Optical Electrostatic Generator
Patrick Kelly's Notes
Pavel Imris was awarded a US patent in the 1970s. The patent is most interesting in that it describes a device which can have an output pwer which is more than nine times greater than the input power. He achieves this with a device that has two pointed electrodes enclosed in a quartz glass envelope which contains xenon gas under pressure (the higher the pressure, the greater the gain of the device) and a dielectric material...
The results from Test No. 24 where the gas pressure is a very high 5,000 torr, that the input power for each 40-watt standard fluorescent tubes is 0.9 watts for full lmap poutput. In other words, each lamp is working to its full specification on less than one-fortieth of its rated input power. However, the power taken by the device in that test was 333.4 watts which with the 90 watts needed to run the 100 lamps, gives a total input electrical power of 423.4 watts instead of the 4,000 watts which would have been needed without the device. that is an output power of more than nine times the input power.
From the point of view of any individual lamp, without using this device, it requires 40 watts of electrical input power to give 8.8 watts of light output which is an efficiency of about 22% (the rest of the input power being converted to heat). In test 24, the input power per lamp is 0.9 watts for the 8.8 watts of light produced, which is a lmap efficiency of more than 900%. the lamp used to need 40 watts of input pwer to perform correctly. With this device in the circuit, each lamp only needs 0.9 watts of input power which is only 2.25% of the original power. Quite an impressive performance for so simple a device!
Scalar Light Bulb
From: Mark Jordan
Date: Fri, 22 Jul 2005
You might also be interested in knowing about the Imris' circuit (US Patent # 3,781,601).
"An optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies for use in an electrical circuit, said generator having a pair of spaced apart electrodes in a gas-filled tube of quartz glass or similar material with at least one condenser cap or plate adjacent one electrode and a dielectric-filled container enclosing the tube, the generator substantially increasing the electrical efficiency of the electrical circuit. . . .
An optical electrostatic generator which is effective for producing high frequencies in the visible light range of about 10^14 to 10^23 Hz. . . .
The present optical electrostatic generator does not perform in accordance with the accepted norms and standards of ordinary electromagnetic frequencies.
The device can be used in a flourescent lighting circuit, with motors, flash lamps, high speed controls, laser beams, high energy pulses, electrostatic particle precipitation, chemical synthesis (such as ozone generation), and charging means for high voltage generators of the VandeGraph type, as well as particle accelerators. . .
The device removes the component of electricity which produces heat."
For flourescent lighting, Imris shorted the pins on the ends of the tubes, indicating that the filaments are not used, or necessary.
At higher pressures, the device becomes Over Unity. For instance, with a Xenon filled tube at 5,000 torr in a series circuit with 100 40 Watt flouresent lamps (with a single wire going to each end of each lamp), the optical generator pulls 332 Watts, with each lamp pulling 9 tenths Watt (at 5 Volts) for 3,200 lumens output (8.8 Watts) per tube - giving a total for the circuit of 880 Watts output for 442 Watts input.
US Patent # 3,781,601
Canadian Patent # 951836
Optical Generator of an Electrostatic Field having Longitudinal Oscillations at Light Frequencies for Use in an Electrical Circuit
An optical generator of an electrostatic field at light frequencies for use in an electrical circuit, having generator having a pair of spaced apart electrodes in a gas-filled tibe of quartz glass or similar material with at least one condenser cap or plate adjacent one electrode and a dielectric-filled container enclosing the tube, the generator substantially increasing the electrical efficiency of the electrical circuit.
The present optical electrostatic generator does not perform in accordance with the accepted norms and standards of ordinary electromagnetic frequencies.
The optical electrostatic generator as utilized in the present invention can generate a wide range of frequencies between several Hertz and those in the light frequency. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide improved electrical energy circuits utilizing my optical electrostatic generator whereby the output energy in the desired form will be substantially more efficient than heretofore possible with standard circuit techniques and equipment. It is a further object of the present invention to provide such a circuit for use in fluorescent lighting or other lighting circuits. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a circuit for use in fluorescent lighting or other lighting circuits. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a circuit which may be utilized in conjunction with electrostatic precipitators for dust and particle collection and removal, as well as many other purposes which will be apparent to those skilled in the art as set forth hereinafter.
