Gyroscopic Magnetic Particle Motor
Newman's Gyroscopic Theory
The theoretical basis of Joe Nemans' Revolutionary Energy
many accepted laws of physics.
The starting point for understanding Newman's ideas is his
that the fundamental building block of all matter is the
an infinitesimal unit of matter that spins like a gyroscope.
Newman claims that the mechanics of magnetism and
have never been fully explained, can be described in terms of
particles react and interact.
The idea that a single type of particle is responsible for
at work in the universe is an old one, yet some of the latest
in physics involves the investigation of particles.
New and smaller particles with previously unknown properties
discovered on a regular basis.
Newman's theories also depend heavily on the idea that all
concentrated energy, which can be released if one has a
That notion is at the heart of Einstein's work and the
mc^2, then the argument that he is trying to patent a
machine has no merit.
Theoretically, Newman's machine could run indefinitely, but
to him --- not because it is CREATING energy to run itself,
it is converting matter to energy.
In radically oversimplified terms, this is what happens when
throws the switch on the Revolutionary Energy Machine:
1) An electrical current is sent through a long (miles long)
copper wire, magnetizing it and creating a strong magnetic
2) Newman describes the mechanics of the magnetic field as
force" composed of gyroscopic particles that move in a spiral
Originally IN the wire, the particles expand outward and thus
the magnetic field.
3) When the particles form a magnetic field, Newman says,
at the speed of light in two directions --- in the spiral
the wire, and in their own normal gyroscopic spin.
This gives him the right side of the E = mc^2 equation; the
(mass) multiplied by the speed of light squared.
4) The machine operates in pulses; that is, the electrical
continually turned on and off. This causes the magnetic field
words, the gyroscopic particles --- to expand and collapse.
5) When the trillions of gyroscopic particles that have been
collapse back into the wire, some of them collide with other
Because of the nature of the gyroscopic spin, the collisions
loose particles to bounce off at right angles; those particles
one end of the wire as electrical energy.
Atlanta Journal-Constitution (7-13-86)
Will Joseph Newman's Energy Machine
LUCEDALE, Miss. - In the piney woods southwest of this
town, off the broken blacktop and two miles down a rutted sand
road, through three gates, past the "Keep Out" and "Beware of
signs, smack in the middle of nowhere, sits Joseph Westley
who says he can change the world.
In this land where heat devils beat from the ground in waves,
says he can bring water to the desert places of the world,
and improve the quality of everyone's life. If only Newman's
let him. Newman does not look the part of a savior. He sports
across his head in the style of a Baptist deacon.
In the heat Newman is calm, cool and certain. He carries a
as a laser. He says, "What I have done will revolutionize the
has Joe Newman done?
He has built the Revolutionary Energy Machine. His
proclaimed enemy, says his machines are frauds. Not so, says
they are the bootstraps by which mankind can pull itself up.
tidy, tile-floored workshop from Newman sits a copper-sheathed
the height and diameter of a fire hydrant.
At the far end of the workshop, swaddled in miles of copper
another machine, a 9,000-pound version the size of a
its circular rim topped with a circle of light bulbs.
These are two of Newman's Revolutionary Energy Machines,
will free the world from drudgery and make the First, Second,
World as one.
It is these machines and others like them, using Newman's
theory, that Newman claims produce more energy than they
would allow men to light cities for pennies, power cars
or gasoline, drive machines to make salt water fresh. But it
is his own
government, represented by the National Bureau of Standards
Patent Office, that Newman says is his and mankind's foe.
It is his own government that Newman claims has waged a
to keep his invention from improving the world. "All I am
doors," Newman says.
The government, through its unwillingness to grant him a
Newman's machine, which he has invested about $700,000 in
defending, does not do what he claims.
"The NBS results show that the device behaves in a manner
consistent with the well-established laws of physics," says
released June 26.
The "well-established" laws of physics say a machine cannot
more energy than it consumes.
Government report `a mockery of justice' ---
Newman says he knew what the NBS report would show. As a
so certain was Newman that he issued a press release before
became public saying it was a "mockery of justice."
The inventor says he is certain his machine works, can
it works, and is willing to defend his machine in public
anyone from the NBS or the U.S. Patent Office or any
who claims to know what he is talking about.
Newman has taken his Revolutionary Energy Machine on the
it in the Louisiana Superdome and in Atlanta.
In each place he challenged an expert on physics to debate
in public. Nobody showed up. Newman, who was raised in Mobile,
out of high school and left home at 15, went in the armed
in the oil fields, got a degree in accounting and economics,
- in his early 20s, after casting around through several jobs
- that he
wanted to be an inventor.
Over the course of the next two decades he registered patents
inventions --- a machine to pick oranges, plastic barbells, a
of knife --- and pursued his self-taught odyssey into
Etched in the concrete of Newman's workshop walkway is
= Truth." Newman says that because he is not burdened by
his mind is free to challenge questions without the
physicists place on themselves. Newman already has won over a
engineers and chemists who have seen his Revolutionary Energy
and heard his explanation.
Dr. Roger Hastings, a physicist with Sperry-Univac Corp., has
hundreds of tests on Newman's machine. His opinion? "The
future of the
human race may be drastically uplifted by the large-scale
of this invention," he says.
And Nicholaos Tsoupas, a physicist who works at Brookhaven
in New York and once taught at Yale University, said, "I know
that many scientists consider his invention unorthodox and
possibly because his theories do not fully comport with
However, Mr. Newman has demonstrated that his invention works
it claims. The Patent Office should not have denied him a
the Patent Office did.
Newman applied for a patent for his machine March 22, 1979.
1982 the Patent Office denied him the patent, claiming his
of perpetual motion." Newman appealed the ruling and in 1983
against the Patent Office.
Federal District Judge Thomas Jackson, who was hearing the
a special master to evaluate Newman's machine. The special
Schuyler Jr., a former commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office,
that the machine did what Newman claimed and recommended that
Jackson, in an action that many people familiar with similar
cases claim was almost unheard of, refused to accept the
of Schuyler and sent the issue back to the Patent Office for
In October 1985, Jackson ordered Newman to turn his machine
the NBS for testing. Jackson's order also prevented Newman or
representatives from attending the tests. But when the 30-day
and the machine had not been tested, Newman's attorney, John
attempted to retrieve the machine. Jackson ordered it
After finally testing it, the Patent Office on June 26 issued
claiming that the machine does not do what Newman says it
of Standards is coming into this tainted," Newman says, noting
still has not recovered the machine the NBS has had since
1985. "I have
spent 21 years working on this machine and seven trying to get
I am devoted to this."
Why give away a billion-dollar theory?
So devoted is he that he has written a book outlining the
his machine. The red-covered, hard-bound book is titled in
Newman's Revolutionary Energy Machine."
Inside, the pages are packed with diagrams, equations,
philosophies on the power of electromagnetics. "Anyone with
of electromagnetic energy can read this book and build a
They also can study Newman's theories about how the weather
by directing electromagnetic energy and how Newman believes
educational system trains originality out of children.
