Thomas Townsend BROWN
"How I Control Gravitation"
British Patent # 300,311
"How I Control
Science & Invention (August 1929) / Psychic
There is a decided tendency in the physical sciences to unify the
basic laws and to relate, by a single structure or mechanism, such
phenomena as gravitation, electrodynamics and even matter itself. It is
found that matter and electricity are very closely related in
In the final analysis matter loses its traditional individuality and
merely an "electrical condition." In fact, it might be said that the
body of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy
in itself, is quite intangible. Of course, it is self-evident that
is connected with gravitation and it follows logically that electricity
is likewise connected. These relations exist in the realm of pure
and consequently are very basic in nature. In all reality they
the true backbone of the universe. It is needless to say that the
are not simple, and full understanding of their concepts is complicated
by the outstanding lack of information and research on the real nature
The theory of relativity introduced a new and revolutionary light
the subject by injecting a new conception of space and time.
thus becomes the natural outcome of so-called "distorted space." It
its Newtonian interpretation as a tangible mechanical force and gains
rank of an "apparent" force, due merely to the condition of space
Fields in space are produced by the presence of material bodies or
charges. They are gravitational fields or electric fields according to
their causes. Apparently they have no connection one with the other.
fact is substantiated by observations to the effect that electric
can be shielded and annulled while gravitational fields are nearly
penetrating. This dissimilarity has been the chief hardship to those
would compose a Theory of Combination.
It required Dr. Einstein's own close study for a period of several
to achieve the results others have sought in vain and to announce with
certainty the unitary field laws.
Einstein's field theory is purely mathematical. It is not based on
results of any laboratory test and does not, so far as known, predict
method by which an actual demonstration or proof may be made. The new
accomplishes its purpose by "rounding out" the accepted Principles of
so as to embrace electrical phenomena.
The Theory of Relativity thus supplemented represents the last
in mathematical physics. It is most certainly a theoretical structure
overpowering magnitude and importance. The thought involved is so far
that it may be many years before the work is fully appreciated and
Early Investigations ~
The writer and his colleagues anticipated the present situation
as early as 1923, and began at that time to construct the necessary
bridge between the two then separate phenomena, electricity and
The first actual demonstration of the relation was made in 1924.
were made of the individual and combined motions of two heavy lead
which were suspended by wires 45 cm. apart. The balls were given
electrical charges and the charges were maintained. Sensitive optical
were employed in measuring the movements, and as near as could be
the balls appeared to behave according to the following law: "Any
of two bodies possesses a mutual and unidirectional force (typically in
the line of the bodies) which is directly proportional to the product
the masses, directly proportional to the potential difference and
proportional to the square of the distance between them."
The peculiar result is that the gravitational field of the Earth
no apparent connection with the experiment. The gravitational factors
through the consideration of the mass of the electrified bodies.
The newly discovered force was quite obviously the resultant
effect of an electro-gravitational interaction. It represented the
actual evidence of the very basic relationship. The force was named
action" for want of a better term and the apparatus or system of masses
employed was called a "gravitator."
Figure 1 ~
Since the time of the first test the apparatus and the methods
have been greatly improved and simplified. Cellular "gravitators" have
taken the place of the large balls of lead. Rotating frames supporting
two and four gravitators have made possible acceleration measurements.
Molecular gravitators made of solid blocks of massive dielectric have
still greater efficiency. Rotors and pendulums operating under oil have
eliminated atmospheric considerations as to pressure, temperature and
The disturbing effects of ionization, electron emission and pure
have likewise been carefully analyzed and eliminated. Finally after
years of tedious work and with refinement of methods we succeeded in
the gravitational variations produced by the moon and sun and much
variations produced by the different planets. It is a curious fact that
the effects are most pronounced when the affecting body is in the
of the differently charged elements and least pronounced when it is at
Much of the credit for this research is due to Dr. Paul Biefield,
of Swazey Observatory. The writer is deeply indebted to him for his
and for his many valuable and timely suggestions.
Gravitator Action an Impulse ~
Let us take, for example, the case of a gravitator totally
in oil but suspended so as to act as a pendulum and swing along the
of its elements.
