Maynard MURRAY

Seawater Agriculture

Acres USA
July 2005

Remineralizating Soils for Optimum Elemental Balance


David Yarrow

Remineralization of our agricultural land and garden soils with 90-plus minerals is the goal of two lifelong advocates of sustainable organic food production, Robert Cain and David Yarrow, who were brought together by their common interest in the research of Maynard Murray, M.D.

As most Acres U.S.A. readers are aware, Dr. Murray was a medical doctor and research scientist who was troubled by the obvious continual decline of American health and the subsequently flourishing pharmaceutical industry. He searched for reasons, on biological and chemical levels, as to why our bodies lose their resistance to chronic illness and develop degenerative disease.

His studies led him to the sea, where, miraculously, cancer, arthritis, arteriosclerosis and aging on a cellular level seemingly did not exist. He discovered that sea life is sustained in a balanced solution consisting of all 90-plus atomic table elements. Murray observed that a cubic foot of seawater contains considerably more living organisms than an equivalent amount of soil.

Murray theorized that the apparent difference in disease resistance and vitality between life on land and in the sea is due to mineral deficiencies in our soil and food. He visualized an endless cycle wherein continents rise from the sea rich with minerals. The constant effects of climate — freezing, thawing, rainfall, and erosion — combined with mankind’s historically poor stewardship of the land and increasing acid rain cause topsoil minerals to go into solution. These mineral solutions then enter streams and rivers and subsequently flow into the sea. Murray concluded that these minerals hold the key to human health. Therefore, it made perfect sense to recapture them and restore them to our soils.

Initially, he successfully experimented using diluted seawater on soils and crops. Then he discovered that if water is totally removed from pure, mineral-enriched seawater, 3.5 percent remains as solids. He called these minerals “sea solids” and used them exclusively, during many years of extensive research, on all ranges of crops and soil types. Murray even developed a specialized use of sea solids for hydroponics, and operated a successful 13-acre hydroponic fresh-produce farm in southern Florida. The results were consistently the same: the plants flourished, matured more rapidly, were healthier, were more disease and drought resistant, and produced outstanding taste along with greater yields. In assays testing for nutrients, foods grown with Murray’s sea solids had significantly more minerals (ash content), vitamins (25 percent more vitamin C in tomatoes; 40 percent more vitamin A in carrots) and sugars. In addition, he witnessed the same amazing results in all types of livestock and poultry that were offered feed grown in soil enriched by his sea solids. Physiologically, these animals were healthier, gained weight more rapidly, and reached maturity sooner.
During his 30 years of research, Murray conclusively proved that the proportions of trace minerals and elements present in pure seawater are optimum for the growth and health of both land and sea life. Additionally, he found that once these minerals and trace elements are restored to the soil, reapplication is not necessary for five or more years, given normal rainfall and climatic conditions. Cain, under Dr. Murray’s direction, applied these minerals to both soil and hydroponic food production, and personally tasted and witnessed their outstanding effects.

Since creating sea solids by desalinization of seawater is very costly, Murray searched the earth for the best source of sea solids in their natural form. He required expansive tidal flats on the banks of a mineral-rich, unpolluted sea in an arid region with little or no rainfall. Prior to his death in 1983, he disclosed to Cain the location he had found to be the purest.

Only recently, Cain and Yarrow have begun mining sea solids from Murray’s source and distributing the product throughout North America. Cain says he believes Dr. Murray discovered the true “Fountain of Youth.” However, the fountain with its life-enhancing properties is located not at a springhead where a stream or river begins, but rather at the opposite end of the ecosystem, where it empties into the sea.

Cain and Yarrow’s vision is to improve the quality of human health through the food we eat by remineralizing the soil in which it is grown. In their opinion, application of these extraordinary sea solids with their 90-plus elements — the sea’s full spectrum of minerals — to tired and depleted soils is the perfect solution. They believe that as stewards of the land, it is our responsibility to restore the mineral balance to soils and subsequently the foods we ingest. Cain and Yarrow hope to convince all stewards of the land to help sustain life on this planet by remineralizing their soils and spreading the wisdom of sea energy agriculture.

