Thomas Townsend BROWN
"How I Control Gravitation"
British Patent # 300,311
"How I Control Gravitation"
Science & Invention (August 1929) / Psychic Observer 37(1)
There is a decided tendency in the physical sciences to unify the great basic laws and to relate, by a single structure or mechanism, such individual phenomena as gravitation, electrodynamics and even matter itself. It is found that matter and electricity are very closely related in structure. In the final analysis matter loses its traditional individuality and becomes merely an "electrical condition." In fact, it might be said that the concrete body of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy which, in itself, is quite intangible. Of course, it is self-evident that matter is connected with gravitation and it follows logically that electricity is likewise connected. These relations exist in the realm of pure energy and consequently are very basic in nature. In all reality they constitute the true backbone of the universe. It is needless to say that the relations are not simple, and full understanding of their concepts is complicated by the outstanding lack of information and research on the real nature of gravitation.
The theory of relativity introduced a new and revolutionary light to the subject by injecting a new conception of space and time. Gravitation thus becomes the natural outcome of so-called "distorted space." It loses its Newtonian interpretation as a tangible mechanical force and gains the rank of an "apparent" force, due merely to the condition of space itself.
Fields in space are produced by the presence of material bodies or electric charges. They are gravitational fields or electric fields according to their causes. Apparently they have no connection one with the other. This fact is substantiated by observations to the effect that electric fields can be shielded and annulled while gravitational fields are nearly perfectly penetrating. This dissimilarity has been the chief hardship to those who would compose a Theory of Combination.
It required Dr. Einstein's own close study for a period of several years to achieve the results others have sought in vain and to announce with certainty the unitary field laws.
Einstein's field theory is purely mathematical. It is not based on the results of any laboratory test and does not, so far as known, predict any method by which an actual demonstration or proof may be made. The new theory accomplishes its purpose by "rounding out" the accepted Principles of Relativity so as to embrace electrical phenomena.
The Theory of Relativity thus supplemented represents the last word in mathematical physics. It is most certainly a theoretical structure of overpowering magnitude and importance. The thought involved is so far reaching that it may be many years before the work is fully appreciated and understood.
Early Investigations ~
The writer and his colleagues anticipated the present situation even as early as 1923, and began at that time to construct the necessary theoretical bridge between the two then separate phenomena, electricity and gravitation. The first actual demonstration of the relation was made in 1924. Observations were made of the individual and combined motions of two heavy lead balls which were suspended by wires 45 cm. apart. The balls were given opposite electrical charges and the charges were maintained. Sensitive optical methods were employed in measuring the movements, and as near as could be observed the balls appeared to behave according to the following law: "Any system of two bodies possesses a mutual and unidirectional force (typically in the line of the bodies) which is directly proportional to the product of the masses, directly proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them."
The peculiar result is that the gravitational field of the Earth had no apparent connection with the experiment. The gravitational factors entered through the consideration of the mass of the electrified bodies.
The newly discovered force was quite obviously the resultant physical effect of an electro-gravitational interaction. It represented the first actual evidence of the very basic relationship. The force was named "gravitator action" for want of a better term and the apparatus or system of masses employed was called a "gravitator."
Figure 1 ~
Since the time of the first test the apparatus and the methods used have been greatly improved and simplified. Cellular "gravitators" have taken the place of the large balls of lead. Rotating frames supporting two and four gravitators have made possible acceleration measurements. Molecular gravitators made of solid blocks of massive dielectric have given still greater efficiency. Rotors and pendulums operating under oil have eliminated atmospheric considerations as to pressure, temperature and humidity. The disturbing effects of ionization, electron emission and pure electro-statics have likewise been carefully analyzed and eliminated. Finally after many years of tedious work and with refinement of methods we succeeded in observing the gravitational variations produced by the moon and sun and much smaller variations produced by the different planets. It is a curious fact that the effects are most pronounced when the affecting body is in the alignment of the differently charged elements and least pronounced when it is at right angles.
Much of the credit for this research is due to Dr. Paul Biefield, Director of Swazey Observatory. The writer is deeply indebted to him for his assistance and for his many valuable and timely suggestions.
Gravitator Action an Impulse ~
Let us take, for example, the case of a gravitator totally immersed in oil but suspended so as to act as a pendulum and swing along the line of its elements.