Figure 2 ~
When the direct current with high voltage (75-300 kilovolts) is
the gravitator swings up the arc until its propulsive force balances
force of the earth's gravity resolved to that point, then it stops, but
it does not remain there. The pendulum then gradually returns to the
or starting position even while the potential is maintained. The
swings only to one side of the vertical. Less than five seconds is
for the test pendulum to reach the maximum amplitude of the swing but
thirty to eighty seconds are required for it to return to zero.
Figure 3 ~
The total time or duration of the impulse varies with such cosmic
as the relative position and distance of the moon, sun and so forth. It
is in no way affected by fluctuations in the supplied voltage and
the same for every mass or material under test. The duration of the
is governed solely by the condition of the gravitational field. It is a
value which is unaffected by changes in the experimental set-up,
applied or type of gravitator employed. Any number of different kinds
gravitators operating simultaneously on widely different voltages would
reveal exactly the same impulse duration at any instant. Over an
period of time all gravitators would show equal variations in the
of the impulse.
Figure 4 ~
After the gravitator is once fully discharged, its impulse
the electrical potential must be removed for at least five minutes in
that it may recharge itself and regain its normal gravitic condition.
effect is much like that of discharging and charging a storage battery,
except that electricity is handled in a reverse manner. When the
of the impulse is great the time required for complete recharge is
great. The times of discharge and recharge are always proportional.
speaking, the exo-gravitic rate and the endo-gravitic rate are
to the gravitic capacity.
Summing up the observations of the electro-gravitic pendulum the
characteristics are noted:
APPLIED VOLTAGE determines only the amplitude of the swing.
APPLIED AMPERAGE is only sufficient to overcome leakage and
the required voltage through the losses of the dielectric. Thus the
load approximates on 37 ten-millionths of an ampere. It apparently has
no other relation to the movement at least from the present state of
MASS of the dielectric is a factor in determining the total energy
in the impulse. For a given amplitude an increase in mass is productive
of an increase in the energy exhibited by the system (E = mg).
DURATION OF THE IMPULSE with electrical conditions maintained is
of all of the foregoing factors. It is governed solely by external
conditions, positions of the moon, sun, etc., and represents the total
energy or summation of energy values which are effective at that
Figure 5 ~
GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS are observable as the pendulum returns
the maximum deflection to the zero point or vertical position. The
hesitates in its return movement on definite levels or steps. The
position and influence of these steps vary continuously every minute of
the day. One step or energy value corresponds in effect to each cosmic
body that is influencing the electrified mass or gravitator. By merely
tracing a succession of values over a period of time a fairly
record of the paths and the relative gravitational effects of the moon,
sun, etc., may be obtained.
In general then, every material body possesses inherently within
substance separate and distinct energy levels corresponding to the
influences of every other body. these levels are readily revealed as
electro-gravitic impulse dies and as the total gravitic content of the
body is slowly released.
Figure 6 ~
The gravitator, in all reality, is a very efficient electric
Unlike other forms of motors it does not in any way involve the
of electromagnetism, but instead it utilizes the newer principles of
A simple gravitator has no moving parts but is apparently capable of
itself from within itself. it is highly efficient for the reason that
uses no gears, shafts, propellers or wheels in creating its motive
It has no internal resistance and no observable rise in temperature.
to the common belief that gravitational motors must necessarily be
the gravitator, it is found, acts equally well in every conceivable
While the gravitator is at present primarily a scientific
perhaps even an astronomical instrument, it also is rapidly advancing
a position of commercial value. Multi-impulse gravitators weighing
of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future. Smaller and more
units may propel automobiles and even airplanes. Perhaps even the
"space cars" and the promised visit to Mars may be the final outcome.
British Patent # 300,311
A Method of & an Apparatus or Machine for
Force or Motion
I, Thomas Townsend Brown, a citizen of the USA,
hereby declare the nature of this invention and
in what manner the same is to be performed, to be
particularly described and ascertained in and by the following
This invention relates to a method of controlling
gravitation and for deriving power therefrom, and to a method of
linear force or motion. The method is fundamentally electrical.