For more information on sea solids and the work of Robert Cain and David Yarrow, contact
SeaAgri Inc., 4822 Kings Down Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30338
Phone (770) 361-7003
email <>

Maynard Murray

US Patent # 3,071,457

Process of Applying Sea Solids as Fertilizer

Maynard R. Murray

This invention relates to the process of applying sea water solids as a fertilizer. by sea solids we mean the inorganic salts that are dissolved in the water; the term as it will be used in the specification hereinafter does not include living organizms, plant or animal, but means merely the salts that are dissolved, which will include the salts of the various elements mentioned in this application.

This invention relates more particularly to the use of sea solids in certain proportions for different crop requirements.

This invnetion further contmeplates the use as a fertilizer of complete sea solids mixed with nitrogenous compounds, the proportions of each and the total amount of fertilizer depending upon the type of crop which it is desired to raise and the condition of the soil...

When one is confronted with so many variables, to obtain a plant raised under optimum conditions seems to be almost impossible. It was therefore decided by the author to obtain the elements from sea water in the proportion that they occur there. The most soluble salts found in the land should be found in the most abundant supply in the sea. Sodium chloride is found in a much greater concentration in the sea than are the various barium salts. It is known that sodium chloride, per se, in great concentrations, is toxic to plants. Therefore it was deemed advisable to start with very low concentrations of sea water to test their effect on plants. This was done in pot and plot experiments, and it was found, after considerable experimentation, that sea solids comprising 3-1/2% of sea water could be applied to the soil in fairly great concentrations, without detriment to the plants. The solids were obtained by evaporating the water completely and leaving the elements in solid salt form. The optimum amount found for most grain and vegetable plants grown in the temperate zone of the USA was from 550 to 2200 pounds per acre... The salt is first ground in a burr mill before spreading. The hydroscopic nature of the salt required that it be stirred from time to time as it was being applied to ensure accurate spreading.

Oats, soy beans, grain and many varieties of garden vegetables were grown on soil thus treated. In 1954. 1/4 acre of garden vegetables were grown; 10 acres of treated and control corn have been grown; 10 acres of treated oats along with 10 acres of control oats were grown; also 3 acres of treated soy beans and 3 acres of control soy beans have been grown.

In my experiments to date, I have studied, or am in the process of studying, various phases;

First, animals were fed a diet of 4 parts corn, 2 parts oats, and 1 part soy beans, all grown on land treated with sea solids. This was to determine the effect of these grains on normal physiology and pathology. The rats fed on the control, or untreated corn, oats, and soy beans, developed xerapthaemia in 12 to 14 days. The rats fed on the experimental feed did not show eye changes.

300 chickens were obtained from a local hatchery when one day old. They were divided into 2 groups of 150 each. All were fed the commercial concentrate, plus 4 parts of corn and 2 parts of oats. The animals fed on the experimental corn and oats matured approximately one month in advance of the control. The experimental started to lay eggs 3 to 4 weeks earlier, and the eggs weighed 2 to 3 ounces more per dozen in the experimental flock. Dressed experimental roosters at 6 months of age weighed 1-1/2 lb more than the control, and there was less food consumed per pound by weight gain in the experimental chickens. There was a decided difference in the skeletal structures of the experimental and control chickens, as shown by x-ray.

Second, productivity. In oats, there was no manifest difference in productivity; however, during the growing stage, just before the oats headed, there was a marked difference in color. The experimental lot was darker green, which was noticeable to the eye and is also readily distinguishable in colored photographs. The farmer who harvested this crop observed that the experimental plot had many more rabbits, suggesting a taste difference. There was also an observable difference in the amount of "rust" -- being much more prevalent in the control plot. The ash weight showed a 1.1% increase in the experimental. The second generation oats showed excellent germination and production, although no further applications of sea solids were put on the soil. Second generation oats were essentially "rust" free.

In corn grown in 1952, the treated plot yielded 19.6 bushels more per acre than the control... In 1954, the experimental plot of corn yielded about 13 bushels more per acre than the control, the experimental plot of corn yielded about 13 bushels more per acre than the control, and the experimental showed an increase of 1.7% in ash weight.

The control soy beans yielded 8.87 bushels more per acre than the experimental soy beans; however, the experimental showed an increase of 14.6% in ash weight. Second generation soy beans grew larger and the production was slightly higher than the control. There was also a 5.6% increase in ash weight in the experimental, although no further applications of sea solids were made.

