"Permanent Magnet Motors --- Build One"
Paul Monus, BSEE, BSA
Published by the Author (Cleveland OH 1982)
Copyright 1982 by Paul Monus
To all those who know that the impossibilities of yesterday are
the facts of today, and firmly believe that the impossibilities
of today will be the realities of tomorrow. --- Paul Monus
1. What You Must Know Before You Start
2. About the Materials
3. Permanent Magnet Linear Motor
4. How it Works
5. The Tilted Track Linear Motor
6. How Can We Remove a Magnetic Load from
a Permanent Magnet Track?
7. The Oscillating Permanent Magnet Motor
8. The Circular Track Motor. Cascading the
9. The Wheel as a Rotor
10. Electronic Circuits for Driving and
11. Possible Energy Resources
I was not searching for perpetual motion. If you think so, I
must disappoint you.
As an electrical engineer down to earth, and a long time
research worker, I was very well aware, that there could be no
such thing as perpetuum mobile. You canít cheat the laws of
You can build a new type of prime mover, a new motor, or any
mechanical device with one condition: the driving energy must
come from somewhere. I will discuss the energy sources in
Chapter 11 of this book.
We cannot produce energy. We can only transform it from one
form to another. How well we can transform is called efficiency.
I have been looking for new and more efficient transformation
possibilities. How I succeed, will now be presented to you.
If you have an inquiring mind, and you will use my results and
create more and practical machines, after first working them out
on paper. All are unique, and working perfectly. In exposition I
will be very critical of myself. If you will follow my guiding
principles, you must succeed. In case of failure, look for cause
For some explanations I must use mathematics. I have tried to
curb it to a minimum. If you are not mathematically inclined,
please skip over the calculations. This will not affect you
final work. A practically minded person can succeed as well
Finally I will be very happy if I will; hear from you.
And now to work!
The idea of getting something for nothing is as old as manís
discovery of the basic rules of elementary mechanics. The
invisible magnetic forces, which had provoked the inquiring
minds, played a substantial role in this heretofore
unsuccessful, fruitless hunt. When an ordinary horse-shoe or bar
magnet can catch a piece of iron, and hold it with astonishing
force, the question is obvious, could not the same force provide
useful work which will cost nothing beyond the price of the
I cannot give you a straight answer. It could be an
irresponsible talk, and eventually the upcoming generation could
ridicule me. Moreover I cannot discredit my own work, which
results I now want to submit to you. However, I owe to you some
explanations before we start on the dilettanteís esoteric, but
for the physicist or engineer, quite clear world of magnetism.
Magnetism is a natural phenomenon which is governed by the
known, or perhaps some as yet unknown, natural laws. First of
these is the basic and universal law of conservation of energy.
The energy conservation law is the pillar of the universe.
Energy cannot be created and cannot be destroyed. No person has
ever succeeded in doing it and no person ever will. The one
thing we can do is transform energy from one state to another.
This is what I did when I created my motors.
It is a well known scientific fact that the permanent magnets
are storehouses of energy, what we put in by magnetization. At
least we must be able to recover part of this energy if the
conservation law is to be upheld.
I must warn you to be very critical of learning devices which
are described elsewhere or even patented. The inventor can
mislead you, perhaps not willingly, but by his own credulity or
misunderstanding. This has been my experience. I have studied,
rebuilt and tested dozens of inventions which turned out to be
worthless. I want to spare you from any frustration or what is
worse, wasting money and time.
I would like to suggest that you not try to start with the most
advanced forms of my motors. Although they have been running at
my laboratory a long time, they are far from finished. They need
a lot of experience and knowledge of electro-mechanics in design
work and a well-equipped workshop for electronic impulse
techniques. A good example is my timer-device, which will be
difficult to build and correctly adjust without a good
You need not use the same building materials I did. Any
non-magnetic material will work, perhaps even wood. Balsa wood,
the building material of airplane model builders will serve very
well. You can use any type of magnets depending on your
financial limitations. This question will be dealt with in
detail in Chapter 2.
I am of the opinion that the best way to start is to build the
simplest form of my motors, i.e., the single-sided double action
linear motor. It is also the cheapest. After you become
thoroughly familiar with its working principles and rules, you
can go further. Who knows, you may get ideas and create
something new and quite different from my motors. The principle
is given by me, the remainder depends on your ingenuity.
If you need more information, please look up the bibliography
at the end of this book. I am convinced it will help you.
Finally please excuse my form of expression. My choice of words
was a difficult one. This booklet was intended for use by a wide
range of readers, by experts as well as by hobbyists. The expert
will be able to read beyond the lines. The hobbyist or
amateur-scientist on the other hand will be able to understand
it without difficulty.
What You Must Know Before You Start
In everyday language matter is either magnetic or non-magnetic.
Magnetism is a property possessed by certain materials. Actually
all materials react in some slight degree to a magnetic field.
Characteristic of magnetic behavior of materials is its
permeability and coercivity. The first is the measure, how much
better a given material is than air as a path for magnetic lines
of force. Its symbol in mathematical formulas is u (the Greek
letter of Mu). The second, the coercivity, is the measure of the
resistance of the material against demagnetizing forces. Higher
coercivity materials need higher demagnetizing force.
The magnets are divided into two different classes: permanent
magnets, which are magnetic materials so strongly magnetized
that they retain the magnetism indefinitely, and electromagnets,
which are temporary magnets consisting of a solenoid with an
iron core and a magnetic field exist only while current flows
through the solenoid. You will work with both of these magnets.
The areas of a magnet where the magnetism seems most
concentrated are called Poles. The north-seeking end of the bar
magnet is called the North pole of the magnet (N) and the other
end is called the South pole (S). Regarding the magnetic forces,
like poles repel, unlike poles attract each other. Either pole
attracts unmagnetized magnetic material.
A magnet is surrounded by a magnetic field. This is a region of
space where the effects of magnetism can be detected.
Characteristic of each magnet is the strength of field which it
generates, or field intensity, H. Another characteristic of the
magnetic flux (Greek letter Phi), and flux density B which is
the number of lines of force per unit area.
Mathemathically the above characteristics can be written,
(1) B = Phi / A
(2) Phi = B.A
where A is the area of the region. Please keep in mind these
Another important characteristic of a magnet is the magnetic
induction or flux which remains in a magnetic circuit after the
removal of an applied magnetization force. This is the so-called
remanence, its symbol is Bd.
The magnetization force or magneto-motive force (mmf) which is
analogous to the electro motive force of electric circuits (emf)
of magnets is given in Ampere-turns. The symbol of
magneto-motive force is M and abbreviation (mmf). You must
remember that each permanent magnet could be replaced by its
counterpart, an electromagnet with an adequate coil, that is to
say Ampere-turns, which produce the same flux phi as the
permanent magnet. Some times this is a very important
simplification of calculations.
In mentioning the analogy of magnetic and electric circuits,
each magnetic circuit has a resistance against the magnetic
flux, like the resistance of an electric conductor against
current flow. Here it is called reluctance. Its symbol is R and
is mathematically expressed:
(3) R = M / Phi
When a volume of magnetic material is magnetized, energy is
expended. When the magnetizing force is removed a portion of the
energy is returned to the source of energy. Part of the energy,
because of molecular friction in magnetized material is
converted to heat. This heat is a waste of power and is termed
hysteresis loss. For a magnetic material, the curve showing two
values of magnetizing flux density B, as a function of magnetic
force, or in other words, of magnetic strength H, one value when
the magnetizing force is increasing and the other when it is
decreasing, is called the hysteresis loop of the material. The
hysteresis curve in other words represents the magnetic history
of material. A typical hysteresis loop of a magnetic material is
on Figure 1.
The most important part of this B-H loop is the left hand upper
quadrant. The line O-B gives a picture of residual magnetism, or
retentivity. For permanent magnets the manufacturers normally
enclose this part of loop which can tell the consumer what he
can expect from a given magnet.
The two pole magnetism phenomenon shows that there must exist
some symmetry in field form and consequently a symmetrical
energy distribution in each magnet.
The energy that we put into one magnet by magnetization,
where V is the volume of the magnet, B is the flux density Mr
the permeability of material and Mo is the
permeability of air.
All permanent magnets or permanent magnet systems, relative to
the stored energy in the system, have a symmetry point or better
yet a symmetry wall, where the polarization of domains changes
by 180į. This must not necessarily be identical with the
symmetry axis or point of the system. This fact has a very
important consequence. Because the symmetrical energy
distribution of magnetic forces (attractive or repulsive)
depending on this symmetrical energy distribution to introduce a
magnetic material object to the field, will produce as much work
as will be required to remove that object from the field. There
can be no energy gain, no matter if one magnet, or a system of
multiple magnets mutually positioned in whatever manner is
involved. Therefore by calculations of movement of any
ferromagnetic material of arbitrary shape in a magnetic field,
the effect of the energy of the whole system must be considered.
This point is where most mistakes occur for many investors and
hobbyists who think that an unsymmetrical positioning of magnets
can produce perpetual motion. This mistake is sometimes made by
the Patent Offices also granting patents for equipment which
The force exerted by one magnet to another divided by a gap of
area Ag is:
For a given magnet or system of magnets (a magnetic track), we
can plot the curve of this force in a diagram. He force curves
give us a proper view of how this magnet can perform usable
work. Such curves are depicted for a bar magnet in Figure 2.
They are the so-called force-distance diagrams which give us a
perfect image if driving power along the considered magnet.
Figure 2 shows that the force distribution to the zero force
point is symmetrical along the whole magnet. The shaded areas
under the force curves are proportional to the energy
distribution along the magnet. If a magnetic object will enter
into this system field from one pole side with a kinetic energy
To, after passing the field, it will possess the same energy as
when entering. This is no energy gain. On the contrary, the
energy will be less if the frictional forces will be considered.
It will be very edifying to look at an example, where there is
no one single magnet, but a certain magnetic rack, composed of
multiple magnets positioned with progressively increasing gaps
in between them. See Figure 3:
Figure 3 ~
From Figure 3 it is apparent that the zero point in this case
is shifted to the left. It is no longer in the symmetry axis of
the system if geometrical symmetry is considered. The maximum
values of the magnetic forces are different. Nevertheless the
shaded areas, which represent the energy on both sides from the
zero force point are the same in magnitude. Consequently there
is again no net energy gain by any magnetic object passing
through the field.
The same is valid for a mechanism which may work by shading the
magnetic field. It could be done by ferromagnetic materials only
which must be introduced and again removed from a certain field.
How we can overcome the above difficulties we will discuss by
constructing my motors.
About The Materials
The magnets are divided into two main groups: permanent magnets
and electromagnets. Building my motors, you will work with both
sorts. The electromagnets will be discussed in Chapter 6.
The permanent magnets can be divided into three main groups:
metal, powder and ferrite groups.
In the first group fall the hard steel and cast alloy magnets.
They are sold under different commercial names: Alnico,
Permaloy, Cunife, Martensitic Steel, etc. The common
characteristic of these metal magnets is the very high cost. The
cast alloys must be ground to size while the hard steels are
readily machined. They have high field intensity and are able to
produce high flux. Their disadvantage is that they are very
sensitive to external demagnetizing forces. Under mechanical
influences like shaking oir hammering, they rapidly loose their
magnetization. They need a soft iron keeper across their poles,
or they will very soon dissipate the stored energy to the
surroundings. Improperly polarized external magnetic fields
could destroy them in a matter of seconds. Briefly, they are
suitable, clean, but expensive and need expert handling. I very
seldom use metal magnets for my experiments. My main use of them
was for field adjustments and removing loads from my permanent
magnet tracks. Of the second group, the most important are the
rate-earth magnets. If you need very high power and small size
you must use them. They are the smallest size giants among all
the magnets produced today. They offer performances that some
years ago engineers and technicians would never have dreamt.
They are almost immune to self demagnetization and have an
unusually high energy output. Hey are specified mainly for rotor
applications, especially where the rotor must run upwards on a
Of the rare-earth magnets the most common used and known are
the Cobalt-rare earth magnets, such as the Crucible Magnetics
Srucore-12 series. They are available in ring, disk, square or
arc forms. Their price high and for higher performances they are
indispensable. Unfortunately, experimentation in magnetics is a
The low energy plastic bonded iron powder magnets include first
the rubber flexible magnets. They can successfully replace the
Barium-ferrite ceramic magnets which will be discussed later.
They are cheap, easily workable and can be bent into any shape.
The energy stored in a volume unit is comparable with those of
Barium-ferrite magnets. They are suitably stable, not sensitive
to external fields and other demagnetization effects like rough
The only disadvantage of flexible rubber magnets is that they
are produced as flats of a maximum thickness of 0.250 inches,
magnetized through thickness. For higher energy requirements,
therefore, they must be put as layers for the necessary
thickness. My permanent magnet tracks need a magnetization
through the width. Nevertheless, lately I use this type of
magnets almost exclusively.
The work horses of permanent magnet tracks are the ferrite
magnets. The most commonly used are the Barium-ferrite ceramic
magnets. They are readily available, reliable and cheap. You can
buy them in almost any desired form. You will mostly need
rectangular and ring magnets with holes.
The Barium-ferrite ceramic magnets are very stable and are
almost immune to demagnetizing forces, also. They have good
power output and are easily mounted. Coupling up makes possible
construction of any desired track size. Their only disadvantage
is brittleness. They must be handled with care.