Figure 1 is a schematic layout showing an optical electrostatic generator of the present invention utilized in a lighting circuit for fluorescent lamps;
Figure 2 is a schematic layout of a high voltage circuit incorporating an optical electrostatic generator; and
Figure 3 is a schematic sectional view showing an optical electrostatic generator in accordance with the present invention particularly for use in alternating current circuits, although it may also be used in direct current circuits.
Description of the Illustrated Embodiments
Referring to the drawings and to Figure 1 in particular, a low voltage circuit utilizing an optical electrostatic generator in accordance with the present invention is shown. As shown in Figure 1, a source of alternating current electrical energy 10 is connected to a lighting circuit. Connected to one tap of the power source 10 is a rectifier 12 for utilization when direct current is required. The illustrated circuit is [provided with a switch 14 which may be opened or closed depending upon whether or not direct or alternating current is desired. A switch 16 is provided and closed when the circuit requires alternating current, in which case switch 14 is open. When switch 16 is open and 14 is closed, the circuit is operating as a direct current circuit.
Extending from the switches 14 and 16 is a conductor 18 which is connected to an optical electrostatic generator 20 in accordance with the present invention. The conductor 18 is passed through an insulator 22 and connected to an electrode 24. Spaced from the electrode 24 is a second electrode 25. Enclosing the electrodes 24 and 25, which preferably are of tungsten metal or similar materials, is a quartz glass tube 26 which is filled with an ionizable gas 28 such as xenon. The gas may be of any other suitable ionizable gas such as argon, krypton, neon, nitrogen or hydrogen, as well as the vapor of metals such as mercury or sodium.
Surrounding each end of the tube 26 and adjacent to each electrode 24 and 25 are condenser plates 30 and 32 in the form of caps. A conductor is connected to electrode 25 and passed through a second insulator 34. Surrounding the tube, electrodes and condenser caps is a metal envelope in the form of a thin sheet of copper or other metal such as aluminum. The envelope 36 is spaced from the conductors leading into and out of the generator by means of the insulators 22 and 34. The envelope 36 is filled with a dielectric material such as transformer oil, highly purified distilled water, nitrobenzene or any other suitable liquid dielectric. In addition, the dielectric may be a solid such as ceramic material with relatively small molecules.
A conductor 40 is connected to electrode 25, passed through insulator 34 and then connected to a series of fluorescent lamps 42 which are arranged in series connection. It is the lamps 42 which will be the measure of the efficiency of the circuit containing the optical electrostatic generator 20. A conductor 44 completes the circuit from the fluorescent lamps to the tap of the source of the electrical energy 10. In addition, the circuit is connected to a ground 46 by means of another conductor 48. The envelope 36 is also grounded by lead 50 and in the illustrated diagram lead 50 is connected to the conductor 44.
The condenser caps or plates 30 and 32 form what will be called in this specification a ‘relative condenser’ with the discharge tube.
There is an oscillation effect between the ionized gas in the discharge lamp and the metallic envelope 36 forming what shall be called an ‘absolute condenser’ in this specification. The oscillation effect between the ionized gas and the envelope 36 will be present if the condenser caps are eliminated but the efficiency of the electrostatic generator will substantially decreased.
The face of the electrode can be any desired shape. However, a conical point of 60 degrees has been found to be satisfactory and it is believed to have an influence on the efficiency of the generator.
In addition, the type of gas selected for use in the tube 26 as wall as the pressure of the gas in the tube also effect the efficiency of the generator, and, in turn, the efficiency of electrical circuit.
To demonstrate the increased efficiency of an electrical circuit utilizing the optical electrostatic generator of the present invention as well as the relationship between gas pressure and electrical efficiency, a circuit similar to that shown in Figure 1 may be used with 100 standard 40 watt, cool-white fluorescent lamps arranged in series. The optical electrostatic generator includes a quartz glass tube filled in with xenon, with series of different tubes being used because of the different pressures tested.
Set forth in Table I is the data obtained relating to the optical electrostatic generator. In Table II the lamp performance and efficiency for each of the tests set forth in Table I is shown. The following is a description of the data set forth in each of the columns of the Tables I and II.
Column // Description
B // Gas used in discharge tube
C // Gas pressure in tube in torrs
D // Field strength across the tube measured in volts per cm of length between the electrodes
E // Current density measured in microamps per square mm of tube cross sectional area
F // Current measured in amps
G // Power across the tube, calculated in watts per cm of length between the electrodes
H // Voltage per lamp, measured in volts
K // Current measured in amps
L // Resistance calculated
M // Input power per lamp, calculated in watts
N // Light output, measured in lumens
The design of the tube construction for use in the optical electrostatic generator of the type used in Figure 1 may be accomplished by means of considering the radius of the tube, the length between the electrodes in the tube and the power across the tube.
