Electrical Experimenter (July 1920)
(Reprinted in Richard A. Ford: Homemade Lightning -- Creative Experiments in Electricity; McGraw-Hill; ISBN 0-07-137323-3)
by George Piggott
For some time past there has been quite a controversy going on regarding the subject of interplanetary communication by means of electric waves. I have been very much interested in the above on account of experiments which I have made and data collected pertaining to gravitation effects on high frequency oscillations and electronic discharges in general. A series of experiments which I conducted during the year 1904, caused me to formulate the theory that interplanetary transmission of electrical impulses was an impossibility on account of the sun’s resisting and absorbing influence which virtually isolates our planet from all other electrical vibrations of a lesser tension or power.
Gravitation Suspended in Experiments
The above theorem was arrived at after I had succeeded in sustaining a metallic object in space by means of a counter-gravitational effect produced through the action of an electric field upon the above object. A strong electric field was produced by means of a special form of generator and when the metallic object was held within its influence it drew up to approximately a distance of 1 mm from the center of the field, then was repelled backward toward an earthed contact, going within 10 cm of the same when it was again attracted toward the field’s center but this time getting no nearer than 5 cm from the polar nucleus. This backward and forward movement contained for some time until the metallic object at last came to a comparatively stable position, about 25 cm from the field’s center where it remained until the power was shut off. While the metallic object was suspended, I was able to study the effect of the surrounding field and found by means of a powerful microscope, assisted by the insertion of a vacuum tube within the field, that the metallic object (having of course a certain electrical capacity) became fully charged and gave off part of said charge to and against the surrounding field which tended to hold said object in space, apparently without any other sustaining influence. Around the outside of the metallic object and extending to a distance of about 1/2 cm was a completely dark belt or space in which there appeared to be no electrical agitation due, possibly, to neutralization caused by the contact of the large incoming energy supply from the field’s center of with the small oscillating radiations from metallic object. The ever-changing action of attraction and repulsion resulted in the overcoming of gravitation. Going farther I will state that the dark belt above mentioned after many tests gave no sign of electrification, inasmuch as its width was but 1/2 cm. In fact, a dark line was shown in the vacuum tube when it was introduced between metallic object and center of field. It is my firm conviction that somewhere on the outer confines of our planet there exists a similar counteracting belt through which naught but the gravitational vibrations of the sun penetrate, and these vibrations absolutely annihilate or absorb all other less powerful ones.
Therefore, after making many experiments to ascertain as nearly as possible the absolute facts and conditions as they exist, I have come to the conclusion that all electrical disturbances not due to our own radio oscillations, on this globe are due to the sun’s electrical activities in semi-inductional contact with our polar extremities.
Details of ‘Defying Gravity’
The illustrations 1 to 4 will possibly give a fair idea of the apparatus used, and the manner in which the experiments were carried on.
Figure 1 shows the general scheme of arrangement of devices. In the lower left hand corner is shown the ‘ground contact’, which can be turned around and placed in any position found necessary; in fact, when a metallic object is in suspension, this ground can be entirely eliminated.
I have found that any substance within the limits of my experiments can he held in suspension, viz: water globules, metallic objects, and insulators being among those tried. Some materials such as cork and wood exhibit peculiar properties when suspended; a piece of green maple would not rest in one position in the field, but oscillated backward and forward, continuously, going to the field’s center, then back to ground
Heated materials exhibited equally peculiar characteristics: A silver ball 11 mm in diameter when heated, remained farther away from the field’s center than when at normal temperature; upon cooling it gradually drew up to the position it would occupy if unheated.
Figure 2 shows a generator of the Wimhurst type (improved), the generating or collecting units being entirely enclosed in an insulating case and operated under a pressure of 3 atmospheres; completely dry air only, enters the case through the drying device attached to the air pump shown in Figure 1. Interior parts of the generator will retain quite a powerful charge for a long period of time.
Figure 3 illustrates suspension stand and field producing electrode. The latter can be revolved in any direction by means of a spring motor shown on the upper section of the stand.