Figure 2 ~
When the direct current with high voltage (75-300 kilovolts) is applied the gravitator swings up the arc until its propulsive force balances the force of the earth's gravity resolved to that point, then it stops, but it does not remain there. The pendulum then gradually returns to the vertical or starting position even while the potential is maintained. The pendulum swings only to one side of the vertical. Less than five seconds is required for the test pendulum to reach the maximum amplitude of the swing but from thirty to eighty seconds are required for it to return to zero.
Figure 3 ~
The total time or duration of the impulse varies with such cosmic conditions as the relative position and distance of the moon, sun and so forth. It is in no way affected by fluctuations in the supplied voltage and averages the same for every mass or material under test. The duration of the impulse is governed solely by the condition of the gravitational field. It is a value which is unaffected by changes in the experimental set-up, voltage applied or type of gravitator employed. Any number of different kinds of gravitators operating simultaneously on widely different voltages would reveal exactly the same impulse duration at any instant. Over an extended period of time all gravitators would show equal variations in the duration of the impulse.
Figure 4 ~
After the gravitator is once fully discharged, its impulse exhausted, the electrical potential must be removed for at least five minutes in order that it may recharge itself and regain its normal gravitic condition. The effect is much like that of discharging and charging a storage battery, except that electricity is handled in a reverse manner. When the duration of the impulse is great the time required for complete recharge is likewise great. The times of discharge and recharge are always proportional. Technically speaking, the exo-gravitic rate and the endo-gravitic rate are proportional to the gravitic capacity.
Summing up the observations of the electro-gravitic pendulum the following characteristics are noted:
APPLIED VOLTAGE determines only the amplitude of the swing.
APPLIED AMPERAGE is only sufficient to overcome leakage and maintain the required voltage through the losses of the dielectric. Thus the total load approximates on 37 ten-millionths of an ampere. It apparently has no other relation to the movement at least from the present state of physics.
MASS of the dielectric is a factor in determining the total energy involved in the impulse. For a given amplitude an increase in mass is productive of an increase in the energy exhibited by the system (E = mg).
DURATION OF THE IMPULSE with electrical conditions maintained is independent of all of the foregoing factors. It is governed solely by external gravitational conditions, positions of the moon, sun, etc., and represents the total energy or summation of energy values which are effective at that instant.
Figure 5 ~
GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS are observable as the pendulum returns from the maximum deflection to the zero point or vertical position. The pendulum hesitates in its return movement on definite levels or steps. The relative position and influence of these steps vary continuously every minute of the day. One step or energy value corresponds in effect to each cosmic body that is influencing the electrified mass or gravitator. By merely tracing a succession of values over a period of time a fairly intelligible record of the paths and the relative gravitational effects of the moon, sun, etc., may be obtained.
In general then, every material body possesses inherently within its substance separate and distinct energy levels corresponding to the gravitational influences of every other body. these levels are readily revealed as the electro-gravitic impulse dies and as the total gravitic content of the body is slowly released.
Figure 6 ~
The gravitator, in all reality, is a very efficient electric motor. Unlike other forms of motors it does not in any way involve the principles of electromagnetism, but instead it utilizes the newer principles of electro-gravitation. A simple gravitator has no moving parts but is apparently capable of moving itself from within itself. it is highly efficient for the reason that it uses no gears, shafts, propellers or wheels in creating its motive power. It has no internal resistance and no observable rise in temperature. Contrary to the common belief that gravitational motors must necessarily be vertical-acting the gravitator, it is found, acts equally well in every conceivable direction.
While the gravitator is at present primarily a scientific instrument, perhaps even an astronomical instrument, it also is rapidly advancing to a position of commercial value. Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future. Smaller and more concentrated units may propel automobiles and even airplanes. Perhaps even the fantastic "space cars" and the promised visit to Mars may be the final outcome. Who can tell?
British Patent # 300,311 (Nov. 15, 1928)
A Method of & an Apparatus or Machine for Producing Force or Motion
I, Thomas Townsend Brown, a citizen of the USA, do hereby declare the nature of this invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained in and by the following statement: ---
This invention relates to a method of controlling gravitation and for deriving power therefrom, and to a method of producing linear force or motion. The method is fundamentally electrical.
