Soils for Optimum Elemental Balance
Remineralization of our agricultural land and garden soils with 90-plus
minerals is the goal of two lifelong advocates of sustainable organic
food production, Robert Cain and David Yarrow, who were brought
together by their common interest in the research of Maynard Murray,
As most Acres U.S.A. readers are aware, Dr. Murray was a medical doctor
and research scientist who was troubled by the obvious continual
decline of American health and the subsequently flourishing
pharmaceutical industry. He searched for reasons, on biological and
chemical levels, as to why our bodies lose their resistance to chronic
illness and develop degenerative disease.
His studies led him to the sea, where, miraculously, cancer, arthritis,
arteriosclerosis and aging on a cellular level seemingly did not exist.
He discovered that sea life is sustained in a balanced solution
consisting of all 90-plus atomic table elements. Murray observed that a
cubic foot of seawater contains considerably more living organisms than
an equivalent amount of soil.
Murray theorized that the apparent difference in disease resistance and
vitality between life on land and in the sea is due to mineral
deficiencies in our soil and food. He visualized an endless cycle
wherein continents rise from the sea rich with minerals. The constant
effects of climate — freezing, thawing, rainfall, and erosion —
combined with mankind’s historically poor stewardship of the land and
increasing acid rain cause topsoil minerals to go into solution. These
mineral solutions then enter streams and rivers and subsequently flow
into the sea. Murray concluded that these minerals hold the key to
human health. Therefore, it made perfect sense to recapture them and
restore them to our soils.
Initially, he successfully experimented using diluted seawater on soils
and crops. Then he discovered that if water is totally removed from
pure, mineral-enriched seawater, 3.5 percent remains as solids. He
called these minerals “sea solids” and used them exclusively, during
many years of extensive research, on all ranges of crops and soil
types. Murray even developed a specialized use of sea solids for
hydroponics, and operated a successful 13-acre hydroponic fresh-produce
farm in southern Florida. The results were consistently the same: the
plants flourished, matured more rapidly, were healthier, were more
disease and drought resistant, and produced outstanding taste along
with greater yields. In assays testing for nutrients, foods grown with
Murray’s sea solids had significantly more minerals (ash content),
vitamins (25 percent more vitamin C in tomatoes; 40 percent more
vitamin A in carrots) and sugars. In addition, he witnessed the same
amazing results in all types of livestock and poultry that were offered
feed grown in soil enriched by his sea solids. Physiologically, these
animals were healthier, gained weight more rapidly, and reached
During his 30 years of research, Murray conclusively proved that the
proportions of trace minerals and elements present in pure seawater are
optimum for the growth and health of both land and sea life.
Additionally, he found that once these minerals and trace elements are
restored to the soil, reapplication is not necessary for five or more
years, given normal rainfall and climatic conditions. Cain, under Dr.
Murray’s direction, applied these minerals to both soil and hydroponic
food production, and personally tasted and witnessed their outstanding
Since creating sea solids by desalinization of seawater is very costly,
Murray searched the earth for the best source of sea solids in their
natural form. He required expansive tidal flats on the banks of a
mineral-rich, unpolluted sea in an arid region with little or no
rainfall. Prior to his death in 1983, he disclosed to Cain the location
he had found to be the purest.
Only recently, Cain and Yarrow have begun mining sea solids from
Murray’s source and distributing the product throughout North America.
Cain says he believes Dr. Murray discovered the true “Fountain of
Youth.” However, the fountain with its life-enhancing properties is
located not at a springhead where a stream or river begins, but rather
at the opposite end of the ecosystem, where it empties into the sea.
Cain and Yarrow’s vision is to improve the quality of human health
through the food we eat by remineralizing the soil in which it is
grown. In their opinion, application of these extraordinary sea solids
with their 90-plus elements — the sea’s full spectrum of minerals — to
tired and depleted soils is the perfect solution. They believe that as
stewards of the land, it is our responsibility to restore the mineral
balance to soils and subsequently the foods we ingest. Cain and Yarrow
hope to convince all stewards of the land to help sustain life on this
planet by remineralizing their soils and spreading the wisdom of sea
For more information on sea solids and the work of Robert Cain and
David Yarrow, contact
SeaAgri Inc., 4822 Kings Down Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30338
Phone (770) 361-7003
Patent # 3,071,457
Process of Applying Sea Solids as
Maynard R. Murray
This invention relates to the process of applying sea water solids as a
fertilizer. by sea solids we mean the inorganic salts that are
dissolved in the water; the term as it will be used in the
specification hereinafter does not include living organizms, plant or
animal, but means merely the salts that are dissolved, which will
include the salts of the various elements mentioned in this application.