The small apertures seen in electrode, which is hollow, are there for the purpose of ascertaining the action of the reduced field tension at these points, and are also made use of to hold different sized metallic discs, which are cemented to insulating plates, forming condensers, the function of which is to create weak opposite polarities at these points and thus show a reaction on the suspended object and also a greater ocular effect in the vacuum tube.
Figure 4 is a detailed drawing of the vacuum tube principally used; this is of the spectrum type, without sealed-in electrodes and when introduced into the electrical fields, flows very brightly at its extremities, especially giving a sharp line bordering the dark space around the metallic object. A very high vacuum is sustained in the tube and it is found necessary to build it of a very perfect insulating glass; the bulb must be kept absolutely dry on its outer surface.
Different tubes have been used beside the above; corrugated spherical, cone shaped, and cylindrical, with various results.
The electric field produced for suspension experiments is very powerful and intense, being detectable with a vacuum tube at a distance of over 6 meters (19.68 ft).
In conjunction with the above and drawing an analogy between the same, I am of the opinion that cometary motion is undoubtedly due to the activity of its compositional elements and their susceptibility t changes of polarity which, when the comet is far distant from the sun, would be opposite in sign to that of the latter, or when in close proximity to the ventral orb, would be of the same sign and therefore repelled.
All bodies in process of formation possibly have their cometary stage, and doubtless future experiments will reveal this fact.
Actual Effects Achieved by Mr Piggott
The total power required to operate the generator, which was run by an electric motor, was about 1/4 KW; the machine voltage was in the neighborhood of 500,000 when the electrodes were separated beyond sparking distance. The electrostatic charge left on the suspension electrode retained the average object in space for a short length of time, about 1-1/4 seconds after the machine ceased rotating.
Some objects such as copper and silver balls, which are of course good electrical conductors, and very nearly homogeneous, when falling toward the earth, after power had been shut off, seemed to slow down when they neared same, and hovered about 2 cm above contact for approximately 1 second of time before striking same; this was due no doubt to the inductional change in polarity which was imparted to balls almost at the instant of earth contact.
The aura, shown in Figure 3, near suspended balls (which in this experiment were made of silver) extended outward to a distance of about 1 cm and covered about one-half of the upper hemisphere and a trifle more of the lower hemisphere.
This bluish emanation appeared to be made up of numerous infinitesimal dots or darting particle, each apparently separated from the other by a very narrow, glowless belt. Wverything was, however, in a constant state of agitation and it was quite impossible to get an absolutely perfect view microscopically, of an individual particle. Different substances have different auras both in length and breadth, and also in luminosity.
The silver balls used in these experiments had an actual gravitational weight of 1-3/10 gram (nearly 0.05 oz., avoirdupois) and were the heaviest objects suspended at this time, their diameter being 11 mm as before mentioned in another part of this article.
The largest object suspended was a cork cylinder 10 cm long by 4 cm diameter (approximately 4 by 1-9/16 inches) which had a copper wire pushed through its center, and extending beyond its ends to a distance of 3 mm. The weight of the above cylinder was 3/4 grams (0.002645 oz., avoirdupois).
The behavior of metal spheres used in the above experiments was a most interesting spectacle; silver and copper balls floated very steadily on one position and when suspending electrode was revolved, would follows and turn slightly axially, but would not revolve entirely around same, there being a peculiar slipping effect not entirely accounted for.
Figure 1 --- This picture shows Mr George Piggott, the author, and his laboratory with the powerful electrical apparatus used, whereby he was enabled to carry on successful experiments in nullifying the effects of gravitation. In other words, he was able to suspend small balls and other objects in the manner shown, the silver balls actually used having weighed 1.3 grams. The diameter of the balls was 11 mm.
Figure 2 --- Special electrostatic machine used by Mr Piggott in his gravitation nullifying experiments, the which was enclosed in a heavy airtight compartment, so that it could be operated under several atmospheres of pressure.
Figure 3 --- A close-up view of the charged metal sphere mounted on a pedestal together with a spring driving motor, whereby the electrode or charged ball could be rotated. The two smaller silver balls are shown as suspended in mid-air, the earth’s gravitational pull having been nullified.