Why would someone develop a theory that he claims will change
a theory worth billions of dollars, and then give it away in a
the technical process is 10,000 times more important than the
He points to his head. "If I keep the knowledge up here, what
to it if something happens to me? If you understand the
then you don't just copy what I have done, you can apply it in
Newman's machine, if it works, truly could change the face of
Energy would be dirt cheap and non-centralized. Multinational
would be restructured or collapse. Utility companies that have
billions in nuclear energy would see the plants as costly
them into bankruptcy.
Great stockpiles of coal, as well as the companies that mine
lie almost useless. So it is little wonder that Newman, who
says he has
gotten mysterious, anonymous threatening telephone calls
there is a tremendous conspiracy, worldwide in scope, to
from coming into widespread usage.
"My machine is a threat in terms of changing the financial
and the power structure of the world," he says calmly. "I
conspiracy goes all the way to the president."
Newman has written every president since Lyndon Johnson
this new energy technology was on the horizon. Most of his
unanswered, presumably ignored.
However, in 1983 Newman sent Reagan a package of material
machine. In a letter he asked the administration's help "for
of the world."
Included in the package was a videotape of the machine that
on a New Orleans television news show. Newman got the package
a form letter indicating that it had not been opened.
But when he opened the package to file the material, Newman
he had not included. "There was a video review sheet from an
the White House," Newman says, showing the sheet. "It
only had the package been looked at, but it had been looked at
The review sheet states, among other things: "Some scientists
this invention could change the world."
"When I called to find out what the review sheet was all
fellow at the White House was furious that I had seen it,"
"They wanted to know how I had gotten hold of a copy of that
A White House spokesman said hundreds of videos are received
White House annually and that many of them are reviewed by
"What is on the review sheet is not the opinion of anyone on
House staff," the spokesman said. "It is merely a review of
on the tape."
`People are trained not to accept change' ---
But Newman is sure that a conspiracy exists. He leans back in
in his workshop and ruminates. "It's strange that they are
these oil wells now," he says. "The reasons they are giving,
prices and such, are the same ones you've heard for three,
I don't see one factual piece of evidence for this to be
"I'll bet in the last two years, if you could find out who's
the copper mines, who's buying material for magnets. . . I'd
that when the wash is out, the oil companies have bought
Newman says his machine is not a perpetual motion machine and
does not create energy, two claims that have hurt its image.
Instead, it is a new way of tapping the electromagnetic
that is already there. Very simply put, the machine works like
Power is used to rotate two magnets wrapped in copper wire.
The rotating magnets and the atoms that align within the
create an electromagnetic field that can be tapped.
The revolutionary aspect of the machine is that the amount of
needed to align the atoms and rotate the magnets creating the
is less than the energy created. So there is a net gain in
Theoretically, with Newman's technology you could produce an
self-perpetuating source of pollution-free energy.
"I expect to have one of these machines running a car within
Newman says matter-of-factly. The fight for a patent for the
Energy Machine has become more than a fight to get an
Newman says the battle with the government has given him a
into the way people are taught to think in this country.
The battle has defined for Newman a philosophy. "People have
are being trained, not to accept change," he says. "My powers
are greater than many people's because my feet are not bound
Newman sits back and looks out the window of his workshop,
Revolutionary Energy Machine, out into the pine trees. "To be
you have to be a humble person. You have to believe that you
everything," he says.
[ Unknown Title / Publication ]
Warren E. Leary
AP Science Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Government engineers say a backwoods
energy machine has a number of unique features but lacks a
-- it doesn't work.
The National Bureau of Standards said Thursday that more than
of court-ordered testing has failed to prove Joseph W.
that his controversial machine produces more energy than it
"At all conditions tested, the input power exceeded the
the government's standards-setting agency said in a report.
device did not deliver more energy than it used."
Newman, who terms himself a self-educated, backwoods inventor
Miss., who used common sense to come up with his machine,
the test results as biased and meaningless.
The agency by its own admission used unconventional
methods to reach its conclusions, said Newman, whose quest for
patent has attracted national attention.
"I do not accept these results at all," Newman said in a
"I predicted this decision. It's just another example of the
I'm fighting against."
The bureau's report said that because of unusual electrical
of the machine, it had to design a test plan and combination
specifically for Newman's non-standard device. But it said it
checked the instruments to assure the accuracy of the tests.
Newman said he would not accept results coming from
that could not be repeated by others.
"If I built my own test equipment and said that it proves my
worked, no one would give me much credit, no one would believe
said. "But that's what the Bureau of Standards has done and
people to believe them."
The inventor has been trying for six years to get the U.S.
Patents and Trademarks to issue a patent on an energy machine
accepted laws of physics.
Patent examiners say the invention looks like yet another
a perpetual motion machine, one that would produce more energy
uses so that, theoretically, it could run forever.
This has been the goal of inventors for centuries, but
science says it is impossible.
Newman contends his device is not a perpetual motion machine,
revolutionary energy source that uses the previously unknown
of copper coils to release more energy than it consumes.
U.S. District Judge Thomas P. Jackson, presiding over
against the patent office, ordered a new trial date after
of the tests he ordered from the bureau.
John P. Flannery, Newman's lawyer, said Jackson set Dec. 8 as
for a non-jury trial to determine if the inventor will be
Flannery said he asked the judge to permit Newman to examine
equipment used to test the energy machine, but that Jackson
order it. If the Patent Office does not allow examination of
Flannery said, he would seek another court order to do so.
The Bureau of Standards said that during the testing, it
Newman's device "behaves in a manner which is entirely
well-established laws of physics."
A device would be called 100 percent energy efficient if it
all the energy coming into it back to the outside, the report
it would have to show an efficiency of greater than 100
percent to make
more power than it consumed.
The bureau said the efficiency of Newman's machine ranged
percent and 67 percent, depending upon the test being run.
Never did the energy coming out of the machine exceed the
going into the device to get it running, the report said.
A Description of the Newman Motor
Roger Hastings, Ph.D.
This document is intended to provide information regarding
device invented by Mr. Joseph Newman of Lucedale, Mississippi.
the material in response to numerous requests for information.
of these requests has increased dramatically since Newman's
of his motor at Washington, D.C., in May, 1985. This paper
history to date of my involvement with Newman, presents data
taken at the Washington demonstration, provides an analysis of
and presents my current thoughts regarding a mathmatical
I first met Mr. Newman in September, 1981. Newman is an
he had travelled to Minnesota to present a toy invention to
Corp. My brother, John, was at the time in charge of new
and he interviewed Newman. John and Joe wound up discussing
theories of matter and energy, and Joe's motor. At that time,
for people to verify the operation of his motor for the patent
He invited John to Lucedale, but John said that his brother
(me) had a
Ph.D. in physics, and therefore better credentials to offer
of a motor.
My first reaction to the news of Newman's energy producing
quite negative. I had been a professor for four years, and had
several people with "world saving" energy devices which they
by the University. In all cases such devices had proven to be
as net energy producers. Newman offered to fly me to Lucedale
motor, and I responded that he would be wasting his money and
because I would certainly prove him wrong. He insisted, and I
The motor that I saw on that first visit was a monument to
and to an incredible personal effort at building such a large
consisted of five thousand pounds of #5 gauge wire wound as a
Within the solenoid, a 600 pound ceramic magnet rotated on
bearings. The bearings were mounted in a wooden structure. On
of the rotor was a mechanical commutator consisting of three
wheels, and brushes whose tension was adjusted with rubber
received its power from a bank of six volt lantern batteries.
magnet rotated, the whole structure creaked and groaned. At
Newman was taking energy output from a secondary coil wrapped
motor primary solenoid. I measured the voltage and current
on an oscilloscope. The output load was a resistor, and I
the output voltage and current. Multiplying voltage and
current to find
power, I determined that the motor was about 90% efficient.
