rexresearch.com



Alvin M. MARKS

Aerosol Electrical Generator // ElectroThermoDynamic Power Converter, &c.







W. Stevenson Bacon: "Electricity from Water & Air" ~ Popular Mechanics (August 1967), p. 81

Gary Stimeling: "Harnessing Storm Energy" ~ High Times (1981)

Select Patents by Alvin M. Marks :

USP # 6,501,093 ~ Quantum Energy Storage or Retrieval Device
USP # 4,677,326 ~ Electrothermodynamic Power Converter with Converging Flows
EP 0176781 ~ Ordered Dipolar Light-Electric Power Converter
USP # 3,813,265 ~ Electro-Optical Dipolar Material
USP # 4,720,642 ~ Femto Diode & Applications
USP # 4,617,483 ~ Electrothermodynamic Power Converter with Converging Flows
USP  # 4,523,112 ~ Electrothermodynamic (ETD) Power Converter with Conical Jet
USP # 4,433,248 ~ Charged Aerosol Wind/Electric Power Generator with Solar and/or Gravitational Regeneration
USP # 4,445,050 ~ Device for Conversion of Light Power to Electric Power
USP # 4,395,648 ~ Electrothermodynamic (ETD) Power Converter
USP # 3,900,417 ~ Method & Apparatus for Forming Submicron Dipole Particles
USP # 3,518,461 ~ Charged Aerosol Power Conversion Device & Method
USP # 3,297,887 ~ Heat Electrical Power Transducer
USP # 3,298,959 ~ Ultra Violet Light Absorbing Compositions having a Suspension of Submicron Particles
USP # 3,191,077 ~ Power Conversion Device
USP # 2,638,555 ~ Heat-Electrical Power Conversion through the Medium of a Charged Aerosol


Popular Mechanics (August 1967), p. 81

Electricity from Water & Air

by

W. Stevenson Bacon

A tiny generator the size of a grapefruit could be made to provide all the power your home needs --- from the waste furnace heat now going up your chimney.

This is the conclusion of physicist and inventor Alvin M. marks, who recently patented a new way to generate electricity without moving parts, magnetic fields, or expensive chemical reactions.

The new generator requires only a jet of gas containing liquid vapor and the presence of an electric field and the presence of an electric field that helps condense it into a fine, electrically charged mist or aerosol.

What’s more, the little model aerosol generator sown here can be made so efficient in converting heat energy to electricity (up to 70%), that it promises to make obsolete conventional thermal generating conventional thermal efficiency of 35%. Reason: it converts heat and kinetic energy directly to electricity.

How it works --- First consider a conventional generator. As the armature is turned, coils of copper wire are moved through a magnetic field. Free electrons in the wire experience a force from the magnetic field that pushes them along the wire, creating a flow of current.

Similarly, there is a field and motion in the aerosol generator. The field is electrical rather than magnetic, but it, too, extends through space to impart notion to electrons, which combine with atoms of gas to form negative ions. The motion is provided by the expanding gas itself. As it rushes through the field, a flow of current (ions) is established.

There is, however, very little you can do with free ions unless you can move large numbers of them onto a conductor. This is where the aerosol comes in. Droplets of liquid condense out of the gas stream and deposited on a collector electrode to release their charges as useful electricity.

The drawing of the model aerosol generator above shows how the hardware is arranged. Anions (negative ions) are created within the field set up by the spike-shaped negative electrode and the positive nozzle. In the working model, picking up water vapor. It expands and cools in passing from the small pipe into the charging chamber. Droplets of water immediately condense on the anions, exploding into a fine mist through mutual repulsion.

The energy of the gas stream carries the aerosol out through the nozzle of the positive-charging electrode and through the conversion space. Droplets are deposited on the collector electrode to create a flow of electricity in an external load and back to the positive ground terminal of the generator.

Something for Nothing! --- While it looks as if the generator is producing something for nothing, a close examination shows where and how the work is done. As charged particles shoot out of the nozzle, they create a “space charge”. Additional particles run smack into this repulsive charge into this repulsive field. As they fight their way against it, they reach a high electrical potential, converting their heat and kinetic energy to electricity.

Finally, they reach the collector. With their kinetic energy gone, and at a much higher negative potential than the collector, the charged particles are deposited around the walls of the collector.

As the space charge gets greater and greater, nozzle pressure must be increased to overcome it. This is done by adding more heat primarily to the liquid, and it, in turn, heats the gas, causing it to rise in pressure. The voltage and current produced at the collector rise with the increase in nozzle pressure.