The Barium-ferrite ceramic magnets are produced as isotropic
which means that their magnetic properties are the same value
along their axes in all directions. They can also be
anisotropic, which means they have better magnetic
characteristics along one axis than any other. It is obvious
that for permanent magnet tracks the anisotropic magnets are
better because they have a certain flux concentration in one
direction inherently. Another interesting properly of
Barium-ferrite magnets is that they have an almost straight line
In designing and building permanent magnet motors, the
selection of proper type of magnet is important. You can save or
lose money for no reason at all. At the end of this book you
will find sources where you can buy any kind of magnet for your
(B) Other Construction Material:
For connecting, supporting and holding your magnets you will
need different magnetic and non-magnetic materials.
The magnetic materials are the so-called soft magnetic
materials which become magnetic only after contact with a
permanent magnet or magnet field. Ordinarily cold-drawn steel is
generally used because of its low cost and general availability.
You will use mainly flats and strips. Here the only requirement
you must comply with is that the material must be well cleaned.
The surfaces that will be in contact with magnets must be well
sanded. You must not forget: better contact, better performance.
Other than contact surfaces must be protected against corrosion
by covering with a suitable paint.
I suggest that prior to cutting or machining soft magnetic
materials that you will use for electro-magnets as core
material, that you heat it up to cherry-red and let it cool down
slowly. With this heat treatment, the steel will be softer and
better usable as core material.
For fastening, brass material and screws must be used
exclusively to avoid unnecessary flux leakages. A steel screw
flux leakages. A steel screw through a hole in ceramic magnets
is like a shorted electric circuit. You must absolutely avoid
Covering materials for tracks, plastics must be used. One 1/8
inch plexiglass sheet will do it. You can use material other
than Plexiglas but the friction relations will be changed.
Nonmagnetic metal sheets, like aluminum, brass, etc., are more
expensive and have the disadvantage of slightly weakening the
magnetic flux and are expensive. Plastic material is more
transparent for magnetic flux.
For rotor (roller) coverage you can use a plexiglass tube of 1
and 1/8 inch ID, although covering is not absolutely necessary.
The ceramic magnet rings have a hard and ideally smooth surface.
If properly adjusted they will run well without any cover also.
Brackets, feet, supports could be made from any non-magnetic
material. The best again are plexiglass or aluminum. Plexiglass
could be very easily glued together and aluminum can be bent
into any shape.
The beauty of my advanced types of permanent magnet motors is
that they can be built from any non-magnetic material. Except
for the shaft, electromagnet and ceramic magnets, the whole
motor could be built from wood. If Balsa will be used, your
motor will be bantam weight.
The Permanent Magnet Linear Motor
This motor is a single sided double action motor. The
propulsion is primarily from the interaction of the fields of
the moving magnet and the track. The theory of how it works will
be discussed in the next chapter. This chapter will give
instructions on how to build it. See Figure 4.
The permanent magnet track 1 of the motor is built from ceramic
Barium-ferrite permanent magnets such as Indiana General Index
1-F-1201. You will need 31 x 5 totaling 155 pieces. Each magnet
measures 1 x 3/4 x 3/16 inch thick.
The magnets will be set up in blocks of 5 pieces, N pole facing
S pole. It is impossible to set them up differently because the
magnet will automatically jump to the correct direction. Two
flat bars, 3/4 x 1/4 inch, from cold drawn steel will be cut to
3 inch lengths. After thoroughly sanding all surfaces, the
medians of the flat bars will be divided and marked by 1 inch
distances. The first mark starts from 1/2 inch from one end of
bars. The markings will be 3/16 inch clearance holes.
The five magnet blocks will now be sandwiched between the two
flats all oriented in the same manner, so that one of the flats
of soft iron will be a N magnetic pole. For fastening use 3/16 x
1 and 3/4 inch length brass bolts. Because like manner oriented
magnet blocks repel each other, the setting is difficult. The
best way is to start with the two end blocks and after fastening
with bolts to push one block after the other into the gap. Be
careful, if you reverse only one of the blocks, what can happen
very easily is, because the reversed polarity blocks attract
each other, your track will not work. After fastening all blocks
with bolts, the driving part of your track is ready. One flat
will now be the N pole and the other an S pole.
Three inches from both ends of flats holes will be drilled and
threaded for 5/16 inch bolts. They will carry the track on
brackets. The bolts will pass through 1 inch long spacers and
The track top will be covered by a 1/8 inch thick and 36-1/2 x
3 inch plexiglass sheet. One end of the sheet will be flush with
the end of the track. The other end extends beyond the track by
5-1/2 inches. Beneath the track a similar sheet 31 x 3 inch with
both ends flush with the track end will be fastened. For
fastening you can use small 4-40 x 1 inch brass screws. The
track carrying brackets will be cut from 1/8 inch thick aluminum
sheet. Sizes see Figure 4, labels 4 and 5. If you do not have a
piece of aluminum sheet at hand, a piece of plastic or wood will
do also. Of course, you must comply with the sizes as given in
Figure 4. The two brackets on front, labeled 4, must have a two
inch long split for the holding bolts, enabling the adjustments
of track towards the horizontal plane.
As base plate a 41 x 6 x 1/2 inch plywood can serve. The
brackets of the track could be fastened by wood screws to the
If you desire a better appearance of your work, you can paint
your base plate and brackets.
The rotor (roller) will be constructed from three pieces of
ceramic magnet rings, such as Indiana General Index 1-F-1403.
Each one is one inch in diameter and 1/4 inch thick at its
center point having a hole of 3/8 inch diameter pushed through
their central holes. The roller must be clean and well adjusted
to avoid wobbling on the track. It must run smooth and
noiselessly. Noisy running means poor alignment, the roller has
some eccentricity. Remember that any other similar circular
motion requires power, and this will be taken from the kinetic
energy of the rings. Therefore, there are losses which, if of
substantial magnitude, can disturb the proper functioning of
If you want to avoid this kind of trouble, you can press the
three tings, after previously adjusting on its shaft, into a
plastic tube of 1-1/8 inch ID and 1-1/4 inch OD. The ends of the
tube can be cut by both ends about 1/8 inch longer and covered
with a round piece of plexiglass sheet.
Although the above measures are not absolutely necessary, the
motor will work well using uncovered roller also. If you still
want to use a covered roller, it will be necessary to finish off
the far end of the track with a small plexiglass plate
positioned high enough so that it will not prevent the free
passage of the roller beyond the track, but it will prevent it
from falling off the track. The tube cover therefore represents
a gap between the track end and the roller magnets which in turn
weakens the attractive force between them. What can happen if
this is the case, you will learn in the next chapter.
If you are less pretentious, you can build a simple track using
flexible rubber magnets like 3M Plastiform Brand, or other
products. See Figure 5.
Two pieces of soft iron strips, labeled 2 in Figure 5,
measuring 1/2 x 3/4 x 26 inch length, will be cut to size. On
the one end of both flats will be a part of 1/4 inch width in
depth of 2-1/4 inch cut off. After assembling this will form a
fork, one inch width, for catching the roller.
In between the two flats will be sandwiched two strips of
permanent rubber magnets of two feet length. Thus each of the
rubber magnets measures 1/2 x 1/4 x 24 inches in length. The
magnets are magnetized through its thickness. Both together will
form a square cross-section bar of 1/2 by 1/2 inch size. One bar
surface will be polarized as N pole and the other as S pole.
After setting the magnets between the flats, the whole track
will be held together merely be magnetic forces; no fasteners
will be needed.
The top of the track could be covered by a 1/8 inch thick
plexiglass sheet, labeled 6 in Figure 5, of 2 x 29 inch in size.
One end of this glass cover will be set flush with the far end
of the track. The other end extends beyond the track about 3
inches. The bottom cover of size 24 x 2 inches, will be set
flush with the far end of the track. The other one will extend
about 1/4 inch beyond the rubber magnet over the fork part of
the track. For fastening the covers to the track, small screws
(brass) 4-40 one inch long, may be used.
The positioning of the track carrying bolts and bracket sizes,
you may find in Figure 5.
The roller is the same three ring magnet as was described for
the 31 inch track.
Despite its simplicity and low cost, this small motor will
perform well, of course with less power than the 31 inch ceramic
After finishing the assembly work, the surfaces of glass coves
must be cleaned thoroughly using a good plastic cleanser.
The finished motors must be set horizontal on a suitable
tabletop and they will be ready for running.
How It Works
It is a well-known fact that the purely magnetic forces cannot
be used to provide continuous motion. A permanent magnet can
perform work only:
(a) if mechanical work will be used for replacing the magnet to
repeat the cycle;
(b) If an external force field will interact to restore the
(c) If electromagnetic force will be used which will change the
permanent magnet field conditions.
The first condition is generally known. This is for example
what we do when we lift a piece of iron from the table by a
permanent magnet. Classical examples are the permanent magnet
The second condition is widely used in DC permanent magnet
motors or in AC reluctance or hysteresis motors.
The third condition is somewhat less known. The most common
example is a permanent-electro chuck.
The impossibility of creating continuous motion by using purely
magnetic forces was already discussed in Chapter 1. The cause is
the symmetry law. How can we overcome the symmetry law and
create uni- or bi-directional motion merely by using permanent
The aforesaid symmetry law and energy conservation law enables
us to use these phenomena under certain circumstances, for
generating unidirectional or bi-directional motion.
To understand the function of the Permanent Magnet Linear
Motor, we may discuss the force-distance characteristic curves
of the track. They are similar to Figure 2 and are depicted in
Figure 6 for our track.
The roller is placed at the launching point of track A and held
there. At this point the roller has a potential energy,
represented by pulling power P between track-roller separated by
a gap g of area A (square meter); Equation (5b).
From the force distance curves in Figure 6, it is apparent that
this force is symmetrical to the symmetry axis of the track.
After releasing, influenced by the trackís attractive power,
the roller will start rolling toward the track. Since both the
magnetic force on the roller and the rollerís weight constrain
the roller to remain on the plexiglass cover. The horizontal
propulsion on the roller comes from the interaction of its
magnetic field with the change in the magnetic field through
which it passes.
The work done moving the roller along the first half of the
(6) W1 = P1 s1
This work will be equal to the work done along the second half
of the track where the roller, because of the change of the
direction of magnetic forces, will be decelerated:
W1 = W2
(7) P1 s1 = P2 s2
The roller will be accelerated from starting point A toward the
end of track B, and it continues to accelerate propelled by the
track forces toward the midpoint C. As the roller approaches
this point, the propelling force diminishes and finally
vanishes. However, the roller does not stop at the point C,
where the field because of the momentum it possesses.
Overshooting the point C, the roller continues toward the far
end of the track and gradually decelerates. Its potential energy
at point A was changed by its acceleration to kinetic energy.
From point C it started changing back again to potential energy.
To point D it arrives possessing kinetic energy gained in
section A-C, less the energy losses by rolling friction on the
track surface Er, and by introduction Ei.
Suppose that the plexiglass covering of the track extended
beyond the point D. Then the roller because of its momentum will
overshoot the track end a t D, and continue to move toward point
E until its kinetic energy vanishes. It will come to stop when:
If the losses Er and Ei are significant,
then the roller will stop at a distance beyond the point D,
equal to distance A-B on the launching pad. After stopping, it
will start moving back towards the neutral point C and the cycle
will be repeated. The roller will oscillate to and fro over the
track until the energy will be exhausted by the losses.
If the rigid support at point D will be removed by cutting the
glass over flush with the track end, the roller, when reaching
this end will drop because of its own weight. It will lose
potential energy in the earthís gravitational field, Eh
= mgh, which will be transformed to kinetic energy Th.
Thus its kinetic energy beneath the track at point D' will be:
Now there are two possibilities:
(1) The momentum of the roller beneath the track at point D
will be larger than the pulling power of the track and it will
fall down from the track.
(2) The momentum of the roller will be smaller than the pulling
power of the track and the roller will be held only the
plexiglass sheet beneath the track. In section D'-C', it will be
accelerated back toward the launching end, arriving to the point
B' with kinetic energy:
If the energy, i.e., the momentum of the roller is sufficient,
it will run around the end B' and crash into the launching
section where the motion will cease. See Figure 7.
The frictional resistance beneath the track is less than that
on the top of the track. The frictional resistance Pc
of a rolling cylinder:
PcTop = k / r .G
depends besides the radius of cylinder r and the
friction coefficient k as well as on the weight of
cylinder G. Therefore:
where P is component of the magnetic forces, vertical
to the track surface.
The system as described is working as a single-sided,
double-action permanent magnet linear motor, with interrupted
cycle. The picture of the experimental model is Figure 8:
This type of permanent magnet linear motor was built by me in
different forms and lengths and with different types of magnets.
All are working perfectly, without any trouble. The correct
leveling and the correct setting of starting point A are
important to its operation. If the gap between point A-B is too
small, the roller cannot pick up sufficient energy and will be
returned from point D without dropping below the track. The same
thing will happen if the track is not leveled correctly.
You can perform many experiments with this simple motor. A very
interesting one is the following:
The track will be leveled. The roller after releasing from
launching point A will run around the track and crash into the
space beneath point B. Now to the track will be given a slight
elevation by adjusting the front brackets. The roller must now
overcome a small slope. It must always be started from the same
distance from point B. To ensure this condition, a piece of
small wood or plexiglass bar could be put across the launching
pad of the motor at point A and fastened by a piece of masking
tape. The roller could be started from this wooden bar, thus
always the same distance from B. To ensure this condition, a
piece of small wood or plexiglass bar could be put across the
launching pad of the rotor at point A and fastened by a piece of
masking tape. The roller could be started from this wooden bar,
thus always the same distance from B. The elevation will be
slightly raised each time. At one point the slope will be too
high and the roller will not be able to overcome it. It will be
returned from Point D without dropping below track. You will
allow the roller to run down until it will overshoot point B.