The invention also relates to machines or apparatus
requiring electrical energy that control or influence the gravitational
field or the energy of gravitation; also to machines or apparatus
electrical energy that exhibit a linear force or motion which is
to be independent of all frames of reference save that which is at rest
relative to the universe taken as a whole, and said linear force or
is furthermore believed to have no equal and opposite reaction that can
be observed by any method commonly known and accepted by the physical
The invention further relates to machines or apparatus
that depend for their force action or motive power on the gravitational
field or energy of gravitation that is being controlled or influenced
above stated; also, to machines or apparatus that depend for their
action or motive power on the linear force action or motive power on
linear force or motion exhibited by such machines or apparatus
The invention further relates to machines and apparatus
that derive usable energy or power from the gravitational field or from
the energy of gravitation by suitable arrangement, using such machines
and apparatus as first above stated as principal agents.
To show the universal adaptability of my novel invention,
said method is capable of practical performance and use in connection
motors for automobiles, space cars, ships, railway locomotion, prime
for power installations, aeronautics. Still another field is the use of
the method and means enabling the same to function as a gravitator
changer. Specific embodiments of the invention will be duly disclosed
the medium of the present Specification.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, forming
part of this Specification:
Figure 1 is an elevation, with accompanying descriptive
data, broadly illustrating the characteristic or essential elements
with any machine or apparatus in the use of which the gravitational
or the energy of gravitation is utilized and controlled, or in the use
of which linear force or motion may be produced.
Figure 2 is a similar view of negative and
electrodes with an interposed insulating member, constituting an
of the invention.
Figure 3 is a similar view of a cellular
composed of a plurality of cell units connected in series, capable of
in carrying the invention into practice.
Figure 4 is an elevation of positive and
electrodes diagrammatically depicted to indicate their relation and use
when conveniently placed and disposed within a vacuum tube.
Figure 5 and 5' are longitudinal sectional views
my gravitator units embodies in vacuum tube form wherein heating to
is permitted as by electrical resistance or induction at the negative
and also permitting, where desired, the conducting of excessive heat
from the anode or positive electrode by means of air or water cooling
Figure 6 is an elevation or an embodiment of my
in a rotary or wheel type of motor utilizing the cellular gravitators
in Figure 3.
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 of
wheel form or rotary type of motor involving the use of the gravitator
units illustrated in Figure 5, or Figure 5'.
Figure 8 is a perspective view partly in section
the cellular gravitator of Figure 3 illustrating the details thereof.
Figures 9, 10 and 10a are detail views of the
Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 3 with the
idea incorporated in a rotary motor.
Figures 12 and 13 are detail views thereof.
The general showing in Figure 1 will make clear
my method for controlling or influencing the gravitational field or the
energy of gravitation, or for producing linear force or motion, is
by any machine or apparatus having the characteristics now to be
Such a machine has two major parts A and B.
parts may be composed of any material capable of being charged
Mass A and mass B may be termed electrodes A and B respectively.
A is charged negatively with respect to electrode B, or what is
the same, electrode B is charged positively with respect to electrode
or what is usually the case, electrode A has an excess of electrons
electrode B has an excess of protons.
While charged in this manner the total force of
toward B is the sum of force g (due to the normal gravitational
field) and force c (due to the imposed electrical field) and
(due to the resultant of unbalanced gravitational forces caused by the
electronegative charge or by the presence of an excess of electrons on
electrode A and by the electro-positive charge or the presence of an
of protons on electrode B.
By the cancellation of similar and opposing
and by the addition of similar and allied forces the two electrodes
collectively possess a force 2x in the direction of B. This
2x shared by both electrodes exists as a tendency of these
to move or accelerate in the direction of the force, that is, A toward
B and B away from A. Moreover any machine or apparatus possessing
A and B will exhibit such a lateral acceleration or motion of free to
Such a motion is believed to be due to the direct control and influence
of the energy of gravitation by the electrical energy which exists in
unlike electrical charges present on the affected electrodes. This
seems to possess no equal or opposite motion that is detectable by the
present day mechanics.
It is to be understood that in explaining the
underlying my invention I am imparting by best understanding of that
derived from practical demonstration by the use of appropriate
made in keeping with the teachings of the present Specification. The
of the method, and apparatus aiding in the performance of the method,
been successful as herein disclosed, and the breadth of my invention
discovery is such as to embrace any corrected or more refined theory
may be found to underlie the phenomena which I believe myself to be the
first to discover and put to practical service.