This invention relates more particularly to the use of sea solids in
certain proportions for different crop requirements.
This invnetion further contmeplates the use as a fertilizer of complete
sea solids mixed with nitrogenous compounds, the proportions of each
and the total amount of fertilizer depending upon the type of crop
which it is desired to raise and the condition of the soil...
When one is confronted with so many variables, to obtain a plant raised
under optimum conditions seems to be almost impossible. It was
therefore decided by the author to obtain the elements from sea water
in the proportion that they occur there. The most soluble salts found
in the land should be found in the most abundant supply in the sea.
Sodium chloride is found in a much greater concentration in the sea
than are the various barium salts. It is known that sodium chloride,
per se, in great concentrations, is toxic to plants. Therefore it was
deemed advisable to start with very low concentrations of sea water to
test their effect on plants. This was done in pot and plot experiments,
and it was found, after considerable experimentation, that sea solids
comprising 3-1/2% of sea water could be applied to the soil in fairly
great concentrations, without detriment to the plants. The solids were
obtained by evaporating the water completely and leaving the elements
in solid salt form. The optimum
amount found for most grain and vegetable plants grown in the temperate
zone of the USA was from 550 to 2200 pounds per acre... The salt is
first ground in a burr mill before spreading. The hydroscopic nature of
the salt required that it be stirred from time to time as it was being
applied to ensure accurate spreading.
Oats, soy beans, grain and many varieties of garden vegetables were
grown on soil thus treated. In 1954. 1/4 acre of garden vegetables were
grown; 10 acres of treated and control corn have been grown; 10 acres
of treated oats along with 10 acres of control oats were grown; also 3
acres of treated soy beans and 3 acres of control soy beans have been
In my experiments to date, I have studied, or am in the process of
studying, various phases;
First, animals were fed a diet of 4 parts corn, 2 parts oats, and 1
part soy beans, all grown on land treated with sea solids. This was to
determine the effect of these grains on normal physiology and
pathology. The rats fed on the
control, or untreated corn, oats, and soy beans, developed xerapthaemia
in 12 to 14 days. The rats fed on the experimental feed did not show
300 chickens were obtained from a local hatchery when one day old. They
were divided into 2 groups of 150 each. All were fed the commercial
concentrate, plus 4 parts of corn and 2 parts of oats. The animals fed on the experimental corn
and oats matured approximately one month in advance of the control. The
experimental started to lay eggs 3 to 4 weeks earlier, and the eggs
weighed 2 to 3 ounces more per dozen in the experimental flock. Dressed
experimental roosters at 6 months of age weighed 1-1/2 lb more than the
control, and there was less food consumed per pound by weight gain in
the experimental chickens. There was a decided difference in the
of the experimental and control chickens, as
shown by x-ray.
Second, productivity. In oats, there was no manifest difference in
productivity; however, during the growing stage, just before the oats
headed, there was a marked difference in color. The experimental lot
was darker green, which was noticeable to the eye and is also readily
distinguishable in colored photographs. The farmer who harvested this
crop observed that the experimental plot had many more rabbits,
suggesting a taste difference. There was also an observable difference in the amount of
"rust" -- being much more prevalent in the control plot. The ash weight
showed a 1.1% increase in the experimental. The second generation oats
showed excellent germination and production, although no further
applications of sea solids were put on the soil. Second generation oats
were essentially "rust" free.
In corn grown in 1952, the treated
plot yielded 19.6 bushels more per acre than the control... In 1954,
the experimental plot of corn yielded about 13 bushels more per acre
than the control, the experimental plot of corn yielded about 13
bushels more per acre than the control, and the experimental showed an
increase of 1.7% in ash weight.
The control soy beans yielded 8.87 bushels more per acre than the
experimental soy beans; however, the
experimental showed an increase of 14.6% in ash weight
. Second generation soy beans grew larger and
the production was slightly higher than the control. There was also a
5.6% increase in ash weight in the experimental, although no further
applications of sea solids were made.
The increase in ash weight of the
experimental garden vegetables over the control was a s follows: Sweet
potatoes 8.3%; onions 4.4%; tomatoes 18.7%.