The invention also relates to machines or apparatus requiring electrical energy that control or influence the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation; also to machines or apparatus requiring electrical energy that exhibit a linear force or motion which is believed to be independent of all frames of reference save that which is at rest relative to the universe taken as a whole, and said linear force or motion is furthermore believed to have no equal and opposite reaction that can be observed by any method commonly known and accepted by the physical science to date.
The invention further relates to machines or apparatus that depend for their force action or motive power on the gravitational field or energy of gravitation that is being controlled or influenced as above stated; also, to machines or apparatus that depend for their force action or motive power on the linear force action or motive power on the linear force or motion exhibited by such machines or apparatus previously mentioned.
The invention further relates to machines and apparatus that derive usable energy or power from the gravitational field or from the energy of gravitation by suitable arrangement, using such machines and apparatus as first above stated as principal agents.
To show the universal adaptability of my novel invention, said method is capable of practical performance and use in connection with motors for automobiles, space cars, ships, railway locomotion, prime movers for power installations, aeronautics. Still another field is the use of the method and means enabling the same to function as a gravitator weight changer. Specific embodiments of the invention will be duly disclosed through the medium of the present Specification.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this Specification:
Figure 1 is an elevation, with accompanying descriptive data, broadly illustrating the characteristic or essential elements associated with any machine or apparatus in the use of which the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation is utilized and controlled, or in the use of which linear force or motion may be produced.
Figure 2 is a similar view of negative and positive electrodes with an interposed insulating member, constituting an embodiment of the invention.
Figure 3 is a similar view of a cellular gravitator composed of a plurality of cell units connected in series, capable of use in carrying the invention into practice.
Figure 4 is an elevation of positive and negative electrodes diagrammatically depicted to indicate their relation and use when conveniently placed and disposed within a vacuum tube.
Figure 5 and 5' are longitudinal sectional views showing my gravitator units embodies in vacuum tube form wherein heating to incandescence is permitted as by electrical resistance or induction at the negative electrode; and also permitting, where desired, the conducting of excessive heat away from the anode or positive electrode by means of air or water cooling devices.
Figure 6 is an elevation or an embodiment of my invention in a rotary or wheel type of motor utilizing the cellular gravitators illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 of another wheel form or rotary type of motor involving the use of the gravitator units illustrated in Figure 5, or Figure 5'.
Figure 8 is a perspective view partly in section of the cellular gravitator of Figure 3 illustrating the details thereof.
Figures 9, 10 and 10a are detail views of the cellular gravitator.
Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 3 with the same idea incorporated in a rotary motor.
Figures 12 and 13 are detail views thereof.
The general showing in Figure 1 will make clear how my method for controlling or influencing the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation, or for producing linear force or motion, is utilized by any machine or apparatus having the characteristics now to be pointed out.
Such a machine has two major parts A and B. These parts may be composed of any material capable of being charged electrically. Mass A and mass B may be termed electrodes A and B respectively. Electrode A is charged negatively with respect to electrode B, or what is substantially the same, electrode B is charged positively with respect to electrode A, or what is usually the case, electrode A has an excess of electrons while electrode B has an excess of protons.
While charged in this manner the total force of A toward B is the sum of force g (due to the normal gravitational field) and force c (due to the imposed electrical field) and force x (due to the resultant of unbalanced gravitational forces caused by the electronegative charge or by the presence of an excess of electrons on electrode A and by the electro-positive charge or the presence of an excess of protons on electrode B.
By the cancellation of similar and opposing forces and by the addition of similar and allied forces the two electrodes taken collectively possess a force 2x in the direction of B. This force 2x shared by both electrodes exists as a tendency of these electrodes to move or accelerate in the direction of the force, that is, A toward B and B away from A. Moreover any machine or apparatus possessing electrodes A and B will exhibit such a lateral acceleration or motion of free to move. Such a motion is believed to be due to the direct control and influence of the energy of gravitation by the electrical energy which exists in the unlike electrical charges present on the affected electrodes. This motion seems to possess no equal or opposite motion that is detectable by the present day mechanics.
It is to be understood that in explaining the theory underlying my invention I am imparting by best understanding of that theory, derived from practical demonstration by the use of appropriate apparatus made in keeping with the teachings of the present Specification. The practice of the method, and apparatus aiding in the performance of the method, have been successful as herein disclosed, and the breadth of my invention and discovery is such as to embrace any corrected or more refined theory that may be found to underlie the phenomena which I believe myself to be the first to discover and put to practical service.