Before it will come to a stop, you will catch it and quickly put
it back to the starting mark and release it. The second time the
roller will overrun the slope without difficulty and on the
bottom surface will return to point B. You can repeat this
experiment many times and you will notice that if the roller is
launched after running back, it will possess more energy than at
the first time. I discovered this fact by experiment action.
The explanation of this seemingly peculiar phenomenon is
straightforward. The energy conservation law teaches us that
energy could not be lost. At the start, the roller possesses a
certain intrinsic magnetic energy. It is inherent with its
magnetization. By running over the magnetic track, which has a
larger field strength, i.e., higher energy content than the
roller, the roller will be further magnetized. It will pick up
energy from the track. In engineering language, its working
point on the magnetization curve will be steadily changed. A
good analogy is the magnetization of a steel bar by rubbing with
a permanent magnet.
After removing the roller from the field of the track, the
energy gained by induction will not be dissipated instantly.
There is a certain relaxation effect. A short time delay is
needed until the magnet will return to its quasi-steady
magnetization level. Consequently, in a short time the field of
the roller, i.e., the flux that it produces, will be stronger
than it was before passing the track field. Because the
attractive power (Equation 5) depends on the square of the flux
density, the second time a larger force will interact with the
track field, the acceleration of the roller will be greater.
With increased acceleration, the momentum of the roller will be
increased also. Thus, the roller will possess more kinetic
energy to overrun the slope.
I have no knowledge that this phenomenon was utilized elsewhere
before this time. Perhaps you will develop some new
applications. Think about it!
This single-sided, double-action permanent magnet motor has
perplexed not only ordinary people, but professors of physics
and engineers as well. At first glance, it resembles something
bordering on the impossible.
This principle and model can serve as a basis for manufacturing
dozens of different toys, where unidirectional or bi-directional
motion is required. It is simple to build, clean, safe and needs
no external power source. It is the first known successful
permanent magnet motor.
It is an excellent teaching aid for schools.
Further, it can serve as a carrier for short distances. The
distance could be extended by cascading stages as you will learn
in Chapter 8.
The Tilted Track Linear Motor
From the point of view of physics, the question now is: can we
increase the kinetic energy of the roller so much as to overcome
the attractive forces of the track and escape from its field? In
the previous chapter, we mentioned that if the kinetic energy of
the roller at point D' will be larger than the attractive force
of the track, it will drop down from the track. By applying a
propelling force, the kinetic energy of the roller is the
function of its mass and the square of its velocity. By using
modern magnetic materials such as Barium-ferrite or rare-earth
magnets, the magnetic forces could be substantially increased.
In this case, the mass of the roller could also be increased.
The result would be that by using the earthís gravity as an
external force, the roller will run down from the track and out
of the magnetic field.
By proper matching of the components, the rotor can gain
potential energy which can be used for removing it from the
track. To overcome higher elevations, progressively larger
accelerations are required in the initial launch to get the
roller to the far end of the track. Besides stronger track
field, it is necessary to shift the equilibrium point of the
track away from the midpoint, toward the far end of the track.
Thus, the roller will be accelerated for a longer time. The
shifting of the equilibrium point can be done by adding an
auxiliary track which is mounted over the far end of the main
track (double-sided motor), where deceleration of the roller
will take place without this track. See Figure 9.
The added auxiliary track, as is apparent from Figure 9, will
shift the equilibrium point by a distance Ds from C1 to C2,
toward the trackís far end. The consequence is that the roller
can accelerate for a longer time on the main track and its
momentum will be greater. Thus it can climb a slope and gain
larger potential energy in the earthís gravitational field, Eh.
After rounding the far end of the track at D, it will return to
the launching end, rolling along the trackís bottom surface. It
will gain speed during its descent and at point Bí will fall
from the track and run out from the track field.
This system equipped with an auxiliary track is equivalent to a
double-sided, double-action linear motor with an interrupted
You can build it in the same manner as the single-sided,
single-action motor. The dimensions of the tilted plane motor
can be seen in Figure 10.
For the main track, use two soft iron strips of 36 x 1 x 1/4
inch sizes. They will be divided for 46 magnets per 3/4 inch
distances. The first hole will be 3/8 inch from end of flats.
The magnets in five piece blocks will be sandwiched now with its
width parallel with the strips. For a total of 46 blocks per 5
pieces, you will need 230 magnets held in place by means of 3/16
x 2 inch brass screws.
The auxiliary track will be built sandwiching 18 blocks of the
same magnets between two soft iron strips 1 x 1/2 x 14 inch
lengths. You will need a total of 70 magnets. The polarity of
both tracks must be the same as was described by the
single-sided motor. When the auxiliary track is positioned over
the main track, they must repel each other.
For the base plate you can use a 3/4 inch thick plywood plate
48 x 10 inches in size. The brackets could be built from 3.8
inch thick plexiglass sheet or from plywood. The auxiliary track
must be adjustable at both ends, the main track by the far end.
You must be able to change the elevation. In positioning, care
must be taken to put the auxiliary trackís median exactly
parallel with the median of the main track.
As a roller, 3 pieces of cobalt rare-earth magnets of type
Crucore T-250 will be used. The rare-earth magnet rings will be
pushed through a plexiglass ring machined to size as it is given
in Figure 10. The rare earth magnets are very brittle. They must
be handled very carefully, otherwise they will break merely by
slight forcing through the plexiglass. The ends of the ring
could be closed by two plexiglass covers which will be glued in
This tilted plane motor can be operated the same way as the
single-sided motor. The auxiliary track must be adjusted by
trial and error method. You must set it as low as possible,
without locking the roller. Remember, the attractive force of
the track changes with the square of the distance. A parallel
setting with the main track may not necessarily be the best. It
must be adjusted until the best acceleration will be obtained.
My motor made to indicated size, is able to overcome a slope
one inch per foot. The performance depends on the roller
magnets, the smoothness of the surfaces, but mainly from correct
adjusting of mutual positions of the tracks.
There is a possibility to use Barium-ferrite rollers from the
single-sided motor. The performance will be, of course,
My motor was built and used for roller speed measurements. For
this purpose, it was fitted apart with magnetic switches at two
inches distance. The time data was transferred to a small
computer and evaluated. The track performance was calculated for
the acceleration and roller weight and track elevation. For
simplifying the measurements, the motor was completed with an
automatic roller return mechanism. This consisted of a
plexiglass catcher covered with two small pieces of plastic foam
to protect the plexiglass from the impact of the falling roller.
A motor attached to the catcher rotates it upward so that the
roller is deposited on the launch site again. The whole journey
up the tilted track and down along the underside is repeated.
This motion is perpetual as long as the motor redeposits the
roller on the launch site. The photo of the motor is seen in
Now we can pose a logical question: Can one build a device of
this sort in which the roller will continually roll around the
track without any assistance from an outside agent? Is it
possible that once the roller is launched it climbs the tilted
track, returns along the underside and then, because of its
descent, has sufficient energy to round the bottom side to
repeat the cycle?
Hard-core physicist will say a straight no! It was my
opinion also, but today I cannot give you a straight answer.
This is a toy of force vectors. The motor is a complex energy
system where not only the magnetic, but also the inertial and
gravitational forces are also involved in the operation. The
first and the last are working as a simple exchange mechanism.
But in the third, the inertia is form dependent also. This fact
and other possibilities regarding the new and rapidly growing
science and materials of the permanent magnet industry are
urging us to be cautious with our statements. I leave this
puzzle up to you. A few years ago my motors, prior to the
discovery of ferrite ceramic magnets, belonged to the realm of
impossibility. In the next chapter you will earn more about the
removing one load from a magnetic track. Here I must warn you,
be careful before you make any decision. You must always
differentiate between power and energy. The energy must come
How Can We Remove A Magnetic Load From A
Permanent Magnet Track?
If a magnetic motor of the linear sort is to be employed in
transporting material, the load probably would have to be
removed from the track at some point. There are several ways in
which this could be done:
(a) by using external mechanical force;
(b) by using an external magnetic field;
(c) by using the rotorís inertia and the earthís gravitational
(d) by using electromagnetic forces.
To remove a roller or a load from a permanent magnet field
using external mechanical force is straight forward. It needs no
Using a permanent magnet field to remove a load from a
permanent magnet track is possible only to transfer the load to
this, i.e., to the removing field. If we want to remove it
without being caught by this external magnetic field, it is
necessary to use an additional external force field of
non-magnetic origin. This could be the earthís gravitational
field. The principle is depicted in Figure 12. It works as
Figure 12 ~ Removing a rotor from a permanent magnet track
by using an auxiliary permanent magnet and the earthís
The kinetic energy of the rotor, passing the track end is:
T= 1/2 M.v2,
And the force of inertia
Fi = M.v,
Where v is the linear velocity and M mass of the rotor. Suppose
this to be Fi > Fm. The rotor will continue in its
linear motion decelerated by the force of the magnetic track Fm.
When Fi becomes zero, the velocity v of the rotor in
non-presence of other forces also becomes zero. Now under the
influence of the track forces Fm, the rotor wants to move back
toward the track 1. But the rotor 3 is under the influence of
the earthís gravitational force G also. If F > G the track
will pull back the rotor. This will fall beneath the track and
will be accelerated backwards, as was described in Chapter 4. If
we want to remove the rotor from the field of the track, it is
evident that Fi > Fm. This is possible
only if we raise the rotor velocity v. The velocity is
limited by the rotor and track masses, by the interacting
magnetic forces, by the friction and eventually by the elevation
of the track. Thus, the only possibility is, in these given
parameters, to decrease Fm. It would be realized by adding an
additional magnetic field Fm, which is polarized in such a way
that it will counteract the track forces and result in a
magnetic force Fr = Fm = F'm.
This could be provided by a properly positioned permanent magnet
2 of required flux density as is shown in Figure 12. The
positioning of the auxiliary magnet 2 will be dependent on the
desired path of the rotor after removal; See Figure 13.
This method is possible only if the rotor will lose potential
energy G.h will increase its kinetic energy. If the track-rotor
combination of masses and magnetizations will give the rotor a
higher speed, i.e., more kinetic energy, we can remove it from
the track field by merely using the earthís gravitational force.
The only criterion is that the magnetic field gradient on the
end of the track must be modified in such a way that it will be
lower than the normal non-modified field. The simplest physical
realization of this method is depicted in Figure 14.
The permanent magnet track will be extended by a soft-iron
wedge, which will form an inclined plane. The width of the wedge
must be as wide as the track or slightly wider. The length must
be calculated in such a way that for the path of the rotor the
value of G will be larger than that of the Fm. The magnetic
field lines, because of the lower reluctance of the iron, will
be more dense in iron than in the air. The flux will be shunted
on the track end. Because of the decreasing mass distribution of
the wedge, the field gradient of the magnetic forces induced in
the iron will be changed in relation of the angle. If the angle
is correctly calculated, the rotor driven down by the earthís
gravitational force on the inclined plane will gain kinetic
energy, i.e., speed up and roll out from the magnetic field of
the track. Here again the potential energy of the rotor G.h will
be changed to kinetic energy. The removal from the field will be
done at the expense of potential energy.
This is a very simple way to remove a rotor (load) from a
permanent magnet track, but it must be emphasized that it will
work only if it is allowed to overcome the magnetic forces.
An improved method invented by me for removing a rotor (load)
from a permanent magnet track is in Figure 15. By this method
part of the magnetic force field of the track is combined with
the earthís gravitational field and by way of a tilting plane
and lever action kicks away the rotor from the track field.
Figure 15 ~ Balanced Tilted planet Rotor Remover
Figure 16 ~ Mechanism of the Balanced Tilted Plane Removing
The mechanism is arranged as follows; see Figure 16.
The end of the permanent magnet track 6 is outfitted with a
tilting plane 1 from non-magnetic material (plastic, brass,
aluminum, etc.). This plane is firmly connected to shaft 3
supported by two brackets 7 in such a way that the holes 2 in
the brackets serve as bearings for the said shaft which can turn
freely in these bearings.
The shaft 3 is longer than the width of the track and is bent
90 degrees in such a way that it forms a U-shape. Both ends of
this shaft are outfitted by counterweights 4. The plane 1 is
positioned to the track end in such a way that the shaft 3 is
level or slightly lower than the upper surface of the track. The
mechanism works as follows, see Figure 17.
Figure 17 ~ Functioning of the Tilted Plane Rotor Remover
The inclined plane 1 in absence of rotor 5 is held by the two
counterweights 4 in a horizontal position. Acting on a rotor are
m.m.f. of the track, Fi the inertial force and G the earthís
gravity. The friction forces are neglected. Now the relation of
forces are G > Fi > Fm. The rotor
driven by the inertial force will enter the tilting plane 1 and
will move away from the track end. At the beginning the tilted
plane 1 is G < ( G' x C ). The rotor will move further away
from the track and come to a distance where ( G + Fm
) > ( G' x l ). Consequently by the lever action, the
tilting plane will start to tilt downwards. This movement will
be supported by the mmf of the track also which will pull the
rotor toward the track end.
