rexresearch.com



Teruo KAWAI

Magnet Motor






Thomas Bearden: "Hitachi Engineers Confirm Over-Unity Process"
T. Bearden: "The Master Principle of EM Overunity..."
Teruo Kawai: US Patent # 5,436,518
T. Bearden: Correspondence
T. Bearden: "Regauging..."
T. Kawai & K. Isshika, et al.: WO 01/86786
T. Kawai: US Patent # 5,030,866
Bearden email

Thomas Bearden online: http://www.cheniere.org/misc/kawai.htm


"Hitachi Engineers Confirm Over-Unity Process"
by Tom Bearden

Application by Kawai of adroit self-switching of the magnetic path in magnetic motors results in approximately doubling the COP.  Modification of an ordinary magnetic engine of COP < 0.5 will not produce COP > 1.0.  However, modification of available high efficiency (COP = 0.6 to 0.8) engines to use the Kawai process does result in engines exhibiting COP = 1.2 to 1.6.  Two Kawai-modified Hitachi engines were rigorously tested by Hitachi engineers and produced COP = 1.4 and COP = 1.6 respectively.  The Kawai process and several other Japanese overunity systems have been blocked from further development and marketing.

The Kawai process can be built directly from the Patent, using high-speed switching (such as very efficient photon-coupled switching).

Some references in which I covered Kawai's work are:

Bearden, T. E.  "Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from the Active Vacuum," in M. W. Evans (ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2002, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special Topic issue as vol. 119,  I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series eds.), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.

Bearden, T. E., "Use of Asymmetrical Regauging and Multivalued Potentials to Achieve Overunity Electromagnetic Engines," Journal of New Energy, 1(2), Summer 1996, p. 60-78.

Bearden, T. E., "Regauging and Multivalued Magnetic Scalar Potential: Master Overunity Mechanisms", Explore, 7(1), 1996, p. 51-58

Bearden, T. E.  "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines."  Infinite Energy, 1(5&6), Nov. 1995-Feb. 1996, p. 38-55.

Bearden, T. E., "The Master Principle of Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines: A New Pearl Harbor?", The Virtual Times, Internet Node www.hsv.com ( Jan. 1996).

Bearden, T. E., "Use of Regauging and multivalued Potentials to Achieve Overunity EM Engines: Concepts and Specific Engine Examples", Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference "New Ideas in Natural Sciences", St. Petersburg, Russia, June 17-22, 1996, Part I: Problems of Modern Physics, 1996, p. 277-297.


Excerpts:

"The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity Engines:
A New Pearl Harbor?"

by Thomas Bearden

"In the case of both the magnetic Wankel and Kawai motors it is important to detail the exact external source of the excess energy, and show how the system is indeed an open system receiving this excess energy from this recognized external source. In short, one must show (i) what the external source is, (ii) how and why the system is indeed an open system, (iii) why it is not in local equilibrium, and (iv) precisely how the system receives its "free" input of excess energy from the external source..."

Regauging a Magnetic Scalar Potential ~

"To "regauge" a magnetostatic scalar potential on a stator, we must create a stator magnetic pole in such a manner that the magnetic field H from the suddenly injected pole strength cannot cause tangential translation acceleration of the rotor in the regauging region itself. There is no such limitation on tangential translation acceleration of the rotor between the regauging region and regions outside it. Further, if the injected pole strength creates an accelerating tangential field from the regauging region to the nextmost stator region, that can be highly beneficial and it can be utilized to enable overunity. In fact, that is the active principle used by the magnetic Wankel engine. On the other hand, Kawai creates a tangential force field by a stator electromagnet when it is just forward of the radial flux from a central ring magnet. This produces an accelerating tangential force field, which reduces as the rotor proceeds and the flux becomes aligned with the stator electromagnet. If unchanged, the tangential force component would then reverse in direction and add drag-back to the rotor. Just as the tangential force approaches zero and its reversal, Kawai regauges by de-energizing the stator electromagnet and resetting that stator coil potential back to zero. Hence the regauging "quenches" the back-drag field portion. Regauging is best accomplished by creating the magnetic field H of the injected pole oriented radially with respect to the rotor pole in the regauging sector, as that rotor pole moves along its tangential path. In that case, no radial work on the rotor system is required in order to regauge the magnetic scalar potential. The injected magnetostatic scalar potential (pole) can readily be made sufficiently strong as to create an accelerating force between it and the potential (pole) nextmost in rotation order. Thus the rotor can actually be strongly boosted through a region that would otherwise produce back-drag if regauging were not accomplished. So, once the regauging jump of the magnetostatic scalar potential (MSP) is accomplished, the tangential back drag on the rotor in a permanent magnet motor arrangement can be eliminated or materially reduced __ or even reversed so as to aid the rotor's operation __ with the expenditure of very little energy in creating the "regauging jump." That is the regauging secret of the magnetic Wankel engine, together with sudden breaking of a small current through a radial stator coil in order to induce a momentary, free, very high MSP with its radial H field radial to the rotor. This produces a large, amplified magnetostatic scalar potential (footnote 29) "jump" so that the usual "tangential back drag" force __ between the regauging region and the stator region directly ahead __ is actually reversed and now strongly aids in accelerating the rotor's movement out of the regauging region. The magnetic Wankel engine is a "convert decelerating drag into accelerating boost" engine, while the Kawai engine is an "eliminate decelerating back drag" engine.

"It is important to note that the regauging "jump" region becomes an energy reset and refueling region. It is just like refueling a gasoline-powered automobile __ by refueling, one resets the stored energy (i.e., the potential) in a subsystem (the gasoline tank) to its initial value.(footnote 30) So regauging a stator sector of an EM motor of the magnetic Wankel or Kawai kind or similar, is precisely a method of refueling or resetting the stored potential energy of the system.

'For overunity operation, one simply resets (refuels), extracts energy as work in the load, resets (refuels) again, extracts more energy in the load, and so on..."

Kawai Engine ~

"Figure 9 shows eight snapshots of the rotor advance of a typical Kawai engine, taken from Kawai's patent. (footnote 74) This is one end rotor/stator side of a two rotor device, where a similar rotor/stator device is on the other end of the central shaft 11. In Figure 9A, polepiece 14 has three outward teeth 14b dispersed equally around the circumference, alternated with three notches. An end magnet 13 provides the source of flux passing through the polepiece. With the electromagnets de-energized, their core materials 16c, 16d, 16g, 16h, and 16k, 16l are shown shaded, by flux from central magnet 13 outwards through teeth 14b.

"In Figure 9B, electromagnets 16a, 16e, and 16d are energized. The shaded area shows the sharp convergence of the flux from magnet 13 through polepiece 14 and the edge of teeth 14b. Since the electromagnets are magnetized in attracting mode, the rotor will experience a torque tending to widen the flux path from magnet 13 to the activated electromagnets. Thus a clockwise torque exists on the rotor, and it will start to rotate clockwise. (footnote 75) Note also that each electromagnet is operating independently of the other two.

"As shown in Figure 9C, 9D, 9E, and 9F the rotation of the rotor continues clockwise, widening the connecting flux path to the three activated electromagnets. During this time the torque on the rotor is clockwise.

"In Figure 9G, the flux path to the activated electromagnets is fully widened. Also, the leading edges of the three teeth are just beginning to enter the domains of the next electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f.. This is getting symmetrical to the original position shown in Figure 9B. Consequently, the electromagnets 16i, 16a, and 16e are deactivated, and electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f are activated. Symmetrically, this regauges and resets the engine back to the original starting position in Figure 9B. The action cycle begins anew. As can be seen, in each complete rotation of the shaft, each of the three teeth of the rotor will be regauged 12 times. So 36 total regaugings/resetting/refuelings are utilized per shaft rotation.

"In each stator coil, at energization a tooth is just entering that coil. Energized in attractive mode with respect to the ring magnet around the shaft, the flux in the polepiece "jumps" from fully widened flux (and small or vanishing radial torque on the rotor) to angled and narrowed flux (with full radial clockwise torque on the rotor). As previously explained, the narrowed flux and its angle exert a clockwise accelerating tangential component of force upon the rotor. Each coil is de-energized prior to beginning to exert radial back emf (which it would do if it remained energized as the trailing edge crossed it and again narrowed the flux path). So the Kawai engine uses normal magnetic attraction to accelerate the rotor for a small distance, then regauges to zero attraction to eliminate the back-drag portion of the attractive field. It regauges to zero as the "RESET" condition.

"For appreciable power and smoothness, the Kawai engine uses an extensive number of regaugings per axle rotation, being 36 times on each end, or a total of 72 for the two ends. The forcefield of each coil, accompanying its increased magnetostatic scalar potential, is oriented radially inward, so that radial work cannot be done by the coil on the rotor because the rotor does not translate radially. Advantage is taken of the initial clockwise acceleration force initially produced, and regauging eliminates the counterclockwise drag or "decelerating" force that would be produced without the regauging.

"The major benefits of the Kawai arrangement are that (1) a large number of regaugings occurs for a single rotation of the rotor assembly, enabling high power-to-weight ratio, (2) each electromagnet is energized only when positively contributing to the clockwise torque that drives the rotor, and (3) each coil is de-energized to regauge the system during those periods when the coil would otherwise create back-drag (counterclockwise torque) if it remained energized.

"So the Kawai engine delivers what it advertises: It dramatically reduces or eliminates the "back drag" from the fields of the stator electromagnets, because there are no fields activated in the electromagnets during the back-drag sectors of rotation. A conservative field cycle is one in which the back-drag is equal to the forward boost. Eliminating the back-drag portion of the cycle is a form of regauging. Note that again it was accomplished by a change in the magnetostatic scalar potential being reset to zero by the de-energized coil during the back-drag portion of an otherwise conservative cycle. The Kawai engine therefore uses regauging and nonconservative fields in order to legitimately achieve overunity operation.

"Because of the numerous regaugings and back drag elimination, this engine definitely can provide a COP>1.0. Placed in an electric vehicle with necessary switching circuitry and ancillary equipment, a properly designed Kawai engine and its derivatives should be capable of starting from a single ordinary battery, then powering the vehicle agilely, powering the accessories, and recharging its own battery __ all three simultaneously. And in so doing, it complies with all the laws of physics and thermodynamics..."

Conclusion ~

"In this paper we have briefly discussed the storage of energy in an electromagnetic circuit from a gauge-theoretic viewpoint. We have presented the multivalued potential and the pseudo-multivalued potential, and their usage in regauging the potential in the energy-storing subsystem of an EM engine. Regauging accomplishes a work-free resetting or "refueling" flow of energy in an electrical circuit, from a modified Poynting vector standpoint. In addition we have presented embodiments of the current-blocking, energy storage, energy shuttling, multivalued potential (MVP), pseudo-MVP, and regauging approach for overunity electrical power systems and for room temperature superconductivity.

"In addition we have explained two Japanese overunity engines, at least one of which (the Kawai engine) appears to have reached full production capability in an extremely well-funded, national Japanese strategic effort lasting more than two decades. (footnote 76) The ominous implications for U.S. science and industry __ and U.S. financial stability __ are sobering to say the least. Until recently delayed, beginning in model year 1997, a certain percentage of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. would have had to be zero-polluting vehicles __ i.e., electric vehicles. U.S. manufacturers are already irretrievably committed for the specific electric vehicles they will offer. These U.S. offerings will be bulky, cumbersome, largely impractical, expensive, and maintenance-intensive. They will require frequent and lengthy recharging of their huge battery packs. They will give poor performance, get very low mileage (range) between recharges, and will have only austere powered accessory systems. The manufacturers will have to either sell them or give them away somehow in order to meet their mandatory quotas.