In this Specification I have used terms as
cells" and "gravitator cellular body" which are words of my own coining
in making reference to the particular type of cell I employ in the
invention. Wherever the construction involves a pair of electrodes,
by an insulating plate or member, such construction complies with the
gravitator cells, and when two or more gravitator cells are connected
series within a body, such will fall within the meaning of gravitator
In Figure 2 the electrodes A and B are shown as
placed between them an insulating plate or member C of suitable
such that the minimum number of electrons or ions may successfully
it. This constitutes a cellular gravitator consisting of one gravitator
A cellular gravitator, consisting of more than
cell, will have the cell units connected in series. This type is
in Figure 3, D being insulating members and E suitable conducting
It will be readily appreciated that many different arrangements for
units, each possessing distinct advantages, may be resorted to.
One arrangement, such as just referred to, is
in Figure 6of the drawings. Here the cells designated F are grouped in
spaced relation and placed evenly around the circumference of a wheel
Each group of cells F possesses a linear acceleration and the wheel
as a result of the combined forces. It will be understood that, the
being spaced substantial distances apart, the separation of adjacent
and negative elements of separate cells is greater than the separation
of the positive and negative elements of any cell, and the materials of
which the cells are formed being the more readily affected by the
underlying my invention than the mere space between adjacent cells, any
forces existing between positive and negative elements of adjacent
can never become of sufficient magnitude to neutralize or balance the
created by the respective cells adjoining said spaces. The uses to
such a motor, wheel or rotor may be put are practically limitless, as
be readily understood without further description. The structure may
be called a gravitator motor of cellular type.
In keeping with the purpose of my invention, an
may employ the electrodes A and B within a vacuum tube. This aspect of
invention is shown in Figures 4 and 5. In Figure 4 the electrodes are
as are adapted to be placed within a vacuum tube H (Figure 5), the
and mounting being well within the province of the skilled artisan.
ions, or thermions can migrate readily from A to B. The construction
be appropriately termed an electronic, ionic, or thermionic gravitator
as the case may be.
In certain of the last named types of gravitator
it is desirable or necessary to heat to incandescence the whole or part
of electrode A to obtain better emission of negative thermions or
or at least to be able to control that emission by variation in the
of said electrode A. Since such variations also influence the magnitude
of the longitudinal force or acceleration exhibited by the tube, it
to be a very convenient method of varying the motion of the tube. The
A may be heated to incandescence in any convenient way as by the
methods utilizing electrical resistance or electrical induction, an
of the former being shown at J (Figure 5), and an instance of the
at J' (Figure 5'), the vacuum tube in Figure 5' being designated H'.
Moreover, in certain types of the gravitator
now being considered, it is advantageous or necessary also to conduct
from the anode of positive electrode B excessive heat that may be
during the operation of tube H or H'. Such cooling is effected
by means of air or water-cooled flanges that are in thermo connection
the anode, or it is effected internally by passing a stream of water,
or other fluid through a hollow anode made especially for that purpose.
Air cooled flanges are illustrated at K (Figure 5) and a hollow anode
the reception of a cooling liquid or fluid (as air or water) as shown
K' (Figure 5'). These electronic, ionic or thermionic gravitator units
may be grouped in any form productive of a desired force action or
One such form is the arrangement illustrated in Figure 7 where the
gravitator units in question are indicated at L, disposed around a
or rotary motor similarly to the arrangement of the gravitator motor of
cellular type shown in Figure 6, the difference being that in Figure 7,
the electronic, ionic, or thermionic gravitator units are utilized.
motor may appropriately be designated as a gravitator motor of the
ionic, or thermionic type, respectively.