Newman claimed that his motor was not performing up to par on
and said that he would ask me back when he had the device
Although I had proven that the motor at that time was not
energy gain, several aspects of Newman and his motor were
First, the motor was not designed efficiently. Large
were evident, and a 90% efficiency seemed highly unusual.
magnet was rotating at some 60 RPM with an input power of only
Finally, Newman himself, while unconventional, seemed highly
definately a creative thinker, and intensely dedicated to his
work. He informed me that he had evolved his theory and filed
before he had built a prototype motor. (I will discuss his
I travelled again to Lucedale and indeed Newman had tuned up
From that point foreward I consistantly measured efficiencies
of 100%. At this point I began an effort to attract scientific
in Newman's motor, and to aid him in obtaining a patent. I
affidavits and documents describing my measurements and
Newman's efforts. I have spent countless hours of my spare
past four years on this effort, withour renumeration. It takes
to understand the benefit to the human race which would result
economical device which generates energy with no external
input. In my
opinion, Newman's motor has performed well enough that the
should be showing great interest.
Over the years, a number of generic questions have repeatedly
Is there a hidden energy source? The device can be viewed from
and there are no external connections. The motor has been
country, and works equally well at all locations. The motor
by at least one other person, who claims that it works. Newman
be acting in his own self interest to simultaneously invite
commit fraud. It is generally known that Newman is sincere and
Why isn't the motor running itself without the need for
in concept the motor should be capable of running itself
the technological problems have
not been solved which would allow such operation. In a sense,
the motor does run itself. The motor has shown the capacity to
the batteries which provide voltage to the motor. Tests have
which up to 15 amp-hours of output have been drawn from the
in which the six volt lantern batteries powering the motor
evidence of an energy loss (the battery condition was verified
of Ray-O-Vac Battery Co.). Tests have been run in which
batteries have been connected to the motor. The motor has
batteries to the point where they can power other devices. The
can be drained down (e.g. through a resistor), then be
the Newman motor and be charged up while they run the motor.
Why isn't Newman's motor powering a home or auto? In my
a demonstration would convince all skeptics, and create a
for the motor. Newman has proceeded in this direction. He has
least four prototype motors to study the effect of varying
He has steadily improved upon his large prototype, and has
generating up to about 200 watts of power. By contrast, an
requires one to three thousand watts on the average, with peak
of up to 20 thousand watts. In this regard, it would be
for establishments with high tech capabilities to aid Joe in
the motor output. His approach has been to reduce the physical
the motor to make it economical, and the output power. His
problem has been high voltage switching.
Why does Newman keep his technical process a secret? This
answered at Washington in May, when Newman revealed the
of his motor to the public. He has published a book ("The
of Joseph Newman", available from Newman Publishing, Rt. 1,
Mississippi 39452), in which he describes his theory and his
had kept the process secret to avoid patent infringement.
patent is still pending in the U.S., it has issued in other
Presumably his patent rights will be protected in the U.S.,
should be noted that his motor is being copied by others, so
of his patent in the U.S. is of immediate importance. Garland
of CBS news in New Orleans has run a number of reports on
with the U.S. Patent office.
I do not fully understand why the scientific community in
has not shown more interest in Newman's motor. He has had
about 30 independent scientists and engineers, most of whom
engineering or consulting firms. He has also received some
from investors, who represent a range of interests, including
power interests. I know of no one who has observed Newman's
measurements who has been able to show that his claims are
the contrary, most observers come in as skeptics, and leave as
Over the years my colleagues have consistantly provided me
questioning the validity of my measurements. I have responded
questions by modifying the measurement proceedures and
In all cases the Newman device has passed the tests to my
In my opinion, Newman has at least discovered some interesting
new phenomena, and at most has discovered a process which will
dependence upon limited and polluting energy resources.
Roger Hastings, Ph.D.
Transcribed By George W. Dahlberg P.E.
I do not intend to recapitulate the theory presented in
but rather to briefly provide my interpretation of his ideas.
studying electricity and magnetism in the mid-1960's. He has a
background, and was looking for a mechanical description of
fields. That is, he assumed that there must be a mechanical
between, for example, two magnets. He could not find such a
in any book, and decided that he would have to provide his own
He came to the conclusion that if electromagnetic fields
spinning particles moving at the speed of light along the
then he could explain all standard electromagnetic phenomena
interaction of spinning particles. Since the spinning
in the same way as gyroscopes, he called the particles
In my opinion, such spinning particles do provide a
of electromagnetic phenomena, and his model is useful in
complex electrical situations (note that without a pictoral
rely solely upon mathematical equations which can become
Given that electromagnetic fields consist of matter in
energy, Joe decided that it should be possible to tap this
He likes to say "How long did man sit next to a stream before
the paddle wheel?". Joe built a variety of unusual devices to
energy in electromagnetic fields before he arrived at his
design. He likes to point out that both Maxwell and Faraday,
of electromagnitism, believed that the fields consisted of
This is stated in no uncertain terms in Maxwell's book "A
of the Electromagnetic Field". In fact, Maxwell used a
to derive his famous equations. This fact has all but been
books on electromagnetic theory. The quantity which Maxwell
momentum" is now refered to as the "vector potential".
Going further, Joe realized that when a magnetic field is
gyroscopic particles must come from the atoms of the materials
the field. Thus he decided that all
matter must consist of the same gyroscopic particles. For
when a voltage is applied to a wire, Newman pictures
(which I will call gyrotons for short) moving down the wire at
of light. These gyrotons line up the electrons in the wire.
themselves consist of a swirling mass of gyrotrons, and their
combine when lined up to form the magnetic lines of force
the wire. In this process, the wire has literally lost some of
to the magnetic field, and this is accounted for by Einstein's
of energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light.
to Einstein, every conversion of energy involves a
of matter. According to Newman, this may be interpreted as an
of gyrotrons. For example, if two atoms combine to give off
atoms would weight slightly less after the reaction than
to Newman, the atoms have combined and given off some of their
in the form of light. Thus Einstein's equation is interpreted
of counting gyrotrons. These particles cannot be created or
Newman's theory, and they always move at the speed of light.
My interpretation of Newman's original idea for his motor is
As a thought experiment, suppose one made a coil consisting of
miles of wire. An electrical field would require one second to
length of the wire, or in Newman's language, it would take one
gyrotons inserted at one end of the wire to reach the other
that the polarity of the applied voltage was switched before
has elapsed, and this polarity switching was repeated with a
than one second. Gyrotons would become trapped in the wire, as
increased, so would the alignment of electrons and the number
in the magnetic field increase. The intensified magnetic field
used to do work on an external magnet, while the input current
would be small or non-existant. Newman's motors contain up to
of wire, and the voltage is rapidly switched as the magnet
elaborates upon his theory in his book, and uses it to
of physical phenomena.