"The Japanese manufacturers appear to be poised to introduce en masse a substantial line of powerful electric engines which are overunity and self-powered, and a substantial line of powerful electric vehicles utilizing those engines. In short, those vehicles can be initiated from a single battery and self-powered from then on. They are eminently practical, unlimited in range and performance, can be large and luxurious and agile, can have full-powered accessory systems, and will probably be available in a wide range of sizes and performances.

"In short, there is evidence that the Japanese have scored a great coup on the entire automotive world, and especially upon the U.S. Japanese businessmen are samurai; such is in their psyche and ingrained in their culture. For the Japanese businessmen, the financial struggle is just like any other war and any other struggle. They attack the business struggle with a single-mindedness typical of the Japanese samurai warrior. They have also been strongly motivated by national need; Japan is energy-poor and literally has been at the mercy of the energy-rich nations of the world. The Japanese samurai simply have attacked their nation's energy problem like the sturdy warriors they are, and put their funds, their hearts, and their minds into it with a single purpose: winning.(footnote 77) Now we are faced with a fait accompli.

"We close by emphasizing the final statements of our previous article on the Japanese overunity engines. "He that does not know history, it's been said, is doomed to repeat it. We simply must not repeat a Pearl Harbor in the overunity electrical energy field. This time the torpedoes may be too devastating for America itself to survive."
 


US Patent # 5,436,518

Motive Power Generating Device

Teruo Kawai
(July 25, 1995)

Abstract ~

A motive power generating device comprises a permanent magnet disposed around a rotational output shaft for rotation therewith, the output shaft being mounted on a support member for rotation, a magnetic body disposed in concentric relationship with the permanent magnet for rotation with the rotational output shaft, the magnetic body being subjected to magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet, a plurality of electromagnets fixedly mounted to the support member in such a manner that they are spaced at predetermined distances around the periphery of the magnetic body, each magnetic circuit of the electromagnets being adapted to be independent of one another, and excitation change-over means for the electromagnets, the excitation change-over means being adapted to sequentially magnetize one of the electromagnets which is positioned forwardly with regard to a rotational direction of the rotational output shaft, so as to impart to the particular electromagnet a magnetic polarity opposite to that of the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet, whereby magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body converges in one direction so as to apply a rotational torque to the rotational output shaft. No force opposing movement of a rotor or movable element is generated.

Inventors:  Kawai; Teruo (4-3-905, Nishikamata 7-chome, Ota-ku, Tokyo, JP)
Assignee:  Nihon Riken Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP); Kawai; Teruo (Tokyo, JP)
Appl. No.:  079120   ~  Filed:  June 17, 1993
Current U.S. Class: 310/156.18; 310/68B; 310/156.62; 310/156.64; 318/135   ~  Intern'l Class:  H02K 007/02; H02K 007/075
Field of Search:  310/68 R,68 B,70 R,152,156,184,12,81 318/498,135

References Cited ~
U.S. Patent Documents:
3,344,325 ~ Sep., 1967  ~ Sklaroff  ~ 318/138.
3,411,059  ~ Nov., 1968  ~ Kaiwa  ~ 318/138.
3,473,061  ~ Oct., 1969  ~ Soehner et al.  ~ 310/156.
3,555,380 ~ Jan., 1971  ~ Hings  ~ 318/135.
3,577,053  ~ May., 1971 McGee  ~ 318/254.
3,707,638  ~ Dec., 1972  ~ Nailen  ~ 310/152.
4,095,161  ~ Jun., 1978  ~ Heine et al.  ~ 318/696.
4,306,164  ~ Dec., 1981  ~ Itoh et al.  ~ 310/49.
4,347,457  ~ Aug., 1982  ~ Sakamoto  ~ 310/256.
4,357,551  ~ Nov., 1982  ~ Dulondel  ~ 310/46.
4,406,958  ~ Sep., 1983  ~ Palmero et al.  ~ 310/49.
4,633,108  ~ Dec., 1986  ~ von der Heide  ~ 310/12.
4,712,028  ~ Dec., 1987  ~ Horber  ~ 310/49.
4,719,378  ~ Jan., 1988  ~ Katsuma et al.  ~ 310/67.
4,728,837  ~ Mar., 1988  ~ Bhadra  ~ 310/80.
4,774,440  ~ Sep., 1988  ~ Bhadra  ~ 310/81.
4,786,834  ~ Nov., 1988  ~ Grant et al.  ~ 310/194.
4,870,306  ~ Sep., 1989  ~ Petersen  ~ 310/12.
5,023,495  ~ Jun., 1991  ~ Ohsaka et al. ~  310/12.
5,030,866  ~ Jul., 1991  ~ Kawai  ~ 310/82.
5,105,111  ~ Apr., 1992  ~ Luebke  ~ 310/46.
5,191,255  ~ Mar., 1993  ~ Kloosterhouse et al.  ~ 310/156.
5,192,899  ~ Mar., 1993  ~ Simpson et al.  ~ 318/139.
5,258,697  ~ Nov., 1993  ~ Ford et al.  ~ 318/498.
Foreign Patent Documents:
0082356 Jun., 1983 EP.
0411563A1 Feb., 1991 EP.

Other References:
IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Wound Rotor Incremental Motor, P. J. Davies et al, vol. 12, No. 12, May 1970, p. 2130.

Primary Examiner: Dougherty; Thomas M.    ~  Assistant Examiner: Haszko; D. R.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Flynn, Thiel, Boutell & Tanis

Description ~

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a motive power generating device in which electromagnets and a combination of a magnetic material and a permanent magnet are used as a stator and a rotator, respectively. More particularly, the invention relates to a motive power generating device which transforms magnetic energy into operative energy with maximum efficiency utilizing a magnetic force inherent in a permanent magnet as an energy source.

Heretofore, it has been known in the art that a motive power generating device in which electromagnets and a combination of a magnetic material, such as soft steel, and a permanent magnet are used as a stator and a rotator, respectively. Such a device includes, for example, a step motor of a HB (Hybrid) type.

FIGS. 12 to 17 diagrammatically illustrate an example of conventional HB type step motors. The HB type motor is characterized by a rotor 52, as shown in FIGS. 12 and 13. The rotor combines the advantageous feature of a step motor of a VR (Variable Reluctance) type in that a smaller step angle may be obtained by virtue of the teeth formed in a laminated steel plate 53 constituting one component of the rotor, with the advantageous feature of a step motor of a PM (Permanent Magnet) type in that a high degree of efficiency and miniaturization may be obtained by virtue of the permanent magnet 54 constituting the other component of the rotor 52. It is to be noted here that the steel core of the stator 50 is the same as that of a VR type motor, but the method of winding and connecting the coils is different.

FIG. 14 shows a passage of magnetic flux (magnetic path) created by the permanent magnet 54. The magnetic path represents a distribution of a uni-polar type in which an N-pole or S-pole uniformly appears at the axial ends of a rotor shaft 55. On the other hand, FIG. 15 shows a magnetic path created by the electromagnets 51 of the rotor 50. The magnetic path represents a distribution of a hereto-polar type in which an even number of magnetic poles in the order, for example, of NSNS . . . appear in a plate vertical to the rotor shaft 55. The uni-polar magnetic flux of the permanent magnet (magnetic field of the permanent magnet) and the hereto-polar magnetic flux of the windings (magnetic field of the electromagnet) interact with each other so as to generate a torque. The term "interaction between the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet and the magnetic flux of the windings" is used herein to mean that an inclination of the line of magnetic force is created in the gap between the permanent magnet 54 and the electromagnet 51.

A torque generating mechanism of the HB type motor will be explained with reference to FIGS. 16 and 17 illustrating a model developed into a form of a linear motor. FIG. 16 shows a cross-section of S-side (south pole side) of the permanent magnet 54, while FIG. 17 shows a cross-section of N-side (north pole side) of the permanent magnet. In these drawings, magnetic flux emanating from the electromagnets 51 is shown by solid lines, and magnetic flux emanating from the permanent magnet 54 is shown by dotted lines.

With regard to the magnetic field from the electromagnets 51 (refer to the solid line in FIGS. 16), the S-side cross-section of the permanent magnet 54 shows that the line of magnetic force in the central gap is inclined in the downward and right hand direction, while the line of magnetic force in the right hand end gap is inclined in the upward and right-hand direction. Thus, the lines of magnetic force in the above two gaps tend to cancel each other out. The same relationship is applied to the cross section of the N-side (north pole side) of the permanent magnet 54.

It is noted that torque will be generated when the magnetic field of the electromagnet 51 and the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 54 interact with each other. Specifically, and with regard to the central gap in the S-side cross-section of the permanent magnet 54, i.e., N-side of the electromagnet 51, the magnetic field of the electromagnet 51 and the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 54 interact with each other strongly in the same direction so as to generate in the rotor 52 a propulsive force toward the left in FIG. 16. On the other hand, and with regard to the right-hand gap, i.e., S-side of the electromagnet 51, both magnetic fields interact with each other weakly in opposite directions, so as to generate a propulsive force toward the right in FIG. 16. It is noted, however, that the propulsive force generated toward the right in FIG. 16 is relatively small. Consequently, a stronger propulsive force toward the left in FIG. 16 is generated.

With regard to the central gap in N-side cross-section of the permanent magnet 54, i.e., N-side of the electromagnet 51, the magnetic field of the electromagnet 51 and the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 54 interact with each other weakly in opposite directions, so as to generate in the rotor 52 a propulsive force toward the right in FIG. 17. The resultant propulsive force is relatively small. On the other hand, and with regard to the right-hand gap in FIG. 17, i.e., S-side of the electromagnet 51, both magnetic field interact strongly with each other in the same direction, so as to generate a propulsive force of relatively significant magnitude toward the left in FIG. 17. Consequently, a stronger propulsive force toward the left in FIG. 17 will be generated. Accordingly, the thus generated propulsive force causes the rotor to be advanced in the left-hand direction in FIGS. 16 and 17.

It should be noted, however, that such a conventional HB type motor involves a problem in that a force acting in an opposite direction to the torque (a force tending to interfere with rotation of the rotor 52) is generated as mentioned above. In view of electrical energy to be applied to the windings of the electromagnets 51, an electric current applied to the winding of the right-hand end electromagnet in FIG. 16 and the winding of the central electromagnet in FIG. 17 is merely consumed so as to cancel the magnetic field of the permanent magnet which tends to prevent rotation of the rotor 52. Thus, such an electric current does not effectively contribute at all to the movement of the rotor 54, thus decreasing energy efficiency. In view of the magnetic energy of the permanent magnet 54, such energy is utilized together with the magnetic field created by the electromagnet 51, but it partly interferes with the movement of the rotor 52. Thus, magnetic energy of the permanent magnet 54 is not effectively utilized.

The above problem experienced with the HB type motor applies equally to motive power generation devices in which an electromagnet is used as a stator and soft steel and a permanent magnet is used as a rotor.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide a motive power generation device in which the occurrence of a force acting in a direction opposite to the direction of movement of a rotor and/or a stator is prevented, so as to permit efficient use of electric energy to be applied to electromagnets, as well as magnetic energy generated by a permanent magnet.

In order to achieve the above object, the first invention comprises a permanent magnet disposed around a rotational output shaft for rotation therewith, the output shaft being mounted on a support member for rotation, a magnetic body disposed in concentric relationship with the permanent magnet for rotation with the rotational output shaft, the magnetic body being subjected to the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, a plurality of electromagnets fixedly mounted to the support member in such a manner that they are spaced a predetermined distance around the periphery of the magnetic material, each magnetic circuit of the electromagnets being adapted to be independent of one another and the excitation change-over means of the electromagnets, the excitation change-over means being adapted to sequentially magnetize one of the electromagnets which is positioned forwardly with regard to a rotational direction of the rotational output shaft, so as to impart to the electromagnet a magnetic polarity magnetically opposite to that of the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet, whereby a magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body converges in one direction thereby applying a rotational torque to the rotational output shaft.