Figure 4 --- Close-up view of vacuum tube of the spectrum type used in studying the aura surrounding the suspended silver balls, while they remained suspended in space.
George S. Piggot (July 1920) designed, built, and utilized a fantastically potent electrostatic machine with which he observed powerful electrogravitic effects. The device was heavily encased and "dried out" with high-pressure carbon dioxide gas. With this dramatically dehumified static generator, Mr. Piggot observed a strange electro-gravitational effect. It was first seen, the result of accidental occurrences while performing unrelated electrical experiments.
Mr. Piggot was able to suspend heavy silver beads (112 inch in diameter) and other materials in the air space between a charged sphere and a concave ground plate when his generator was fully charged at 500,000 electrostatic volts. The levitational feat was only observed when the charged sphere was electropositive.
The Piggot effect was clearly not a purely electrical phenomenon. If it were, then the presence of the grounded plate would have destroyed the effect. The very instant in which a discharged passed to ground, every suspended object would have come crashing down. But, without the ground counterpoise, the levitational effect was not observed. Mr. Piggot believed that he was modifying the local gravitational field in some inexplicable manner, the effect being the result of interaction between the static field generator and some other agency the ground.
Piggot further stated that heated metal marbles fell further away from the field center than cold ones. These suspended marbles remained in the flotation space for at least 1.25 seconds even after the static generator ceased rotating. The marbles fell very slowly after the field was completely removed; a noticeable departure from normal gravitational behavior.
Mr. Piggot stated that suspended objects were surrounded by a radiant "black belt". The surrounding space was filled with the ephemeral electric blue lumination common with very powerful electrostatic machines. Many academicians explained such phenomena away. Employing electro-induction theories, it was stated that the effects were "simple outcomes of highly charged conditions in conductive media". The suspension of matter in Piggot's experiment was explained by academes to be the simple result of charge attraction and gravitational balance. Accordingly, charged metal balls would achieve their own balancing positions as long as the field was operating.
Piggot stated that tiny blue spots could be seen running all over the suspended metal marbles, evidence of electrical discharging into the air. This being the case, no net attractive charge could ever develop, simply leaking away with every second into the surrounding air. Considering that the intense field was "grounded" to a concave electrode plate, no consistent charge condition could develop in such a space. Obvious similarities are noted when considering all these cases, the electrogravitic action being stimulated by intense electrostatic fields. Effects developed by Piggot were entirely similar to those observed by Nikola Tesla, who employed high voltage electrostatic impulses.
The Piggot device certainly discharged its tremendous charge in a rapid staccato-like fashion to the ground plate. The rate of this disruptive unidirectional field would be determined by considering the parameters of the sphere and the concave ground plate. Judging from the actual capacities involved, and the sizable free air space, certainly it was a very rapid impulse rate.
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To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, George S. Piggott, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Chicago, county of Cook, and State of 5 Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Space Telegraphy, of which the following is declared to be a full, clear, and exact description.
The invention relates to signaling systems 10 in which radiant electric energy transmitted from suitable sparking apparatus, is employed to effect suitable detectors at the receiving stations.
The present improvement employs sparking or discharge terminals connected to the poles of a static electric machine and seeks to provide an effective form of that type of machine, together with signaling means for controlling the discharge between the sparking terminals.
Other objects of the invention are to provide an effective form of detecting or receiving apparatus for use in connection with such a transmitting device. To provide 25 means whereby the transmitting and receiving apparatus may be synchronized and to provide an effective system of space, telegraphy which will be certain and rapid in operation which may be readily syntonized and 30 with which aerial wires or ground connections are not necessary, although both may be employed with the present improved system if desired.
With these objects in view, the invention 35 consists in the improved arrangements and combinations set forth in the following description, illustrated in the accompanying drawings and more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
In the drawings
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of the improved transmitter or radiant electrical generator.
Fig. 2 is a vertical section on line 2—2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section on line 3—3 of Fig. 1
Fig. 4 is a detail plan view of the signaling instrument, parts being shown in section.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view thereof on the line 5—5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a detail elevation of part of the transmitting apparatus.