The tilting angle and consequently the influence of G on the
rotor will increase. It will lose potential energy and gain
kinetic energy until the tilting plane and the rotor reach the
base supporting plane where the force situation will be changed.
The gravitational force G will be eliminated by the
counteraction of the supporting base plane. The magnetic force
Fm will be weaker than the action of the gravitational force on
the two counterweights 4 by lever arm 1 and the angle. Thus, Fm
< Gx 1 x cos angle. The counterweights
consequently will start to move downwards and by lever action
will overcome at the already weakened mmf of the track and the
friction forces. The tilting plane by its edge will kick away
the rotor from the force field of the magnetic track. The
mechanism will work like some height multiplier. The mmf will
help to get the rotor out from its range equal to a higher
potential energy lost in the earthís gravitational field, which
corresponds to its actual height loss h. It is necessary to
remark that the described mechanism is inherently a toy of force
vectors, and its parameters must be carefully computed,
otherwise it will not work. Shifting the counterweights 4 along
the shaft arm 3, i.e., changing the lever arm 1, gives us a
certain possibility of adjustments, but not necessarily enough
to correct malfunctioning. This experimental mechanism was built
and tested by me and found working smoothly. The conditions to
assure proper functioning of all the above mechanisms are:
(a) The roller must possess enough kinetic energy to overshoot
the track end by such a distance that the gravitational pull on
the roller will be higher than the attractive force of the
track. The movement on an inclined plane must be considered. The
plane angle to the horizontal will substantially influence the
forward component of the inertial force.
(b) The mass of the roller (or of any moving load) must be
adequate to fulfill conditions in (a).
(c) The potential energy lost by dropping the roller heights
must be larger than the kinetic energy that the roller would be
able to gain from the magnetic field moving backwards from its
momentum position toward the track end. This is a very important
rule. You will learn it by experience. It is the key to your
success. If a sufficient height loss can be allowed, the removal
of the load is no problem.
Another possibility of removing a rotor (load) from a permanent
magnet track is using electromagnetic forces. This is the most
sophisticated and convenient way. It gives us a means for
adjusting the kinetic energy of the rotor by and after removal
from the track as required. Although from the point of view of
energetics, it is not the most economical and efficient way, its
usefulness and advantages cannot be doubted. This method, which
I invented, tested and used is as follows, see Figure 18:
Figure 18 ~ Removing the Rotor from a Permanent Magnet Track
by Using Electromagnetic Forces
The permanent magnet track 1 described and built according to
Figure 1 is outfitted at its end by a magnetic switch 3 and a
properly dimensioned electromagnet 4 which could be positioned
as a part of the track, or could be placed a certain distance
away from the track end, according to the purpose and form of
the track. The magnetically operated switch (reed, magnetic
pickup, or a Hall-effect switch) 2 and the coil of the
electromagnet 4 are connected to a power supply and time 5. It
works as follows:
The decelerating field moving rotor 2 at the track end 1 at the
moment when it passes the magnetic switch 3, sends out an
electric impulse to the power supply-timer 5 and starts it. The
triggered timer sends out a current impulse from the power
supply, whose amplitude and duration is set exactly by the
timer. This current impulse excited the coil of the
electromagnet 4. The electromagnetic field of the excited coil
counteracts with the field of the track, of the current flow
direction is correctly set. This will cause a momentary
weakening of the track field. The rotor, driven by inertia, will
be able to pass the field. By properly setting the amplitude and
duration of the current impulse, we can adjust the mmf acting
upon the rotor and set its speed as required.
Adjusting the speed of the roller is sometimes necessary. In
motors where the roller is running on a circular track, without
speed adjustment, it can roll out o the track and away. The same
can happen with the oscillating motor also.
The coil sizes and building steps will be discussed for the
referred motors. The driving electronics, schemes and function
require a separate Chapter 10.
Conclusions of the rotor removal modes obviously indicate that
to introduce a roller onto a track is more easily accomplished
than to remove it from the track. About this subject, you cannot
find too many references in classic literature, including the
patent literature. I am virtually a pioneer in this discipline.
My suggestions are not necessarily the only ones, but they
proved to be valid and could serve as a starting point for you.
Maybe you will be able to find other and better methods for your
Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that for any practical use,
the permanent magnet motors, especially the linear motors, must
be individually calculated and specifically designed. The same
is true for method of removal. The purpose will dictate the
The Oscillating Permanent Magnet Motor
The self-oscillating induction linear motor is common in
industrial uses. Oscillatory motion is widely required by
textile, machine-tool and other industries. They are mostly the
back-to-back induction motors, or the older type mechanically
switched motors, using all of those purely electromagnetic
forces. An AC linear induction motor has self-starting
properties. My permanent magnet oscillating motor is inherently
not self-starting, but it could give more economical
My type of permanent magnet oscillating motor differs from any
currently known motors in that it makes use of the direct
The best analogy of the oscillating principle of these motors
is a piece of iron weight, sized between two coil springs. See
Figure 19 ~ Analogy of the Oscillating Motor
If the oscillation of the system depicted in Figure 19 is
started by pulling the iron weight 1 to any side and released,
the weigh will oscillate with progressive damping. A switched
electromagnet 4 will be positioned near the oscillating weight.
The electromagnet will be switched to a current source always at
the moment when the iron weight approaches the electromagnet.
The electromagnet will be energized with a short current impulse
and the induced field will pull the iron weight toward the
electromagnet. This pulling force will act only for a short time
and supply to the oscillating weight a small amount of energy,
just enough to replace the losses by material and air
resistance. The system will oscillate with sustained amplitude
forever, supposing the coil be supplied with electrical energy.,
this is the basic principle of most electrically excited
In my motor the spring is replaced by the magnetic field of a
permanent magnet track. See Figure 20.
Figure 20 ~ Principle of Permanent Magnet Oscillating Motor
A permanent magnet track 1, similar to those of previously
described linear motors, is covered by a plexiglass sheet 6. At
one end of the track is placed an electromagnet 2, which is
connected to an electronic timer and power supply 5. The time is
triggered by a magnetic switch 3, which is operated by the
magnetic field of the roller 4. Whenever the roller passes the
switch, the magnetic field at the site is altered momentarily.
After a short time delay the timer allows direct current to flow
through the electromagnet 2 just as the roller approaches the
end of the track. The field of the track and the friction of the
roller on the track surface both are slowing the rollerís
movement at this end. However, the field of the electromagnet,
due to the current impulse, pulls the roller toward the
electromagnet. The field of the track acts as the springs in the
Figure 19. Were this additional field generated temporarily by
the electromagnet not present, the roller would merely roll back
and forth with dampening amplitude, until it lost all the energy
in its motion and would stop. The purpose of the electromagnet
is to supply some additional energy on each cycle. The current
pulse height and duration is adjustable by the timer. The amount
of this current is adjusted so that the energy it supplies the
roller matches the loss of energy the roller experiences during
the cycle. The result: the roller cycles indefinitely.
You can build this permanent magnet oscillating motor as
follows: See Figure 21.
Two soft iron strips 1 x 1/4 cross section will be cut into 12
and 1/2 inch lengths. After sanding, the strips will be marked
for 16 holes of 1/16 inch clearance diameter. The first hole is
set 3/8 inch from one end of the strips. The holes of one of the
strips will be on one side counter-sunk, for heads of flat-head
brass screws, 3/16 x 2 inch length. Two pieces of wooden bars,
one of 1 x 1 inch and the other 2-1/2 x 1 inch cross-sections,
will be cut to 12-1/2 inch lengths. They will be fastened to a
23 x 7 x 3/4 inch plywood base plate, as marked in Figure 21.
For the 12-1/2 inch long track, you will use a total of 80 flat
ceramic magnets. The magnets will be set up as blocks of 5
pieces and sandwiched between the strips in the same way as was
described for the single-sided linear motor. One of the strips
will be polarized again as N pole and the other as S pole. The
strips with the magnets will be positioned upon the 2-1/1 inch
wooden bar and by the brass wood screws fixed it to the 1 x 1
inch bar as depicted in Figure 21, cross-section A-A'.
The electromagnet is of soft iron construction made from two
pieces of 2-1/2 x 2 x 1/2 inch thick soft iron flat bars. All
sides of the two plates must be sanded and one surface 2-1/2 x 2
inch which will be the top surface, must be polished. The core
between the two plates, a 1-1/4 x 3/4 x 1 inch length iron
block, must also be sanded and the two ends adjacent to the end
plates polished. The contact surfaces of the core on the side
plates must be polished also. Remember, any air gap, even the
smallest, represents higher resistance for the magnetic flux,
i.e., higher reluctance and obviously unnecessary losses. All
three pieces of the electromagnet will be screwed together with
a 3/8 x 20-3/4 inch long flat head machine screw. Two small
holes of 1/6 inch diameter will now be drilled to one of the
side plates for passing the magnet wires. The positioning of
these holes is seen in Figure 21. One must be right by the core
and the other one on the upper corner of the side plate. Before
starting to wind, the core must be covered by one layer of
electrical plastic tape. The side surfaces which will be in
contact with the coil wires, in view in contact with the coil
wires, in view of the low voltage used for excitation, must not
be covered. The electromagnet is an unusual construction, where
the iron material itself will serve as coil form. This has an
advantage that the direct contact of coil wires with the iron
walls of the magnet, the coil will be better cooled. Although
relatively small currents are used, the warming up of the magnet
will be moderate also.
The coil of the electromagnet consists of 2000 turns of #28
enameled magnet wires. After finishing the winding, the coil
could be covered with one or two layers of electrical plastic
tape. Leave enough long lead wires which could be soldered
directly to the banana jack terminal after positioning the
magnet to the track. The resistance of the finished coil will be
about 60 ohms.
The electromagnet must be positioned 1/2 inch from the track
end. It could be held in place by means of four small plexiglass
bars fastened to the base plate by small brass wood screws. They
will form a small cage into which will fit the electromagnet.
After covering the track surface and the electromagnet by a 1/8
inch thick plexiglass sheet, the whole construction will be held
firmly together. The ends of the cover glass will be curved
slightly upwards by means of two wooden blocks to prevent the
eventual runoff of the roller.
On the cover glass about 2-3/8 inch from the electromagnet end
of the of the track and about 1/2 inch of side, a magnetic reed
switch, such as Radio Shack 275-802 or equivalent, will be
positioned, by drilling two small holes for the lead wires of
the switch. The lead wires must be soldered to the switch and
after pushing through the small holes in the cover glass, the
switch will be held in place by twisting the lead wires right
below the switch.
A piece of 1/8 inch thick plexiglass with 4 banana jacks will
be a convenient supplement to the system. It could be fastened
to the base plate, and the lead wires from the coil and magnetic
switch to be soldered to the banana jacks. For the roller, the
same 3 ring barium-ferrite magnets will be used. The roller must
be prepared as it was described for the single sided linear
The Timer-Power supply is described and discussed in Chapter
10. The timers are the same for all my motors, therefore it
could be connected to the motor at the corresponding banana
jacks. Coil leads to the output posts for the coil, and switch
leads to the switch posts, by proper extension leads with banana
plugs. After plugging in to a 120 V AC wall receptacle, the
timer is ready for turning on. The motor could be set
horizontally and started.
You can start it by putting the roller on the glass cover at
the end opposite the electromagnet and releasing it. The track
will pull it instantly toward it zero force point. After
overshooting the zero point the roller will pass the magnetic
switch. A short flash on the timerís indicator light will show
that the system is working. The energized electromagnet will
pull the roller off from the tack and the cycling will be
The timer must be adjusted correctly. It was a built-in 10-turn
potentiometer, which controls the pulse length and current in
the coil of the electromagnet. If the current --- and
consequently the field of the electromagnet --- is too small,
then the rollerís motion soon damps out. If the field is too
large, the roller is pulled so vigorously by the electromagnet
that it shoots off the track.
This type of oscillating permanent magnet motor was constructed
and built by me for special purposes, such as for the measuring
of the rolling friction of the roller on the track surface.
Photo of the motor, see Figure 22.
Obviously the motor in the presented form is not too efficient.
The same system for technical applications could be constructed
as a pendulum with a small air gap. This will improve the
efficiency substantially. Remember, however, the system is not
I have not yet contemplated the technical applications of this
type of permanent magnet motor.
The Circular Track Motor, Cascading the
The permanent magnet track could be built in any shape. The
roller will always follow the track median and will be held
there by magnetic forces. The track could be provided in normal
mode when the roller runs on the top surface, or inverted mode
when the bottom surface is used as driver and guiding path. Or
it could also be a combination of both. On the bottom surface as
was discussed in Chapter 4, the friction is less than that on
the top surface. The roller is hung up by the magnetic forces.
Such an inverted motor will be more efficient than a normal mode
which is understandable in view of the reduced friction. If the
dimensioning of the magnets and roller is correct, we can keep
the friction forces to a minimum value on the inverted motor. As
a matter of fact, there the friction forces will be inversely
proportional to the weight of the roller, so far as the track
forces will be able to keep the roller hanging safely on the
track. This arrangement gives to the projectors of high speed
railroad some ideas worth thinking about.
Until the present, I have not built such an inverted track. I
have studied the performances and characteristics of my normal
circular motors only.
This circular motor is the most astonishing and amusing of all
my motors. The rollers accelerates by an invisible force, whips
around a curved track, is set free once again, and then with a
sudden jerk is recaptured by the invisible force. Its path is
only about 2/3 of the way over the magnetic track. About 1/3 is
running along a free surface where there are no magnets. This is
to the casual observer quite mesmerizing and mysterious.