A Practical Generator --- A full-size aerosol, built under government contract, is being tested at Marks Polarized Corp., Whitestone, NY.

Will it work? “We’re sure of it”, Mark says. “We’re not sure of the power output, but it will be from one to 10,000 watts --- we’re hoping for 10,000”.

Figure 1 --- Diagram of working model of generator shows how charged aerosol is formed and blown across conversion space to collector electrode. In full-scale generator, gas-stream pressure will be increased by using stream instead of water to add heat energy. Voltage and current output go up with pressure.

Figure 2 --- Real Work is Done: As space charge in conversion space increases, like-charged aerosol is repelled. To overcome “potential hill”, more energy is fed to generator to increase nozzle pressure, power output.

Figure 3 (Not Shown) --- Inventor Alvin Marks adjusts working model to light neon letters. Output of model is about 50,000 volts DC at 200 microamperes (10 watts). The tiny aerosol charging power (one microampere at 3000 volts) is opposite in polarity to generator output and is supplied by different power source.


High Times (1981)

Harnessing Storm Energy

by

Gary Stimeling

Human ingenuity has had little trouble inventing ways to make the most of our energy resources. However, waste means added profit for power suppliers, so most of the technology remains on the drawing board, ignored by the captains of industry. Electrothermodynamic (ETD) energy is an example of this process in action.

Ben Franklin’s dream of harnessing the storm principle has been realized by ETD designer Alvin marks. In a thunderstorm, bolts of lightning snap between pockets of positively and negatively charged particles (ions) that have been created by the friction of water droplets in turbulent winds. Marks’s charged aerosol generators create their tempest in a torus (doughnut-shaped bottle) filled with helium. Acting as a sort of gas flywheel, the helium is driven around the doughnut by high-speed jets of superheated steam. A small external electrical charge starts a buildup of hot ions, which, as they cool, discharge and release many times the electrical power that was put in --- much as a car engine uses a battery to start but thereafter can recharge the battery by driving a generator.

ETD is twice as efficient in converting fuel into electricity as the mechanically driven magnetos now used. And its beauty is that it can make every building’s heat system produce the juice consumed by the occupants. Since heating needs a source of only a few hundred degrees Fahrenheit, most of the energy of fuel, which burns at several thousand degrees Fahrenheit, is normally lost. The ETD system generates electricity at high temperatures and uses only the residual heat for winter warmth. Thus, the device could spell an end to utility-company monopolies and regional blackouts as well as cut our consumption of fossil fuels in half and save billions on oil imports.

Predictably, business and government response has been underwhelming. Marks had a proven prototype by 1968 and presented a $60-million changeover program to the federal Office of Science and Technology in 1971. Although $1 million in government grants has helped fund the researfh since 1958, federal agencies have shown no interest in the commitment needed for widespread use. Marks estimates that a mere $5 to $10 million more could put an ETD home heating system on the market for $2000, including installation.

Response from industry has been even more anemic. Last August, 31 major corporations placed a full-page ad in the New York Times proclaiming, “Energy is not a political issue. It’s an issue of survival”, and calling on the private sector to invest in new and alternative sources of energy. Marks wrote to all 31 and was not surprised to find that two-thirds answered only with vague dismissals that showed “more interest in short-term profit than long-term survival”. A few are intrigued enough to study the idea, but readers with loose capital are urgently needed by Alvin marks, marks Polarized Corp., 153-16 10th Ave., Whitestone, NY 11357.


USP # 6,501,093

Quantum Energy Storage or Retrieval Device

12-31-2002

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H01G7/06; H01L31/058; H01G7/00; H01L31/058; (IPC1-7): H01L35/24 - european: H01G7/06; H01L31/058C; H01L51/20C
Application number: US19970919575 19970320
Priority number(s): US19970919575 19970320; US19940222448 19940404

Abstract ~ A solid state Quantum high Energy density Storage or Retrieval device known as a quensor, and the trademark ENSOR(TM), having an energy density of about 1-15 kwhr/kg, comparable to gasoline, or more, is described. A fundamentally new principle is employed: A quensor film comprises oriented molecules with donor and acceptor groups and with metal layers on its surfaces. A dipole electric field may be established in the gap between a donor and an acceptor. Electric energy is stored in or retrieved from dipole electric fields throughout the volume of the quensor film. Electric energy is stored in the quensor film by charging the dipole electric fields from an electric energy source. Electric energy is retrieved from a quensor film by discharging the dipole electric fields and supplying the energy to a load. Electric breakdown in the film is avoided because positive and negative electric charges in the film are balanced everywhere. Busbars attached to the metal layers are connected to terminals for charging or discharging the device. The manufacture of a quensor film is described. A composite photovoltaic and quensor panel for the storage or retrieval of solar-electric energy day or night on demand is also described.