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view of the transmitting apparatus.
Fig. 8 is a plan view of the detector or receiving apparatus.
Fig. 9 is a sectional elevation thereof.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal section through the variable 55 resistance or coherer.
Fig. 11 is a diagram of the detector circuits.
Fig. 12 is a detail section on the line 12—12 of Fig. 8.
Fig. 13 is a detail view of parts shown in Fig. 12.
The radiant electrical generator or transmitter preferably comprises a suitable inclosing casing 15, which is made of insulating material and is preferably shellacked inside and outside and which is mounted upon insulating blocks 16 of hard rubber or other suitable substance. Within the casing 15 are mounted a pair of uprights 17 of hard rubber or other suitable insulating material which are secured rigidly to the bottom of the casing. Between the upper ends of uprights or standards 17 is fixed a 70 shaft 18, preferably of steel upon which are mounted the revoluble disks 19. Disks 19 are arranged, as shown in pairs, any number of which may be employed in accordance with the desired capacity of the machine and 75 the separate disks of each pair are driven by suitable gearing in opposite directions. Each disk is preferably mounted (see Fig. 3) upon a hub 20 of hard rubber having a tubular brass core and is clamped in position 80 thereon between disks 21 of hard rubber which are securely fastened to the hubs 20 by right and left hand screw threads. Upon the outer end of each hub is threaded a beveled gear 22 which is preferably formed 85 of raw hide and, as shown, the gears connected to each pair of disks 19 face in opposite directions. "
The disks 19 are rotated from a main drive shaft 23 suitably journaled between 90 the lower ends of the uprights 17. This shaft is preferably driven through gears 24 by a small electric motor 24 mounted inside and upon the base of the casing 15 and the metallic parts of which are well insulated. Main drive beveled gears 25 fixed upon shaft 23 mesh with beveled pinions 26 fixed upon the lower ends of vertically disposed counter-shafts 27, and beveled pinions 28 and the upper ends of the counter-shafts 27 engage the beveled, pinions 22 connected, as above described, to the disks 19. Gears 25, 26, 28 and 22 are, for the sake of perfect insulation, preferably made of raw hide. Counter-shafts 27 are preferably formed of 105 hard brass and are journaled in hard brass bearings 29 fixed to the end uprights 17 and to an intermediate upright or uprights 30 (see Fig. 1).
of which may be employed in accordance with the desired capacity of the machine and 75 the separate disks of each pair are driven by suitable gearing in opposite directions. Each disk is preferably mounted (see Fig. 3) upon a hub 20 of hard rubber having a tubular brass core and is clamped in position 80 thereon between disks 21 of hard rubber which are securely fastened to the hubs 20 by right and left hand screw threads. Upon the outer end of each hub is threaded a beveled gear 22 which is preferably formed 85 of raw hide and, as shown, the gears connected to each pair of disks 19 face in opposite directions.
The disks 19 are rotated from a main drive shaft 23 suitably journaled between 90 the lower ends of the uprights 17. This shaft is preferably driven through gears 24 by a small electric motor 24 mounted inside and upon the base of the casing 15 and the metallic parts of which are well insulated. 95 Main drive beveled gears 25 fixed upon shaft 23 mesh with beveled pinions 26 fixed upon the lower ends of vertically disposed counter-shafts 27, and beveled pinions 28 and the upper ends of the counter-shafts 27 engage the beveled, pinions 22 connected, as above described, to the disks 19. Gears 25, 26, 28 and 22 are, for the sake of perfect insulation, preferably made of raw hide. Counter-shafts 27 are preferably formed of 105 hard brass and are journaled in hard brass bearings 29 fixed to the end uprights 17 and to an intermediate upright or uprights 30 (see Fig. 1).
As above stated, any number or pairs of disks 19 may be employed (two sets being shown in the drawings) and by the gearing described, the disks of each pair or set will be driven in opposite directions. The disks 19 are formed of suitable dielectric material, such as glass or hard rubber, but preferably of the former and these disks are preferably provided with a coating of shellac. Thin metal contact plates or sectors 31 are cemented to the outer faces of each set of disks 19 by shellac or other suitable adhesive. These contact plates are preferably formed of aluminum and are preferably divided into two or more parts, the sectors shown in 15 the drawings being divided into two parts.