RECENT DATA ON THE NEWMAN MOTOR
In May of 1985 Joe Newman demonstrated his most recent motor
in Washington, D.C.. The motor consisted of a large coil wound
with a large magnet rotating within the bore of the solenoid.
supplied by a bank of six volt lantern batteries. The battery
switched to the coil through a commutator mounted on the shaft
magnet. The commutator switched the polarity of the voltage
coil each half cycle to keep a positive torque on the rotating
In addition, the commutator was designed to break and remake
contact about 30 times per cycle. Thus the voltage to the coil
The speed of the magnet rotation was adjusted by covering up
the commutator so that pulsed voltage was applied for a
fraction of a
Two speeds were demonstrated: 12 R.P.M. for which 12 pulses
revolution; and 120 rpm for which all commutator segments were
The slower speed was used to provide clear oscilloscope
and voltages. The fast speed was used to demonstrate the
of the motor. Energy outputs consisted of incandescent bulbs
with the batteries, flourescent tubes across the coil, and a
by a belt attached to the shaft of the rotor. Revelent motor
are given below:
Coil weight : 9000 lbs.
Coil length : 55 miles of copper wire
Coil Inductance: 1,100 Henries measured by observing the
time when a D.C. voltage was applied.
Coil resistance: 770 Ohms
Coil Height : about 4 ft.
Coil Diameter : slightly over 4 ft. I.D.
Magnet weight : 700 lbs.
Magnet Radius : 2 feet
Magnet geometry: cylinder rotating about its perpendicular
Magnet Moment of Inertia: 40 kg-sq.m. (M.K.S.) computed as one
mass times radius squared
Battery Voltage: 590 volts under load
Battery Type : Six volt Ray-O-Vac lantern batteries connected
A brief description of the measurements taken and distributed
press conference follows. When the motor was rotating at 12
D.C. input current from the batteries was about 2 milli-amps,
battery input was then 1.2 watts. The back current (flowing
direction of battery current) was about -55 milli-amps, for an
charging power of -32 watts. The forward and reverse current
observable on the oscilloscope. It was noted that when the
flowed, the battery voltage rose above its ambient value,
the batteries were charging. The magnitude of the charging
verified by heating water with a resistor connected in series
batteries. A net charging power was the primary evidence used
the motor was generating energy internally, however output
observed. The 55 m-amp current flowing in the 770 ohm coil
watts of heat, which is in excess of the input power. In
lights were blinking brightly as the coil was switched.
The back current from the coil switched from zero to negative
amps in about 1 milli-second, and then decayed to zero in
Given the coil inductance of 1100 henries, the switching
several million volts. Curiously, the back current did not
but increased in a staircase. Each step in the staircase
an extremely fast switching of current, with each increase in
larger than the previous increase. The width of the stairs was
micro-seconds, which for reference is about one third of the
of light through the 55 mile coil.
Mechanical losses in the rotor were measured as follows: The
spun up by hand with the coil open circuited. An inductive
was attached to a chart recorder to measure the rate of decay
The energy stored in the rotor (one half the moment of inertia
square of the angular velocity) was plotted as a function of
slope of this curve was measured at various times and gave the
in the rotor as a function of rotor speed. The result of these
is given in the following table:
Rotor Speed Power Dissipation Power/(Speed Squared)
radian/sec --- watts --- watts/(rad/sec)^2
4.0 --- 6.3 --- 0.39
3.7 --- 5.8 --- 0.42
3.3 --- 5.0 --- 0.46
3.0 --- 3.5 --- 0.39
2.1 --- 2.0 --- 0.45
1.7 --- 1.2 --- 0.42
1.2 --- 0.7 --- 0.47
The data is consistant with power loss proportional to the
the angular speed, as would be expected at low speeds. When
fast enough so that air resistance is important, the losses
to increase as the cube of the angular speed. Using power =
the square of the angular speed will give a lower bound on
dissipation at all speeds. When the rotor is moving at 12 rpm,
the mechanical loss is 0.7 watts.
When the rotor was sped up to 120 rpm by allowing the
fire on all segments, the results were quite dramatic. The
blinking rapidly and brightly, and the fan was turning
current spikes were about ten amps, and still increased in a
with the width of the stairs still about 100 micro-seconds.
of the input current were not obtained at that time, however I
measurements communicated to me by Mr. Newman. At a rotation
rpm (corresponding to mechanical losses of at least 190
power was about 6 watts. The back current in this test was
corresponding to heating in the coil of 190 watts. As a final
interest, note that the Q of his coil at 200 rpm is about 30.
plus commutator is considered as an A.C. power source, then
of the coil at 200 rpm is 23,000 henries, and the power factor
In this light, the predicted input power at 700 volts is less
MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF NEWMAN'S MOTOR
Since I am preparing this document on my home computer, it
to use the Basic computer language to write down formulas. The
is * for multiply, / for divide, ^ for raising to a power, and
-dot to represent a derivative. Newton's second law of motion
Newman's rotor yields the following equation:
MI*TH-dot-dot + G*TH-dot = K*I*SIN(TH) (1)
where MI = rotor moment of inertia
TH = rotor angular position (radians)
G = rotor decay constant
K = torque coupling constant
I = coil current
In general the constant G may depend upon rotor speed, as
becomes important. The term on the right hand side of the
the torque delivered to the rotor when current flows through
A constant friction term was found through measurement to be
to the TH-dot term at reasonable speeds, but can be included
G. The equation for the current in the coil is given by:
L*I-dot + R*I = V(TH) - K*(TH-dot)*SIN(TH) (2)
where L = coil inductance
I = coil current
R = coil resistance
V(TH) = voltage applied to coil by the commutator which is a
of the angle TH
K = rotor induction constant
In general, the resistance R is a function of voltage,
during commutator switching when the air resistance breaks
a spark. Note that the constant K is the same in equations (1)
This is required by energy conservation as discussed below. To
energy considerations, multiply Equation (1) by TH-dot, and
by I. Note that the last term in each equation is then
identical if the
K's are the same. Eliminating the last term between the two
the instantaneous conservation law:
I*V=R*I^2 + G*(T,-dot)^2 + .5*L*(I^2)-dot
If this equation is averaged over one cycle of the rotor,
two terms vanish when steady state conditions are reached
current and speed repeat their values at angular positions
by 360 degrees). Denoting averages by < >, the above
<IV> = <R*I^2> + <G*(TH-dot)^2> (3)
This result is entirely general, independent of any
and G on other quantities. The term on the left represents the
The first term on the right is the power dissipated in the
second term is the power delivered to the rotor. The
as power delivered to the rotor divided by input power is thus
than one by Equation (3). This result does require, however,
K in equation (1) and equation (2) are identical. If the
constant K in
equation (2) is smaller than the constant K appearing in
then it may be varified that the efficiency can mathmatecally
What do the constants, K, mean? In the first equation, we
delivered to the magnet, while in the second equation we have
inductance or reaction of the magnet upon the coil. The
equality of the
constants is an expression of Newton's third law. How could
be unequal? Consider the sequence of events which occur during
of the commutator. First the contact breaks, and the magnetic
the coil collapses, creating a huge forward spike of current
coil and battery. This current spike provides an impulsive
rotor. The rotor accelerates, and the acceleration produces a
magnetic field which propagates through the coil, creating the
Suppose that the commutator contacts have separated
last event occurs to prevent the back current from flowing to
Then the back reaction is effectively smaller than the forward
torque on the rotor. This suggestion invokes the finite
of the electromagnetic fields, which has not been included in
(1) and (2).