In this Specification I have used terms as "gravitator cells" and "gravitator cellular body" which are words of my own coining in making reference to the particular type of cell I employ in the present invention. Wherever the construction involves a pair of electrodes, separated by an insulating plate or member, such construction complies with the term gravitator cells, and when two or more gravitator cells are connected in series within a body, such will fall within the meaning of gravitator cellular body.
In Figure 2 the electrodes A and B are shown as having placed between them an insulating plate or member C of suitable material, such that the minimum number of electrons or ions may successfully penetrate it. This constitutes a cellular gravitator consisting of one gravitator cell.
A cellular gravitator, consisting of more than one cell, will have the cell units connected in series. This type is illustrated in Figure 3, D being insulating members and E suitable conducting plates. It will be readily appreciated that many different arrangements for cell units, each possessing distinct advantages, may be resorted to.
One arrangement, such as just referred to, is illustrated in Figure 6of the drawings. Here the cells designated F are grouped in spaced relation and placed evenly around the circumference of a wheel G. Each group of cells F possesses a linear acceleration and the wheel rotates as a result of the combined forces. It will be understood that, the cells being spaced substantial distances apart, the separation of adjacent positive and negative elements of separate cells is greater than the separation of the positive and negative elements of any cell, and the materials of which the cells are formed being the more readily affected by the phenomena underlying my invention than the mere space between adjacent cells, any forces existing between positive and negative elements of adjacent cells can never become of sufficient magnitude to neutralize or balance the force created by the respective cells adjoining said spaces. The uses to which such a motor, wheel or rotor may be put are practically limitless, as can be readily understood without further description. The structure may suitably be called a gravitator motor of cellular type.
In keeping with the purpose of my invention, an apparatus may employ the electrodes A and B within a vacuum tube. This aspect of the invention is shown in Figures 4 and 5. In Figure 4 the electrodes are such as are adapted to be placed within a vacuum tube H (Figure 5), the frame and mounting being well within the province of the skilled artisan. Electrons, ions, or thermions can migrate readily from A to B. The construction may be appropriately termed an electronic, ionic, or thermionic gravitator as the case may be.
In certain of the last named types of gravitator units, it is desirable or necessary to heat to incandescence the whole or part of electrode A to obtain better emission of negative thermions or electrons or at least to be able to control that emission by variation in the temperature of said electrode A. Since such variations also influence the magnitude of the longitudinal force or acceleration exhibited by the tube, it proves to be a very convenient method of varying the motion of the tube. The electrode A may be heated to incandescence in any convenient way as by the ordinary methods utilizing electrical resistance or electrical induction, an instance of the former being shown at J (Figure 5), and an instance of the latter at J' (Figure 5'), the vacuum tube in Figure 5' being designated H'.
Moreover, in certain types of the gravitator units, now being considered, it is advantageous or necessary also to conduct away from the anode of positive electrode B excessive heat that may be generated during the operation of tube H or H'. Such cooling is effected externally by means of air or water-cooled flanges that are in thermo connection with the anode, or it is effected internally by passing a stream of water, air or other fluid through a hollow anode made especially for that purpose. Air cooled flanges are illustrated at K (Figure 5) and a hollow anode for the reception of a cooling liquid or fluid (as air or water) as shown at K' (Figure 5'). These electronic, ionic or thermionic gravitator units may be grouped in any form productive of a desired force action or motion. One such form is the arrangement illustrated in Figure 7 where the particular gravitator units in question are indicated at L, disposed around a wheel or rotary motor similarly to the arrangement of the gravitator motor of cellular type shown in Figure 6, the difference being that in Figure 7, the electronic, ionic, or thermionic gravitator units are utilized. This motor may appropriately be designated as a gravitator motor of the electronic, ionic, or thermionic type, respectively.