Third, diseases in plants. There was a marked difference between the
treated and control plants in "curly
leaf" of peach trees, the treated tree being mcuh freer of the disease.
In blight of tomatoes, the treated plants showed a marked difference in
resistance to the disease. The most phenomenal difference in plant
diseases noted was in corn smut, which showed 384% more smut in the
control than in the experimental.
These figures are based upon
the number of observable galls counted on 4.9 acres in each plot. Not only were the galls much less numerous
in the experimental, but they appeared smaller, and fewer were on the
ears. These same results were repeated on the second generation corn
without further application of sea solids to the soil.
It is known that there are many acres of soil unfit for the growth of
garden peas. This is said to be due to an infection of the root of the
plant caused by Aphanomyces and
, the former being very specific for the pea plant, and
the latter having the ability to attack other hosts. In greenhouse
experiments, I was able to grow the
pea plant to maturity in soil infested with these two organisms with
the addition of sea solids, using two different varieties of peas. The
control plants died at or near the blooming stage.
"Center rot" in turnips is said to be
due to a staphylococcus infection. In 100 plants on treated and control
soil, there was an incidence of center rot in 30 of the control, and
none in the experimental.
Fourth, it was also decided to test the effect of sea solids on the pH
of the soil. The ordinary garden beet was used as an indicator plant.
In acid soil, this plant is supposed to germinate and put forth two
leaves which seemingly are healthy. The second pair of leaves, however,
usually die and the plant will not grow to maturity if the soil is too
acid. I obtained soil with a pH of 4. After
the addition of my sea solids, I found that the pH decreased slightly,
but later returned to its original value
. I planted beets and
radishes in this soil treated with sea solids and was able to grow them
to maturity. I feel that so-called sour soil is deficient, and most
probably not deficient in calcium alone; that the pH itself is not the
determining factor as to whether or not the ordinary varieties of
plants found in this climate will grow. Radishes were grown in treated soil with a
pH of 4. Beets, a sour soil indicator, grew beyond the third and fourth
-- A number of
observations made during these experiments have been recorded for their
possible significance. Sheep ignored a field of untreated hay to get to
a ten foot square patch of treated hay, indicating a taste difference
. Also, experimental
stalks of corn were marked with tape, and mixed with control corn.
Cattle and sheep would nuzzle through the corn to pick out the
experimental stalks, again indicating a taste difference. The farmer
who harvested the oats noticed noticed that the experimental oats
attracted more rabbits and grasshoppers. A taste difference was also
noted in garden vegetables. Onions and radishes were sweeter than
the control vegetables. There was also a difference in the taste of
lettuce, green beans and carrots. In
apples and grapes, vitamin A and Vitamin C were found in greater
quantity in the experimental crop. The experimental grapes were higher
in sugar content
-- The list of
elements found to be important in the normal development and health of
plants and animals has increased steadily over the years. The problem
has icnreased steadily over the years. The problem has been made even
more complex by the discovery that the availability of an element to
the plant may be dependent upon the presence or absence of other
elements in the soil. The experiments of this report are based on three
1 -- That all of the elements may be important in polant and animal
2 -- That the elements should be added to the soil in the exact
proportion and balance as they are found in sea water, including the
sodium chloride, This is based on the assumption that the solubility of
an element determines its rate of leaching from the soil, and the
amount of it found in sea water,
3 -- That most animals need to have the inorganic elements hooked up by
plants for proper utilization.
Tolerance experimetns indicated that the amount of complete sea solids
( including sodium chloride ) that could be added to mid-western and
eastern soils ranged from 550 to 2200 pounds per acre.
As a specific illustration of the use of sea solids as a fertilizer, an
experiment was conducted in recent months on tomatoes, with the
following results :
It will thus be noted that 1100 lb per acre of the fertilizer is about
the proper amount for the best growth of tomatoes.
Complete sea solids are obtained by drying sea water obtained from any
ocean to complete dryness. The end product contains all elements
soluble in water or saline solution, as found in sea water...
To one ton of these sea solids, ground in a burr mill, I have added:
80 to 800 lb of ammonium nitrate
pellets or crystals; or
100 to 1100 lb of ammonium sulfate; or
50 to 400 lb of urea.