Although it is no mystery, if we realize that the empty space,
though substantially distant from track ends, is filed with a
magnetic force field which in turn influences the rollerís
movement. To direct the rollerís path as desired is a matter of
arrangement of the magnetic force lines, or, if you like, the
forward component of the force field vector. Because the
magnetization and weight of the rollers are different, one short
part of the track is adjustable to balance these differences.
My first circular motor had a 12 foot long oval shaped track
with one 180 degree circular return bend. This track was too
long for transporting and handling. I have shortened it piece by
piece. My present small track has about one foot diameter and
about two feet length. This is a very handy size to transport
and demonstrate. If you want to study its function, this size is
Otherwise, there is no limit to the track length. By cascading
the stages, you can build any desired length and shape. You can
cascade about four permanent magnet sections each ending with an
electromagnet for releasing the roller to the next stage. We
will discuss the rules and possibilities of cascading further.
Before we discuss the function of a permanent magnet circular
motor, here are the parameters and the instructions to build it.
You must start with the building and assembling of the circular
section. See Figure 23.
From a 17 x 8-1/2 x 1 inch thick plywood cut out half a circle
with a 7 inch radius, labeled 4 in Figure 23. Two strips from a
#19 soft iron sheet, one 22 x 1 inch and the other 19 x 1 inch
will be divided on its medians for 22 holes. The divisions on
the 22 holes. The divisions on the 22 inch long strip will be
per 1 inch, whereas on the 19 inch long strip, about 7/8 inch.
The 22 inch long strip will be the outer side of the track and
serve as flux concentrator, while the 19 inch long strip will be
the inner side of the circular track.
You will need a total of 110 pieces of flat permanent magnets
for the circular section such as Indox 1-F-1201, 5 per block
sandwiched between the two strips. They will be polarized in
such a way that the outer strip will be the N pole and the inner
strip will be the S pole. Before sandwiching the magnet blocks
the strips must be bent to half-circle form. Because inserting
the magnetic blocks to these circular strips is difficult, the
best way is to start with the two end blocks and a middle block,
press the track into the plywood form and fasten it with 3/16 x
2 inch brass wood screws. Inserting the other blocks will be
quite easy. The upper side of the track must be exactly in level
with the upper face of the plywood support. This arrangement
represents the circular section of the motor.
After finishing and checking all magnets for correct polarity,
the circular section will be mounted upon a 25 x 18 x Ĺ inch
thick plywood base plate by using four legs 1 x 1 x 1 inch of
wood or plexiglass. See Figure 23.
The straight section (labeled 3) consists of 11 blocks if flat
magnets, per 5 pieces in each block, which are sandwiched
between two soft iron strips, 1 x ľ x 8-1/2 inch in length. The
divisions on strips will be per 7/8 inch for 3/16 inch diameter
holes. The section will be supported by a 1 x 1 inch square
wooden bar, 8-1/2 inch in length by means of 3/16 x 2 inch brass
wood screws. After finishing, it will be provided on both ends
with two legs 1 x 1 x 1 inch. One leg by the starting end will
be rigidly fixed to the supporting wooden bar, while the second
one will hold the section in line with the circular track,
serving also as holder for a 1/4 x 2-1/2 inch long brass bolt
which will act as a pivot, labeled 10, for turning the section
toward or from the middle point of the tracks. This straight
section will be mounted about Ĺ inch distant from the circular
section end. The positioning or adjusting of the straight
section is necessary for smooth running of the roller, otherwise
centrifugal force can turn over and stop it.
The electromagnet, labeled 6, is of the same construction as it
was described for the oscillating motor (see Figure 21). The
electromagnet will be positioned to the exit end of the circular
section, with a gap of about Ĺ inch. The upper side of the
electromagnet will be level with the surface of the circular
section. After fastening it in position similarly as was done
with the oscillating motor, the whole surface of the motor will
be covered by a 1/8 inch thick and 24 x 17 inch size plexiglass
sheet. At the opposite end from the permanent magnet track,
where there is no support for the cover, it will be propped up
by two legs of 1 x 1 x 2 inch and screwed down to the base plate
by brass wood screws.
The magnetic switch, such as Radio Shack 49-485, with contacts
closed when the magnet engages, will be positioned about 4
inches in from the end of he circular section, behind the
electromagnet and about 1/2 inch away from the flux concentrator
strip. He best positioning must be found by trial and error
setting of the timer, which supplies the current to the coil of
the electromagnet, from the field strengths of the track and
roller magnets, the speed of the roller passing the switch. For
my track the best setting was as is marked in Figure 23. The
setting must be done with care. By setting the switch too close
to the track, it will be excited from the track field and the
contacts will be closed. This inhibits the functioning of the
motor. The timer will be blocked in the absence of current
pulse, and the roller will not be removed from the track but
will be driven back by the magnetic field toward the neutral
The roller is the same 3-ring ceramic permanent magnets as for
the previous motors. The leads of the magnetic switch and the
soil of the electromagnet will be soldered to the small terminal
9 with banana jacks.
Before the motor is connected to the timer, the surface of the
cover glass must be well cleaned with some good plastic
The cleaned and completed motor will be put on a possible
horizontal table. The timer leads will be connected to the
terminal, and the timer power supply plugged into a 120 V AC
To start the motor, the roller must be put about 3 inches from
the starting end of the linear section, upon the glass cover and
released. If the roller after the releasing will suddenly turn
on its vertical axis, the polarization is wrong. The start must
be repeated by putting the roller with the correct polarity upon
the glass cover. The released roller will be pulled instantly
toward the linear section of the track. It will accelerate onto
the track and toward the equilibrium point, and it will continue
past the last blacks of magnets in the section. Once it passes
the last block, it jumps over the narrow gap between the linear
and curved section. There it will be again accelerated and
pulled onto the circular track. Again it accelerates toward the
equilibrium point of the section, overshoots it, and emerges
from the other end of the section. Before it has a chance to be
pulled back onto the circular section, it rolls over the
electromagnet, triggered by the magnetic switch on the track.
The pulse of DC creates a temporary magnetic field that pulls
the roller toward the electromagnet, eliminating for a short
time the trackís backward forces. The electromagnet works in a
figurative sense, like a gate, which opens for releasing the
roller from the track field. The pull of the electromagnet also
supplies fresh energy t the roller, adjusting its speed to the
The roller overshoots the electromagnet, whose field vanishes
as the pulse supplied it turns off. The roller continues to roll
out over the plane of plexiglass cover. The magnetic field of
the linear section guides it towards the initial starting point.
As it moves closer to the initial linear track, it is
accelerated onto the track again. The whole cycle is repeated.
For correct operation of the motor, the timer must be
appropriately set and connected to the motor. If the field
direction of the electromagnet will be opposite as is required,
it will not support the rollerís forward movement, but on the
contrary, will retard it. The roller will be shot back onto the
circular track. In this case, the leads of magnets must be
If the timer is not correctly set and the energizing impulse is
too long, the roller will gain excess kinetic energy from the
field of the electromagnet and its velocity will be too high.
The higher centrifugal force in this case will overcome the
trackís magnetic forces and the roller will run off the track.
If the impulse is too short, the roller will not be released
from the track and will run backwards from the magnetic end. The
correct adjustments need time and patience. It could be adjusted
at the built in ten-turn potentiometer of the timer. The
adjusting of the pulse length must be made until the roller runs
smoothly from the electromagnetic field and turns toward the
starting point. If you have access to a good storage
oscilloscope, this can help you very substantially. On the scope
display screen you can see and measure the exact length and form
of the gating impulse. After correct setting, mark the
potentiometer for the future. If the timer was once well
adjusted, the difference in case of changing the motor position
or roller is only very slight.
It will probably be necessary to adjust the straight section of
the track also. This is so if the roller will jerk around its
vertical axis before entering the accelerating field or will
turn over and stay caught on the end of linear section. If this
is the fall, the linear section must be pushed either toward the
middle of the track or away from it, until the roller will enter
the field smoothly.
There is a further possibility however, the influence of the
horizontal setting of the cover glass. If all of your efforts
will not succeed and the roller will still run off the cover
glass, the corner of the motor, which is opposite to the linear
section, must be slightly elevated. The roller will be forced to
run up a small slope and its speed will be reduced. Sometimes it
helps to slightly prop up the foot of the linear section. They
are all only emergency measures; if the timer is properly set,
all of these steps will not be necessary.
Eventually, you must learn how to operate this motor without
trouble as I did it. If you will, I am sure you will be an
expert very soon.
This small motor can drive tow or more rollers also. However,
more rollers need a longer track which is obvious. It is really
an astonishing spectacle how the roller chase each other.
Inevitable in weight and magnetization the rollers differ. As a
consequence, one roller will run faster than the other one, and
in a short time, will catch the slower one. Here is an open
field for your experimentation. This small size portable track
will give you many possibilities to study its working
principles. The photo of this small circular track motor is in
Figure 24 ~ The Circular Track Motor
If you want to build a longer track there is no technical limit.
The limitations are only your access to proper space and the
financial costs. You can build a track of any length, any shape
and any desired power.
The length of the track could be extended by cascading stages.
One stage can consist as much as four permanent magnet sections,
followed by an electromagnet for gating the roller. The
cascading of permanent magnet sections need some explanations.
See Figure 25.
You can put two, three or even four sections of permanent
magnet tracks together in series. The length of the individual
section is determined by the strength of the field produced by
the section, i.e., sizes and numbers of magnets in blacks.
Another factor is the size and weight of the roller (or if you
use different load, the mass of this load). For starting your
experiments, you can use linear sections of tracks, as was
described for single sided linear motors, and for circular
sections as was described above. Each of the stages must be
followed by an electromagnet. You can use the same type as was
described for the oscillating motor. The magnets could be driven
by one timer, which is completed by a sequencer. Each magnet can
also be driven by its own timer which is obviously a more
expensive solution. The positioning of the magnetic switches is
the same as was already described above.
If you want to build a longer track there is no technical
limit. The limitations are only your access to proper space and
the financial costs. You can build a track of any length, and
shape and any desired power.
The length of the track could be extended by cascading stages.
One stage can consist of as much as four permanent magnet
sections, followed by an electromagnet for gating the roller.
The cascading of permanent magnet sections needs some
explanation. See Figure 25.
You can put two, three or even four sections of permanent
magnet tracks together in series. The length of the individual
section is determined by the strength of the field produced by
the section, i.e., sizes and numbers of magnets in blocks.
You can put two, three, or even four sections of permanent
magnet tracks together in series. The length of the individual
section is determined by the strength of the field produced by
the section, i.e., sizes and number of magnets in blocks.
Another factor is the size and weight of the roller (or if you
use different load, the mass of this load). For starting your
experiments, you can use linear sections of track, as was
described for single sided linear motors, and for circular
sections as was described above. Each of the stages must be
followed by an electromagnet. You can use the same type as was
described for the oscillating motor. The magnets could be driven
by one timer, which is completed by a sequencer. Each magnet
could be driven by one timer, which is completed by a sequencer.
Each magnet can also be driven by its own timer which is
obviously a more expensive solution. The positioning of the
magnetic switches is the same as was already described above.
The cascading of stages has two main rules:
(1) The gaps between the individual stages must be
progressively narrower, see Figure 25. The first gap which is
the widest must be followed by a narrower gap. Thus A > B
> C > D.
(2) The field intensity of each section must be more or less
the same or progressively higher as that of the previous
The rules can be explained as follows; see Figure 26:
In gap g between two permanent magnet track sections I and II
by examining the force-distance curves, it will be apparent that
they form a well A-O-B, with a deep point O. Point O is a
neutral force point. The roller arriving at point A must possess
sufficient kinetic energy to overrun the force barrier
represented by curve A-O. In this gap section it will lose
energy. In the section from neutral point to the track II, Point
AB it will gain energy again and be accelerated. While running
the tracks, the roller suffers energy losses by friction and
induction. If the field strength of each section is equal, the
roller arrives at each gap possessing less kinetic energy as it
had at the previous gap. Consequently it will only be able to
override a smaller force barrier as the previous one. By equal
field strength of both track sections, this force barrier
represented with curve A-O, depends on the gap width, g.
Narrower gap means higher neutral point O and shorter slope A-O.
After passing the neutral point O the pulling force of the next
section, represented by curve O-B, will accelerate the roller
toward the neutral point of the next section.
By combination of field intensities and gap width, the roller
can be driven over several sections for longer distances. By
using one long single section, the driving distance will be much
shorter. This is a very important fact. My first track similar
to the one stage track in Figure 25 was 12 feet long. Sometimes
it is necessary to shift the neutral point slightly to some
direction, usually to the forward direction. In addition to the
method already discussed, when using double sided motor, there
is another possibility, shunting a certain section of the track
with a piece of soft iron bar or plate. How shunting influences
the positioning of the neutral point is shown in Figure 27.
As a rule, shifting the neutral point by shunting a part of
track by a soft iron bar, the following is true: The neutral
point of the system will always be shifted toward the opposite
direction from the shunted half.
This is a point where most inventors make mistakes. They think
if a part of the magnetic track is shunted, the rotor or roller
will run toward this shunted part; however, the opposite is
true. This fact is a straight consequence of the symmetry law?