A continued mathmatical modeling of the Newman motor should
the effects of finite propagation time, particularly in his
long coil of wire. I have solved Equations (1) and (2)
note that the solutions require finer and finer step size as
moment of inertia, and magnet strength are increased to large
solutions break down such that the motor "takes off" in the
this may indicate instabilities, which could be mediated in
external pertubations. I am confident that Maxwell's equations
proper electro-mechanical coupling, can provide an explanation
observed in the Newman device. The electro-mechanical coupling
in the Maxwell equations if a unified picture (such as
of gyroscopic particles) is adopted.
Science (10 Feb. 1984), pp. 571-572
Newman's Impossible Motor
The patent office does not believe that Joseph Newman
generator that is more than 100 percent efficient, but New
At least one physicist in Louisiana swears that the CBS News
Dan Rather was smiling on 9 January when he reported that an
New Orleans has built a generator that defies the second law
Others did not see any smile. What they did see, to their
an earnest but fantastic news story that has been running on
biggest television channel being repeated over the network
The story is about an inventor, a self-educated Missisippian
Wesley Newman. He was pleased with the CBS broadcast because
him in a fight with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,
him a patent on the grounds of his latest invention, "smacks
motion machine", meaning by definition it cannot do what it
25 June, the U.S District Court for the District of Columbia
a suit Newman has brought against the patant office arguing
does not aim at perpetual motion but converts mass to energy
but very efficient manner. He simply wants a patent.
Newman's invention is hard to describe, partly because its
seems to be at odds with the laws of physics and partly
are being kept secret while the ligation goes on. Newman says
of magnetism is "10,000 times more important" than the
which be built to demonstrate the concept. He claims to have
the mechanical principles of a gyroscopic particle of matter
in a magnetic field much as an electron orbits in an atomic
readers of his theory say it is incomprehensible and would not
were it not for the illustrative devices. The patent Newman
an "Energy Generation System Having Larger Output than Input".
have seen it say it is a crude direct current motor powered by
lantern batteries with a heavy, rotating magnet at its center.
Readings of the machine's performance, like those of Dan
depend on the reader. As a result of the TV coverage, the
people of New
Orleans may be convinced that Newman has invented a simple
produces more energy than it consumes and could end the
sqabbles if only an arrogant scientific community would pay
That is Newman's message. It has been taken up and broadcasted
of crusade by Garland Robinette, the evening news anchorman at
affiliate in New Orleans, WWL-TV.
Last autumn Robinette aired an eight-part series on Newman's
charging that jealous academics and frightened executives
information about it. Robinette concedes that his intense
began on a slow news day when he was looking for a cute
claims he was skeptical at first and saw Newman's invention as
But the story soon grew into a "monster that I couldn't let
Orleans viewers, facing a 200 percent increase in utility
to know more. Furthermore, a Missisippi state energy offical
scientist had recently vouched for Newman's claims. Robinette
since he began reporting on the invention, no one has come
Newman. He challenges people to come to "get this story off my
Newman has benefited from the television coverage and from
endorsements. For example, the television engineers watched
Robinette dragged two reluctant engineers on WWL-TV staff to
in Lucedale, Missisippi., about 2 1/2 hours from New Orleans.
sceptics at first, but, after looking at oscilloscope readings
the machine recharge batteries, they agreed with their
claims seemed valid.
Engineer Ralph Hartwell described the tests he ran. When he
at Newman's House, he connected some weak penlight batteries
along to a small conventional motor in Newman's back yard. It
to run until the batteries were drained of power, taking about
He then moved the dead batteries over to the smallest of
motors, connected them as a power source, and started this
It ran until it was time for the camera crew to leave, for
1 ans 2 hours. Finally, the batteries were taken fram Newman's
back to the conventional motor and reconnected. This time the
for about 3 minutes. Hartwell ran annother experiment on a
and concluded that it also appeared to generate more power
Other measurements were taken with oscilloscopes and current
these readings have been questioned. After signing a
Hartwell was allowed to examine the machine's inner wiring. He
that there is no hidden source of energy. Although he feels
about it, he says he could not disprove Newman's claim and
see a universtity run a controlled test.
Newman's key endorsement comes from Roger Hastings, a
for the Sperry Univac Company in Minneapolis. A colleague who
as a postdoc fellow at the University of Virginia says
as an adventurous and excellent theorist. Hasting's brother, a
for new ideas for Tonka Toys, met Newman when he
submitted an invention to Tonka. Although sceptical, Hastings
physician) was persuaded to make a trip to Lucedale. "I used
at North Dakota University", says Hastings, "and we would get
four people a year who had some kind of device that was going
world. I assumed it was the same." Newman talked Hastings into
for a visit anyway. He returned five times, testing and
until he was satisfied that he had made no mistake. He
an affidatvit describing the invention in detail and stating
that it runs at greater than 100 percent efficency, producing
than it consumes. "I'm sticking my neck out," he says,
"because this is
an important issue that should be resolved."
Endorsements such as this are essential for the credibility
application. Although Newman has read the works of the great
thinkers Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell, he is not
math or physics.
Newman is collecting seval more endorsements. He claims to
the backing recently of, a Geman aerospace engineer and a
between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
European space consortium. Gerald Miller, a mechanical
of advanced physics, and electical industiy consultant in
inspected the devices and says, "I saw things that I cannot
conventional terms." He found that the device produced more
it used, adding, "I am absolutely certain that there is no
source. Milton Everett, a mechanical Engineer and director of
program for the Missisippi Department of Energy and
"I think Joe has discovered something that the world is going
from. It's nor a perpetual motion machine; it converts mass to
Excluding inverstors, Newman claims to have about 27 such
But there have been and continue to be prominent doubters.
anchorman Robinette has given little attention or credence to
thorough analysis ever performed on Newman's device. It was
Everett (before he became a full convert to Newman's cause)
for by the Missisippi energy department. Two electrical
Missisippi State University (MSU), --- Karl Carlson and Donald
--- tested one of the Newman's devices last March. The
unfavourable, because the motor kept breaking down every
says Carlson, as a huge spark from the induction coil shorted
on the commutator. Thus, while it war fairly easy to measure
going in, it was not easy to tell what was coming out. Newman
a smaller, less quirky motor since then.
The pattern on the oscilloscope at the output end of a cycle
to read because as one observer says, the discharge spark
bright flash" or "a mess" on the face of the screen. Newman
point aside as a quibble, saying it merely indicates his
power. The efficiency claimed for this device is anywhere from
the impossible (slightly over 100 percent) to the fantastic
and up). A normal electric motor may be 80 percent efficient,
and transformers are generally in the 90's. Carlson and
that Newman's machine was between 55 and 76 percent efficient,
their reading of the most favourable oscillograms.
They wrote that they found "an output which is definitely
the input." However, they hedged by saying it was impossible
the mechanical energy lost in the machine, which could affect
They declined to call Newman's invention a breakthrough but
it was remakably efficient given its "obvious crude
a standard tag line, they wrote that "further investigation is
Newman reads this qualified rejection as a qualified
when it comes to praising new discoveries, academisc are mean.
of Carlson and Fitzgerald with harsher adjectives.