USP # 4,677,326

Electrothermodynamic Power Converter with Converging Flows

6-30-1987

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N1/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19860904919 19860908
Priority number(s): US19860904919 19860908; US19840574374 19840127

Abstract ~ An electrothermodynamic (ETD) generator and a compressor is described for use in a Marks/Ericsson Cycle. New equations are derived based on varying the electric charge distribution along the flow axis and new principles based thereon are used in the generator design.


EP 0176781

Ordered Dipolar Light-Electric Power Converter

4-09-1986

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H01L31/101; H01L31/101; (IPC1-7): H01L31/00; H01L31/02; H01L31/04; H01L31/18 - european: H01L31/101; H01L51/20C; H01L51/20F; Y01N4/00
Application number: EP19850111022 19850902
Priority number(s): US19840650708 19840914
Also published as: ES8705703 (A) ~ EP0176781 (A3) ~ EP0176781 (B1) ~ IE851994L (L) ~ IE57309 (B1)
Cited documents: US4445050 ~ US4442019 ~ US3813265 ~ US4202004 ~ CA1169055

Abstract ~ A bulk process is described which is capable of producing large area sheets about 8 micrometers thick having the property of light/electric power conversion at extremely high production rates (many m<2>/s) at low cost ( DOLLAR 1/m<2>). The devices have an inherently high efficiency 60-80% when laminated in an assembly to utilize both resolved light vectors. A light/electric power converter is described comprising a sheet containing oriented dipolar conducting linear structures forming an antennae array capable of absorbing light photons and producing a unidirectional electric current. These linear structures constitute submicron antennae and femto diode circuit elements. The individual antenna-circuit elements are self-ordered into the linear structure using a bulk process. The process utilizes (1) electro-ordering a suspension of elongated submicron metal crystals; or (2) molecules capable of absorbing a light photon and converting its energy to electric energy; or (3) visco-elastically stretch-orienting a light-electric responsive preformed heteropolymer. These submicron linear structures comprise a plurality of quantum well-steps, each with an assymetric tunnel junction at one end, in ordered three dimensional arrays. The manufacture uses a simple low cost bulk process and does not employ the submicron facility needed for the earlier planular process.


USP # 3,813,265

Electro-Optical Dipolar Material

5-28-1974

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: G02B5/30; G02F1/17; G02B5/30; G02F1/01; (IPC1-7): F21V9/00; G02F1/18 - european: G02B5/30P1; G02B5/30P2; G02F1/17A
Application number: US19720237350 19720323
Priority number(s): US19720237350 19720323; US19700011696 19700216


USP # 4,720,642

Femto Diode & Applications

1-19-1988

Alvin M. Marks

Classification:- international: H01L33/00; H01L33/00; (IPC1-7): H01L15/00 - european: H01L33/00D; H01L51/20C; H01L51/20F; Y01N4/00
Application number: US19840637405 19840803
Priority number(s): US19840637405 19840803; US19830462240 19830302

Abstract ~ A Femto Diode responsive to light frequencies, is described. Quantum principles are utilized. The Femto Diode comprises a submicron metal cylinder with an assymetric metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction at one end and a reflecting potential step at the other end. A light photon having a quanta of energy is absorbed by an electron in the cylinder producing an energetic electron. The cylinder acts as a potential well for the energetic electron, which travels back and forth in its own conduction band without loss of energy until it passes through the junction. The kinetic energy of the energetic electron is converted to electric energy at a greater voltage on the other side of the junction. The energy conversion is reversible. The Femto Diode may be used in light to electric power conversion, a laser which converts electric power to light power, 2D and 3D displays, high speed computers, communications and other devices.