The increase in ash weight of the experimental garden vegetables over the control was a s follows: Sweet potatoes 8.3%; onions 4.4%; tomatoes 18.7%.

Third, diseases in plants. There was a marked difference between the treated and control plants in "curly leaf" of peach trees, the treated tree being mcuh freer of the disease. In blight of tomatoes, the treated plants showed a marked difference in resistance to the disease. The most phenomenal difference in plant diseases noted was in corn smut, which showed 384% more smut in the control than in the experimental. These figures are based upon the number of observable galls counted on 4.9 acres in each plot. Not only were the galls much less numerous in the experimental, but they appeared smaller, and fewer were on the ears. These same results were repeated on the second generation corn without further application of sea solids to the soil.

It is known that there are many acres of soil unfit for the growth of garden peas. This is said to be due to an infection of the root of the plant caused by Aphanomyces and Fusaria, the former being very specific for the pea plant, and the latter having the ability to attack other hosts. In greenhouse experiments, I was able to grow the pea plant to maturity in soil infested with these two organisms with the addition of sea solids, using two different varieties of peas. The control plants died at or near the blooming stage.

"Center rot" in turnips is said to be due to a staphylococcus infection. In 100 plants on treated and control soil, there was an incidence of center rot in 30 of the control, and none in the experimental.

Fourth, it was also decided to test the effect of sea solids on the pH of the soil. The ordinary garden beet was used as an indicator plant. In acid soil, this plant is supposed to germinate and put forth two leaves which seemingly are healthy. The second pair of leaves, however, usually die and the plant will not grow to maturity if the soil is too acid. I obtained soil with a pH of 4. After the addition of my sea solids, I found that the pH decreased slightly, but later returned to its original value. I planted beets and radishes in this soil treated with sea solids and was able to grow them to maturity. I feel that so-called sour soil is deficient, and most probably not deficient in calcium alone; that the pH itself is not the determining factor as to whether or not the ordinary varieties of plants found in this climate will grow. Radishes were grown in treated soil with a pH of 4. Beets, a sour soil indicator, grew beyond the third and fourth leaf.

Observations -- A number of observations made during these experiments have been recorded for their possible significance. Sheep ignored a field of untreated hay to get to a ten foot square patch of treated hay, indicating a taste difference. Also, experimental stalks of corn were marked with tape, and mixed with control corn. Cattle and sheep would nuzzle through the corn to pick out the experimental stalks, again indicating a taste difference. The farmer who harvested the oats noticed noticed that the experimental oats attracted more rabbits and grasshoppers. A taste difference was also noted in garden vegetables. Onions and radishes were sweeter  than the control vegetables. There was also a difference in the taste of lettuce, green beans and carrots. In apples and grapes, vitamin A and Vitamin C were found in greater quantity in the experimental crop. The experimental grapes were higher in sugar content...

Summary -- The list of elements found to be important in the normal development and health of plants and animals has increased steadily over the years. The problem has icnreased steadily over the years. The problem has been made even more complex by the discovery that the availability of an element to the plant may be dependent upon the presence or absence of other elements in the soil. The experiments of this report are based on three hypotheses:

1 -- That all of the elements may be important in polant and animal physiology.

2 -- That the elements should be added to the soil in the exact proportion and balance as they are found in sea water, including the sodium chloride, This is based on the assumption that the solubility of an element determines its rate of leaching from the soil, and the amount of it found in sea water,

3 -- That most animals need to have the inorganic elements hooked up by plants for proper utilization.

Tolerance experimetns indicated that the amount of complete sea solids ( including sodium chloride ) that could be added to mid-western and eastern soils ranged from 550 to 2200 pounds per acre.

As a specific illustration of the use of sea solids as a fertilizer, an experiment was conducted in recent months on tomatoes, with the following results :

It will thus be noted that 1100 lb per acre of the fertilizer is about the proper amount for the best growth of tomatoes.

Complete sea solids are obtained by drying sea water obtained from any ocean to complete dryness. The end product contains all elements soluble in water or saline solution, as found in sea water...

To one ton of these sea solids, ground in a burr mill, I have added:

80 to 800 lb of ammonium nitrate pellets or crystals; or
100 to 1100 lb of ammonium sulfate; or
50 to 400 lb of urea.