According to the first invention, when one of the electromagnets which is positioned forwardly in the rotational direction of the rotational output shaft, a magnetic field created by the excited electromagnet and a magnetic field created by the permanent magnet interact with each other. Thus, the magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body converges toward the exited electromagnet, so as to rotate the rotational output shaft by a predetermined angle toward the excited electromagnet. When the rotational output shaft has been rotated by the predetermined angle, the above excited electromagnet is de-magnetized, and another electromagnet currently positioned forwardly in the rotational direction of the rotational output shaft is excited or magnetized. Sequential excitation of the electromagnets in the above manner permits rotation of the output shaft in a predetermined direction. In this regard, it is noted that the electromagnets are excited to have a magnetic polarity opposite to that of the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet and that the magnetic circuit of the excited electromagnets is independent from those of adjacent electromagnets. Thus, the magnetic flux generated by the excited electromagnet is prevented from passing through magnetic circuits of adjacent electromagnets, which, if it occurs, might cause the electromagnets to be magnetized to have the same polarity as that of the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet. Accordingly, no objectionable force will be generated which might interfere with rotation of the output shaft.

In order to achieve the above object, the second invention comprises a permanent magnet mounted on a movable body arranged movably along a linear track, a magnetic body mounted on the permanent magnet, the magnetic body being subjected to a magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, a plurality of electromagnets spaced an appropriate distance along the linear track, said electromagnets having respective magnetic circuits which are independent of one another and excitation change-over means of the electromagnets, said excitation change-over means being adapted to sequentially magnetize one of the electromagnets which is positioned forwardly with respect to the direction of movement of the movable body, so as to impart to the excited electromagnet a magnetic polarity opposite to that of the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet, whereby a magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body converges in a predetermined direction so as to cause linear movement of the movable body.

According to the second invention, when the electromagnet positioned forwardly of the forward end of the movable body with regard to the direction of the movement of the movable body is excited, a magnetic field generated by the excited electromagnet and magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet interact with each other. Thus, a magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body converges toward the excited electromagnet, so as to displace the movable body a predetermined distance toward the excited electromagnet. When the movable body has been moved the predetermined distance, the movable body is positioned below the above excited electromagnet, and another electromagnet is positioned forwardly of the forward end of the movable body. When this occurs, excitation of the electromagnet positioned above the movable body is interrupted, and excitation of the electromagnet now positioned forwardly of the forward end of the movable body is initiated. Sequential excitation of the electromagnets in the above manner permits movement of the movable body in a predetermined direction. It is noted that no objectionable force which would interfere with movement of the movable body is created for the same reason as that explained in relation to the first invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a front elevational view, partly in section and partly omitted, of a motor according to a first embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view along line II--II in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view of the motor provided with a light shield plate thereon;

FIGS. 4A through 4H illustrate operation of the motor when the electromagnets are excited or magnetized;

FIG. 5A is an illustrative view showing a magnetic path of magnetic flux created by a permanent magnet of the motor when the electromagnets are not magnetized;

FIG. 5B is an illustrative view showing a magnetic path of magnetic flux created by the permanent magnet of the motor, as well as magnetic path of magnetic flux created by the electromagnets;

FIGS. 6 through 9 are cross-sectional view illustrating a modified form the motor;

FIGS. 10A through 10C are cross-sectional views illustrating operation of the modified motor;

FIGS. 11A through 11H are illustrative diagrams showing operation of a motor in a form of a linear motor according to a second embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of a conventional HB type step motor;

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view along line XIII--XIII in FIG. 12;

FIG. 14 is an illustrative view showing a magnetic path of the permanent magnet of the motor shown in FIG. 12;

FIG. 15 is an illustrative view showing magnetic path of the electromagnet of the motor shown in FIG. 12;

FIG. 16 is an illustrative view showing interaction between the magnetic field of the permanent magnet at the S-side thereof and the magnetic field of the electromagnet of the motor shown in FIG. 12; and

FIG. 17 is an illustrative view showing interaction between the magnetic field of the permanent magnet at the N-side thereof and the magnetic field of the electromagnet of the motor shown in FIG. 12.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Preferred embodiments of the invention will be explained in detail below with reference to the attached drawings.

According to a first embodiment of the invention, a rotational output shaft 11 is rotatably mounted between front and rear side plates 10a of a support member 10 through bearings 11a, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Permanent magnets 13 in a ring form are freely fitted over the output shaft at the axially opposite ends thereof and axially inward of the respective side plates 10a for movement with the rotational output shaft 11. The permanent magnets are magnetized in the axial direction. A magnetic body 14 is fixedly mounted between each of the side plates 10a for the rotational output shaft 11 and the permanent magnets 13. Each magnetic body 14 includes alternately disposed notches 14a and magnetic teeth 14b. It is noted that flux of the permanent magnets 13 passes through the respective magnetic bodies 14. FIG. 1 shows that the magnetic body 14 is provided, for example, with three notches 14a and three magnetic teeth 14b. The permanent magnets 13 and magnetic bodies 14 are disposed coaxially with the rotational output shaft 11. The corresponding permanent magnets 13 and magnetic bodies 14 are combined together by means of connecting means such as bolts 15 so as to form a rotor 12. The rotor 12 is adapted to be rotated in unison with the rotational output shaft 11.

It is noted that the support member 10 and rotational output shaft 11 are both made from a non-magnetic material. The support member 10 may be formed, for example, from stainless steel, aluminum alloys, or synthetic resins, while the rotational output shaft 11 may be formed from stainless steel, for example. Thus, the magnetic circuit formed by the permanent magnet 13 and magnetic body at one axial end of the rotational output shaft 11 and the magnetic circuit formed by the permanent magnet 13 and magnetic body at the opposite axial end of the output shaft are independent of one another. The magnetic bodies 14 may be formed from magnetic materials having a high magnetic permeability, such as various kinds of steel materials, silicon steel plate, permalloys, or the like.

A plurality of electromagnets 16a through 16l, constituting the stator, are disposed between the side plates 10a. The electromagnets are equidistantly and fixedly disposed around the magnetic materials 14 so that they surround the magnetic bodies. As shown in FIG. 1, twelve (12) electromagnets may be disposed. The magnetic circuit of each of the electromagnets 16a through 16l is adapted to be independent from one another, so that no flux of magnetized electromagnets passes through the iron core of adjacent electromagnets.

The iron core of each of the electromagnets 16a through 16l extends in parallel with the axial direction of the rotational output shaft 11, permanent magnets 13 and magnetic bodies 14. The axially opposite ends (magnetic polar portion) of each of the iron cores are oppositely disposed relative to the peripheral surface of the magnetic bodies with a slight gap therebetween.

Some of the electromagnets 16a through 16l are disposed at a position corresponding to boundary portions 14c1 through 14c6 between the notch 14a and the magnetic tooth 14b. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, electromagnets 16a, 16b, 16e, 16f, 16i and 16j are positioned in an opposite relationship to the boundary portions 14c1, 14c2, 14c3, 14c4, 14c5, and 14c6, respectively.

FIG. 5A shows a path of magnetic flux created by the permanent magnet 13 when the electromagnets are not excited or magnetized, while, FIG. 5B shows a path of magnetic flux created by the permanent magnet 13 and a path of magnetic flux created by the windings of the electromagnets when the electromagnets are magnetized. As will be clear from FIGS. 5A and 5B, both paths of magnetic flux represent a uni-polar distribution in which N-pole or S-pole evenly appears at the opposite axial ends. When the electromagnets are magnetized, the magnetic fields of the permanent magnet and electromagnets cooperate or interact with each other so as to generate a rotational torque.

Excitation change-over means 17 for sequentially exciting or magnetizing the electromagnets 16a through 16l is basically consisted of a conventional excitation circuit for supplying direct current to each windings of the electromagnets 16a through 16l. In this embodiment, the change-over portion for changing electric feed to the electromagnets 16a through 16l includes a plurality of optical sensors 18 and a light shield plate 19 for turning the optical sensors ON and OFF.

The optical sensors 18 are spaced apart from one another with a space therebetween for permitting the light shield plate 19 to pass through a light emitting element and a light receiving element. The optical sensors 18 are disposed in the outer surface of one of the side plates 10a in equidistal relationship in the circumferential direction thereof, so that they are positioned to correspond to the electromagnets 16a through 16l (for example, the optical sensor 18 is shown to be disposed in the outer surface of the rear side plate). The light shielding plate 19 is fixed to the rotational output shaft 11 at the end thereof, the light shielding plate protruding from the rear side plate 10a on which the optical sensors are disposed.

According to the illustrated embodiment, when a particular optical sensor 18 is blocked by the light shielding plate 19, the electromagnet corresponding to such optical sensor 18 is supplied with electricity.

The operation of the first embodiment described above will be explained with reference to FIGS. 4A through 4H.

When the electromagnets 16a through 16l are not supplied with electricity by means of the excitation changeover means 17, the electromagnets 16c, 16d, 16g, 16h, 16k and 16l opposed to the magnetic teeth 14b with a small gap therebetween merely serve as a magnetic material disposed within the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 13 (refer to shaded portion in FIG. 4A), so as to absorb the magnetic teeth 14b thereto, and the rotor 12 remains stationary.

When the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i positioned adjacent to the boundary portion 14c1, 14c3 and 14c5 formed between the respective notches 14a and the magnetic teeth 14b are magnetized or excited simultaneously by means of the excitation change-over means, as shown in FIG. 4B, the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 13 and the magnetic fields of the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i interact with each other, so that a magnetic flux 14d passing through the magnetic body 14 instantaneously converges to the electromagnets 16a, 16e, and 16i. In this way, the rotor 12 is imparted with a rotational torque in a direction in which the magnetic flux 14d will be widened, i.e., counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 4B.

FIGS. 4C through 4G illustrate change in the width of the magnetic flux 14d in accordance with rotation of the rotor 12. When the width of the magnetic flux becomes maximized, i.e., when only the magnetic teeth 14b are opposed to the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i, while the notches 14a are displaced completely away from the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i, the width of the magnetic flux 14d is maximized. Thus, an absorption force acting between the permanent magnet 13 and the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i is maximized. On the other hand, the rotational torque acting on the rotor 12 becomes zero.

Before the rotational torque acting on the rotor 12 becomes zero, i.e., as the boundary portion 14c1, 13c3 and 14c5 approach another electromagnets 16b, 16f and 16j positioned forwardly in regard to the rotational direction, respectively, the electromagnets 16a, 16e and 16i are demagnetized and the electromagnets 16b, 16f and 16j are excited or magnetized by means of the excitation change-over means 17. Thus, the magnetic flux 14d converges toward the electromagnets 16b, 16f and 16j, as shown in FIG. 4H, so that a rotational torque acts upon the rotor, as described above.

Then, the electromagnets 16c, 16g and 16k are excited. When the boundary portion 14c1, 14c3 and 14c5 approach another electromagnets 16d, 16h and 16l positioned forwardly in regard to the rotational direction, in response to rotation of the rotor 12, the electromagnets 16c, 16g and 16k are de-magnetized and the electromagnets 16d, 16h and 16l are energized or excited.