USP # 4,617,483

Electrothermodynamic Power Converter with Converging Flows

10-14-1986

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N1/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19840574374 19840127
Priority number(s): US19840574374 19840127

Abstract ~ An electrothermodynamic generator and a compressor is described for use in a Marks/Ericsson Cycle. It uses a charged liquid tin droplet/nitrogen aerosol for heat/electric conversion at a maximum temperature of about 1800 K and a charged water droplet/nitrogen aerosol electrothermodynamic compressor at 300 K in a Marks/Ericsson Cycle which has a theoretical efficiency of 83%, and a practical efficiency of 60% to 70%. An ETD compressor with a water charged droplet is described. The other cycle components, comprising a heat source, liquid tin loop, heat exchangers, water loop and liquid pump are not here considered.


USP  # 4,523,112

Electrothermodynamic (ETD) Power Converter with Conical Jet

6-11-1985

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N1/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19830479986 19830529
Priority number(s): US19830479986 19830529; US19810237290 19810223

Abstract ~ These inventions relate to novel advances in Electrothermodynamics (ETD), also known as charged aerosol, heat/electric power generators: (1) "Method III" two-fluid mixed flow comprising a supersonic jet expanding conically within a subsonic flow, separated by a boundary layer in which the charged aerosol forms downstream of the orifice, at a cross section of at least 100 times the orifice section; and in which the electric charge density of the charged aerosol decreases along the jet axis, whereby substantially all of the kinetic power of the jet is converted to electric power within the jet, there being no ejector. (2) An array of supersonic jets utilizing Method III. (3) An array of supersonic jets utilizing Method III without separating duct walls in which "convection cells" provide return flows, forming a plurality of TORON configurations. (4) A supercritical Rankine cycle in a single stage employing Method III.


USP # 4,433,248

Charged Aerosol Wind/Electric Power Generator with Solar and/or Gravitational Regeneration

2-21-1984

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N1/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19820366139 19820407
Priority number(s): US19820366139 19820407

Abstract ~ On a Charged Aerosol Wind/Electric Power Generator, electrically charged water droplets are dispersed into the wind stream. Using Induction Electric Charging, a water jet issues under water pressure from a small diameter (25-50 mu m) orifice, and the jet breaks into charged droplets. A plate orifice 35 mu m diameter, and 25 mu m long appears optimum; a single jet from such an orifice at a water pressure of 15 psig produces net electric power output substantially exceeding the hydraulic and electric power inputs. A practical Wind/Electric Generator utilizes a multi-orifice array scaled to a kilowatt or megawatt level. A water recovery and pressure regeneration solar and/or gravitational means is described by which water is conserved and the water power is free, so that there is a net output electric power without external power input of any kind, except natural wind and/or solar power.


USP # 4,445,050

Device for Conversion of Light Power to Electric Power

4-24-1984

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H01Q1/24; H01Q1/24; (IPC1-7): H02M7/02 ~ - european: H01L51/20C; H01L51/20F; H01Q1/24E; Y01N4/00
Application number: US19810330791 19811215
Priority number(s): US19810330791 19811215

Abstract ~ This invention relates to a high efficiency device for the direct conversion of light power to electrical power. Present photocells for accomplishing this purpose are well known to the art and have a theoretical efficiency not exceeding about 20%. In practice, realization of efficiency of about 10% has been achieved, but ultimately the theoretical limitation is an upper limit which cannot be exceeded by devices utilizing known construction. The present device differs from the prior art devices in that it utilizes a plurality of dipole antennae for absorbing light photons, employing an alternating electrical field of said photons to cause electrons in the dipole antenna to resonate therewith and absorb electrical power therefrom, with means for rectifying said AC power to DC, said DC being accumulated on conducting busbars from the plurality of antennae and associated rectifying circuits.


USP # 4,395,648

Electrothermodynamic (ETD) Power Converter

7-26-1983

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N1/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19810237290 19810223
Priority number(s): US19810237290 19810223

Abstract ~ These inventions relate to novel advances in Electrothermodynamics (ETD), also known as charged aerosol, heat/electric power generators: (1) A new more efficient, compact converging/diverging configuration comprising a torus of revolution (TORON) used with a gas flywheel. (2) A "Method II" two-fluid mixed flow ejector/converter in a gas flywheel loop employing a primary steam or a high molecular weight driver jet such as a fluorocarbon containing charged aerosol water droplets and a low molecular weight carrier gas such as hydrogen or helium with an electro-negative gas additive, in a Rankine cycle including a vapor/gas and liquid separator with a bypass to the ejector/converter loop. (3) A "Method III" two-fluid mixed flow comprising a supersonic jet expanding conically within a subsonic flow, separated by a boundary layer in which the charged aerosol forms downstream of the orifice, at a cross section of at least 100 times the orifice section; and in which the electric charge density of the charged aerosol decreases along the jet axis, whereby substantially all of the kinetic power of the jet is converted to electric power within the jet, there being no ejector. (4) An array of supersonic jets utilizing Method III. (5) An array of supersonic jets utilizing Method III without separating duct walls in which "convection cells" provide return flows, forming a plurality of TORON configurations. (6) A supercritical Rankline cycle in a single stage employing Method III. (7) A method IV two-fluid cycle uses charged aerosols in an inert gas and operates on an Ericsson-type cycle. (8) Optimum operating conditions are defined for Methods II, III, and IV.