The range of these nitrogenous compounds is accounted for by the fact that different crops require different amounts of N in proportion to sea solids. Tolerance experiments with this mixed fertilizer have indicated that from 550 to 2200 lb per acre can be used on field crops, fruits and vegetables.

I have varied the above process in the following ways: I have used sea water with the same proportion of elements described above, mixed with proportional amounts of nitrogenous compounds. Also, I have applied the sea solids to the land first, and then applied the nitrogenous compound afterward.

As hereinbefore described, crops grown on soil fertilized with the above-described fertilizer have been analyzed for ash weight, vitamins and elements; and production has been noted. The results indicate an increase in ash weight, vitamins, number and proportion of elements, yield and resistance to plant disease. Animals have been fed products grown on fertilized soil with a stimulus in growth and improvement in bone and tissue structure. Thus it can be seen that the beneficial results of controlled use of sea solids or sea solids mixed with nitrogenous compounds are readily apparent. From experiments described herein, it is apparent that equally beneficial results will be obtained by the controlled use of sea solids in the growth of other grains, vegetables and fruits.

In this discussion I have used the range of 550 to 2200 lb per acre as applied to midwestern or eastern soils. Also, the crop to be raised on the land determines the amount to be used. It will be noted that 2200 lb per acre increased the production of corn, made no difference in production of oats, and decreased the production of soy beans. Therefore, soy beans should have no more than 1100 lb per acre. Garden vegetables that were outlined in the discussion above had 2200 lb, all with the same production as untreated vegetables.

When 550 lb are applied, I apply that amount each year for 4 years. The amount of 2200 lb, when applied at once, and 550 lb, when applied each year for a period of 4 years, will last, on soil with ordinary drainage, for a period of 5 years. I analyze the soil to see when sea solids should be applied again...

USP # 3,250,606

Nutrient Sea-Solids Solution for Hydroponic Farming

...In one set of experiments, crops of beans, tomatoes and cucumbers were grown in 32 hydroponic beds in accordance with the method illustrated in Figure 2. The seeds were sprouted in a dilute solution of aqueous sea-solids and transferred to the large beds as seedlings approximately 4 inches high. Alternatively, the plants can be grown directly from seeds without transplanting. The growing plants were fed twice a day using a nutrient solution made up by dissolving 116 lb of complete sea-solids in 100,000 lb water, i.e., 9.3 lb / 1000 gal water. full production was achieved in about 100 days. Preferably, the concentration of sea-solids in the nutrient solution employed should not exceed about 8000 ppm by weight. While some growth can be achieved using more dilute solutions, in general it will be necessary to use solutions of sea-solids containing at least about 1000 ppm. Solutions of greater than about 8000 ppm tend to retard the plants in a manner similar to that observed with the over application of conventional fertilizers, and generally should not be employed.

In the manner described above, various crops including wheat, oats, radishes, carrots, turnips, beets, tomatoes, corn, strawberries, onions, and the like, have been grown successfully with nutrient solutions comprising fresh water containing  containing in the range of about 1000 to 8000 ppm of dissolved complete sea solids. These results are all the more surprising in view of the comparative experiments which have been made using solutions containing equivalent amounts of sodium chloride only. Here, it was observed, that dissolved sodium chloride solutions are definitely toxic to plants but that solutions of complete sea-solids, even though they contained the same quantity of dissolved sodium chloride, which when used alone was toxic, can be used beneficially as a nutrient solution for the growing plants.

If desired, conventional nitrogenous fertilzer materials and inorganic salts can be employed together with diluted sea water, or with a dilute solution of complete sea-solids in conventional concentrations. For example, in similar experiments described above, about 200 ppm of K-nitrate sucessfully was employed for each 1000 ppm of complete sea solids. Surprisingly, however, direct supplementary nitrogenous fertilizer is not required with sea-solid nutrient solutions as the hydroponic beds can be inoculated with azabactor which is nourished well in nutrient solutions comprising sea-solids and has the ability to fix sufficient nitrogen out of the air. One method of supplying azobacter bacteria to the hydroponic beds is to flow the nutrient solution through a bed containing a legume crop such as beans where the nutrient solution can come in contact with the nodules on the roots of the legumes. Alternatively, bean crops, or other legumes can be grown in hydroponic beds interspersed with other beds connected in series so that an adequate supply of azabacter is assured...

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