As explained above, sequential excitation or energizing of the electromagnets 16a through 16l causes interaction between the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet 13 and the electromagnets 16a through 16l, whereby a rotational torque is applied to the rotor 12.

When this occurs, a rotational torque is generated between one of the magnetic poles of the permanent magnet 13 (for example, N-pole) and the magnetic poles (for example, S-poles) of the electromagnets 16a through 16l positioned at their respective axial ends. A rotational torque is also generated between the other magnetic pole (for example, S-pole) of the permanent magnet 13 and the other magnetic pole (for example, N-pole) of each of the electromagnets 16a through 16l positioned at the other axial end.

It is noted that, at one magnetic pole, for example N-pole, of the permanent magnet 13, certain of the electromagnets 16a through 16l are magnetized only to S-pole, thus preventing formation of a magnetic circuit, due to passage of magnetic flux from the excited electromagnets through adjacent electromagnets, which tends to bring about N-poles magnetically similar to the permanent magnet 13. It is also noted that, at the other magnetic pole, for example S-pole, of the permanent magnet 13, certain of the electromagnets are magnetized only to N-pole, thus preventing formation of a magnetic circuit, due to passage of magnetic flux from the excited electromagnets through adjacent electromagnets, which tends to bring about S-poles magnetically similar to the permanent magnet 13. The magnetic flux of the permanent magnet 13 passes through the magnetic bodies 14 so as to be converged to the excited electromagnets (refer to the magnetic flux 14d shown in FIGS. 4 through 4H), thus forming dead zones, through which no magnetic flux passes, in the magnetic bodies 14 at a position opposite to the un-excited electromagnets. Accordingly, no force is generated which tends to prevent rotation of the rotor 12.

In view of electric energy applied to the electromagnets 16a through 16l, substantially all the electric energy having been applied thereto is consumed so as to effectively contribute to the rotation of the rotor 12. On the other hand, and in view of magnetic energy of the permanent magnet 18, substantially all the magnetic energy is effectively utilized to contribute to the rotation of the rotor 12.

It is also noted that, since the notches 14a and the magnetic teeth 14b are alternately disposed in the outer periphery of the magnetic materials 14 in an acute angle configuration seen in FIGS. 4a-4h, and the electromagnets are disposed at a position each corresponding to the boundary portions between the notches and the magnetic teeth, it is possible for the line of the magnetic force, generated in each gap between the boundary portions and the electromagnets when the electromagnets are excited, to be inclined to a substantial degree, so that a sufficient degree of rotational torque may be obtained upon initial excitation of the electromagnets.

The result obtained during an actual running test of the motor according to the first embodiment is shown in FIGS. 1 to 3.

Pure steel was used as a magnetic material. The magnetic material was 30 mm in thickness and formed to have magnetic teeth of 218 mm diameter and notches of 158 mm diameter. A ferritic magnet was used as a permanent magnet. The magnetic force of the magnet was 1,000 gauss. Electric power of 19.55 watts was applied to the electromagnets at 17 volts and 1.15 amperes. Under the above condition, a rotational number of 100 rpm, a torque of 60.52 Kg-cm and an output of 62,16 watt were obtained.

Alternative embodiments will be explained below with reference to FIGS. 6 through 9.

The modified embodiment shown in FIG. 6 is similar to the motor according to the first embodiment as shown in FIGS. 1 through 3, with the exception that each electromagnet 160 to form the stator comprises an iron core 161 having a pair of legs 162 disposed at opposite axial ends thereof and extending toward the outer periphery of the magnetic bodies (outer periphery of the magnetic teeth 14b), each of the legs being wound with respective coils 163. The remaining components are basically identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 through 3. In FIG. 6, the components similar to those in FIGS. 1 through 3 are denoted by like reference numerals. It is noted that each coil 163 is supplied with electricity so that one leg 162 disposed at one axial end (left-hand side in FIG. 6) of each of the iron cores 161 is magnetized to be S-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (N-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14, while the leg 162 disposed at the other end of each of the iron cores is magnetized to be N-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (S-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14.

According to this modified embodiment, it is possible to significantly reduce leakage of the magnetic flux created by the electromagnets 160 in gaps each defined between the surfaces of the magnetic poles of the electromagnets 160 and the outer peripheries of the magnetic teeth 14b of the magnetic bodies 14.

An alternative embodiment shown in FIG. 7 is similar to the motor shown in FIGS. 1 through 8, with the exception that: an additional magnetic body 14 is mounted on the rotational output shaft 11 at the axial midpoint thereof; two permanent magnets 130 are freely mounted on the output shaft 11 in a manner shown in FIG. 6; and each iron core 165 is provided with three legs 166 positioned at the opposite axial ends and midpoint thereof and extending toward the respective outer periphery of the magnetic bodies, with the legs 166 positioned at axial opposite ends of the respective iron cores 165 being wound with a coil 167, whereby forming electromagnets 164. The remaining components are substantially the same as those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 through 3. It is noted here that the rotational output shaft 11 may be formed from magnetic materials or non-magnetic materials.

As shown in FIG. 7, each of the coils 167 is supplied with electricity so that the legs 166 positioned at the opposite axial ends of each of the iron cores 164 is magnetized to be S-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (N-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14. By this, the leg 166 positioned at the midpoint of the iron core 165 is magnetized to be N-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (S-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14.

In this embodiment, it is also possible, as in the modified embodiment shown in FIG. 6, to significantly reduce leakage of magnetic flux generated by the electromagnets 164. In addition to this, it is also possible to obtain a rotational torque between the leg 166 positioned at the midpoint of the iron core and the magnetic body 14 positioned at the axial midpoint of the rotational output shaft 11. Accordingly, a higher rotational torque may be obtained with the same amount of electrical consumption, in comparison with the embodiment shown in FIG. 6.

A further embodiment shown in FIG. 8 is similar to the motor shown in FIGS. 1 though 3, with the exception that a permanent magnet magnetized in the radial direction, rather than in the axial direction is employed. The permanent magnet 131 of an annular configuration has, for example, N-pole in the outer periphery and S-pole in the inner periphery. The permanent magnet 131 is received within a cavity 14e provided in the respective magnetic body 14 at the intermediate portion thereof as disposed at the opposite axial ends of the rotational output shaft 11. The remaining components are identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3. The components identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 are denoted by the same reference numerals. It is noted that this embodiment may also employ the electromagnets 160 shown in FIG. 6.

In this embodiment, the rotational output shaft 11 may be formed from magnetic materials, rather than non-magnetic materials.

Further embodiment shown in FIG. 9 is similar to the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, with three exceptions. The first exception is that a permanent magnet magnetized in the radial direction, rather than in the axial direction is employed. The permanent magnet 131 having an annular configuration has, for example, N-pole in the outer periphery and S-pole in the inner periphery. The permanent magnet 131 is received within a cavity 14e provided in the respective magnetic body 14 at the intermediate portion thereof as disposed at the axial opposite ends of the rotational output shaft 11. The second exception is that an additional magnetic body 14 is disposed at the axial midpoint of the rotational output shaft 11. Finally, the third exception is that the iron core 165 is provided with three legs 166 disposed at the axial opposite ends and the midpoint thereof, respectively, and extending toward the outer periphery of the magnetic body 14, with the legs positioned at the opposite axial ends being wound with respective coils so as to form an electromagnet 164. The remaining components are identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3. The components identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 are denoted by the same reference numerals.

As shown in FIG. 9, each coil is supplied with electricity so that the legs 166 disposed at opposite axial ends of the iron core 165 are magnetized to be S-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (N-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14. By this, the leg 166 disposed at the midpoint of the iron core 165 is magnetized to be N-pole which is magnetically opposite to the magnetic pole (S-pole) of the confronting magnetic body 14.

According to the embodiment described above, the rotational output shaft 11 may be formed from magnetic materials rather than non-magnetic materials. With this embodiment, it is possible to obtain the same effect as that obtained with the embodiment shown in FIG. 7.

Further the alternative embodiments shown in FIGS. 10A to 10C are similar to the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, with the exception that: like the embodiments shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, an annular permanent magnet 131 is employed which is received in a cavity 140e provided in the central portion 140 of the magnetic body 140; the magnetic body 140 is provided with notches 140a in the outer peripheral portion thereof, so that the gap G between the magnetic body 140 and the electromagnet becomes gradually broader in the rotational direction of the rotor; and the electromagnets confronting to the gap G with an intermediate width as positioned between the electromagnets confronting to the gap G with a narrower width and the electromagnets confronting to the gap G with a broader width are excited or magnetized in a sequential manner. The remaining components are identical to those in the motor shown in FIGS. 1 to 3. In FIGS. 10A to 10C, the components identical to those in FIGS. 1 to 3 are denoted by the same reference numerals. In this regard, it should be noted that reference numeral 140d indicates magnetic flux passing through the magnetic body 140, so as to illustrate converged condition of such magnetic flux upon excitation of the electromagnets.

In the embodiment Just described above, it is possible to rotate the rotor in the counter clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 10A, for example, by exciting the electromagnets 16a, 16d, 16g and 16j, as shown in FIG. 10A, then, the electromagnets 16c, 16f, 16i and 16l, as shown in FIG. 10B, and then the electromagnets 16b, 16e, 16h and 16k. According to this embodiment, it is possible to obtain a stable rotational force, as well as a higher rotational torque, even though number of rotations is reduced in comparison with the above embodiment.

As shown in FIG. 10A, four (4) notches 140a are provided. It is noted, however, that two (2) or three (3) notches may be provided. It is also possible to attach the magnetic material 140 to the rotational output shaft 11 in an eccentric manner in its entirety, without providing notches 140a.

FIGS. 11A through 11H are illustrative diagrams showing the operation of the second embodiment of the invention when developed into a linear motor type.

According to this embodiment, a movable body 21 is adapted to be moved along a linear track 20 of a roller conveyor type. The track includes a frame on which a plurality of rollers are disposed in parallel relationship relative one another. A permanent magnet 22 is mounted on the movable body 21. A magnetic body 23 of a plate-like configuration is fixed to the permanent magnet 22 in the upper surface thereof, so as to form a movable element. It is noted that magnetic flux from the permanent magnet 22 passes through the magnetic body 23. A plurality of electromagnets 25a, 25b, 25c, 25d and so on are disposed above the movable element 24 along the linear track and in a parallel relationship relative one another. The electromagnets constitute a stator 25. Magnetic circuits of the electromagnets 25a, 25b, 25c, 25d, and so on, are independent from one another, so that the electromagnets are magnetized in a sequential manner by means of excitation change-over means (not shown), so as to have a magnetic polarity opposite to the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet 22. Power output shafts 21a are attached to a side surface of the movable body 21.

Operation of the above second embodiment will be explained below.

As shown in FIG. 11A, and when no electricity is supplied to the electromagnets, the electromagnets 25a and 25b positioned Just above the movable element 24 are subjected to magnetic field of the permanent magnet 22 (refer to shaded portion in FIG. 11A). Thus, such electromagnets magnetically absorb the magnetic body 23 thereto, so that the movable element 24 remains to be stopped.

As shown in FIG. 11B, and when the electromagnet 25c, positioned forwardly with respect to the direction in which the movable element 24 moves, is excited, the magnetic field of the permanent magnet 22 and the magnetic field of the electromagnet 25c interact with each other, so that magnetic flux 23a passing through the magnetic body 23 converges instantaneously toward the electromagnet 25c. By this, the movable element 24 is magnetically absorbed to the electromagnet 25c, so that it is moved along the linear track 20 under the propulsive force acting in the direction in which the width of the magnetic flux 23a becomes broader, i.e., in the direction of an arrow mark shown in FIG. 11B.