The physics faculties of Loyola and Tulane Universities, both
Orleans, have protested Robinette's reports. Daniel
physics chairman, says: "We all dispute it. A number of us
[Robinette] we think what he's doing is irresponsible. I
talked to him
for about 2 hours about the principles involved." Carl Brans,
at Loyola, wrote Robinette a two-page letter of protest. "It's
journalism. In our opinion, it's not worth the cost," to try
measurements that would end the discussion.
David Keiffer, an experimental physicist at Loyola, along
faculty member, offered to check Newman's device if he would
the laboratory. (Newman's patent attorney is a physics
But in the preliminary talks, Keiffer says, Newman insisted
that he be
present during the entire procedure. Then he and Keiffer got
Newman packed up and left, never to return. The Loyola
to advise WWL-TV's engineers on testing the device, but this
be a touchy proposition, because WWL is owned by Loyola and
founded by Loyola's physics department. No one wanted the
advice to be
interpreted as pressure.
"I have a fairly good reputation here," Robinette says of his
reporting, "and this thing just has the potential to make me
an absolute ignoranmus. So I've tried desperately to disprove
all I've done so far is get more and more people who are
What about the negative conclusion reached by the MSU
maintains (like Newman and Everett) that while the engineers
the machine, they agreed that it was producing more energy
But "when they went back, they wrote an ambigous response that
it didn't work and didn't say it did." Robinette mentions that
engineers are retired, as though to diminish their
it "very surprising that they never called to challenge his
gave the Newman-Everett version of events.
Some who might otherwis voice scepticism seem to sypathize
because of the way the patent office rebuffed him. In court
patent office concedes that Newman is correct that it rejected
without fully reading the documents he submitted; that his
was handled by an examiner --- Donovan Duggan --- who seems to
in rejecting perpetual machines; that Duggan said he would not
patent on Newman's device, no matter how much supportive
that the office officials never tested the Newman device for
refused to observe oscilloscope readings of its input and
that the office issued a patent 1979 to a man named Howard
a perpetual motion machine that Johnson since then agreed is
If there were an association of militant patent rejectees,
battle with the patent office could be its rallying cause. But
no such association. However, Newman has done reasonably well
attention by himself, especially in New Orleans. In a few
get his day in court.
Science (16 Nov. 1984), p. 817
An Endless Siege of Implausible
R. Jeffrey Smith
In the modern world of commerce, the U.S. patent and
is a street-corner cop with the power to arrest the
development of any
product that promises the impossible. Its book of statutes
basic laws of physics, the axioms of mathematics, the
of mechanical engineering. With particular enthusiasm, its
as guardians of the public in a never-ending battle against
devices allegedly capable of perpetual motion.
This, at least, is how they see themselves. Inventors such as
Newman are more apt to view them as "a bunch of narrow-minded
have conducted themselves outside the federal law and the
For more than 5 years, Newman, 48, has been frustrated in his
obtain a patent for an "Energy System Having Higher Output
In 1982, the patent office told him that because such a device
infeasible, his application was denied after something less
time-consuming review (Science, 10 February 1984, p.
Recently, however, with the help of some unexpected
Newman persuaded the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C.,
that his application be granted a full review by an examiner
a second chance. Newman believes that the decision is a slap
for the patant office and a partial vindication of his claims.
the dispute reveals how easy it can be for inventors to jerk
office around. The ruling, made by Judge Thomas Jackson on 31
places the office in the difficult position of determining
"energy generation system" -- a powerful electric motor -- is
described in his application, and whether it is similar or
motors with existing patants. Neither topic was given serious
on the first go-around, for reasons the patent office believes
The decision resulted from an unusual hearing in which a
attorneys in Newman's employ repeatedly cited patent case law,
Sears, deputy solicitor in the patent office, repeatedly
law of thermodynamics. In its essence, that law states that
produced by a mechanical device such as Newman's will always
the energy needed to operate it. In addition to basing the
case on "all
of recorded science", as Sears put it, he relied heavily on an
from Jacod Rainbow, a former chief research engineer at the
of Standards and well-known debunker of perpetual motion
has several objections to the patent application, but his
is that the motor's output of energy has been measured
he has not seen the device or tested himself, he is willing to
money" that it operates at well under 100 percent efiicency.
As strong as the gouverment's argument was, it was sharply
by two affidavits. One was written by Mort Zimmerman, the
Commercial Technology, Inc., in Dallas. Zimmerman said his
"has independently ... constructed, operated, and tested
prototype devices based on the Newman invention, and has
itself that these prototype devices which embody the Newman
and produce power as claimed by Newman" at more than 111
Zimmerman was enthusiastic enough to purchase an option for
manufacture and sell Newman's motor in north Texas. (Recently,
he told Science
that the motor "needs further development for practical
we're not completely convinced that we can get there.")
The second affidavit was prepared from Lawrence E. Wharton, a
in the Laboratory For Atmospheric Sciences at the Goddart
Center in Maryland. Initially, Wharton, who volunteered his
the patent office as a sceptic of Newman's claims, vigorously
Zimmerman's statement. Shortly before the court hearing,
some of his arguments, and declared that the motor's
efficiency "is in
substantial excess of 100 percent" and perhaps as high as 600
if Newman's measurements are correct. The change of heart
after Newman argued with him in a long telephone conversation.
Both of these statements apparently made a strong impression
Schuyler, an attorney and one-time commissioner of U.S.
patents who was
appointed by the judge as a "special master" to help resolve
technical disputes. In his report, Schuyler agreed that the
Newman's motor "seems clearly to conflict with recognized
relating to thermodynamics and conservation of energy." But he
ther was an "overwhelming" evidence that the motor's output
the external input energy, adding that "there is no
evidence." He went so far as to state that Newman was entitled
as long as it did not conflict with any existing patents.
All of this came as a great shock to Sears. It was he, not
nominated Schuyler. "We felt reasonably safe with a person of
he explains. In a final pleading to the judge, Sears asked,
"Why are we
still paying power bills if Newman has actually achieved his
Court should exercise some common sense and refrain from
who apparently believe in the tooth fairy... Manifestly, this
no power to abrogate a natural law."
In his ruling, Judge Jackson accepted the major points of
report, but said he was unwilling to conclude as yet that
a "truly pioneering invention." That decision awaits aanother
now set for January. Sears denies that this decision has any
for the general patent review process. But one effect may be
to bar the
office from dealing summarily whith such unusual claims in the
a development that could sharply increase the examination
by inventors with more plausible claims.
To Newman, the dispute has become a crusade. Having spent
of dollars already in lawyer's fees, consulting fees, and
he will soon pay to publish a book describing both his
patent fight. He says that "the world is fortunate that I'm
of a ruckus, I intend to fight this untill hell freezes over."
Science (July 11, 1986), Vol. 233
Newman's " Energy Output" Machine Put to
What's a device with a battery pack, a magnet, and a coil
For the past 6 years, Joseph Newman, an inventor from
been loudly proclaiming that it's a revolutionary machine
more power than it uses. The National Bureau of Standards
its own verdict after analyzing Newman's machine: "In none of
the device's approach 100%.... Our results are clear and
the bureau said.