USP # 3,900,417

Method & Apparatus for Forming Submicron Dipole Particles

8-19-1975

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: G02F1/17; G02F1/01; (IPC1-7): F21V9/00; G02B5/20; G02C7/10; G03C1/00 - european: G02F1/17A
Application number: US19730320172 19730102
Priority number(s): US19730320172 19730102; US19700011176 19700213


USP # 3,518,461

Charged Aerosol Power Conversion Device & Method

6-30-1970

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; (IPC1-7): H02N3/00 - european: H02N3/00
Application number: USD3518461 19670623
Priority number(s): US19670648403 19670623


USP # 3,297,887

Heat Electrical Power Transducer

1-10-1967

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19630284897 19630603
Priority number(s): US19630284897 19630603

Abstract ~  In an E.H.D. generator employing a charged aerosol as working medium, an efficiency approaching that of the ideal Carnot cycle is achieved by employing a large ratio of liquid mass to gas mass in the isothermal phases and a small ratio of liquid mass to gas mass during the adiabatic phases of the cycle. Heat may be injected isothermally into the working medium simultaneously with the extraction of electric power. The liquid component of the aerosol is used for heat-transfer. When the liquid component is large, most of the heat resides in the liquid which can thus maintain the carrier gas at uniform temperature, pro- ducing isothermal working. Similarly, when the liquid content is low, adiabatic working is achieved. Liquid may be sprayed in to increase its proportion and subsequently removed by standing or by centrifuging in the discharging region. The ratio of liquid mass to gas mass varies from 10 to 0À01. The aerosol is simultaneously charged and formed by forcing liquid 21 out of a capillary tube 20 whose tip is charged or is adjacent a charging ring 25 whose field assists in accelerating the droplets to the velocity of the carrier gas stream 22. The kinetic energy of the droplets and gas is turned into electrical energy in the conversion space 30, this energy being withdrawn in the collector 31 and fed out at lead 32 to load 33. It is des- cribed (Fig. 3, not shown), how a battery of capillaries associated with charging screens may be used. A single loop circuit for recircu- lating both gas and liquid in the necessary temperature cycle, is described (Fig. 2, not shown). A multistage system in which the heat rejected from one cycle is used in a following cycle of lower temperature, is also described (Fig. 3, not shown). The use of a heat-exchanger is avoided by transferring the liquid directly from one cycle to the next. Suitable working substances are water-steam or air; and gallium- nitrogen.


USP # 3,298,959

Ultra Violet Light Absorbing Compositions having a Suspension of Submicron Particles

1-17-1967

Alvin M. Marks & Morimer Marks

Classification: - international: G02B5/20; G02B5/22; G02B5/20; G02B5/22; - european: G02B5/20V; G02B5/22D
Application number: US19620233417 19621026
Priority number(s): US19620233417 19621026


USP # 3,191,077

Power Conversion Device

6-22-1965

Alvin M. Marks & Ernesto Barreto

Classification: - international: H02N3/00; H02N3/00; - european: H02N3/00
Application number: US19620190762 19620427
Priority number(s): US19620190762 19620427


USP # 2,638,555

Heat-Electrical Power Conversion through the Medium of a Charged Aerosol

5-12-1953

Alvin M. Marks

Classification: - international: F03G7/05; H02N3/00; F03G7/00; H02N3/00; - european: F03G7/05; H02N3/00
Application number: US19490132963 19491214
Priority number(s): US19490132963 19491214





Your Support Maintains this Service -- and Your Survival ...

The Rex Research Civilization Kit

... It's Your Best Bet & Investment in Sustainable Humanity on Earth ...
Everything @ rexresearch.com, plus the Bonus Files CD !

ORDER PAGE

<< $13, Postpaid Anywhere >>

Rex Research, POB 19250, Jean, NV 89019 USA