FIGS. 11C through 11E illustrate a change in width of the magnetic flux 23a in response to movement of the movable element 24. At the point at which the width of the magnetic flux 23a becomes maximized, i.e., when the forward end of the magnetic material 23 of the movable element 24 is positioned Just before passing by the electromagnet 25c, the width of the flux 23 becomes maximized. At this time, magnetic absorption acting between the permanent magnet 22 and the electromagnet 25c becomes maximized, but the propulsive force acting on the movable element becomes zero.

Before the propulsive force acting on the movable element 24 becomes completely zero, i.e., when the forward end of the magnetic body 23 of the movable element 24 is about to pass the electromagnet 25d, the excitation changeover means is actuated so as to stop excitation of the electromagnet 25c and so as to initiate excitation of the electromagnet 25d. Thus, the magnetic flux 23a converges to the electromagnet 25d, as shown in FIG. 11F, so that a propulsive force acts on the movable element 24, as in the previous stage.

Subsequently, and in response to further movement of the movable element 24, the width of the magnetic flux 23a is reduced as shown in FIGS. 11G and 11H, and thus a similar operation will be repeated.

The sequential excitation of the electromagnets, as explained above, causes interaction between the magnetic fields of permanent magnet 22 and electromagnets, whereby a propulsive force is applied to the movable element 24.

It is noted that, when the magnetic polarity of the permanent magnet 22 confronting the electromagnets is assumed to be N-pole, the electromagnet 25c is magnetized solely to be S-pole, so as to prevent formation of a magnetic circuit by virtue of passage of magnetic flux from the electromagnet 25c through to the adjacent electromagnets 25b and 25d, which formation, if it occurs, tends to cause the polarity of the electromagnets to be N-pole identical to the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet 22. Accordingly, and in a manner similar to that in the first embodiment, no force is generated which tends to interfere with movement of the movable element 24.

In the present invention, a plurality of electromagnets serving as a stator are so arranged that their respective magnetic circuits become independent from one another. The electromagnets are also arranged so that they are solely magnetized or excited to have a magnetic polarity opposite to the magnetic pole of the confronting permanent magnet. Thus, each electromagnet is prevented from becoming magnetized to the same polarity as that of the permanent magnet, which may occur when magnetic flux from a particular electromagnet passes through to adjacent electromagnets. Accordingly, no force will be exerted which tends to interfere with the intended movement of a rotor or a movable element. As a result, electric energy applied to the electromagnets may be efficiently utilized, while, at the same time, magnetic energy contained in the permanent magnet may-also be efficiently utilized.

The coils constituting the electromagnets are consistently supplied with electric current with the same polarity, without any change, so that heating of coils may be prevented. Further, it is possible to obviate the problems of vibration and noise which might occur due to a repulsive force being generated when polarity of an electric current supplied to the coils is changed.

Claims ~

What is claimed is:

1. A motive power generating device for transforming magnetic energy into motive power comprising: a stationary support member; an output shaft rotatably mounted on the support member; a permanent magnet disposed around the rotational output shaft for rotation therewith; a magnetic body disposed in concentric relationship with said permanent magnet for rotation with said rotational output shaft, said magnetic body being subjected to the magnetic flux of said permanent magnet; a plurality of electromagnets fixedly mounted on said support member in such a manner that they are spaced a predetermined distance apart around the periphery of said magnetic body, each magnetic circuit of said electromagnets being adapted to be independent of one another; said magnetic body including magnetic notches and teeth which are disposed alternately in an outer peripheral portion thereof, each said tooth having an outer corner which is forwardly positioned in the rotational direction and has an acute angle configuration so as to cause further convergence of the magnetic flux; certain of said electromagnets being disposed at positions corresponding to boundary portions between said notches and said magnetic teeth; and excitation change-over means for said electromagnets to sequentially magnetize one of said electromagnets which is positioned forwardly in the direction of rotation with regard to the outer corner of the tooth so as to give said particular electromagnet a magnetic polarity magnetically opposite to that of the magnetic pole of said permanent magnet, whereby magnetic flux passing through said magnetic body is converged in one direction so as to apply a rotational torque to said rotational output shaft.

2. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 1 wherein: said excitation change-over means includes a plurality of sensors mounted to said support member at positions corresponding to said plurality of electromagnets, and an ON-OFF member mounted on said rotational output shaft for turning said sensors on and off in response to rotation of said output shaft.

3. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 1, wherein: said magnetic body includes three magnetic notches and three magnetic teeth which are disposed alternately in the outer peripheral portion thereof; six (6) in twelve (12) of said electromagnets are disposed at positions corresponding to the boundary portions between said notches and said magnetic teeth; and said excitation change-over means is adapted to sequentially magnetize three (3) in six (6) of said electromagnets, disposed at positions corresponding to said boundary portions between said notches and said magnetic teeth, that are positioned forwardly with respect to a rotational direction of said output shaft, so as to impart to said three electromagnets a magnetic polarity opposite to that of the magnetic pole of said permanent magnet.

4. A motive power generating device in accordance with any one of claims 1 or 3, wherein: said electromagnets are arranged in parallel with said rotational output shaft; and said permanent magnet and said magnetic body are disposed at opposite axial ends of said rotational output shaft in confronting relationship with respective axial ends of each of said electromagnets.

5. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 4, wherein: each of said electromagnets includes a pair of legs disposed at opposite axial ends of an iron core and extending toward the outer periphery of said magnetic body, and a coil wound around each of said legs.

6. A motive power generating device in accordance with any one of claims 1 or 3, wherein: a plurality of said magnetic bodies are attached to the opposite axial ends and intermediate portion therebetween, respectively, of said rotational output shaft; a permanent magnet magnetized in the axial direction is disposed between said first magnetic body located at one axial end of said output shaft and said third magnetic body located at said intermediate portion of said output shaft, and between said second magnetic body located at the other axial end of said output shaft and said third magnetic body; the magnetic pole of said one permanent magnet adjacent to said third magnetic body and the magnetic pole of the other permanent magnet adjacent to said third magnetic body have the same magnetic polarity; and each of said electromagnets includes legs positioned at said axial opposite ends and intermediate portion of an iron core and extending toward the outer peripheries of said first, second and third magnetic bodies, respectively, and a coil wound around each of said legs located at the axial opposite ends of said iron core.

7. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 4, wherein: said magnetic body includes a cavity in the intermediate portion thereof; and said permanent magnet has an annular configuration and is received in said cavity, said permanent magnet being magnetized so as to have an opposite polarity in the inner periphery to that of the outer periphery.

8. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 6, wherein: said first and second magnetic bodies include a cavity in their respective intermediate portions, respectively; each of said permanent magnets has an annular configuration and is received in said corresponding one of the cavities in said first and second magnetic bodies, each of said permanent magnets being magnetized so as to have an opposite polarity in the inner periphery to that of the outer periphery.

9. A motive power generating device for transforming magnetic energy into motive power comprising: a stationary support member; an output shaft rotatably mounted on the support member; a permanent magnet disposed around the rotational output shaft for rotation therewith: a magnetic body disposed in concentric relationship with said permanent magnet for rotation with said rotational output shaft, said magnetic body being subjected to the magnetic flux of said permanent magnet; a plurality of electromagnets fixedly mounted on said support member in such a manner that they are spaced a predetermined distance around the periphery of said magnetic body, each magnetic circuit of said electromagnets being adapted to be independent of one another;

said magnetic body including a plurality of notches in the outer peripheral portion thereof, each of said notches being configured so as to gradually increase a gap between said magnetic body and said electromagnets in the rotational direction of said rotor; and excitation change-over means to sequentially magnetize the electromagnets confronting a gap with an intermediate width which are disposed between the electromagnets confronting a gap with a narrower width and a gap with a broader width, so as to impart to them a magnetic polarity opposite to that of the magnetic pole of said permanent magnet whereby magnetic flux passing through said magnetic body is converged in one direction so as to apply a rotational torque to said rotational output shaft.

10. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 9, wherein: each of said electromagnets includes a pair of legs disposed at the axial opposite ends of an iron core and extending toward the outer periphery of said magnetic body, and a coil wound around each of said legs.

11. A motive power generation device in accordance with claim 9, wherein: said magnetic body includes a cavity in the intermediate portion thereof; and said permanent magnet has an annular configuration and is received in said cavity, said permanent magnet being magnetized so as to have an opposite polarity in the inner periphery to that of the outer periphery.

12. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 9, wherein: a plurality of said magnetic bodies are attached to the opposite axial ends and intermediate portion therebetween, respectively, of said rotational output shaft; a permanent magnet magnetized in the axial direction is disposed between said first magnetic body located at one axial end of said output shaft and said third magnetic body located at said intermediate portion of said output shaft, and between said second magnetic body located at the other axial end of said output shaft and said third magnetic body; the magnetic pole of said one permanent magnet adjacent to said third magnetic body and the magnetic pole of the other permanent magnet adjacent to said third magnetic body have the same magnetic polarity; and each of said electromagnets includes lees positioned at said axial opposite ends and intermediate portion of an iron core and extending toward the outer peripheries of said first, second and third magnetic bodies, respectively, and a coil wound around each of said legs located at the axial opposite ends of said iron core.

13. A motive power generation device in accordance with any one of the claims 9, 10, 11 and 12, wherein: said device includes two (2), three (3) or four (4) of said notches.

14. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 9, wherein: said excitation change-over means includes a plurality of sensors mounted to said support member at positions corresponding to said plurality of electromagnets, and an ON-OFF member mounted on said rotational output shaft for turning said sensors on and off in response to rotation of said output shaft.

15. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 2, wherein: each of said sensor comprises an optical sensor including a light receiving element and a light emitting element, said elements being oppositely disposed with a predetermined distance therebetween; and said ON-OFF member includes a light shield plate disposed between said light receiving element and said light emitting element.
16. A motive power generating device in accordance with claim 14, wherein: each of said sensor comprises an optical sensor including a light receiving element and a light emitting element, said elements being oppositely disposed with a predetermined distance therebetween; and said ON-OFF member includes a light shield plate disposed between said light receiving element and said light emitting element.


Excerpted from Bearden correspondence:

Just a note in response to your suggestion:  Most Japanese are in fact peace-loving folks the way you pointed out.  The problem in the energy field seems to be that the Yakuza (Japanese Mafia) is seizing and stopping all Japanese-developed overunity systems.  There are at least three of these Japanese overunity systems that I'm aware of, being held off the market. Control of one of the Japanese systems, the Kawai system, was seized right here in the U.S. in 1996, in my physical presence and the Board of Directors of our little company.  We had reached an agreement with Kawai to market his engine worldwide, set up a development laboratory here in Huntsville for further developments, and get on with it.  We reached that agreement on Thursday evening that week, after negotiations most of the week.  That night, a jet arrived post-haste from Los Angeles, with a special Japanese on board, and the next morning Kawai and party were in fear and trembling -- and just hung their heads in shame and great disgrace.  One of the individuals accompanying the newcomer had the typical markings and tip of a finger missing.  At that point, everything was finished.  We shipped the two Kawai engines we had received, out of here to Los Angeles.  The Japanese party left, and that was that.

The Kawai engine switches the magnetic flux path at the opportune moment, by a very clever mechanical arrangement augmented by photo-coupled EM switching, and eliminates most of the back mmf.  This effectively doubles the COP of the magnetic motor to which it is adroitly applied.  If the motor is, say, 0.4 (normal inefficient motor), you will get a COP = 0.8, but not overunity.  But if you start with a high efficiency magnetic motor (as made by Hitachi and others) of, say, COP = 0.7 or 0.8, you will get a motor with COP = 1.4 or 1.6.  The latter can then be close-looped to power itself and a load simultaneously.  Kawai personally informed me that he already had a successful closed loop motor running and had filed another patent in Japan on it.