Here must be mentioned yet the possibilities for diminution of
rolling friction. The case of an inverted track was already
discussed. If we cannot use an inverted track, the question is,
does some other way exist to reduce the rolling friction of a
roller running one the upper surface of a permanent magnet
In Chapter 4 it was mentioned that the rolling friction
depends, besides the surface conditions, on the weight of the
roller and the magnitude of the vertical component of magnetic
forces. The weight of the roller cannot be changed. The
magnitude of the vertical component of the magnetic forces which
held the roller on track, could be altered by changing the
distance of the roller from the track surface. The force changes
by the square of distance. The answer is downward curved track,
covered by a rigid supporting plate, in our case with a sheet of
plexiglass. See Figure 28.
By using a curved track, the vertical component of the track
force at end A diminishes. Its numerical value will be lowest if
a symmetrical curvature is considered over the neutral point C.
After passing the neutral point this component again increases
and will have the original value at exit point B. This method
was used by some inventors experimenting with permanent magnet
tracks, without any explanations or misleading ones, if any.
You now have an overall view of how you can build a circular
track motor and at the same some ideas of further possibilities.
The modifications and uses have no limit. You can drive a train
around a curved track using the principle and rails; or you can
use it for driving toy automobiles over a flat table, controlled
and driven by invisible forces. You can build a cheap track of
any shape by using flexible rubber or plastic magnets. Whatever
your decision, there is an open gate for the exploitation of
your ingenuity. Could this principle be a part of the
transportation of the future? Why not? The principle and theory,
supported by successful experiments and models, are given.
Before finishing this chapter, I would like to tell you
something about the efficiency of this type of motor.
Direct measuring the efficiency is very difficult. The motor
does not perform any other work in a physical sense as in its
overcoming of the frictional forces and the losses by induction.
They are very substantial if we take into account the small
diameter of the roller and the ration of the rolling surface to
the weight of the roller. Regarding the strong magnetic field of
the track, the vertical component of these forces will be strong
also This force must be added to the earthís gravitational force
because both together will give us the weight, which must be
considered for friction. The magnetic forces are usually larger
than the gravitational pull. Consequently, they will increase
the resistance of friction substantially. These parameters give
us a dim picture regarding the efficiency.
But we must look at the other parameters. The only external
power that we must use is the gating impulse at the end of the
stages for removing the roller from the track field. This
impulse is always the same magnitude, i.e., the same power,
regardless how long the stage is. This fact emphasizes the
importance of a possible long stage.
The removing impulse of the described small circular track
motor is by 30 V, 0.5 A current and 0.2 second of duration. This
gives us a power consumption of about 3 watts. The pulse form is
a square wave. That is all the energy that need be supplied the
roller to escape from the magnetic field, regardless if the
track is two feet or 20 feet long.
It is really astonishing, is it not? No other type of linear
motor has similar characteristics. Herein lies hidden the
efficiency of my motor.
The Wheel as a Rotor
Studying the circular motor the question is straight forward:
Could a wheel be used as a rotor? The circular track could after
all be positioned around it as a stator. Will this motor work?
What would be the characteristics of such an arrangement?
I am sure that after reading the previous chapters, you
realized that a motor employing purely permanent magnets belongs
to the dream world of would-be inventors. No working model has
until now been heard of. There must always be an external energy
source which supplies energy to the motor.
My work was inspired by the work of Japanese engineers of the
firm of Kure-Teko. They were already working for some time on a
new type of electric motor, a DC motor, with a permanent magnet
aided working cycle. They nicknamed the motor as Magnetic Wankel
because the motorís working principles resemble those of a
Wankel type rotary engine. This motor design was already
discussed in popular magazines. You can find it, for example, in
the June issue of the 1970 Popular Science Magazine.
The motor has a permanent magnet stator (track) with a 60į gap
and a permanent magnet motor. The magnets are working in a
repulsion configuration. The stator is not a circle but a
section of a spiral, its radius gradually expanding in the
direction of the rotation. Thus the rotorís eccentric inner
curve encloses a wedge shaped space between it and the spinning
rotor. The rotor will move toward gradually weakening force
field. Now we know the magnetic forced is changing with the
square of the distance. Nevertheless, not even the Japanese
engineers were able to overcome the well known symmetry law. The
change in spacing of the stator magnets around the rotor,
although it aids the rotor in its movement, results in no net
energy gain from the statorís permanent magnets. You already
know why! Thus, it was necessary to use some external energy
source to enable the rotorís continuous motion. The Japanese
engineers put an electromagnet into the 60į gap which is
switched at the instant when the rotor is in position where it
needs a kick to overcome the statorís repulsion force and to
enter the repulsing field. Scientific explanation of the working
principle of this Japanese motor was not yet published. Because
the working principle of the Japanese motor was directly tied to
my research of permanent magnet aided motion, I have decided to
investigate it thoroughly from the standpoint of electrodynamics
The questions were:
(1) What is the basis of the Japanese engineersí claim of high
efficiency of the system?
(2) What is the demagnetization rate of the ceramic magnets
used working in repulsion mode and in the high centrifugal field
of the rotor?
The advantage of pigmy weight of the motor against a comparable
conventional made electromotor of the same performance further
reducing the expensive copper material costs, was clearly
evident to me.
I was convinced that this type of motor is not just an
engineerís plaything. My opinion was supported by my earlier
experiments with linear motors.
I had built three experimental models:
(a) The first was a true copy of my circular track motor with a
balanced single magnet rotor working in attraction mode,
arranged on a plastic wheel as rotor.
(b) The second was a two-magnet rotor arranged on a wheel
working in repulsion mode, or in attraction.
(c) The third model was a wheel as rotor equipped with five
permanent magnets on its circumference with a moderately
eccentric stator. The magnets are working in repulsion mode.
In the models a and b, the driving electronics and the
electromagnets used are the same as was described by the
circular and oscillating motor.
Model c is equipped with a more sophisticated driver system
which is still under investigation. It is far from finished. My
goal was pushing down the losses to the minimum. This project is
still in progress. This motor is not ready yet for amateur
building. Nevertheless, I will give to you a review of what the
result is up to now, even though the research is not finished.
If you want to be engaged in experimentation with this type of
motor, you can use my experiences and this can save you some
frustration and money.
My first model needs no detailed description. It is merely a
version of my circular track motor. The difference is that the
rotor is not running on the track surface, but is fastened on
the circumference of a horizontally mounted plastic wheel which
can turn around a vertical shaft. The wheel is balanced by a
nonmagnetic counterweight (a piece of plastic block). You can
reproduce it very easily.
I want to present to you a detailed description of my second
model. This is also very easy to build. It is a universal model
which can serve for many experiments. The positioning and
polarization of the magnets is readily changeable.
You can build it as follows (See Figure 29):
A 1/2 inch thick plexiglass sheet will be cut to 17 x 17
inches, label 2. Two corners will be cut of, as given in Figure
29, and provided with two brackets of 1 x 1 inch plexiglass bar,
label 5. Exactly in the middle of sheet and 8-5/8 inch from the
bottom of the sheet will be put a marking with a center punch.
This marking will be the center of a 7-1/2 inch radius circle.
The circle will be divided, starting from the upper middle
point, by one inch intervals, both to the right and left hand
sides from this middle point. The markings will be drilled for
3/16 inch holes for fastening the stator magnets. A total of 44
holes concentric to the middle of the 7-1/2 inch radius circle,
will be drilled.
After completing the drilling a 4 inch diameter hole will be
cut in the plate, right in the middle of the circle. The motor
shaft will pass through this hole. A 3/4 inch thick 20 x 12 inch
plywood sheet will serve as a base plate for the motor, label 4.
The rotor wheel is a 3/8 inch thick plexiglass. It will be cut
at first by a jig or band saw to rough size and machined to an
exact diameter of 13 inches. After machining, a circle of 6-1/8
inch radius will be drawn from the center and divided into one
inch intervals, marked and drilled for 3/16 inch holes. This
will total 38 holes for fastening the rotor magnets. The center
of the wheel will be drilled for a 3/8 inch diameter aluminum
rod 6-1/2 inch in length. The ends of the shaft will be turned
down to cones and the cones polished. High polish is important
to achieve minimum friction. The shaft will turn in its Teflon
bearings on its conic ends. That is a common method for
diminishing friction. The shaft is held in the wheel center by
two plexiglass bushings machined from a piece of 2 inch diameter
plexiglass rod. The bushings have 3/8 inch diameter center holes
for the shaft and a 6-32 threaded radial hole for a set screw.
The bushings will be glued to the wheel from both sides. The
teflon bearings will be held by two brackets, label 3, from 3/4
inch thick plexiglass. The bottom ends of brackets are mounted
on two 1 x 1 in cross-section plexiglass bars which are glued to
the brackets and have two holes for woodscrews for fastening to
the base plate. The upper ends of the brackets have a 1/2 inch
diameter hole, its center 8-5/8 inch up from the bottom, for
carrying the Teflon bearing bolts. The Teflon bearing bolts are
machined from a 3/4 inch diameter Teflon rod. The rods are
turned down to 1/2 inch diameter in 2 inch lengths and provided
by 1/2 x 13 American standard coarse thread. The ends of the
Teflon bolts will be machined flat and drilled with a
countersink to about 1/4 inch in depth, for receiving the conic
shaft ends. The Teflon bolts are held and adjusted in brackets
by two 1/2 x 13 size brass nuts. See Detail A in Figure 29.
The driving electromagnet is the same as in Figure 21. It will
be fastened exactly at the middle line of the wheel by means of
small plexiglass bars. The cage of bars must hold the
electromagnet firmly, otherwise it will clink as the motor runs.
The whole assembly will be arranged on the base plate as is
indicated in Figure 29 and completed with a small terminal
strip, label 10, containing four banana jacks. The leads for the
magnetic switch must be cut long enough to make possible proper
positioning of the magnetic switch. The marked positioning of
this switch is only informational, the correct location must be
found experimentally. I will come back to this problem in
discussing the operation of the motor.
The setting of the rotor magnets: The rotor will employ two
blocks of ceramic magnets, 3 pieces per block. In mounting the
blocks to the wheel, it is no matter which pole faces toward the
wheel. It could be either the N pole or the S pole. The magnet
blocks will be fastened to the wheel by using 3/16 x 1-1/2 inch
brass bolts. The only rule for setting of rotor magnets that you
must follow is that both of the blocks must be polarized in the
same directions. If the one is N pole faced toward the wheel,
the second must be faced exactly the same way.
At first you may set only one block and on the opposite side of
the wheel put a piece of plastic material of the same weight as
the magnet block, as a counterbalance.
And now you must choose between two possibilities: attractive
or repulsive working mode? If you decision is to use attractive
work mode, the stator magnets must be set in such a way that
they will attract the rotor magnets. The stator magnets will be
fastened to support with 3/16 inch brass screws also, label 2.
Setting the 3 piece magnet blocks you can start from the right
hand magnet side. Set up 5 or 6 blocks and lay down the motor
with its wheel in horizontal position. Turn the wheel with its
magnet toward the stator magnets and observe if there is
attraction present. If you cannot achieve attraction, reface the
stator magnets. Set all of the blocks the same way. You must
again take care not to reverse the polarization of any block
because as by the linear motor, only one wrongly polarized block
can disturb the course of the symmetry curve and ruin your work.
If you have approximately a quadrant ready with the motor still
in horizontal position, turn the rotor magnet about 3 inches
away from the stator end and release it. The rotor will be
instantly pulled toward the stator and accelerated. Passing the
neutral point of the already set stator, it will overshoot the
opposite end of the stator and the electromagnet by a certain
distance. Mark it and continue with the setting of additional
blocks. After setting two or three new blocks, repeat the
experiment. Observe that by releasing the rotor magnet always
from the same 3 inches distance, when the distance of
overshooting will be the greatest? This way you can find the
optimal length of your stator.
After finding this optimal length, you can set the second block
of rotor magnets after removing the counterbalance and restore
the motor and its wheel to vertical position.
Connect the banana jacks to the corresponding binding posts of
a timer-power supply the same way as it was described by the
circular motor. Plug in the timer to a 120 V AC wall receptacle.
Put the magnetic switch at your left hand behind the stator
plate, label 2, and hold it there in position. With your right
hand now turn the wheel clockwise and watch the signal light of
the timer. When you observe a flash at the moment when the rotor
magnet approaches the switch, the system is working. In the same
time you must electromagnet. If you experience not a pulling,
but a pushing impulse, the leads of the electromagnet must be
reversed. The magnetic switch must be positioned far out from
the field of the electromagnet because if it is too close, the
field of he electromagnet could influence the switch and by
magnetic feedback, will close and stay closed. In fact, the
magnetic switch needs a powerful impulse merely for closing.
After it is closed, a relatively weak field can hold it in this
position. If this happens, the switch must be replaced. The
proper location sometimes requires time and patience. The switch
can be fastened by a piece of electric plastic tape into proper
position. Now rotate the wheel clockwise with a powerful push.
If the wheel started after releasing speeding up with steady
flashing of the timerís signal light, the system is working
properly. You can now set the speed of rotation by the 10-turn
potentiometer until the motor turns with its highest speed.
You must try to relocate the switch and change the timerís
setting until yu find optimal working conditions.
If you perceive friction while turning the wheel, you must
adjust the bearing bolts and check to see if some of the magnets
are not loose and rubbing the rotor of the stator. Although the
experts say that Teflon needs no lubricant, I can recommend the
use of a good silicon oil. Please use a few drops. It will
substantially reduce the friction of the shaft in Teflon
bearings. If silicon oil is not available, some drops of
Mobil-One will do. The lowest possible friction is essential for
the correct operation of the motor.