Newman has gone to great lengths to try to win a patent on
output machine. When the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
1984 that the device did not work, Newman sued the agency. He
and the media often portrayed him as an underdog pitted
establishment. Then the court ordered Newman to submit the
National Bureau of Standards for testing. Newman reluctantly
A physicist and two electrical engineers from the bureau
machine in a variety of ways to measure its energy input and
used instrumentation that is common in research engineering
The sole power source of the device was 116 9-volt batteries.
to the test results, the device's efficiency ranged from 27 to
on the voltage, the power drawn from the device, and the
tape on one of the parts. (The tape kept burning from sparks
by the machine, which caused the efficiency to drop and had to
According to John Lyons, director of the bureau's National
Laboratory, the device basically converted direct current to
current. He noted that there are several machines already on
that do the same thing, but they run at 90% efficiency or
Newman had court permission to observe the bureau's tests,
appeared for any of the experiments, which were conducted
and June. His spokesman Evan Soule said Newman will ask the
the testing of the test equipment. Newman said in an
interview, "I have
no respect for the National Bureau of Standards. This is a
The testing cost the bureau $75,000, which it hopes to recoup
patent office. The patent office will submit the results to
Court for the District of Columbia, which will try the case in
Measurement & Analysis of Joseph
Dr. Roger Hastings, Ph.D.
The author has made numerous measurements on the Energy
by Joseph Newman of Lucedale, Mississippi. The machines are
core, permanent magnet motors. The most important design rule
by the inventor is that the length of wire in the motor coil
preferably long enough so that the switching time between
is shorter than the time required for propagation of the
through the coil. Various models contain up to 55 miles of
core coil inductances of up to 20,000 Henries. The permanent
have very large magnetic moments. Thus the motors exhibit high
low current inputs. The motors generate large back current
of pulsed rf in the 10-20 MHz frequency range. These spikes
mechanical impulses to the rotor, energize fluorescent tubes
the motor, and tend to charge the dry cell battery pack. The
energy --- consisting of mechanical work, mechanical friction,
and light --- is many times larger than the battery input
Newman's theories and machines will be described.
net energy gain from the devices will be presented. A
mathematical description of the motor will also be presented.
the author will present his personal impressions of Newman's
Newman's Theory ---
Joseph Newman is an inventor who lives and works at his home
MS. He became interested in electromagnetic energy some 25
began a self-study program. After searching standard texts for
description of electromagnetic interactions, he concluded that
description existed. Newman decided that he would have to
own mechanical theory of electromagnetism, and over the
years he evolved his gyroscopic particle theory. This theory,
states that all matter and energy is composed of a single
particle which always moves at the speed of light. The
has mass, and it can neither be created or destroyed. All
in this theory, involve an exchange of gyroscopic particles. E
the expression of this concept, and simply represents an
gyroscopic particles during an energy conversion.
Electric and magnetic fields consist of gyroscopic particles
at the speed of light along the field lines. When an electric
field is created, the particles initially come from the
energized the field. For example, when a battery is connected
gyroscopic particles flow at the speed of light down the wire,
tend to align the gyroscopic particle flow fields of the
wire. The electricgyroscopic particle flow field extends
creating the circumferential magnetic field of the wire. The
the magnetic field is Nmc^2, where N is the number of
particles in the
field, and m is the mass of an individual particle. This
particles, came from the electrons of the copper.
Thus, Newman considers the current flowing in the wire to be
which energy to emanate from the atoms of the wire. He claims
developed a mechanism whereby field energy can be pumped out
atoms in the wire, thereby reducing their mass without
source which has supplied the catalytic current flow. Since
the mass is
consumed totally, there is no pollution in this process. One
if totally consumed,could supply enough energy to power a home
thousand years. Newman describes his theory and its
applications in his
book, THE ENERGY MACHINE OF JOSEPH NEWMAN .
Description of Newman Motors ---
Newman's motors may be described as two-pole, single phase,
magnet armature, DC motors. That is, the armature consists of
permanent magnet which either rotates or reciprocates within a
of copper wire. The coil is energized with a bank of dry cell,
batteries. In the rotating models, which will be emphasized in
the battery voltage to the coil is reversed each half cycle of
by a mechanical commutator attached to the shaft of the
Motor operation is sensitive to the angle at which the voltage
and this is optimized experimentally. On some models, the
interrupts the voltage several times per cycle, creating a
to the coil.
The coils are constructed with a very large number of turns
wire. In all models, the coil inductive reactance is much
coil resistance at operating speed. However, the coil
enough so that even in the locked rotor condition, very little
flows through the coil. The motors typically draw less than
so that small capacity batteries (e.g., 9 volt transistor
be used in series for the power supply. Self resonant
at which the coil inductive reactance equals the coil
reactance) are typically on the order of the armature rotation
The permanent magnet armature is very strong, and TIGHT
COUPLING TO THE
COIL is emphasized in Newman's later models [emphasis added].
models used up to 700 pounds of ceramic magnets, while later
smaller armatures made with powerful neodymium-boron-iron
commutator is protected by fluorescent tubes placed across the
tubes are placed in series so that the battery voltage will
down. When the coil is switched, the tubes are lit by the
voltage, minimizing arcing across the commutator.
Newman's motors exhibit the following extraordinary
1) High torque is realized with very little input current and
input power. The battery input power is typically several
than the measured frictional power losses occurring when the
at its operating speed. His motors are at least ten times more
than commercial electric motors (perform the same work with
2) The batteries last much longer than would be expected for
input. It has been demonstrated that "dead" dry cell batteries
up while operating a Newman Motor, and subsequently be able to
significant power to normal loads (e.g., lights). The
batteries fail by
internal shorting rather than be depletion of their internal
3) Significant rf power is generated by the motor (primarily
ten to twenty megahertz range). The rf is a high voltage
and will light fluorescent or neon tubes placed between the
in addition to lighting the tubes placed across the motor
coil. The rf
current flows through the entire system, and has been measured
to have an rms value many times larger than the battery input
A large amount of data has been collected by many individuals
various Newman Motors. While Newman's most recent prototypes
the most interesting because of their reduced volume, I will
on his original prototype large machine which has been more
investigated. Measured motor parameters are listed below:
Weight ........................... 9,000 pounds
Copper Wire Length ...... 55 miles
Coil Inductance ............. 1,100 Henries
Coil Resistance .............. 770 Ohms
Coil Inside Diameter ...... 4 feet
Coil Height .................... 4 feet
Rotor Weight ..................... 700 lbs. ceramic magnets
Rotor Length ..................... 4 feet
Moment of Inertia .............. 40 Kg-sq.m.
Magnetic Moment ............. 100 Tesla-cu.in
Battery Type ..................... 6 Volt Ray-O-Vac Lantern
Total Series Voltage .......... 590 Volts
Torque Constant ................ 15,400 oz. in./amp
Drag Coefficient ................. 0.005 Watts/sq.rpm.