The gravitator motors of Figure 6 and 7 may be supplied with the necessary electrical energy for the operation and resultant motion thereof from sources outside and independent of the motor itself. In such instances they constitute external or independently excited motors. On the other hand, the motors when capable of creating sufficient power to generate by any method whatsoever all the electrical energy required therein for the operation of said motors are distinguished by being internal or self-excited. Here, it will be understood that the energy created by the operation of the motor may at times be vastly in excess of the energy required to operate the motor. In some instances the ratio may even be as high as a million to one. Inasmuch as any suitable means for supplying the necessary electrical energy, and suitable conducting means for permitting the energy generated by the motor to exert the expected influence on the same may be readily supplied, it is now deemed necessary to illustrate the details herein. In said self-excited motors the energy necessary to overcome the friction or other resistance in the physical structure of the apparatus, and even to accelerate the motors against such resistance, is believed to be derived solely from the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation. Furthermore, said acceleration in the self-excited gravitator motor can be harnessed mechanically so as to produce usable energy or power, said usable energy or power, as aforesaid, being derived from or transferred by the apparatus solely from the energy of gravitation.
The gravitator motors function as a result of the mutual and unidirectional forces exerted by their charged electrodes. The direction of these forces and the resultant motion thereby produced are usually toward the positive electrode. This movement is practically linear. It is this primary action with which I deal.
As has already been pointed out herein, there are two ways in which this primary action can accomplish mechanical work. First, by operating in a linear path as it does naturally, or second, by operating in a curved path. Since the circle is the most easily applied of all the geometric figures, it follows that the rotary form is the most important. While other forms may be built it has been considered necessary to explain and illustrate only the linear and rotary forms.
The linear form of cellular gravitator is illustrated in detail in Figures 8, 9 and 10. It is built up of a number of metallic plates alternated or staggered with sheets of insulating material (Figure 3). Each pair of plates so separated by insulation act as one gravitator cell, and each plate exhibits the desired force laterally. The potential is applied on the end plates and the potential is divided equally among the cells. Each metallic plate in the system possesses a force usually toward the positively charged terminus, and the system as a whole moves or tends to move in that direction. It is a linear motor, and the line of its action is parallel to the line of its electrodes.
There are three general rules to follow in the construction of such motors. First, the insulating sheets should be as thin as possible and yet have a relatively high puncture voltage. It is advisable also to use paraffin-insulated insulators on account of their high specific resistance. Second, the potential difference between any tow metallic plates should be as high as possible and yet be safely under the minimum puncture voltage of the insulator. Third, there should, in most cases, be as many plates as possible in order that the saturation voltage of the system might be raised well above the highest limit upon which the motor is operated. Reference has previously been made to the fact that in the preferred embodiment of the invention herein disclosed the movement is toward the positive electrode. However, it will be clear that motion may be had in the reverse direction determined by what I have just termed "saturation voltage", by which is meant the efficiency peak or maximum of action for that particular type of motor; the theory, as I may describe it, being that as the voltage is increased the force or action increases to a maximum which represents the greatest action in a negative-to-positive direction. If the voltage were increased beyond that maximum the action would decrease to zero and thence to the positive-to-negative direction.
Referring more specifically to Figures 8, 9 and 10, red fiber end plates 1 act as supports and end insulators, and the first metallic plate 2 (for example aluminum) is connected electrically, through the fiber end plate, with the terminal 5. The second insulating sheet 3 is composed, for example, of varnished cambric, sometimes known as "empire cloth". The relative size and arrangement of the metallic plate and insulating sheets are best seen in Figures 9 and 10. A paraffin filler H is placed between adjacent insulating sheets and around the edges of the metallic plates (Figure 10a) and 6 represents a thin paraffin coating over the whole motor proper. 7 and 8 indicate successive layers of "empire cloth" or similar material, and 9 is a binding tape therefore. A thin film of a substance such as black spirit varnish 10 protects and insulates the entire outer surface. A phosphor bronze safety gap element 11 is connected electrically with the terminal (not shown) opposite to the terminal 5. A safety gap element corresponding with the element 11 is electrically connected with the terminal 5, but it has not been shown, in order better to illustrate interior parts. The purpose of the safety gaps is to limit the voltage imposed on the motor to the predetermined maximum and to prevent puncture.