Separate sets of contact brush holders 32 extend through the top and bottom of the casing and outside of each set of disks 19. These brush holders are, as shown in Figs. 1 20, and 2, arranged at diametrically opposite points and extend radially toward the center of the disks 19 and at an angle of about 70 degrees to the horizontal. Each holder 32 is provided with two or more contact brushes 33 of aluminum wire which are adapted to contact with the faces of disks 19 and with the sections of the divided contact plates 31. The brush holders 32 are formed of brass or aluminum rods and are held in 30 place by soft rubber plugs. 34 inserted in openings in the top and bottom of the casing 15 and snugly fitted in such openings to prevent leakage of air.
It is desirable to maintain dry air under 35 pressure within the casing 15 and for that reason the brush holders 32 and other parts which extend through the casing, are suitably sealed so. that the casing may be substantially air tight Brush holders 32 are 40 provided at their outer ends with slotted metal balls so that the upper and lower sets may be electrically connected by a metal rod 35 set within the slotted balls and held in place by screws 3 6. The upper and lower 45 rods 35, connected respectively to the upper and lower sets of contact brush holders, are electrically connected by coiled insulating conductors 37. To hold the brush holders 32 securely in place against the outward pressure of the air within the casing 15, the soft rubber plugs 34 are preferably provided with flanges 34 which engage the inner face of the top and bottom of the casing.
Condenser brush holders 38 are arranged. 55 in a horizontal plane extending through the center of the disks 19 and at diametrically opposite points. These holders are formed of aluminum or brass tubing and at each side are threaded into a common metal support 39 having a central shouldered projection 40 which extends through the end of the casing and which is firmly held in place by a ball 41, preferably of brass, which is threaded upon the end of the projection 40. 65 A Washer 42 between the ball 41 and the casing renders the joint practically air tight. The brush holders 38 are arranged in pairs on the outside of each pair of oppositely rotating disks 19 and are provided with brushes 38a of fine aluminum wire which extend toward, but do not contact with the disks.
To each support 39 for the condenser brushes, is threaded or otherwise suitably fixed, a tubular rod 43 of aluminum which 75 extends upwardly through the top of the casing. The upper end of the tubular rod is plugged to prevent leakage of air and is connected by a short piece of metal tubing with a brass ball 45. A hard rubber so thimble 46 and a washer'47 between the ball and the top of the casing seals this joint. A metal rod or tube 49 is mounted to slide horizontally through a bore in the ball 45 and may be held firmly in any adjusted position therein by a screw 50. A similar rod 49 is connected in a similar manner to the other side of the machine and the inner ends of these rods are provided with sparking or discharge terminals or balls 51, while the 90 outer ends of the rods are provided with handles 52 which may be grasped to adjust the position, of the sparking terminals and which are of hard rubber, preferably corrugated as shown. Between the sparking terminals or balls 51 and in line therewith, is preferably located a large metal discharge ball 53 preferably of brass which is secured to the top of the casing.
A short circuit connects the opposite sides 100 or poles of the machine and consists of bent pieces 54 (see Fig, 3) of brass or aluminum which are secured to the balls 41 at the ends of the machine. The bent pieces 54 are preferably covered with insulating material 105 and the end balls or terminals 55 of the shunt circuit are inclosed in receptacles 56 of hard rubber or other suitable material. The receptacles 56 are mounted upon a bracket 57, preferably of insulating material secured to the casing 15, and the opposing faces of the receptacles 56 are provided with small openings 58 in line with which normally extends a shiftable conductor con-nected to the signaling key.
The signaling key 59, preferably formed of brass, is pivoted between a pair of bearing pins 60 and is normally held in uplifted position with its inner end against an adjustable stop 62 by a cushion spring 63 120 which is interposed between the outer end of the key and the shelf or support 57. The inner end 64 of the key is connected to the main body thereof by an insulating section 65. The shiftable conductor is formed of of separate pieces of brass or aluminum tubing 66 fitted to adjustably slide one within the other and adjustably held in place upon the end of the key by a screw 67. Each of the tubular sections 66 is fitted at its end with a pointed steel plug 68 and, in normal position, the conducting sections 66 and points 68 extend in line with the openings 58 in the receptacles 56.