The range of these nitrogenous compounds is accounted for by the fact
that different crops require different amounts of N in proportion to
sea solids. Tolerance experiments with this mixed fertilizer have
indicated that from 550 to 2200 lb per acre can be used on field crops,
fruits and vegetables.
I have varied the above process in the following ways: I have used sea
water with the same proportion of elements described above, mixed with
proportional amounts of nitrogenous compounds. Also, I have applied the
sea solids to the land first, and then applied the nitrogenous compound
As hereinbefore described, crops grown on soil fertilized with the
above-described fertilizer have been analyzed for ash weight, vitamins
and elements; and production has been noted. The results indicate an
increase in ash weight, vitamins, number and proportion of elements,
yield and resistance to plant disease. Animals have been fed products
grown on fertilized soil with a stimulus in growth and improvement in
bone and tissue structure. Thus it can be seen that the beneficial
results of controlled use of sea solids or sea solids mixed with
nitrogenous compounds are readily apparent. From experiments described
herein, it is apparent that equally beneficial results will be obtained
by the controlled use of sea solids in the growth of other grains,
vegetables and fruits.
In this discussion I have used the range of 550 to 2200 lb per acre as
applied to midwestern or eastern soils. Also, the crop to be raised on
the land determines the amount to be used. It will be noted that 2200 lb per acre
increased the production of corn, made no difference in production of
oats, and decreased the production of soy beans. Therefore, soy beans
should have no more than 1100 lb per acre.
that were outlined in the discussion above had 2200 lb, all with the
same production as untreated vegetables.
When 550 lb are applied, I apply that
amount each year for 4 years. The amount of 2200 lb, when applied at
once, and 550 lb, when applied each year for a period of 4 years, will
last, on soil with ordinary drainage, for a period of 5 years.
analyze the soil to see when sea solids should be applied again...
USP # 3,250,606
Nutrient Sea-Solids Solution for Hydroponic Farming
...In one set of experiments, crops of beans, tomatoes and cucumbers
were grown in 32 hydroponic beds in accordance with the method
illustrated in Figure 2. The seeds were sprouted in a dilute solution
of aqueous sea-solids and transferred to the large beds as seedlings
approximately 4 inches high. Alternatively, the plants can be grown
directly from seeds without transplanting. The growing plants were fed twice a day
using a nutrient solution made up by dissolving 116 lb of complete
sea-solids in 100,000 lb water, i.e., 9.3 lb / 1000 gal water. full
production was achieved in about 100 days. Preferably, the
concentration of sea-solids in the nutrient solution employed should
not exceed about 8000 ppm by weight
. While some growth can be
achieved using more dilute solutions, in general it will be necessary
to use solutions of sea-solids containing at least about 1000 ppm.
Solutions of greater than about 8000 ppm tend to retard the plants in a
manner similar to that observed with the over application of
conventional fertilizers, and generally should not be employed.
In the manner described above, various crops including wheat, oats,
radishes, carrots, turnips, beets, tomatoes, corn, strawberries,
onions, and the like, have been grown successfully with nutrient
solutions comprising fresh water containing containing in the
range of about 1000 to 8000 ppm of dissolved complete sea solids. These
results are all the more surprising in view of the comparative
experiments which have been made using solutions containing equivalent
amounts of sodium chloride only. Here, it was observed, that dissolved
sodium chloride solutions are definitely toxic to plants but that
solutions of complete sea-solids, even though they contained the same
quantity of dissolved sodium chloride, which when used alone was toxic,
can be used beneficially as a nutrient solution for the growing plants.
If desired, conventional nitrogenous fertilzer materials and inorganic
salts can be employed together with diluted sea water, or with a dilute
solution of complete sea-solids in conventional concentrations. For
example, in similar experiments described above, about 200 ppm of K-nitrate sucessfully was
employed for each 1000 ppm of complete sea solids. Surprisingly,
however, direct supplementary nitrogenous fertilizer is not required
with sea-solid nutrient solutions as the hydroponic beds can be
inoculated with azabactor which is nourished well in nutrient solutions
comprising sea-solids and has the ability to fix sufficient nitrogen
out of the air. One method of supplying azobacter bacteria to the
hydroponic beds is to flow the nutrient solution through a bed
containing a legume crop such as beans where the nutrient solution can
come in contact with the nodules on the roots of the legumes.
Alternatively, bean crops, or other legumes can be grown in hydroponic
beds interspersed with other beds connected in series so that an
adequate supply of azabacter is assured...