You can modify the positioning of the stator or rotor magnets
at will. You can shift the ends, change the length, change the
number of magnets in the blocks, etc. See which mode of
operation is better: attraction or repulsion? If you change the
mode of operation, do not forget changing the current flow
direction in the electromagnet. When the track is set for
attraction, the electromagnet must be set for attraction also.
If you choose repulsion mode, the electromagnet must be set for
Two important things to remember: these systems are inherently
not self-starting systems, and the inertial momentum of the
wheel plays a substantial part in the working principle. The
comparable Japanese motor must be started by using a regular
starter motor. Obviously the motor has better efficiency with a
higher RPM. In the described motor you will probably be limited
by the mechanical properties of the magnetic switch. The upper
limit is normally in the thousands of RPM. At average, that is
about 1000 RPM, the mini-switch will work perfectly. For higher
RPM or for multiple pole rotor solid state switch, the so-called
Hall Effect switch must be used.
This motor is of a foolproof construction. It has a negative
torque-current characteristic. It can run with constant RPM only
of the load and the torque of the motor are in equilibrium.
Under a higher load the motor will slowly wind down and stall.
If it is not running it takes no current. Thus by overloading it
cannot overheat and burn. Of course, it must be mechanically
What is the performance of this motor? If everything is
correctly made and set, the motor will take at no load condition
about 18-22 watts. If it will be driven by higher energy input,
it must be loaded by some braking equipment, such as the
Pony-brake, which can also be used at the same time for
measuring the output power. Do not expect high efficiency. The
air resistance, the so-called ventilation losses, and the losses
by induction will decrease the efficiency.
Probably you will propound the question, will the motor work
without the stator magnets? Of course it will, but with changed
performance. For the first instant it will change to the better.
Therefore, what is the importance of this stator if instead of
improving of this stator if instead of improving it worsens the
performance. Here we come to the root of the matter. At a low
RPM the stator will work as a brake. But if its length and
neutral point setting is correct and the neutral and magnetic
mass of the rotor is properly chosen at a higher RPM it will
support the rotation as dies the Japanese motor. The question
is, from where comes this energy? It is taken from the spin
energy of the unpaired electrons in magnets. To explain this
energy exchange mechanism is not a simple matter. This belongs
to the relativistic and quantum physics and certainly goes
beyond the concepts and purposes of this booklet. If you are
interested, you can find some explanations by studying Diracís
concept of exchange energy and the inter-atomic alignment of
spins. The topic will be subject of further investigation.
For easier understanding, the stator can push r pull the rotor
in a section as much as 300į . For removing, if the working mode
is attractive, or for kicking to the field, if the working mode
is repulsive, only a short impulse is necessary. Remember what
was said by cascading the permanent magnet track stages. The
main losses of conventional electric motors are heat losses,
which are composed of coil losses by Jouleís heat, I^2R, and by
hysteresis losses in ferromagnetic materials. In pulsed systems
these losses have a minimal value. The electromagnets come in
small sizes, what is obvious is that a coil of the same field
strength could be dimensioned far smaller with a pulsed current
than for a steady current. If an electromagnet coil is rated for
steady current of one ampere, it can carry a pulse current of
100 A, provided the mark to space ratio is 1:104. The
I2R loss in the coil will be the same in both cases,
but during the pulse the magnetic field will be 1000 times as
great. This is a significant advantage of pulsed systems. The
magnetization of the rotor magnet is changing steadily during
the work cycle. It is working under recoil conditions. It will
possess a higher magnetization rate upon entering the field of
the electromagnet that by entering the stator field. Remember
the experiment described with single-sided double action linear
motor. Here there is no demagnetization effect as by
conventional permanent magnet motors. On the contrary, here
there is a magnetization effect, which renews the original field
strength of the rotor magnets. The magnetic induction depends
besides other factors, also from the mutual speed of magnetized
and magnetizing objects. This is also a factor of the working
principle. Make no mistake, all of these factors can only
improve the efficiency of the motor, which can approach a ratio
of one, but can never surpass it. Higher efficiency than one
means that you can get more energy out than you put in, which is
impossible because of the energy conservation law. Such a
machine would be a perpetual mobile which is nonsense.
It is something else if we can use energy that is free, but it
must come from somewhere.
My latest model is a motor where the losses are kept at a very
low level. Of course, for not so low what is possible by
contemporary technics. Nevertheless, at a very low friction
suspension with a small but very efficiently pulsed
electromagnet where the ferromagnetic material is only 1-1/2 cm3
in volume and with a sophisticated electronics system, my motor
needs an unbelievably low 80 milliwatts power to sustain a 1400
RPM. The average electrical noise, mostly from 60 cycle power
lines, is sometimes and at some locations as high as 2 watts.
This is all the energy that my latest motor needs. It can pick
it up and use it. Of course, it will not generate power, but
will perform gallantly under no load conditions. It is a very
fascinating demonstration and teaching aid.
This motor is in the very early stage of development with many
properties at present not quite clear. Further investigation is
called for. After finishing my research work, it will be
published in a separate book.
Have I proposed perpetual motion? Of course not. But
today I am able to build a motor which can run for centuries to
the delight of its owners. The service will not bother me. It
could be the business of my very distant descendants. The
possibilities are here.
As a summary: The described permanent magnet motors have the
(1) The efficiency of the system could be very high,
approaching in some cases one.
(2) They could be built of any material, even from wood.
(3) The only iron material used is a small piece of
electromagnet core, which can be replaced by a ferrite core
What do you think, are these motors worth further development?
Think about it!
The photo of the latest model is shown in Figure 30.
Figure 30 ~ The Wheel as Rotor
Electronic Circuits for Driving and Timing
All of the described motors which use an electromagnet for
gating the rotor (roller), need a driver circuit which just as
the rotor sensing switch closes, sends out a current impulse of
precise amplitude and duration to energize the electromagnet. He
correct functioning of the driver circuit is essential. If the
current pulse in the electromagnet is too short, the roller will
be returned from the track and toward the neutral point of the
track. If it will be too long, the rollerís speed will be too
high and will run off the track.
The duty of the timer is to set the length and the height of
the driving pulse as is necessary, depending on the parameters
of track and roller. My design is a universal timer which fits
to all motors and its construction is as simple as possible. If
you are not electronically minded, some of your radio-amateur
friends can help you. The performance of the timer-power supply
may exceed the normally required power that the motor needs for
its work, but the reserve it has is always advantageous if
somebody want so to build some device other than as described.
Besides the said properties, I also emphasize the ease of
If you are qualified in electronics, you can alter the
following simple scheme and build timers and drivers according
to your imagination and needs. As an alternate possibility, you
can use mechanical switching devices as will be further
The timer-power supply of my construction is divided into two
parts: The timer itself with the power switching transistor and
the power supply which provides the necessary voltages and
current for the timer and its switching part. The schematic
diagram of the timer-power supply is in Figure 31. The parts
list is below:
Figure 31 ~ Power-Supply Timer Circuitry
R1 = 1 M, 1/4 W Resistor
R2 = 10 M, 1/4 W Resistor
R3 = 1 K, 1/2 W Resistor
R4 = 220 Ohm 1/2 W Resistor
R5 = 68 Ohm 1/2 W Resistor
R6 = 100 K, 10-turn potentiometer
RL = 15 K 1/2 W Resistor
C1 = 1000 pF, 50 V DC Capacitor
C2 = 0.01 uF, 50 V DC Capacitor
C3 = 0.01 uF, 50 V DC Capacitor
C4 = 1 uF, 50 V DC Capacitor
C5 = 4700 uF, 35 V DC Capacitor
C6 = 4700 uF, 35 V DC Capacitor
C7 = 0.33 uF or 0.22 uF, 250 V Capacitor
C8 = 0.1 uF, 250 V Capacitor
Q1 = 0.1 uF 250 V Capacitor
IC1 = 555 Timer
IC2 = 50 V PIV 6 A Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
IC3 = 50 V PIV 1 A Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
D1 = 400 PIV 3 A Silicon Diode
LED = Light Emitting Diode
IC4 = 7815, 15 V Voltage Regulator
M.S. = Magnetic Mini Reed Switch
SW1 = Standard Toggle Switch
F1 = Clip-in Fuse holder
Fuse = 1.5 A S.B.
T1 = Power Transformer 120-36 VCT 1A
Miscellaneous: PC Board, Wire, Banana Jacks, Screws, Metal
The timer part of the driver is a mechanically triggered
monostable, employing a 555 IC time. Figure 31, upper diagram.
The 555 timer is triggered by a magnetic mini reed switch M.S.
Prior to the actuation of the switch by the magnetic field of
the passing roller, the capacitor C4 is charged to 15
V through R6. The potentiometer R6 is a
10-turn type, its setting determines the output pulse width. By
the closing of the magnetic switch M.S., C4
discharges rapidly through R3, creating a short
negative spike. The resultant negative spike is then passed
through C1 to the 555 as a trigger pulse. This fires
the monostable, generating an output pulse of width T = 1.1 x R6
x C4. Upon release of magnetic switch M.S., C4
recharges to +15 V, and the circuit awaits the next switch
The time constant and circuit arrangement of the trigger
circuitry are chosen for a single trigger and output pulse, for
each switch closing only. Furthermore, the circuit will not
trigger on switch release and will produce only one pulse
regardless of how long M.S. is closed. The circuitry will also
retrigger as fast as M.S. can reactivate.
The output pulse through voltage divider R4-R5 is passed to a
power transistor Q1 which functions as a booster amplifier.
Transistor Q1 will be on when the timer output is high. The
2N6055 NPN Darlington transistor can handle up to 5 Amps current
and 60 V. With this circuit the timers positive voltage V should
be +15 V to ensure adequate base drive for Q1. The coil of the
electromagnet L1 is directly connected to the collector circuit
of Q1 and to the +36 V power supply. Because of the inductive
load L1, the circuit uses a reverse clamping diode D1 to protect
the circuit. Parallel with coil L1 is connected an LED of green
color for indicating the action of the circuit. LED flashes when
the coil L1 is energized. He resistor RL keeps the current of
the diode at a permissible level.
The power supply employs a transformer T1 whose
secondary current is rectified by heavy-duty bridge IC2
and filtered by capacitors C5-C6 connected
in series. This is necessary because the no-load voltage of the
36 V power supply will be higher than 35 V which is the
operating voltage of a single capacitor.
T1 is center tapped and from the center is taken the
current of about 17.5 V, rectified bvy full bridge rectifier IC2,
and stabilized to +15 V for timer circuitry by IC4.
For building both circuits, two 4-1/2 x 2-1/4 inch perforated
boards are used. The transformer and both filter capacitors
C5-C6 are directly mounted on the base plate of the cabinet. The
10-turn potentiometer is a printed circuit type for screwdriver
setting. It is accessible through a 1/4 inch hole in the left
side of the cabinet cover. The picture of the Timer-power supply
as assembled is Figure 32.
Figure 32 ~ Assembled Timer-Power Supply
For checking the function of the finished circuits, the
magnetic M.S., could be replaced by a pushbutton switch NO of
any type. After connecting the Timer to the 120 V AC power line,
the line switch SW1 in ON position, by pushing the push-button
switch, which replaces M.S., a short flash of LED must be
This is the signal that the circuitry is working. A storage
oscilloscope will be connected to the banana jacks for the coil
output. The scope trigger mode will be set to single shot and
store. By pushing the pushbutton switch, the driving pulse will
trigger the scope and the pulse form and width will be stored on
the scopeís display tube and can be easily measured. Starting
with the lowest resistance value of the 10-turn pot R6
and the corresponding shortest pulse duration, it is possible to
plot the timer characteristics: pot meter turns vs pulse length,
for the entire 1-turn range. This will be a very valuable help
for further experiments.
How to operate the Timer-Power supply in connection with the
proper motor was discussed by the description of the motors.
The discussed driver circuitry is sturdy and if properly built,
reliable. It needs no special operating instructions.
The Timer-Power supply is not the only possibility for driving
the plastic wheel motor. If you are unpretentious and do not
require accurate measurements, you can build more simple driving
systems for the wheel. Some alternate drivers are shown in
A simple relay-type driver consists of a 35 V DC power supply
(battery or any other type) able to deliver about 1 A current,
and a DC relay, which has a coil rated about 12 V or less. The
current of the coil could be adjusted by a proper resistor R.
The relay will be directly driven by the magnetic switch M.S.
The parts are connected according to the schematic in Figure 33.
This type of driver will give you a square wave pulse, whose
length will be controlled by the RPM of the motor. With regard
to the relay, it cannot be used for higher RPM. To connect the
driver to the coil of the electromagnet the rules are the same
as discussed earlier. It must be realized that this type of
driver will not be too quiet and will have only a short
The switching contacts of the relay, because of the heavy
sparking, will be burnt out in a short time. It is possible to
reduce the sparking by connecting from an automobile ignition
system parallel with the contacts. This can extend the lifetime
of the contacts.
The improvement of efficiency of relay type driving system can
be achieved by connecting the electromagnet and a capacitor as a
parallel-resonant circuit. The resonance must be calculated for
a chosen RPM, therefore repetitive frequency of driving pulses
respective its higher harmonics. The schematic of a tuned driver
is in Figure 33. You can also try a series resonant circuit. In
both cases, when changing the capacitors, the RPM of the motor
must be noted. The procedure is similar to that of the AC
induction motors for improving the power factor.
