangement, the two Collectors are connected together, while the Emitter of the 2N2222 transistor feeds into the Base of the 2N3055 power transistor. With a high gain of six thousand or so for our transistor pair, we need to limit the current flowing through their combined Base-to-Emitter junction, and so we introduce a current limiting resistor R8 in the following circuit suggestion:



The 10K resistor value shown would limit the transistor current to about nine amps, while a 4.7K resistor would allow around eighteen amps. Each transistor pair is only on for one eighth of the time, but the 2N3055 transistors need to be mounted on a heat-sink. If a single metal plate is used as a heat-sink for all eight 2N3055 transistors, then mica washers (available from the supplier of the transistors) must be used between each transistor and the plate because the Collector of each 2N3055 transistor is it’s metal case and in this circuit, the Collectors do not connect to a common point. The mica washers pass heat but not electricity. Separate heat-sinks can, of course, be used.

The capacitor “C” in the above circuit diagram will probably not be needed. The switching needs to maintain a constant current flow through both electromagnets. I would expect the 4017 chip switching to be fast enough to allow this to happen. If that proves not to be the case, then a small capacitor (probably 100nF or less) can delay the switch-off of the transistors just long enough to allow the next transistor in the sequence to be switched on to provide the required ‘Make-Before-Break’ switching.

As indicated in the table above, the 4017 pins which feed the transistor pairs through the 1N4001 (or similar) diodes are:

IC1 pin 3 and IC2 pin 5 for resistor connection point 1.
IC1 pin 2 and IC2 pin 1 for resistor connection point 2.
IC1 pin 4 and IC2 pin 10 for resistor connection point 3.
IC1 pin 7 and IC2 pin 7 for resistor connection point 4.
IC1 pin 10 and IC2 pin 4 for resistor connection point 5.
IC1 pin 1 and IC2 pin 2 for resistor connection point 6.
IC1 pin 5 and IC2 pin 3 for resistor connection point 7.
IC1 pin 6 and IC1 pin 9 for resistor connection point 8.

This Figuera design is very attractive as it uses only simple, readily available materials, low voltage and does not require difficult tuning. It also has the potential to be self-powered if part of the output is used to provide a voltage-stabilized power supply for the input power and the remaining output power can be kilowatts if the wire diameters chosen can carry that much current.



YouTube Videos

http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=CLEMENTE+FIGUERA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlOGEnKpO-w
Nov 3, 2012
This video is for WONJU at energeticforum under the thread "Reinventing the wheel "
I did this setup with my garbage, to simply see what could be the result of using this rotating commutator system as Figuera did in his time.
the 2 primary are Microwave fan motor coil and core that i have somehow cut  to fit the drawing made by Wonju .
It is interesting to see that the output power on the secondary seems to be completely with no influence on the primary !!
OK for the rest the video is self explanatory.
good luck at all
Laurent
COMMENTS --
The answer is a transformer looks like a pair of gears connected together (like in a car's standard transmission)
The input gear is large, and it runs at low RPM and high torque. It's connected to an output gear, and that runs at high RPM and low torque.
So in this case RPM is like voltage, and torque is like current.
I don't know if that will? help you, but I just gave you a very good mechanical analogy to a transformer, it's a pair of gears connected together.
... 
Woopy, your videos are always fun and interesting.
Let me just give you a suggestion that might help you visualize your system. Think of a step-up transformer, 12 volt AC in, 120 volts AC out. You must also know that you can say the transformer takes low voltage and high current and transforms that into high voltage and low? current for the same power. So what can we think of in the real life physical world that acts just like a transformer?
...
woopy enjoyed the video, one thing? is the secondary is not lot , i mean to see major difference you need to have bigger secondary wind , the juice is not coming out primary though to secondary, it is very small part..
...   
Add transistors and higher frequency this could? be massive!!!!
...
You are doing almost flip-flop action just in middle of cycle both primary legs are powered on equal level and because? both primaries are not directly magnetically coupled, there are no spikes.
...
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=CLEMENTE+FIGUERA
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlOGEnKpO-w
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQGidUR0huk
Hi woopy,Your ghost trace is same as in Thane Heins Vigorous another secondary when one of them? is shorted.
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QguCN8TP7o
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hC70s3tYaGs
Clemente Figuera Generator part 1
by kehyo77
This is a short video showing Clemene Figueras Generador - a patent from 1907!
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KeDipazJxzQ
Clemente Figuera generator with irregular pulses
by hanon1492
Clemente Figuera generator test to show the strange behaviour with irregular pulse rates.
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZpZJfIIY7GE
Clemente Figuera - Electromagnets as in 1902 patent
by hanon1492
2:07
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPKIfTUhWgo
Clemente Figuera Generator as patent from 1902 with AC

by hanon1492
6:06
Clemente Figuera Generator as patent from 1902 with AC with regular and irregular pulses.
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syUWEQQiAkY
Clemente Figuera Generator One wire between electromagnets. Irregular Pulses

by hanon1492
5:40
...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQGidUR0huk
generador Figuera approach 2

by woopyjump
Hi all my next step in the "Figuera generador " experiment. So after the rotating commu…




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