Atmospheric Electric Generator
The Guillot device generated about 2.5-3 Kilowatts with antenna height of ~ 20 meters. Power depends on the total collector surface and height of the vertical antenna. The apparatus in the photo produced ~300 watts with a collector 2 meters tall.
"Practical Utilization of Atmospheric Electricity"
by Gillbert Darida in The Invention Encyclopedia, pp. 204-207 ( 1930, Geo. Constantinescu, Ed.)
"The Earth has its own negative electricity, in the soil, and the atmosphere which surrounds the Earth is charged with positive electricity. The electric potential (the voltage) increases with the altitude, so we can say that the electric force is proportional to the atmospheric altitude (after Franklin, Quetelet, Lord Kelvin, Mascart, Joubert and other scientists).
The recent observations demonstrate that the air at 6000-7000 meters in altitude, is very highly charged with positive electricity, which could be explained by the friction between the external photosphere and the upper atmosphere of Earth, which rotates at a speed of more than 100,000 Kilometer per hour.
In that way, the Earth works like an electrostatic generator with electric charging by influence --- the upper atmosphere is positively charged by influence and the Earth crust obtains the negative polarity.
Between the two environments, the air and the soil, and inside the low atmosphere, in conditions of good weather, there are sbout 800 positive ions and also, 680 negative ion (and electrons) in just one square-centimeter of normal ionised air.
The Earth behaves like an huge electric armature negatively charged, which repels the electrons and attracts the positive ions. That positive ions' attraction determinates an electric current, also called "convective current". That's like an invisible continous bombardment, subject to daily and seasonal variations, which could be aproximated at 3 x 10 ^ -16 Amperes per square-centimeter, and that is a total value of 1500 Amperes for the entire surface of the Earth.
The question is --- how does this current always maintains the same direction ? We can suppose that the natural radioactive emissions of the soil is responsable for this. We also know that radioactive emissions of the Earth works usually near the soil surface, and that explains the ionisation phenomenona inside caves.
The ionisation of the low atmosphere could also be the effect of the radioactive emissions of the Earth, especially when the X radiation works. Also, the Earth atmosphere is ionisated by the external radiation proceeding from the Sun and from the space environment, especially the action of ultraviolet radiation and the electron fascicles emitted by the Sun surface, at the temperature of 6000 deg. Celsius.
The capture of atmosphere electricity has been used in France, with aerial cables mounted on the Mont Blanc, and also in Germany --- with conductive cables carried by the captive baloons.
The atmosphere electricity collect system invented by eng. Jules Guillot is most ingenious and it relies on "the electric siphon" [ m.n. --- the discharging devices or spark-gap used today from the protection of aerial electric cables against the atmospheric electricity ; Jules Guillot has thought to recuperate and to use that electricity ].
His method consisted in the direct "pumping" of the atmosphere electricity using a collecting device which had two antennae and several collecting rods.
One antenna is vertical and it has a lot of rods scattered like an opened fan, with the tips against the zenith, for collecting the negative electricity which comes from the air ; the horizontal antenna is orientated against the South and its role is to collect the positive electricity.
The air electricity seems to have the double-polarity, as we can see at two electrised clouds when between them apears the electric discharge. The air could have different electric charging and the ionisation processus of atmosphere is very heterogenous. The inventor Guillot used two separated and insulated armatures with the positive armature against the South ( more precisely, against the Equator...) and the negative armature against the zenith.
We can see in the scheme :
1,- the device P is the "collector apparatus" having 15-20 meters height ; it also has a lot of rods which are scattered fan-like, all this on top of an iron pillar ; and also an horizontal antenna S oriented against the South ; the two antennae are disposed at 90 deg. angle forming the two armatures where the electrical tension must apear. As the height of the pillar increases, the voltage increases more and more ;
2,- a system of lightning-rods ( p1, p2, p3 ) for protection against discharges of atmospheric electricity during storms;
3,- the regulator system (voltage regulator, etc) R ;
4,- the electric resistors ( Cn ) for absorbing the parasite currents ;
5,- the "electric siphons" which have the role of making a magnetic field as a good environment for the transport of the ionized fluid, absorbing the electricity from the air ; the E1 and E2 are their regulator devices ;
6,- an auxilliary continous current power supply which send the current against an special excitation coil, used as starting device ; it works only when the system is starting.