The gravitator motors of Figure 6 and 7 may be
with the necessary electrical energy for the operation and resultant
thereof from sources outside and independent of the motor itself. In
instances they constitute external or independently excited motors. On
the other hand, the motors when capable of creating sufficient power to
generate by any method whatsoever all the electrical energy required
for the operation of said motors are distinguished by being internal or
self-excited. Here, it will be understood that the energy created by
operation of the motor may at times be vastly in excess of the energy
to operate the motor. In some instances the ratio may even be as high
a million to one. Inasmuch as any suitable means for supplying the
electrical energy, and suitable conducting means for permitting the
generated by the motor to exert the expected influence on the same may
be readily supplied, it is now deemed necessary to illustrate the
herein. In said self-excited motors the energy necessary to overcome
friction or other resistance in the physical structure of the
and even to accelerate the motors against such resistance, is believed
to be derived solely from the gravitational field or the energy of
Furthermore, said acceleration in the self-excited gravitator motor can
be harnessed mechanically so as to produce usable energy or power, said
usable energy or power, as aforesaid, being derived from or transferred
by the apparatus solely from the energy of gravitation.
The gravitator motors function as a result of
mutual and unidirectional forces exerted by their charged electrodes.
direction of these forces and the resultant motion thereby produced are
usually toward the positive electrode. This movement is practically
It is this primary action with which I deal.
As has already been pointed out herein, there
two ways in which this primary action can accomplish mechanical work.
by operating in a linear path as it does naturally, or second, by
in a curved path. Since the circle is the most easily applied of all
geometric figures, it follows that the rotary form is the most
While other forms may be built it has been considered necessary to
and illustrate only the linear and rotary forms.
The linear form of cellular gravitator is
in detail in Figures 8, 9 and 10. It is built up of a number of
plates alternated or staggered with sheets of insulating material
3). Each pair of plates so separated by insulation act as one
cell, and each plate exhibits the desired force laterally. The
is applied on the end plates and the potential is divided equally among
the cells. Each metallic plate in the system possesses a force usually
toward the positively charged terminus, and the system as a whole moves
or tends to move in that direction. It is a linear motor, and the line
of its action is parallel to the line of its electrodes.
There are three general rules to follow in the
of such motors. First, the insulating sheets should be as thin as
and yet have a relatively high puncture voltage. It is advisable also
use paraffin-insulated insulators on account of their high specific
Second, the potential difference between any tow metallic plates should
be as high as possible and yet be safely under the minimum puncture
of the insulator. Third, there should, in most cases, be as many plates
as possible in order that the saturation voltage of the system might be
raised well above the highest limit upon which the motor is operated.
has previously been made to the fact that in the preferred embodiment
the invention herein disclosed the movement is toward the positive
However, it will be clear that motion may be had in the reverse
determined by what I have just termed "saturation voltage", by which is
meant the efficiency peak or maximum of action for that particular type
of motor; the theory, as I may describe it, being that as the voltage
increased the force or action increases to a maximum which represents
greatest action in a negative-to-positive direction. If the voltage
increased beyond that maximum the action would decrease to zero and
to the positive-to-negative direction.
Referring more specifically to Figures 8, 9 and
red fiber end plates 1 act as supports and end insulators, and the
metallic plate 2 (for example aluminum) is connected electrically,
the fiber end plate, with the terminal 5. The second insulating sheet 3
is composed, for example, of varnished cambric, sometimes known as
cloth". The relative size and arrangement of the metallic plate and
sheets are best seen in Figures 9 and 10. A paraffin filler H is placed
between adjacent insulating sheets and around the edges of the metallic
plates (Figure 10a) and 6 represents a thin paraffin coating over the
motor proper. 7 and 8 indicate successive layers of "empire cloth" or
material, and 9 is a binding tape therefore. A thin film of a substance
such as black spirit varnish 10 protects and insulates the entire outer
surface. A phosphor bronze safety gap element 11 is connected
with the terminal (not shown) opposite to the terminal 5. A safety gap
element corresponding with the element 11 is electrically connected
the terminal 5, but it has not been shown, in order better to
interior parts. The purpose of the safety gaps is to limit the voltage
imposed on the motor to the predetermined maximum and to prevent
The rotary motor (Figures 11, 12 and 13)
broadly speaking, an assembly of a plurality of linear motors, fastened
to or bent around the circumference of a wheel. In that case the wheel
limits the action of the linear motors to a circle, and the wheel
in the manner of a fireworks pinwheel. The illustrations I have given
typical. The forms of Figur3s 6 and 7 have been defined. In Figure 11,
the insulating end disk 1a has an opening 2a therethrough for an
of the shaft 12. The disk 1a is secured to a suitable insulating motor
shell, by fiber bolts or screws in any convenient manner, there being
of these disks at the opposite end of the shell, in the same manner as
the opposite end plates 1 in Figure 8. The cells are built upon an
tube 11a disposed about the shaft-space 3a. Thick insulating wedges 4a
separate the four linear motors illustrated. These thick insulating
so-called, are substantially greater in body than the aggregate
sheets of the units. In some instances, however, dependent upon
employed for the charged elements and the insulating members, this need
not necessarily be the case. In each motor of this circular series of
there are the alternate sheets of insulation 5a associated with the
metallic plates 6a; paraffin fillers 71 along the edges of the plates
and between the insulating sheets 5a being employed similarly to the
of paraffin in Figure 8. The rotary motor is encircled by metallic
copper) collector rings 10a, which are connected with the end metallic
plates of the separate linear motors at 9a and 13 (Figure 12), one of
connections 9 being shown in detail where the insulating tube is cut
at 8 (Figure 11).