If we let R be the minimum inside radius of the tube in centimeters, L the minimum length in centimeters between the electrodes, and W the power in watts across the lamp the following formula may be obtained from Table I:
R = Current [A] / Current Density [ A / mm^2 ] / 3.14
L = 8R
W = L ( V / cm ) A
For example. For Test No. 18 in Table I, the current is 0.1818 A (column F), the current density 0.000353 A/mm^2 (column E), and the voltage distribution is 122.8 V/cm (column D); therefore
R = 0.1818A / 0.000353 A/mm^2 / 3.14
L = ( 12.80 mm ) ( 8 ) = 102.4 mm or 10.2 cm
W = ( 10.2 cm ) (122.8 V/cm ) ( 0.1818 A ) = 227.7 VA or 227.7 Watts
The percent efficiency of operation of the fluorescent lamps in Test No. 18 can be calculated from the following equation:
% Eff. = ( Output Energy ) / ( Input Energy ) x ( 100 )
Across a single fluorescent lamp, the voltage is 60 V and the current is 0.1818 A; therefore, the input energy to the lamp 42 is 10.90 W. The output of the fluorescent lamp is 3,200 lumens which represent 8.8 W power of light energy. Thus, one fluorescent lamp is operating at 80.7% efficiency under these conditions.
However, when the optical generator is the same as described for Test No. 18 and there are 100 fluorescent lamps in series in the circuit, the total power input is 227.7 watts for the optical electrostatic generator and 1.000 watts for 100 fluorescent lamps or a total of 1,318 watts. The total power input normally to operate the 100 fluorescent lamps in a normal circuit would be 40 watts tie 100 or 4,000 watts. Thus, by using the optical generator in the circuit, about 2,680 watts of energy are saved.
Table I is an example of the functioning of this invention for a particular fluorescent lamp ( 40 watt, cool-white ), however, similar data can be obtained for other lighting applications by those skilled in the art.
In Figure II a circuit is shown using an optical electrostatic generator 20a similar to generator 20 of Figure 1. In generator 20 only one condenser cap 32a is used and it is preferably of triangular cross-sectional design. In addition, the second electrode 25a is connected directly by a conductor back into the return conductor 52.
This arrangement is preferably for very high voltage circuits and the generator is particularly suited for direct current usage.
In Figure 2, common elements have received the same number indicators as in Figure 1.
In Figure 3, still another embodiment of an optical electrostatic generator 20b is shown. This generator is particularly suited for use with alternating current circuits. In this embodiment the condenser plates 30b and 32b have flanges 54 and 56 extending outwardly towards the envelope 36. While the utilization of the optical electrostatic generator has been described in use in a fluorescent lighting circuit, it is to be understood that many other types of circuits may be used. For example, the high voltage embodiment may be useable in a variety of circuits such as flash lamps, high speed controls, laser beams, and high energy pulses. The generator is also particularly useable in a circuit including electrostatic particle precipitation in air pollution control devices, chemical synthesis in electrical discharge systems such as ozone generators, and charging means for high voltage generators of the Van de Graff type, as well as particle accelerators.
To those skilled in the art many other uses and circuits will be apparent.
Pavel Imris' Patents
HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR AND METHOD OF USING RADIATION OF ENERGY FROM EXCITED AND METASTABLE ATOMS OF A PLASMA
ELECTRIC GENERATOR HAVING HELICAL FERROMAGNETIC BAND ON THE ROTOR SURFACE
OPTICAL GENERATOR OF AN ELECTROSTATIC FIELD HAVING LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS AT LIGHT FREQUENCIES FOR USE IN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR THE DESALINATION OF IN PARTICULAR SEAWATER WITH THE AID OF ALTERNATING FIELDS OF IDENTICAL FREQUENCIES
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Einrichtung zur Umwandlung von Niedertemperaturwärme in elektrische Energie
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APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF OZONE
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DISPOSITIF POUR LA PRODUCTION D'OZONE
VERFAHREN UND VORRICHTUNG ZUR ERZEUGUNG VON HOCHFREQUENZIMPULSEN
No English title available
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