REGAUGING
and Multivalued Magnetic Scalar Potential: Master Overunity Mechanisms

 by T.E. Bearden
© 1996

Introduction ~

This is a flash release of information on the operational principles of three overunity electromagnetic engines that are in the successful prototype stage or advanced engineering development. My purpose is to provide an explanation of the master overunity mechanisms utilized by these devices, and to alert researchers and experimenters that the mechanisms are well-established in the conventional scientific literature, though still but little known to the majority of electrical engineers.

My series of articles[1] on overunity engines and mechanisms, for The Virtual Times, Internet node www.hsv.com, covers these three engines, the master regauging mechanism, the multivalued potential, and several other overunity mechanisms or proposed mechanisms. The magazine has just released my latest article over the Internet, entitled "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the Japanese Overunity engines: A New Pearl Harbor?" The article is heavily referenced and gives a thorough explanation of the three overunity devices: (1) Johnson's nonlinear boosting permanent magnet gate, [2 ,3] (2) the Takahashi engine, and (3) the Kawai engine.

All Three Engines Use Regauging of Magnetic Scalar Potential ~

All three devices freely asymmetrically regauge (A-regauge) (recharge or discharge, as required) the magnetic scalar potential energy of the device in a selected A-regauging sector.[4 ,5] Johnson uses a multivalued magnetic scalar potential to accomplish this A-regauging completely by means of a nonlinear permanent magnet rotor and nonlinear permanent magnet stator, without any electrical input. Takahashi and Kawai both use external electrical input to create or alter a magnetic scalar potential in the A-regauging section.

Conservative and Nonconservative Fields and Multivalued Potential (MVP) ~

Normal engine designers work with conservative fields, which require single-valued potentials. (See Figure 1). They consider A-regauging operations, as well as the multivalued potential (MVP), to be nuisances, since A-regauging may immediately involve nonconservative electromagnetic fields (see Figure 2). Most of the favored "engine design" laws and trusted circuit laws "blow up" during A-regauging, whether by electrical injection or the MVP region. So electrical power engineers just design conventional electromagnetic engines to avoid the MVP or eliminate it. On the other hand, if one deliberately evokes and properly uses the free "jump" of stored potential energy that occurs in an MVP-containing sector of an engine, a standard gauge-theoretic analysis will show that one can legitimately have overunity coefficient of performance from that engine. (See Figure 3). I first pointed this out in 1980.[6 ]

Figure 1 ~

Figure 2  ~

Figure 3

Multivalued Potential (MVP) Frequently Occurs in Nature ~

The multivalued potential occurs widely in nature,[7] and particularly in magnetics. In fact, it is quite often the rule rather than the exception. Still, the MVP is usually ignored by conventional engine designers, and many electrical engineers have hardly heard of it. S-regauging [8] of the magnetic potential changes only the magnetic potential; the force fields themselves need not be changed. A-regauging also creates additional force fields, which may be used to assist the system's operation.

It is easiest to A-regauge a magnetic scalar potential on a rotary electromagnetic engine by simply energizing a coil. If the coil is oriented radially, its associated B-field will not perform radial work on the rotor. Any tangential field resulting from creation of the magnetic scalar potential will either be (i) rotor-accelerating, or (ii) rotor decelerating. Obviously one wants the A-regauging of the magnetic scalar potential to either (iii) accelerate the rotor, or (iv) go to zero so as to zero out the back-drag. So one will adjust the polarity and strength of the magnetic scalar potential created by the radial coil accordingly.

For those unfamiliar with modern gauge theory, we point out that this discussion is completely consistent with Maxwell's equations, which formed the first true gauge theory. It is simply a matter of preference by the electrodynamicists, e.g., that the indefinite potentials of the Maxwellian equations are usually just symmetrically regauged. By use of an MVP region and/or an A-regauging region in an engine, however, additional "free" force terms are created and utilized by the engine designer to accomplish COP>1.0.

Regauging is Work-Free, and Can Produce Additional Orthogonal Fields ~

Work requires the translation of a force through a distance. Since the A-regauging change creates additional forces, the change in the force fields already present can be helpful. Rigorously it does not require extra work to A-regauge the system. However, the regauging is free to create any number of additional force fields at right angles to those already present before the regauging, depending upon the relationships between the regauged potential and various potentials in adjacent locations at right angles nearby. Let us examine that more closely in Figure 4.

Figure 4
 
 

Rigorously, W = F·ds. That is, work is done by a translating force only along the direction of translation. Ancillary force field B2, formed at a right angle to the radial force field B1 in stator coil A, can do tangential work on rotor C without any additional "drain" or effect upon the radial coil other than the normal drain utilized to form the primary B1 field. Simply put, radial forces do not perform work at right angles (tangentially) to their direction. However, at the fixed stator point S1 where radial magnetic force B1 exists, a magnetic scalar potential F1 also exists. At the nextmost tangential stator position S2, a scalar potential F2 exists. If F1-F2 0, then a tangential magnetic field B2 exists between S1 and S2. By adjusting the strength and polarity of F1, magnetic field B2 can be made to assist the rotation of rotor C, in what would otherwise be a "back drag" or decelerating sector. In short, the tangential back-drag force normally existing between F1-F2 in the normally-decelerating sector can be reversed and made to accelerate the rotor C in that sector, without requiring excess work in stator coil A or in stator electromagnet assembly P when the strength and polarity of F1 are regauged. In short, one can A-regauge in the normal back-drag region of the rotation, and reverse what would normally be back-drag into positive acceleration.
Both Johnson and Takahashi do this in their engines. Johnson A-regauges via a complex assembly of stator magnets (see Figure 5) that provides an MVP. Takahashi (see Figure 6) A-regauges by utilizing a radial coil with a weak current through it, where the current is sharply broken by ignition points to provide a "nearly free," momentarily high magnetic scalar potential and thereby perform the regauging nearly "for free."

Figure 5
 
 

Figure 6
 
 

Regauging is Free Electrical or Magnetic "Refueling" ~

A-regauging a sector of a rotary electromagnetic engine is just like refueling a car by putting gas in its gas tank: During the regauging operation, the system is an "open" system receiving an injection of excess potential (stored) energy from the surrounding vacuum -- except in the electromagnetic case the refueling is free. (See Figure 3). The excess stored energy injected into the system from the "refueling" jump due to A-regauging, can then be dissipated in the load during the remainder of the rotary cycle -- just as a refueled automobile can dissipate its additional fuel energy in powering the car, until it is time for refueling again.

By using one or both of these two master principles (i) A-regauging the potential energy of the system, and (ii) use of a multivalued potential for A-regauging, electromagnetic engines can permissibly exhibit COP>1.0, without any violation of the laws of physics, thermodynamics, Maxwell's equations, or advanced electrodynamics. And a totally-permanent-magnet motor can power itself and its load.

The Johnson Force-Producing Magnetic Gate ~

Figure 5 diagrammatically illustrates the operation of the force-producing magnetic gate in Johnson's permanent magnet motor. As Johnson has shown, by using a multivalued potential in his gates, a rotor magnet is attracted into a highly nonlinear stator gate region where the MVP is located. When it enters the MVP, the rotor encounters a dramatic jump in stator's magnetic scalar potential with a change of polarity. In turn, this produces a sudden accelerating tangential force in the region which would otherwise have been the back-drag region. This accelerating force propels and accelerates the rotor magnet on through the gate and out of it.

Rigorous force meter measurements taken at 0.01 second intervals prove that this occurs as the rotor passes through Johnson's gate. A representative plot of such force meter measurements is shown as the dotted line in Figure 3.

Johnson thus uses a highly nonlinear magnet assembly of special design to create an MVP in his gate. The MVP produces a "magnetic potential jump" and a reversal of the (otherwise) exiting back-drag on the rotor. In short, Johnson causes the system to be automatically "refueled" in the A-regauging sector, so that it can continue to rotate and power a load.

Figure 5 ~

Figure 6 ~
 
 
 

The Takahashi Engine ~

Figure 6 diagrammatically shows the scheme of operation of the Takahashi engine. Here a set of permanent magnets, each at an angle to the various radial lines of the device, comprises a slightly widening spiral stator that is "almost" circular but not quite. A circular rotor with a sector magnet is mounted inside this spiral stator. An end gap exists in the stator as shown, so that the stator is not a completely closed ring. The direction of rotation for the rotor is clockwise as shown. For demonstration of the principle, the beginning air gap is 0.1 mm and the ending air gap is 5 mm.

A permanent magnet is mounted along the perimeter of an angular sector of the rotor. It is magnetized, say, with the north pole facing radially outwards, and the south pole facing radially inside. In the stator, the permanent magnet north poles are facing radially in toward the rotor, but at an angle, and the south poles are facing radially outside but at an angle.

Thus tangentially the north pole of the rotor is in a nonlinear magnetic field, and it will experience a clockwise force and acceleration from position 1 (where the air gap is the minimum) to position 2 (where the air gap reaches maximum).

If this were all there was to it, the Takahashi motor would not be overunity because the tangential field is conservative. When the rotor crossed the end gap in the stator between point 2 and point 1, very sharp and dynamic braking work would be done back upon the rotor magnet by the field of the stator magnets at point 1. This braking work would precisely equal the amount of dynamic acceleration work that was done in accelerating the rotor magnet from position 1 to position 2, in accordance with a distortion of Figure 1. For an absolutely frictionless machine with no losses, the coefficient of performance (COP) would be 1.0. Since any real machine will have at least some friction and drag, the actual COP would be less than 1.0.
Let us now utilize the notion of the magnetostatic scalar potential to examine a new situation in the end gap.

Technically, let us regard a single unit north pole in the rotor, going from position 1 to position 2 (the acceleration cycle, where the engine will deliver shaft horsepower against a load), and then from position 2 to position 1 (where the magnetostatic scalar potential must be A-regauged to equal or exceed the potential at position 1, in order for the rotor to continue unabated or even further accelerate. I.e., in the separation gap, a A-regauging operation must be done so that the "stator to inner" potential is increased equal to or exceeding the "stator to inner" potential of position 1.

In normal machines, the A-regauging part of the cycle is conventionally where the design engineer forcibly inputs energy from outside the system to do brute physical work on the machine to forcibly wrestle its energy storage back to initial conditions. In the past engineers have automatically assumed COP<1.0 without exception, since their forcible RESET work was always equal to the maximum theoretical energy output to the load during the motor part of the cycle from point 1 to point 2, plus any losses in the "wrestling" process and in the machine itself.

So we simply must perform the A-regauging or RESET of the system's energy storage, without performing tangential "back-drag" work on the rotor. In other words, we must refuse to engage in the conventional "wrestling match." For that purpose, an electromagnet is utilized to fill the end gap in the stator, arranged so that when it is activated its north pole will face radially inward. A small current activates the coil weakly, through a distributor with breaker points. At the proper timing (i.e., when the rotor is directly opposite the electromagnet polepiece, a set of ignition points is sharply broken in the circuit with the coil of the electromagnet. Momentarily, a very high potential will appear at the end of the coil as the collapsing field is highly amplified and trying to sustain the previous current in its previous direction. The end result is the formation of a strong magnetostatic scalar potential (pole), of north polarity, on the stator polepiece facing the rotor. Note that no radial work can be done on either the stator polepiece or the rotor by gradients of this high potential, because they cannot move radially.