When the electric generator described, is operated the condenser brushes and sparking terminal upon one side or pole of the ma-chine will become charged with positive and those upon the other side or'pole of the machine will become charged with negative electricity! A part of the charge however will leak across from the short circuit terminals 55 through the shiftable conductor or switch 66, the points of which are in line 15 with the openings 58 in the receptacles 56 which inclose the short circuit terminals. A sufficient amount of the charge will thus, leak from one side or pole of the machine to the other to prevent any disruptive discharge 20 or spark between the discharge terminals 51. When however, the sparking terminals are properly adjusted and the key is depressed, a disruptive discharge or single spark at once occurs between'the discharge terminals, 25 since the conductor or switch 66 is by the depression of the key moved out of line of the openings 58 in the receptacles 56. The leakage of current between the poles of the machine is thus interrupted so that a heavy 30 spark at once takes place between the discharge terminals.
Numerous advantages are incident to the employment of such a static machine as a transmitter for space telegraphy. At each 35 quick depression of the signal key a single strong heavy spark having little heat occurs between the positive and negative terminals instead of a series of sparks having considerable heat such as occur at the spark gap 40 when a coil is employed for the production of a high tension current. Moreover, the sparking terminals are always ready to discharge at the instant the signal key is depressed and there is no magnetic lag to overcome as is the case with a sparking coil, thereby increasing the speed of transmission. With the present improved transmitter a single spark or discharge is employed to represent a " dot" while two sparks or discharges 50 in quick succession represent a "'dash" so that signals may be rapidly and accurately transmitted. The machine moreover, can be readily, adjusted for selective signaling as hereinafter explained and does not require 55 the employment of an aerial wire or ground connection, although either or both may be employed if desired for transmission of signals over long distances.
The discharge balls 51 and 53 may be of 60 any suitable size, but good results have been obtained with the discharge terminals 51 of about an inch and a half in diameter and with the intermediate discharge ball of three to four inches in diameter. When a signal is to be transmitted the negative terminal 51 is preferably adjusted to a position quite close to the intermediate discharge ball 58 while the positive discharge terminal 51 is placed about an inch away from the center discharge ball so that a heavy strong spark yo occurs between the positive sparking terminal and the center discharge ball. The sections of the shifting conductor or switch 66 may be readily adjusted to correct position to prevent a discharge between the terminals 75 until the signal key 59 is depressed.
To prevent leakage between the condenser brushes and the central steel shaft of the machine, the ends of the brush holders 38 are preferably provided with blocks 38b of g® insulating material.
The efficiency of the machine is found to be considerably increased by maintaining air under pressure within the substantially air-tight casing 15 which incloses the generator disks, plates and brushes and preferably the air within the casing is maintained as dry and as free from moisture as possible. For this purpose a small air pump 69. (see Fig. 6, the oscillating type of pump being illustrated in the drawings) is driven from a suitable electric or other motor 70 and supplies air under pressure to the upper end of a casing 71 through a flexible pipe 72. The casing 71, which is preferably upwardly flaring is shown, is provided with a grating 73 at its lower end upon which is superposed a layer 74 of cotton wool which serves to filter the air. Above the layer of cotton wool is placed a layer 75 of anhydrous 100 calcium chloride which removes all moisture from the air. The lower end of the casing 71 is provided with a drain cock 76. A valved outlet nozzle 77 near the lower end of the casing is provided with a screen and 105 is connected by a flexible pipe 78 with an inlet valve 79 (see Fig. 2) on one side of the machine casing 15. An outlet valve 80 is provided on the opposite side of the casing and is set to maintain a pressure of about 110 thirty pounds within the same. By thus maintaining dry air under pressure within the machine, the efficiency of the latter is found to be considerably increased and the machine is not atfected by the varying atmospheric conditions. The sides 81 (see Fig. 2) of the casing 15 are preferably removably held in place by screws 82, rubber packing being provided between the sides and the edges of the casing to produce a 120 tight joint.