It is unnecessary herein to illustrate a housing
bearings because any insulated housing and good ball bearings,
supplied, will complete the motor. The potential is applied to the
gap mounted on the housing and thence is conducted to the collector
of the motor by means of sliding brushes.
While I have in the foregoing Specification
in connection with the broader aspects of my invention, certain forms
details, I desire it understood that specific details have been
to for the purpose of imparting a full and clear understanding of the
and not for the purposes of limitation, because it should be apparent
many changes in construction and arrangement, and many embodiments of
invention, other than those illustrated, are possible without departing
from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
Having now particularly described and
the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be
I declare that what I clam is:
(1) A method of producing force or motion, which
the step of aggregating the predominating gravitational lateral or
forces of positive and negative charges which are so cooperatively
as to eliminate or practically eliminate the effect of similar and
forces which said charges exert.
(2) A method of producing force or motion, in
a mechanical or structural part is associated with at lest two
or the like, of which the adjacent electrodes or the like have charges
of differing characteristics, the resultant, predominating
gravitational force of said electrodes or the like being utilized to
linear force or a motion of said part.
(3) A method according to Claim 1 or 2, in which
predominating force of the charges or electrodes is due to the normal
field and the imposed electrical field.
(4) A method according to Claim 1, 2, or 3, in
the electrodes or other elements bearing the charges are mounted,
rigidly, on a body or support adapted to move or exert force in the
direction of alignment of the electrodes or other charge-bearing
(5) A machine or apparatus for producing force
motion, which includes at least two electrodes or like element adapted
to be differently charged, so relatively arranged that they produce a
linear force or motion in the general direction of their alignment.
(6) A machine according to Claim 5, in which the
are mounted, preferably rigidly, on a mechanical or structural part,
the predominating uni-directional force obtained from the electrodes or
the like is adapted to move said part or to oppose forces tending to
it counter to the direction in which it would be moved by the action of
the electrodes or the like.
(7) A machine according to Calim 5 or 6, in
the energy necessary for charging the electrodes of the like is
either from the electrodes themselves or from an independent source.
(8) A machine according to Claim 5, 6, or 7,
force action or gravitational power depends in part on the
field or energy of gravitation, which is controlled or influenced by
action of the electrodes or the like.
(9) A machine according to any of Claims 5 to 8,
the form of a motor including a gravitator cell or gravitator cellular
body, substantially as described.
(10) A machine according to Claim 9, in which
gravitator cellular body or an assembly of the gravitator cells is
on a wheel-like support, whereby rotation of the latter may be
said cells being of electronic, ionic or thermionic type.
(11) A method of controlling or influencing the
field or the energy of gravitation and for deriving energy or power
comprising the use of at least two masses differently electrically
whereby the surrounding gravitational field is affected or distorted by
the imposed electrical field surrounding said charged masses, resulting
in a uni-directional force being exerted on the system of charged
in the general direction of the alignment of the masses, which system
permitted to move in response to said force in the above mentioned
derives and accumulates as the result of said movement usable energy or
power from the energy of gravitation or the gravitational field which
so controlled, influenced, or distorted.
(12) A method of and the machine or apparatus
producing force or motion by electrically controlling or influencing
gravitational field or energy of gravitation, substantially as
described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
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