The potential in the end gap is now higher than the potential at position one. Consequently a clockwise tangential force field exists between the end gap potential and the lower potential at position one. This force cannot do "back-drag" work on the fixed stator. It cannot oppose the radial B-field, because it is orthogonal to it. An assisting clockwise tangential force therefore appears upon the rotor, and the rotor is accelerated and "boosted" out of the stator gap and back past point 1. At that point the electromagnet has lost its potential, but the engine has now been A-regauged and again is in the clockwise acceleration field of the rotor-stator permanent magnets.

In short, the rotor perceived the sudden change of magnetostatic scalar potential from the electromagnet in the stator gap as a pseudo-MVP, and the system received a sharp influx of potential energy, without work except for that lost in the electromagnet circuitry. Since that loss can be made quite nominal by conventional electronic practices, the engine permissibly provides COP>1.0. It can therefore be rigged to power itself and a load simultaneously.

Placed in an electric vehicle with necessary switching circuitry and ancillary equipment, a properly designed Takahashi engine and its derivatives should be capable of starting from a single ordinary battery, then powering the vehicle agilely, powering the accessories, and recharging its own battery -- all three simultaneously.

The Kawai Engine ~

Figure 7 shows eight snapshots of the rotor advance of a typical Kawai engine, taken from Kawai's patent.[9] This is one end rotor/stator side of a two rotor device, where a similar rotor/stator device is on the other end of the central shaft 11. In Figure 7A, polepiece 14 has three outward teeth 14b dispersed equally around the circumference, alternated with three notches. An end magnet 13 provides the source of flux passing through the polepiece. With the electromagnets de-energized, their core materials 16c, 16d, 16g, 16h, and 16k, 16l are shown shaded, by flux from central magnet 13 outwards through teeth 14b.

Figure 7a  ~

Figure 7b ~

Figure 7c ~

Figure 7d ~

Figure 7e ~

Figure 7f ~

Figure 7g ~

Figure 7h ~

In Figure 7B, electromagnets 16a, 16e, and 16d are energized. The shaded area shows the sharp convergence of the flux from magnet 13 through polepiece 14 and the edge of teeth 14b. Since the electromagnets are magnetized in attracting mode, the rotor will experience a torque tending to widen the flux path from magnet 13 to the activated electromagnets. Thus a clockwise torque exists on the rotor, and it will start to rotate clockwise.[10] Note also that each electromagnet is operating independently of the other two.

As shown in Figure 7C, 7D, 7E, and 7F the rotation of the rotor continues clockwise, widening the connecting flux path to the three activated electromagnets. During this time the torque on the rotor is clockwise.

In Figure 7G, the flux path to the activated electromagnets is fully widened. Also, the leading edges of the three teeth are just beginning to enter the domains of the next electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f. This is getting similar to the original position shown in Figure 7B. Consequently, the electromagnets 16i, 16a, and 16e are deactivated, and electromagnets 16j, 16b, and 16f are activated. Asymmetrically, this regauges and resets the engine back to the original starting position in Figure 7B. The action cycle begins anew. As can be seen, in each complete rotation of the shaft, each of the three teeth of the rotor will be A-regauged 12 times. So 36 total A-regaugings/resettings/refuelings are utilized per shaft rotation.

In each stator coil, at energization a tooth is just entering that coil. Energized in attractive mode with respect to the ring magnet around the shaft, the flux in the polepiece "jumps" from fully widened flux (and small or vanishing radial torque on the rotor) to angled and narrowed flux (with full radial clockwise torque on the rotor). As previously explained, the narrowed flux and its angle exert a clockwise accelerating tangential component of force upon the rotor. Each coil is de-energized prior to beginning to exert radial back emf (which it would do if it remained energized as the trailing edge crossed it and again narrowed the flux path). So the Kawai engine uses normal magnetic attraction to accelerate the rotor for a small distance, then A-regauges to zero attraction to eliminate the back-drag portion of the attractive field. It A-regauges to zero as the "RESET" condition.

For appreciable power and smoothness, the Kawai engine uses an extensive number of A-regaugings per axle rotation, being 36 times on each end, or a total of 72 for the two ends. The forcefield of each coil, accompanying its increased magnetostatic scalar potential, is oriented radially inward, so that radial work cannot be done by the coil on the rotor because the rotor does not translate radially. Advantage is taken of the initial clockwise acceleration force initially produced, and A-regauging eliminates the counterclockwise drag or "decelerating" force that would be produced without the A-regauging.
The major benefits of the Kawai arrangement are that (i) a large number of A-regaugings occurs for a single rotation of the rotor assembly, enabling high power-to-weight ratio, (ii) each electromagnet is energized only when positively contributing to the clockwise torque that drives the rotor, and (iii) each coil is de-energized to A-regauge the system during those periods when the coil would otherwise create back-drag (counterclockwise torque) if it remained energized.

So the Kawai engine delivers what it advertises: It dramatically reduces or eliminates the "back drag" fields of the stator electromagnets, because there are no back-drag fields activated in the electromagnets during the back-drag sectors. A conservative field cycle is one in which the back-drag is equal to the forward boost. Eliminating the back-drag portion of the cycle is a form of A-regauging, and makes the net field highly nonconservative. Note that again it was accomplished by a change in the magnetostatic scalar potential, which was reset to zero by the de-energizing coil during the back-drag portion of an otherwise conservative cycle. The Kawai engine therefore uses A-regauging and nonconservative fields in order to legitimately achieve overunity operation.

Because of the numerous A-regaugings and back drag elimination, this engine definitely can provide a COP>1.0. Placed in an electric vehicle with necessary switching circuitry and ancillary equipment, a properly designed Kawai engine and its derivatives should be capable of starting from a single ordinary battery, then powering the vehicle agilely, powering the accessories, and recharging its own battery -- all three simultaneously. And in so doing, it complies with all the laws of physics and thermodynamics.

Closed Loop (Self-Powering) Operation ~

Both the Kawai and Takahashi engines require input power, at least in the configurations shown to date. However, both engines are technically capable of overunity -- e.g., in his patent Kawai quotes performance measurements indicating 318% efficiency. Obviously, such a system can be close-looped by simply hooking it to a generator, and using positive feedback of a portion of the generator output to run the engine while using the remainder of the output to power a load.

The Johnson engine is inherently already self-powering, since it requires no external power input in the conventional fashion. One accents, of course, that in any such self-powered engine, there is indeed a steady input of power from the vacuum, in the violent virtual photon exchange with the particles and atoms comprising the magnets. A magnet simply acts as a gate in that energy exchange, as indeed does the bipolarity of an electrical power source.

Conclusion ~

Presently the three inventors mentioned have developed prototype engines which (1) produce COP>1.0, and (2) apply a multivalued potential, pseudo-multivalued potential, or A-regauging, or both. The Johnson engine is already self-powering. Both the Takahashi and Kawai engines are readily convertible to self-powering embodiments.

It would appear that these engines should now move into full development for introduction upon the world market.[11] Together with the Patterson cell,[12] we believe that these engines will usher in a new age of cheap clean energy for everyone.


WO 01/86786

Electric Motor Utilizing Convergence of Magnetic Flux

T. Kawai & K. Isshika, et al.

[ Figures only ]




 


 


US Patent # 5,030,866
Electric Motor

Teruo Kawai
(July 9, 1991 )

Abstract ~

An electric motor comprises a plurality of electromagnets arranged annularly in parallel, an electric switching circuit connected to each electromagnet, an iron cylinder arranged inside the electromagnets and having peripheral surface to be attracted partially arbitrarily by part of the electromagnets, a main axle positioned at the center of the iron cylinder and coaxially arranged with an axial core of the iron cylinder via bearings, and eccentric axles provided at both ends of the main axle so that the eccentric axles are arranged in accord with the center of the electromagnets to define a power generating axle.

Assignee:  Kabushiki Kaisha Big (Ibaraki, JP)
Appl. No.:  455949   ~  Filed:  December 21, 1989
Foreign Application Priority Data:  Dec 28, 1988[JP] 63-329229
Current U.S. Class: 310/82; 310/81 ~  Intern'l Class:  H02K 007/02; H02K 007/075
Field of Search:  310/81,82,80
References Cited :
U.S. Patent Documents:
2,579,865  ~ Dec., 1951 ~ Roters ~ 310/82.
4142119  ~ Feb., 1979  ~ Madey ~  310/82.
4728837  ~ Mar., 1988  ~ Bhadra  ~ 310/81.
Foreign Patent Documents:
197806  ~ Dec., 1976  ~ DE 310/82.
958312  ~ Nov., 1947  ~ FR 310/82.

Primary Examiner: Stephan; Steven L.   ~   Assistant Examiner: Haszko; Dennis R.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Flynn, Thiel, Boutell & Tanis

Description ~

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an electric motor capable of effectively converting electric energy into mechanical energy by using a structure wherein the attraction and repulsion between a magnetic member and a magnet or magnets are intense where they are brought into contact with each other.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

A prior art electric motor for producing mechanical energy from electric energy is illustrated in FIG. 4. The electric motor comprises a rotary axle a, a commutator b and brushes c combined with the commutator b positioned around the rotary axle a, an armature d composed of an iron core and a coil wound around the iron core, and a pair of magnets e positioned outside the armature d whereby the armature d is turned by the attraction between the electromagnets to thereby produce the turning force or the mechanical force. The prior art electric motor has however the problem that, inasmuch as the direction of mutual induction between the armature d and the magnets e fixed outside the armature is circumferential, the inductance distance in the successive attractive and repellent movement effected during the operation of the electric motor, namely, the distance from the start of the mutual attraction between the fixed magnets e and the poles of the armature d to the point at which the attractive force therebetween is directed radially, cannot be smaller than the distance which is defined by dividing the circumferential length of the fixed magnets e by the number of switching poles produced by the armature d when rotated 360.degree., irrespective of whether a brush type or a non-contact type of motor is used.

In an inertia type motor, there is a shortcoming in that the inertia type motor is delayed in actuation thereof and much power is wasted because the inertia type motor cannot operate with its inherent capacity when energized until it arrives at a fixed speed of rotation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention has been made to solve the problems of the prior art electric motor.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an electric motor capable of producing and taking off high effective turning energy or mechanical force from a predetermined input of electric energy and eliminating the delayed actuation thereof and the damages caused thereby.

To achieve the above object, the present invention comprises a plurality of electromagnets arranged annularly in parallel, an electric switching circuit connected to each electromagnet, an iron cylinder arranged inside the electromagnets and having a peripheral surface to be attracted partially arbitrarily by part of the electromagnets, a main axle positioned at the center of the iron cylinder and coaxially arranged with an axial core of the iron cylinder via bearings, and eccentric axles provided at both ends of the main axle so that the eccentric axles are arranged in accord with the center of the electromagnets to define a power generating axle.

The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a partly cut-away front elevation showing an electric motor according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line II--II of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view of assistance in explaining the operation of an electric switching circuit employed in the electric motor of the present invention; and

FIG. 4 illustrates a prior art electric motor.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

An electric motor according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 1 to 3.

The electric motor comprises a plurality of electromagnets 1a-1h arranged annularly and in parallel relationship with each other, an electric current switching circuit 8 connected to each electromagnet, an iron cylinder 4 arranged inside the electromagnets and having a peripheral surface to be attracted partially arbitrarily by part of the electromagnets, a main axle 5a positioned coaxially at the center of the iron cylinder 4 via bearings 6 and 7, and eccentric axles 5b provided at both ends of the main axle 5a and arranged eccentrically relative thereto in accord with the center of the electromagnets 1a-1h to define a power generating axle.