Another simple arrangement for pulsed driving is a mechanical
switch driven by the motor. See Figure 33. They are really two
sweep-contacts driven by the motor shaft. The shaft of the motor
will be provided by a plastic cylinder about one inch long and
one inch diameter. The cylinder consists of one, two, or as many
copper stripes in a groove as the number of rotor magnet blocks.
The surface of the stripes must be flush with the cylinder
surface to ensure a smooth vibrationless operation. They must be
firmly glued to the cylinder body. The width of the stripes
determines the pulse width. The slipping contact strips are held
on a bracket from plastics. The bracket length is adjusted to
the shaft height. The fastening of the plastic cylinder position
is provided by a small set-screw. This makes it possible to
position the cylinder for the best ROM.
If you built an electronic Timer-Power supply, I recommend that
you build a simple relay type also. With the two drivers it is
possible to perform a very interesting experiment, as follows:
First, you may hook up the electronic driver to the motor as
was previously discussed. Between the coil of the electromagnet
and output jacks of the driver connect a watt-meter. Start the
motor and at the maximum RPM measure the input power. Mark it
and now change the electronic driver to the relay type system
without any capacitor. The watt-meter must be connected again
for measuring the input power. At the same RPM as before with
the electronic driver, measure the input power again.
Compare it with the previous measurement.
You will be astonished! The measured power input, without
otherwise changing the mechanical conditions of the motor, such
as RPM and friction, will be about 1/3 as was measured with the
electronic timer. Please donít misunderstand, you must measure
in both cases the input power from drivers to the coil of the
electromagnet of the motor, not to the power supplies. By using
the relay driver, the contacts must be sparking intensively. Now
bypass the contacts of the relay with a high voltage capacitor
as above. The sparking will diminish. Measure again the input
power to the coil. The result will be almost the same as was
measured using the electronic driver.
What happens here? At the present time I have no satisfactory
explanation. This astonishing phenomenon needs further
investigation, by using tighter controls than those available to
me. What the connection between the sparks and energy input is,
we donít know yet.
You can find many other ways of driving, using transistors as
drivers, thyristors, or for very small performances, Hall
switches or direct magnetic reed switches. It all depends on
your motor sizes.
The efficiency is a function of the mass size and load, i.e.,
friction, and from the construction. There is no limit to
asserting your imagination. The basic paths I have paved for
Possible Energy Resources
My previously described motors are not perpetual motion
machines. They need an external energy source. This source can
be supplied: (1) from power lines, 120 or 220 V AC; (2) from any
type of battery, dry cells or rechargeable, which can supply the
requested voltage and current; (3) from solar cells; (4) from
thermal energy converter; or (5) in some areas, from the
surrounding by induction (motors with minimal mechanical
Energy from the power line is obvious. It must be transformed
to required voltage, rectified from AC to DC, and processed by
the driver circuitry. It is what any power supply can do.
Using batteries is the cleanest but also the most expensive
way. The lifetime of the normal dry cell is short. They need
frequent replacement. If you will use batteries, the power
supply part of the timer will be unnecessary. You can connect
the batteries directly to the +15 V (+12 V will do it also), and
36 V terminals of the timer. By changing the wire sizes and
ampere turns of the coil of the electromagnet, it is possible to
use voltage lower than 36 V. The coil must be dimensioned in
accordance with the voltage and power demand of your motor.
By a scheduled longer experimentation, rechargeable batteries
are not a bad solution, and in soeminstances are more
For accurate measurements, batteries are inferior as a power
line eliminator but obviously safer.
The solar cell represents a free energy source. A small solar
power supply with storage batteries can realize your dream
toward a free energy source, and can drive your motor
In the planning of a solar power supply, the factor of power
demand is important. It must be capable of delivering the peak
current demand. If you want to build your motor for example for
driving a fan for uninterrupted day and night operation, the
solar cells must be dimensioned for twice the motor power
demand. Thus, by day it will drive the motor and charge the
storage system. At night, however, the motor will use the energy
stored in the batteries.
The solar power supply consists of a solar panel composed of
individual solar cells, the charging circuitry and the storage
batteries. Te schematic of a simple system is in Figure 34.
Figure 34 ~ A Simple Solar Power Supply
The solar panel supplies energy to the motor M through the
diode D1. This diode is an important part of the charging
system. It is possible, because of full charge or low
illumination, that the battery voltage would exceed the charging
source voltage. Without the diode in the circuit, the battery
would then discharge into the solar source. This is avoided
because in the event of high battery voltage, the diode is
reverse biased, the anode becoming more negative than the
cathode. The diode will block the reverse current.
The common characteristics of my motors are that if they are
not running, they represent an open circuit for the power
supply. They take no current from the supply which is thus
automatically disconnected. This type of motor is foolproof
because in the light of its negative current-torque
characteristics, it cannot bur out. If it is overloaded it will
simply stall and the power supply is automatically disconnected.
When not running there is no current flow in the coil of the
driving magnet. This is true for relay type drivers also.
The silicon solar cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
They could be assembled and connected in various series and
parallel combinations to obtain desired voltage and current
capability. Cells as large as 4 inch diameter are available
capable of delivering 2 amps at 0.42 V. Hence, quite a large
group of cells must be wired in series to obtain a reasonable
output voltage. Cells in parallel increase the current
capability. I might suggest that after assembling the cells, you
should cover them with a sheet of glass. The life of the cells
will be substantially extended without substantial changes in
performance. The cleaning of the panel will be easier also.
A solar panel could be built into the base plate of the motor.
If it will be covered by an opaque sheet of white plastic, the
performance of the cells will be decreased only about 20%, but
the cells will be concealed from the viewer who will admire your
creation, working seemingly without any energy supply.
If you want to build a solar power supply of any kind, consult
the bibliography at the end of this booklet. There you will find
excellent sources of information.
Some manufacturers are producing today watches and clocks which
can run years without any care of energy supply. They are using
thermal energy which is supplied by the body heat of the wearer
or in the case of clocks, the temperature differences inside and
outside of the building. This too is a good idea for supplying
free energy to your motor.
It is possible to convert thermal energy directly into
electrical energy by means of thermocouples, with no machinery
and nonmoving parts. A thermocouple is made by joining alternate
lengths of electrical conductors or semi-conductors of different
kinds, and heating one junction and cooling the other. This
produces a potential difference and generates current, i.e.,
electric energy. Thermocouples of unlike metals have voltages of
20-60 microvolts per degree, and semiconductors may have
voltages of 1 mv per degree. The thermocouples are arranged in
series and parallel in so-called thermo-electric modules. The
modules can be used thermoelectric generators. Modules are built
in all possible sizes and performances, by many manufacturers
and laboratories. The sources are listed at the end of this
In this section I would like to describe an exotic and slightly
known thermal energy converter which eventually could be a
candidate for free energy. This is an energy converter I
discovered some years ago using water. It is probably the
simplest generator of electricity in the world. For building it
you need a piece of rag, water and two electrodes for collecting
the electricity. The schematic of the Water Energy Converter is
in Figure 35. The direct energy converter using water works as
When water diffuses through a porous media and evaporates from
the surface, the material cools. If a metal electrode is
attached to the end undergoing evaporation, a thermal gradient
occurs between the electrode and water. Because the water and
the electrode are dissimilar conductors, the thermal gradient
creates a Seebeck emf. When the system absorbs energy from the
surrounding by means of convection or radiation heat transfer,
the energy is converted to electric current.
Figure 35 ~ Scheme of the Water Energy Converter
The produced is not too great. The converter is more of a
curiosity. The value of the current and voltage is dependent on
the area of the absorbing surface, but the energy is abslyutely
free. The rag electricity generator is, and probably will be,
the worldís cheapest thermal energy converter for a long time.
The performance could be substantially increased by using as
porous material a good lamp wick fabric which prepared before
using by chlorophyll extract. If you are interested, write me
please. I will be delighted to send you at nominal cost more
detailed information with my theoretical explanation.
The picture of a 3-stage water energy converter is in Figure
Figure 36 ~ Water Energy Converter
Another energy source which is also free is the omnipresent
electromagnetic radiation produced mainly by the 60 Hz house
current power lines. Its intensity is dependent on the location
and it has a value of from a few microwatts to as much as 3-5
watts, if in the vicinity of high voltage power lines. The
phenomenon is well known to the builder and maintenance men of
MOSFET and CMOS devices. It is the curse of the CMOS input
burglar alarms and of any fine current measurement devices in
the range of millivolt potentials.
The construction of good electronics equipment to pick up these
powers is not an easy task. It is absolutely not a hobby job. It
needs sophisticated electronic measuring equipment and not easy
to obtain parts such as tunnel diodes, extremely small forward
resistance rectifiers, etc.
I have such a circuitry in my latest model motor which is
currently under investigation. Sometimes it performs well and
sometimes not. It depends on the location of the motor. It is
tuned to the 60 Hz radiation which has a very limited range. The
motor was running continuously in my laboratory for 3 months
during the summer. Once in the fall it stalled. It was necessary
to charge the system directly from a power line after itís
stalling. It would be a help of the pickup coil (antenna) were
directional and aimed toward the direction of most intensive
radiation. Unfortunately, my antenna is built in at the base
plate of the motor and therefore could not be rotated. If you
want to experiment with similar systems, think twice. You must
realize that such an experimentation needs a lot of knowledge of
electronics and radio technics. It is a very time-consuming and
costly equipment, and the results are always uncertain.
Furthermore, you must realize that both of my latest energy
sources are intended exclusively for experimentation but no way
for power production. You should be happy if you can overcome
the frictional and other losses in your motor.
There are many other more or less esoteric energy sources which
are probably available in certain ranges, considering the fact
that the pulsed motors need less energy than the conventional
permanent magnet direct current motors. Such energy sources are,
for example, the atmospheric electricity and the radiant energy
from the outer space. They are truly neglected by the scientific
establishment which does not mean that they are not worth
investigating. There are again no limits to your imagination.
I come to the end of my book, wherein is presented part of my
work aimed toward the investigation of permanent magnet
generated and aided motions. The described motors are byproducts
of this research. They were built and served for proof of the
With this publication, my work is far from finished. My
intention is to continue in investigation, especially is to
continue in investigation, especially the interactions of
rotation generated inertial fields, respective the changing of
momentum of inertia if such a thing is present. According to the
linear vector theory of inertial fields, it may be possible.
I am working alone without any funding or financial help, using
my free time and my own financial resources. Experimentation
with permanent magnet devices is not quite a cheap business. It
calls for a lot of sacrifice.
Despite these facts, I do not consider my achievements as my
sole property. They belong to all mankind! My goal was to arouse
the interest of as many people as possible, to start a new
engineering discipline, the perma-energetics.
The future belongs to the efficient. Nobody can change this
trend of development! What seems to be today impossible, could
tomorrow be a reality. History teaches us that, no matter
whether somebody likes it or not!
If my present work can only slightly improve the energy
situation of the world and at the same time inspire others to
work, my endeavor was not wasted! This was the purpose of my
present publication and the publication of Prof. Dr Jearl Walker
in the 1982 March issue of the Scientific American.
You can start where I have finished. Nevertheless I must warn
you, if you intend to patent something of the motors described
in this book, it will hardly be possible. Probably you will not
fulfill the requirement of the prior art. But if you will build
something new by using the principles presented in your way to
get a patent. You will be able to patent your new ideas.
Finally I would like to clear up the question of
responsibilities. I give you no warranty that your work will
succeed. Your work is solely at your own risk. I take no
responsibility, in any respect, for failure or accident that you
can meet with my motors. I do not guarantee you a success. This
depends on you.
My motors were demonstrated to many experts, and publicly as
well, under the sponsorship of the Cleveland State University
Chapter of the prestigious American Society of Mechanical
James R. Ireland: Ceramic Permanent Magnet Motors;
McGraw Hill, NY, 1968
Parker and Studders: Permanent Magnets and Their
Application; Wiley and Sons, 1962.
D. Hadfield: Permanent Magnets and Magnetism; Wiley and
A. Schure: Magnetism and Electromagnetism; Rider Publ.,
Inc, NY, 1959
Herbert Woodson and James Welcher: Electromechanical
Dynamics (Part I / II); Wiley and Sons, NY 1968
G.R. Polgreen: New Applications of Modern Magnets;
Macdonald, London, 1966
E. R. Laithwaite: Propulsion Without Wheels; English
Univ. Press, London, 1966
E. Laithwaite: Induction Machines for Special Purposes;
Chem. Publ. Co., Inc., NY 1966
Fenimore Bradley: Materials for Magnetic Functions;
Hayden Book Co., NY 1971
D.S. Parasuis: Magnetism; Harper and Brothers, NY,
R.R. Birss: Electric and Magnetic Forces; American
Elsevier Publ. Co., NY 1968.
Malcolm McCraig: Permanent Magnets in Theory and Practice
Forest Mims: Engineers Notebook; Radio Shack
Rudolf F. Graf: Dictionary of Electronics; Radio Shack,
Edward M. Noll: Wind/Solar Energy; Howard Sams and Co.,
Farrington Daniels: Direct Use of the Suns Energy;
Jearl Waler: Motors in Which Magnets Attract Other Magnets
in Apparent Perpetual Motion; Scientific American, March
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