The transmitter may be readily syntonized for selectively signaling a series of stations by providing a series of discharge terminals 51a, 51b, 51c, etc. (see Diagram Fig. 7) and 125 by providing a series of intermediate dis-charge balls 53a, 53b, '53c, etc., the size of which terminals and balls is varied to vary the capacity and thus vary the intensity, length and thickness of the sparks transmitted. The signals are transmitted from the desired set of terminals by properly adjusting that set while the others are withdrawn as indicated in Fig. 7. The efficiency of the transmitter is increased and it may be further syntonized by providing condensers of varying capacity on one or both sides of the machine. In Fig. these condensers are indicated in the form 10 of Leyden jars 88 having their poles 84 arranged adjacent the balls 41 on opposite sides from the machine. A series of such condensers may be employed if desired. Moreover, if desired for transmitting, signals over long distances, the positive side of the machine may be connected to an aerial wire 85 and too, if desirable, the condenser, or capacity arranged adjacent the positive side of the machine may be Connected to the 20 ground by a wire 86.
The detector or receiving device at the receiving stations comprises a suitable inclosing casing 87 preferably of wood, thoroughly shellacked and mounted upon insulating feet 88. A plate 89 of hard rubber or other suitable insulating material upon the upper face of the casing, carries an upright 90 also of hard rubber, to which is fixed the lower section of a hinged clamp 91 the members of which are also formed of hard rubber. The curved open ends of the clamp embrace and rigidly support in horizontal position the coherer or variable resistance apparatus, the latter being securely held in 35 place by a thumb screw 92 extending between the hinged members of the clamp.
The coherer or variable resistance apparatus comprises a tubular casing 93 preferably of hard rubber within opposite ends 40 of which are threaded hollow plugs 94 also of hard rubber. The inner ends of the plugs 94 abut, as shown within the casing 93 and they are securely, held and clamped in position by lock nuts 95 of hard rubber. The 45 conducting plugs 96 are adjustably threaded through the hollow plugs 94 and are provided on their ends with thumb nuts 97 by which suitable conductors may be connected thereto. The conducting plugs 96 are preferably formed of silver 500 to 600 fine and partly of nickel. The inner end of one of the plugs is provided with a cylindrical extension 98, while the inner, end of the opposite plug is provided with a cylindrical depression or recess 99 slightly larger in diameter than the extension 98. The filings 100 intermediate the ends of the conducting plugs are preferably of soft iron, medium fine, mixed with about two per cent, of platinum filings. Preferably, to increase the sensitiveness of the coherer, the soft iron filings are first placed under magnetic influence or tension before they are put into position between the conducting plugs 96.
The arrangement described has been found extremely sensitive in operation. The hollow supporting plugs 94 of hard rubber and the conducting plugs 96 carried thereby may be removed and threaded back into position without disturbing the adjustment between the ends of the conducting plugs. By forming the parts of hard rubber they are bound very tightly together and the adjustment of the conducting plugs is not readily displaced. The hard rubber 75 parts are preferably shellacked and highly polished so that the filings will not become tarnished by the sulfur or other component parts of the rubber.
The coils 101 of a polarized relay, are in 80 circuit with the coherer, as indicated in Fig. 11. In order that the operation of the relay may not interfere with the operation of the coherer and in order that the relay contacts may be kept free from dust, such 85 relay is preferably mounted within the casing 87 and preferably upon a series of insulating blocks 102. The relay coils 101 are mounted upon one pole of a permanent horse shoe magnet 103, the cores of the coils being 90 in electrical connection with such pole of the permanent magnet. A metal upright 104, fixed to the other pole of the permanent magnet 103, pivotally supports the horizontally disposed armature 105 which is arranged to vibrate between the poles of the relay. A binding post 106 is fixed to the upper end of upright 104 and a leaf spring 107 is connected to the binding post and its free end engages the vibrating armature 105 in line with its pivot, thus maintaining a secure electric contact therewith. The circuit tnrough the relay, armature and contact may be traced in Fig. 11 from battery 108. to binding post 106, contact spring 107, 105 armature 105, relay contact 109, tapper actuating magnet 110 and through oppositely wound coils 111 upon the members of the permanent magnet 103 and fro m thence back to battery. By thus directing the circuit 110 from battery 108 through oppositely wound coils on the members of the permanent magnet 103, any loss of magnetism in the latter is compensated for and the full strength of the magnet maintained.