More in detail, the electromagnets 1a-1h are annularly concentrically arranged and supported between supporting frames 3 which respectively oppositely project from a base 2. The number of electromagnets is eight according to the disclosed embodiment, but is not limited thereto. Generally, the greater the number of electromagnets, the smoother the turning movement of the motor. The iron cylinder 4 has an outer diameter slightly smaller than and eccentric relative to an inner diameter defined by the inner surfaces of the electromagnets. The axle 5 comprises the main axle 5a positioned in the center of the iron cylinder 4 and eccentric axles 5b having diameters less than that of the main axle 5a and provided at both ends of the main positioned coaxially, hence the main axle 5a operates as a crank pin and the eccentric axles 5b operate as crank shafts.

The electric motor having such an arrangement operates as follows.

When the electric current switching circuit 8 applies current to the electromagnets 1a-1h to successively energize them, the iron cylinder 4 is attracted in order successively by the electromagnets so that the iron cylinder 4 performs the turning movement or the rotary motion. Accordingly, the eccentric axles 5b form rotary axles whereby the mechanical force or power caused by the rotary motion is taken off from the eccentric axles 5b. The attractive force is intensely generated at the portion of the iron cylinder 4a where the electromagnets 1a-1h and the iron cylinder 4 are brought into contact with each other. Immediately after the portion 4a of the iron cylinder 4 arrives at a center point 0 of the electromagnet 1a, the electromagnet 1b is energized while the electromagnet 1a is de-energized at the same time. Immediately after the portion 4a of the iron cylinder 4 is attracted by the electromagnet 1b and arrives at the center point 0 of the electromagnet 1b, the electromagnet 1c is energized while the electromagnet 1b is de-energized at the same time. The electromagnets 1d-1h are in order successively operated in the same manner.

The electric current switching circuit 8 can also apply current to the three electromagnets 1a, 1b, 1c so as to energize them simultaneously. In such case, immediately after the portion 4a of the iron cylinder 4 arrives at the center point 0 of the electromagnet 1a, the electromagnet 1d following the last energized electromagnet 1c is energized while the electromagnet 1a is de-energized at the same time. Immediately after the portion 4a of the iron cylinder 4 is attracted by the electromagnet 1b and arrives at the center point 0 of the electromagnet 1b, the electromagnet 1e is energized while the electromagnet 1b is de-energized at the same time. When such successive operations are repeated in order for the electromagnets 1f-lh, the iron cylinder 4 effects rotary motion.

With such repeated rotary motions, the turning force or the mechanical force is taken off from the eccentric axles 5b. However, inasmuch as the eccentric axles 5b are eccentric relative to the main axle 5a, the main axle 5a produces a centrifugal force when it is turned. Accordingly, once the main axle 5a starts to turn, the speed of rotation is increased satisfactorily. However, in the event that the main axle 5a does not turn smoothly from a static state, an adjustable weight 10 may be attached to the main axle 5a so that the main axle 5a can smoothly turn. Such adjustable weight 10 is shown by a chain line in FIG. 2.

As mentioned above in detail, the iron cylinder is successively attracted by the electromagnets when they are successively energized to thereby subject the iron cylinder to rotary motion. With successive rotary motion, mechanical force or power is generated and is taken off from the eccentric axles 5b provided at both sides of the main axle 5a. Thus, the rotary motion can be utilized as a drive source. Accordingly, inasmuch as the iron cylinder can be turned by the attractive force within the electromagnets, it is possible to take off a great power from the power axle, namely, from the eccentric axles, within a short period of time with a slight amount of electric power. Furthermore, the electric motor of the present invention is simple in structure and requires a small number of parts, and is thus very practical for manufacturing at low cost. In addition, the motor may be used with much less trouble than other known motors.

Although the invention has been described in its preferred form with a certain degree of particularity, it is to be understood that many variations and changes are possible in the invention without departing from the scope thereof.

Claims ~

What is claimed is:

1. An electric motor comprising:
a plurality of electromagnets arranged annularly around a central axis and in mutually parallel relationship;
an electric switching circuit means connected to each electromagnet for applying electric current in order successively to each electromagnetic to sequentially energize said electromagnets;
an iron cylinder arranged inside the electromagnets and having a peripheral surface, a portion of said peripheral surface being attracted by an attractive force caused by the electromagnets when energized;
a main axle positioned at the center of the iron cylinder coaxially relative thereto and eccentrically relative to said central axis, said main axle being supported by bearings in said iron cylinder for rotation relative to the iron cylinder; and
eccentric axles rigidly provided at both ends of the main axle and eccentrically relative thereto, the eccentric axles being arranged coaxially with the central axis of the electromagnets and supported for concentric rotation thereabout to define a power generating axle.

2. An electric motor according to claim 1, wherein the number of electromagnets is at least eight.

3. An electric motor according to claim 1, wherein the iron cylinder has an outer diameter slightly smaller than an inner diameter defined by inner surfaces of said electromagnets.

4. An electric motor according to claim 1, wherein each eccentric axle has a diameter which is less than that of the main axle.

5. An electric motor according to claim 1, wherein the electric current switching circuit means includes means for applying the current in order successively to respective groups of said electromagnets such that the electromagnets of the respective groups are energized at the same time.

6. An electric motor, comprising:
a pair of generally parallel support frames;
a plurality of electromagnets fixedly supported between said support frames and defining a generally concentric annular array surrounding a central axis;
an axle supported on and extending between said support frames, said axle including a main axle part extending between two end axle parts, said end axle parts being coaxial with each other and eccentric relative to said main axle part, said eccentric end axle parts being respectively rotatably supported on said support frames for rotation about said central axis of said electromagnets;
a cylindrical ferromagnetic core concentrically surrounding said main axle part, means for supporting said cylindrical core on said main axle part for concentric rotation relative thereto and eccentric rotation relative to said central axis of said electromagnets, said cylindrical core being closely eccentrically surrounded by said annular array of electromagnets, said cylindrical core always being in closely adjacent contactable relationship relative to one of said electromagnets; and
means for effecting eccentric rotation of said main axle part relative to said central axis and corresponding concentric rotation of said end axle parts relative to said central axis, including means for sequentially energizing said electromagnets in annular sequence to effect simultaneous concentric and eccentric rotation of said cylindrical ferromagnetic core relative to said main axle part and said central axis, respectively.

7. An electric motor according to claim 6, wherein said main axle part has a larger diameter than said end axle parts, said central axis passing through said main axle part.

8. An electric motor according to claim 7, including an adjustable weight attached to said main axle part.

9. An electric motor according to claim 6, wherein said sequential energizing means includes means operable during said rotation of said cylindrical core for de-energizing said one electromagnet while simultaneously energizing an adjacent said electromagnet.


Bearden email (19 May 2003 12:09:00 -0500 )

Dear Jon,

At the time we negotiated with Kawai (at his wish!), he had already produced a "closed loop" motor in Japan where what you are getting at was accomplished.

E.g., say you have a Kawai system whose COP is double its efficiency, and its efficiency is 80%.  That gives a COP of 1.6.  This is one of the actual Hitachi motors he modified for Hitachi engineers to test, in evaluating his system and patent originally.  And that is what it proved to do, under rigorous Hitachi testing (some of the best in the world).

Now if you take, say, 80% of that output EM energy, and feed it back into the electrical output in a closely governed positive feedback manner, you will be feeding back about 1.28 as much energy as you had to input.  You will still have some separate output energy, also, to dissipate in an external load and power it.

However, you will have some losses in the feedback loop and related switching, so suppose you lose that 0.28 part of that COP along the feedback way.  That means you will be inputting 1.0, or precisely as much energy as is needed to run the system under load. That system then becomes "self-powering", or more exactly, it draws sufficient EM energy from the local vacuum to power itself (losses and inefficiencies and switching) and its loads simultaneously.  It draws from the local vacuum the extra energy for the input, as well as the energy being dissipated in the external load.

The key is that all EM field energy and potential energy in any EM circuit or device comes from the source charges in that circuit or device, not from what one inputs, not from a battery, and not from cranking the shaft of a generator.  And the source charges (together with their clustering virtual charges of opposite sign) are dipolar ensembles of opposite charges.  Hence the source charge ensemble must obey the known asymmetry of opposite charges.  Rigorously (already proven in particle physics, with a Nobel Prize awarded to Lee and Yang for predicting broken symmetry) such "opposite charges asymmetry" freely absorbs virtual photons from the seething vacuum, coherently integrates the subquantal energy into quantal (observable) size, and re-emits the energy as real, observable photons in all directions --- thereby establishing and continuously replenishing its associated EM fields and potentials, spreading outward at light speed.

So the Kawai process is a process whereby Lorentz symmetrical regauging (of an otherwise closed current loop circuit) is broken.  This rigorously changes the system into a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) system that openly receives excess energy from its active environment.  The established thermodynamics of open NESS dissipative systems (plenty of hard references and experiments) then permits the system to exhibit any of five novel functions: (1) self-order (increase its own energy by simple free regauging via the gauge freedom axiom), (2) self-oscillate or self-rotate, (3) output more energy as useful work than the operator inputs and pays for (the excess input energy is freely received from the active environment), (4) power itself and its load simultaneously with energy received freely from the active external environment, and (5) exhibit negative entropy.

You really can build electrical windmills operating in a free electrical wind, so to speak.

Kawai's process is perfectly legitimate, and with attention to very efficient switching it can be successfully replicated in accord with the patent itself.  You have to start with a very efficient motor (say, an 80% efficient Hitachi standard motor) and you have to use very efficient switching (say, photon-coupled switching using very little power).

It was a sad and shocking day when the Yakuza appeared and put a stop to the Kawai system and a clamp on Kawai forever. Otherwise, you would already have seen self-powering Kawai systems on the market.  We would have put them there, under agreement with Kawai, and being funded by Kawai himself!  His backers were some of the wealthiest men in Japan.  But the Yakuza suppressed it like snuffing out a candle.  Simply do a Google search on the Yakuza, and you may be very surprised at what you discover.

Best wishes,

Tom Bearden

Excerpted from correspondence:

Just a note in response to your suggestion:  Most Japanese are in fact peace-loving folks the way you pointed out.  The problem in the energy field seems to be that the Yakuza (Japanese Mafia) is seizing and stopping all Japanese-developed overunity systems.  There are at least three of these Japanese overunity systems that I'm aware of, being held off the market. Control of one of the Japanese systems, the Kawai system, was seized right here in the U.S. in 1996, in my physical presence and the Board of Directors of our little company.  We had reached an agreement with Kawai to market his engine worldwide, set up a development laboratory here in Huntsville for further developments, and get on with it.  We reached that agreement on Thursday evening that week, after negotiations most of the week.  That night, a jet arrived post-haste from Los Angeles, with a special Japanese on board, and the next morning Kawai and party were in fear and trembling -- and just hung their heads in shame and great disgrace.  One of the individuals accompanying the newcomer had the typical markings and tip of a finger missing.  At that point, everything was finished.  We shipped the two Kawai engines we had received, out of here to Los Angeles.  The Japanese party left, and that was that.

The Kawai engine switches the magnetic flux path at the opportune moment, by a very clever mechanical arrangement augmented by photo-coupled EM switching, and eliminates most of the back mmf.  This effectively doubles the COP of the magnetic motor to which it is adroitly applied.  If the motor is, say, 0.4 (normal inefficient motor), you will get a COP = 0.8, but not overunity.  But if you start with a high efficiency magnetic motor (as made by Hitachi and others) of, say, COP = 0.7 or 0.8, you will get a motor with COP = 1.4 or 1.6.  The latter can then be close-looped to power itself and a load simultaneously.  Kawai personally informed me that he already had a successful closed loop motor running and had filed another patent in Japan on it.





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