This collector device works very good for lighting and heating. The device made by Guillot had
20 meters height on the total surface of 3 square-meters. Also, J.Guillot used and electrical transformer for the industrial utilization of this "collector" --- as power supply for industrial electric engines."
French Patent # 551,882
Apparatus for Capture of Electric Currents in the Atmosphere
16 April 1923
Considering the terrestrial globe like the inductor of a dynamo, where the extraterrestrial ether is the inductor of electric currents circulating in the atmosphere; the apparatus of the invention described here selects through the device described below two perfectly distinct currents and eliminates others.
The device includes:
1, The air sensor; 2, a series of lightning rods; 3, vacuum; 4, an array of resistances; 5, vacuum; 6, witnesses.
1. An aerial sensor mounted on a pole is composed of magnetic steel fixed and sealed by a porcelain insulator, and surrounded a base by a bronze ring which are screwed 32 points of soft iron, all forming antenna a pole. level beside it and isolated from the first, forming the 2nd pole, is fixed a sharp point of magnetic steel fixed in the horizontal position and directed towards the south and movable to an angle of 45 is sealed in a porcelain insulator. This point is also circled a ring of copper notches figure. 1.
2. A series of 6 lightning surge arrestors at corners between each pole and the earth and the various gauges.
3. A first regulator form of a device similar absolutely similar to the aerial amtenna, but the two poles are superposed and opposed to the vertical point, and a copper disk connects to ground. Opposite the horizontal point, a ring of tin to which are welded tubes alternatively 16 tubes composed each composed of copper-lead and iron-lead . The ring connects to the ground as shown in figure. 2.
A second regulator form of automatic breakers balanced on 3 poles and two poles also equally balanced.
4. A panel of resistances composed of wire mesh in bunches from different sections of glass tubes containing copper dust, coal and flowers of sulfur.
Vacuum cleaners consists of a wooden box on each pole, containing a porcelain vase in which layers isolated with mica is made up of mercury, tin, coal, copper and sulfur, all contaied in a copper tube.
6. The witnesses are comprised of ordinary incandescent lamps.
By the point at the zenith and the point to the south we channel two currents forming the two poles. We also protect from lightning. It regularizes the flow by a regulator and similar devices by a controlling each devise of adequate strength of the current harmful nature of these devices do not have loads. The refined current is conducted by ordinary copper wires.
French Patent # 565,395
Combined Apparatus for Capture of Atmospheric Electric Currents with Immediate Implementation
25 January 1924
We know that earth with its constitution, its rotation and movement in space, provides the electricity in the atmosphere. The electrical currents escape into space or largely accumulate towards the equator, as a result of the greater periphery of the globe.
In the atmosphere, there are two clearly distinct poles, i.e., clouds that can be electrically positive or negative; everything in nature shows this, otherwise it would be difficult to explain the lightning that occurs between the clouds and which are none other than contrary cloud electrical charges discharged by too close proximity.
The invention relates to a set of devices capable of capturing the atmospheric electricity.
So far, all searches made for this purpose has been to capture the atmosphere, i.e., that brought together into one system to capture two poles and opposes effect has been to destroy or cancel each other leaving the amount as the difference of the strongest to weakest.
It is therefore easy to understand why, considering the two poles of air as about equal, it is almost impossible to measure some potential with the land, the highest on the lowest remaining which can be positive or negative, copper being the strongest of one or other of these polarities.
It is on this basis that all research until now have been made, and that is why we must consider that all the time, between the two poles captured in the atmosphere and not in any mixture of systems uptake, it is possible to obtain tension and intensity, a considerable and measurable power captured separately between the two poles and remaining isolated from one another until their utilization .
In accordance with this invention, this collection is made by attraction of primary electrical currents in teh atmosphere, either positively or negatively charged, by an antenna that has two points absolutely isolated from one another, where one points to the zenith to attract negative electricity, and the other turned south, toward the equator to draws in the masses grouped in this area.
This shows and proves the existence of atmospheric electrical currents, and that it is possible to capture them with specially designed equipment primarily acting as regulators, as the persistent difficulty encountered so far in realizing their capture lies with large variations of tension in which the current atmosphere is present in space, for each of the poles, and an overload could inevitably fatal.