The rotary motor (Figures 11, 12 and 13) comprises broadly speaking, an assembly of a plurality of linear motors, fastened to or bent around the circumference of a wheel. In that case the wheel limits the action of the linear motors to a circle, and the wheel rotates in the manner of a fireworks pinwheel. The illustrations I have given are typical. The forms of Figur3s 6 and 7 have been defined. In Figure 11, the insulating end disk 1a has an opening 2a therethrough for an extension of the shaft 12. The disk 1a is secured to a suitable insulating motor shell, by fiber bolts or screws in any convenient manner, there being another of these disks at the opposite end of the shell, in the same manner as the opposite end plates 1 in Figure 8. The cells are built upon an insulating tube 11a disposed about the shaft-space 3a. Thick insulating wedges 4a separate the four linear motors illustrated. These thick insulating wedges, so-called, are substantially greater in body than the aggregate insulating sheets of the units. In some instances, however, dependent upon materials employed for the charged elements and the insulating members, this need not necessarily be the case. In each motor of this circular series of motors, there are the alternate sheets of insulation 5a associated with the alternate metallic plates 6a; paraffin fillers 71 along the edges of the plates 6a and between the insulating sheets 5a being employed similarly to the use of paraffin in Figure 8. The rotary motor is encircled by metallic (preferably copper) collector rings 10a, which are connected with the end metallic plates of the separate linear motors at 9a and 13 (Figure 12), one of these connections 9 being shown in detail where the insulating tube is cut away at 8 (Figure 11).
It is unnecessary herein to illustrate a housing or bearings because any insulated housing and good ball bearings, conveniently supplied, will complete the motor. The potential is applied to the safety gap mounted on the housing and thence is conducted to the collector rings of the motor by means of sliding brushes.
While I have in the foregoing Specification outlined, in connection with the broader aspects of my invention, certain forms and details, I desire it understood that specific details have been referred to for the purpose of imparting a full and clear understanding of the invention, and not for the purposes of limitation, because it should be apparent that many changes in construction and arrangement, and many embodiments of the invention, other than those illustrated, are possible without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I clam is:
(1) A method of producing force or motion, which comprises the step of aggregating the predominating gravitational lateral or linear forces of positive and negative charges which are so cooperatively related as to eliminate or practically eliminate the effect of similar and opposing forces which said charges exert.
(2) A method of producing force or motion, in which a mechanical or structural part is associated with at lest two electrodes or the like, of which the adjacent electrodes or the like have charges of differing characteristics, the resultant, predominating uni-directional gravitational force of said electrodes or the like being utilized to produce linear force or a motion of said part.
(3) A method according to Claim 1 or 2, in which the predominating force of the charges or electrodes is due to the normal gravitational field and the imposed electrical field.
(4) A method according to Claim 1, 2, or 3, in which the electrodes or other elements bearing the charges are mounted, preferably rigidly, on a body or support adapted to move or exert force in the general direction of alignment of the electrodes or other charge-bearing elements.
(5) A machine or apparatus for producing force or motion, which includes at least two electrodes or like element adapted to be differently charged, so relatively arranged that they produce a combined linear force or motion in the general direction of their alignment.
(6) A machine according to Claim 5, in which the electrodes are mounted, preferably rigidly, on a mechanical or structural part, whereby the predominating uni-directional force obtained from the electrodes or the like is adapted to move said part or to oppose forces tending to move it counter to the direction in which it would be moved by the action of the electrodes or the like.
(7) A machine according to Calim 5 or 6, in which the energy necessary for charging the electrodes of the like is obtained either from the electrodes themselves or from an independent source.
(8) A machine according to Claim 5, 6, or 7, whose force action or gravitational power depends in part on the gravitational field or energy of gravitation, which is controlled or influenced by the action of the electrodes or the like.
(9) A machine according to any of Claims 5 to 8, in the form of a motor including a gravitator cell or gravitator cellular body, substantially as described.
(10) A machine according to Claim 9, in which the gravitator cellular body or an assembly of the gravitator cells is mounted on a wheel-like support, whereby rotation of the latter may be effected, said cells being of electronic, ionic or thermionic type.
(11) A method of controlling or influencing the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation and for deriving energy or power therefrom comprising the use of at least two masses differently electrically charged, whereby the surrounding gravitational field is affected or distorted by the imposed electrical field surrounding said charged masses, resulting in a uni-directional force being exerted on the system of charged masses in the general direction of the alignment of the masses, which system when permitted to move in response to said force in the above mentioned direction derives and accumulates as the result of said movement usable energy or power from the energy of gravitation or the gravitational field which is so controlled, influenced, or distorted.
(12) A method of and the machine or apparatus for producing force or motion by electrically controlling or influencing the gravitational field or energy of gravitation, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.