Q at 200 rpm ..................... 30
Power Factor, 200 rpm ...... 0.03
The torque constant was measured at DC and agrees with
The drag coefficient was measured by plotting the motor speed
after disconnecting the batteries. It was found that the decay
with the drag torque being proportional to the angular speed.
motor operating at 200 rpm, the following measurements and
RESULTS: 200 RPM at 590 VOLTS
Battery Input Current ............ 10 milliampere
Battery Input Power .............. 6 Watts
Rotor Frictional Losses .......... 200 Watts
RF Current (rms) ................. 500 milliampere
RF Ohmic Losses in Coil .......... 190 Watts
Additional Loads ................. Fluorescent Tubes
Fan (belt driven)
The frictional losses are computed from the measured drag
The ohmic losses are computed from the coil resistance.
the additional loads, it is seen that the output energy of the
exceeded the input by a factor of 65!
Oscillograph photos show that the current waveform is
very large spike which occurs when the magnetic field of the
The leading edge of this spike is shown in Figure 1. The
rise is typical of the Newman Motors, with the width of the
cases being approximately equal to the length of the coil
by the speed of light. Although the average current in the
spike is at
DC, the actual current waveform under the stairs is pulsing at
of about 13 megahertz. The time average current in the
with the calorimeter measurement of the rf current.
Figure 1 [Not shown]. Reproduction of oscillographs
Motor switching current spike. Spike leading edge is shown
time base in second and third oscillograph. Rotor speed was
A phenomenological theory of operation is suggested here,
the following sequence of events:
1) The battery is switched across the coil and a current
particles) propagates into the coil at a speed determined by
propagation time constant.
2) Before the wavefront completes its journey through the
battery voltage is switched open. At this point the coil
equal to the current times the on-time.
3) When the switch is opened, all of this charge leaves the
a very short time, creating a very large current pulse in the
4) The magnetic field generated by this current pulse
flow) propagates out to the permanent magnet armature, and
gives it an
5) The magnet accelerates, and the resulting magnetic field
of the permanent magnet is propagated back to the coil,
However, by the time this occurs, the switch is open so that
does not impede the current flowing in the battery circuit.
These notions agree qualitatively with the measured
one-half cycle of rotation, a charge on the order of 0.01
be contained within the coil. From the oscillograph this is
seen to be
dumped in a few milliseconds, creating a current of several
current continues to flow for some ten milliseconds before
Newman's Motor can be described by the following set of
(1) J? + F(?) = K(sub t)I sin (?)
(2) LI = RI = V(?) - K(sub i)? sin (?)
J = Rotor Moment of Inertia
F = Friction and Load Torque
K(sub t) = Torque Constant
I = Coil Current
L = Coil Inductance
V = Applied Voltage
K(sub i) = Induction Constant
? = Rotation Angle
The first equation is Newton's second law applied to the
the second is the coil current circuit equation. The voltage
applied to the coil within the commutator. If the first
by ? and the second equation is multiplied by I, and both
averaged over one cycle, the sum of the resulting equations
(3) <IV> = <?F> + <I^2R> + (K(sub i) -
t) <?Isin ?)
where the brackets indicate a time average over one cycle of
The term on the left is the power input. The first two terms
right represent the mechanical power output (combined
and load power), and the ohmic heating in the coil windings.
is zero if the torque constant is equal to the induction
be the case in a conventional motor. However, as postulated
induction constant is smaller than the torque constant, the
the negative power.
To view this another way, assume that the input voltage,
commutator action varies as V = V(sub o)sin (?). If we also
the rotor angular
speed, ?, is nearly a constant, w, the following expression
for the motor efficiency:
<wF> K(sub t)w<Isin ?> K(sub t)w
(4) E = ______ = __________________ = ___________
<IV> V(sub o)<Isin ?> V (sub o)
The following two equations can now be solved for the
(5) LI + RI = (V(sub o) - K(sub i)w)sin(wt)
(6) <F(w)> = K(sub t)<I sin(wt)>
The solution depends upon the details of the mechanical load
F(w). If, however, the torque constant and voltage are both
(as they are in Newman's Motor), then the angular speed is
w apr.= __________
and the expression for the efficiency becomes:
E apr.= __________
If the torque and induction constants are equal, the motor is
one hundred percent efficient. If the torque constant exceeds
constant, the efficiency* exceeds 100%.
[*Note: the PRODUCTION efficiency can exceed 100% the
cannot exceed 100%]
Joseph Newman has demonstrated that his Theory is a useful
predictions of circuit function can be made without
his gyroscopic particles interact as spinning particles
product of their spins), and this qualitatively describes
In complicated electromagnetic systems, exact solutions to
may be difficult or impossible to obtain, while a
picture can be visualized to give qualitatively correct
models of electromagnetic interactions were considered
of the 19th century. Maxwell originally derived his famous
using a mechanical model of the electromagnetic field, and
"The theory I propose may therefore be called a theory of the
field because it has to do with the space in the neighborhood
or magnetic bodies, and it may be called a dynamical theory
assumes that in that space there is MATTER IN MOTION, by which
electro-magnetic phenomena are produced .... In speaking of
of the field, I wish to be understood literally: ALL ENERGY IS
AS MECHANICAL ENERGY.." [Emphasis added.]
Regarding Joseph Newman's Motor, I have no doubt about its
or about the profound importance of its future applications.
**AT THIS TIME IT APPEARS THAT THE FIRST APPLICATIONS WILL BE
FOR EXISTING ELECTRIC MOTORS. [Editor: Emphasis added.]
Regarding a rigorous mathematical description of the
it is clear that much effort, both theoretical and
required to achieve this end.
 THE ENERGY MACHINE OF JOSEPH NEWMAN, Joseph W. Newman
Soule, editor. Joseph Newman Publishing Company, Rt 1, Bx 52,
MS 39452 [1st Edition published in 1984.]
 The precise condition for this approximation to be valid
the locked rotor torque be much larger than the applied
at speed multiplied by one plus the square of the ratio of
and resistance. This condition applied to some of Newman's
in particular to the most recent small volume devices. In the
the voltage is applied with a phase shift chosen to optimize
and it can be shown that Equation 8 still applies in the limit
 A DYNAMICAL THEORY OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. James
T.F. Torrance, ed., Scottish Academic Press Ltd., Edinburgh
Maxwell's Presentation to the Royal Society, 1864).
The above was written by Dr. Roger Hastings, Ph.D., in 1987
before a National Conference of the International Tesla
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Dr. Roger Hastings has a Ph.D. in Physics, University of
1975; MS in Physics, University of Denver, 1971; BS in
of Denver, 1969.
Dr. Hastings was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of
1975-77 with research in organic superconductors and the
of solutions of macro-ions and viruses. Currently, Dr.
Hastings is a
Physicist with the UNISYS Corporation. As a consultant, Dr.
designs electric motors for other corporations.
*The latest commutator design enables higher voltages to be
Note: The above article was written several years ago.
described above are generally applicable "across the breadth
However, considerable improvements to the commutator design
in the recent past. These improvements are intended to
the intensity of the sparking by distributing the physical
over a wider area. The reader should bear in mind that there
different design systems (but many sub-configurations within
design): there is one commutator design when the energy
to function as a GENERATOR and a totally different commutator
the energy machine is intended to function as a MOTOR. The
improvements to the commutator system apply to the machine
a MOTOR. Subsequent torque can be utilized for mechanical
be used in conjunction with a conventional generator.