The patent in its present form of presentation does not cover the regulators or devices that are anticipated in the system, because they can be designed in different ways and give the same result, but covers the application and grouping of equipment operating as automatic relays with variable influence to limit current tension to that chosen for utilization.
These devices have a role associated with an overflow reservoir outside carrying excess liquid; these regulators will divert the excess voltage flows to ground.
We can still absorb these regulators having filters because they have the sole purpose of diverting the post being used , currents that are not yet known but likely that we will call for simplicity, abnormal currents. [sic...]
The patent also covers systems for regulating currents, applied to each of the poles because it is recognized that the shape and tension of the currents of the two poles are not equivalent.
The method of capture is by special antenna has directed two points in the atmosphere, as will be stated after this, with Boot ecoulement prior to the current atmosphere is also of great importance.
Finally, the current atmospheric reception is adequate even with the installation of a post, which can be expected at any location without the need for special altitude, as has been attempted in previous efforts.
We refer to the attached drawings:.
Figure 1 represents in elevation and side view an antenna that only has two points, to overcome an elevation ;
Figure 2 is the end of one of the peaks, the horizontal:
Figure 3 shows schematically the table on which are mounted various devices or accessories that act as regulators of current tensions.
Figure 4 is a scheme of surge arrestors, and
Figure 5 a table of resistances.
The necessary arrangements to capture atmospheric current form is as follows:
1. The antenna in figure 1 is formed with two peaks: the 1 is steel, supported by a bronze ring 2, surrounded by a spiral form 3; this point is oriented for attracting the zenith layers of negative electricity and the other edge 4 contains copper coils 6, and is oriented south to the equator to draw in the masses grouped in this area. To use this antenna it suffices to be raised on a mast or pole to a height a little higher than that of surrounding houses.
2. On the table lightning arrestors, contained 4, forms of 7 copper horns used to absorb large atmospheric discharges by certain time, as it would be dangerous to allow movement in the devices regulators.
3. On a table of two symmetrical systems regulators, Figure 3, one for each pole, to obtain and allow a regularization of large excesses in the current tensions, by automatically absorbing surges before passing over the surfacea chosen for the desired use. These regulators are represented on the drawing by the references R, R1, R2, R3, R4.
4. In the resistance panel in communication with regulators, these resistances are formed as spiral coils or screens 8, tubes 9 of glass filled with fine coal dust , aluminum powder, sulfur and fine copper dust. Finally, two special 10 processors and constitutes layers of metal forming an absorbant for harmful or abnormal currents.
5. As a source of energy formed auxiliary batteries 11 and Ruhmkorff coils 12 to get into the antenna sufficient attraction by means of an adjustment of intensity, which once it begins, allows the constant flow of atmospheric current in the system.
In considering Figure 3, which represents a sort of an installation scheme of the device, the reception of atmospheric electrical current will, as set out above, producing a priming of these currents. This boot is made in launching the system which is double to answer each of the poles, the current batteries 11 through 12 and reels going to the antenna.
This boot will continue until the disposal of electrical current atmosphere is evident by the one or more table lamps L of resistance shown in Figure 5.
Once the lights illuminate it is advisable to charge the batteries to boot. Natural flow and constant currents will be captured by the regulators , Figure 3; they will regularize in tension and in amperage and then directed to use in table lamps.
It has been said above that regulators R, etc., are intended and designed to automatically eliminate earth surge currents capture and abnormal currents that cannot yet be level but that these regulators could be replaced by devices with the same function.
There is therefore no need to describe in detail and especially the claims. We only specify that these regulators must be proper protection for the purposes described above.
DARIDA, Gillbert : "Practical Utilization of Atmospheric Electricity";
( in The Invention Encyclopedia, pp. 204-207 ; 1930, Geo. Constantinescu, Ed. ) --
French Patent # 551,882
Appareil Capteur de Courants Electriques dans L'Atmosphere
Steel Rods, magnetic, 2
Rods, soft iron, 32
Rx Cu-Pb, Fe-Pb
Resistances : Wire Mesh, Glass Tube. Cu, C, S powder
Vacuum Cleaners : Box, Jar, Mica &
Rx : Hg, Sn, C, Cu, S