To adjust the sensitiveness of the relay, an armature 112 (see Fig. 11) is provided in line with the poles of the magnet 103 and is adjustable to and from such poles. A screw threaded extension 113 upon the armature extends through guides upon a suitable support 114 and lock nuts 115 threaded on the extension serve to hold the armature in adjusted position at any desired distance from the poles of magnet 103.
The tapper actuating magnet 110 is mounted, upon a suitable support 116 upon the upper portion of the casing with its poles facing upwardly. Its armature 117 is pivoted to a suitable upright 118 on the top of the casing and its outer end extends in substantially horizontal direction over the upwardly facing poles of the magnet 110. A leaf spring 119 is fixed to the outer end of the armature and extends inwardly over its pivot. The inner upwardly bent free end of spring 119 is engaged by an adjusting screw 120 threaded through a suitable projection upon the support 118 and 10 normally holds the inner end of the armature against an adjusting screw 121 also threaded through an extension fixed to the support 118. The tapper 122 fixed to the inner end of the armature extends downwardly and inwardly beneath the end of the coherer supporting clamp 91 in position to strike the clamp when the magnet 110 is energized. Since the signals are transmitted from the improved generator by single or individual disruptive discharges or sparks instead of a series of such discharges or sparks, the tapper actuating magnet 110 is non-self-interrupting, that is, the operating circuit therefor extends directly through its 25 coil and not through an intermediate contact controlled bv the vibration of its armature. In operation a single blow of the tapper against the coherer clamp represents a dot and two blows in quick succession reprsent a dash. Other similar codes could of course be employed if desired. When the tapper strikes the coherer clamp a clear resonant sound is emitted and the signal may be easily read. Other means may of 35 course be employed for reading the signal as for example, a telephone interposed in the coherer circuit. By properly adjusting the screws 120 and 121, the operation of the tapper magnet may be rendered extremely 40 sensitive.
The coherer circuit (see Fig. 11) derives current from a small battery 123 and in this circuit is also interposed a variable resistance or rheostat 124 for regulating the 45 amount of current. This rheostat is convenient mounted, as shown, upon one end of the casing. An intensifier 125 of improved construction, is also interposed in the coherer circuit as indicated in Fig. 11. 50 The intensifier (see Figs. 12 and 13) comprises a suitable casing provided with bind-ing posts 126 to which the conductors of the coherer circuit are conveniently attached. Binding posts 126 are in turn connected to 55 a pair of binding posts 127 by conductors 128. A contact disk 129 is rotatably mounted between the binding posts 127 and a pair of brush holders 130, upon the outer ends of the binding posts, are each provided with 39 a series of line wire brushes 131 One of which upon each brush holder is bent to contact with the rotating disk. 129. If one of the fine brushes is injured or burned another may he employed. Coiled springs 132 extend between shoulders on the binding posts 127 and the brush holders 130 and adjusting nuts 133 threaded upon the outer ends of the binding posts engage the outer faces of the brush holders 130 and serve to accurately adjust the same in desired position.
In operation the contact disk 129 is driven by a spring actuated clock train 134a, 134b, 134c, 134d, 134e and 134f. A suitable escapement mechanism 135a, 135b and 135c is employed to maintain the speed of the rotating disk uniform. Any suitable form of motor and any suitable form of escapement mechanism may be employed in connection with the rotating contact disk 129. That illustrated is an ordinary form of clock 80 train and need not be more fully described. A spring-held plunger 136 extends through the casing of the intensifier adjacent the escapement mechanism so that the rotation of the contact disk may be started and stopped 85 as desired.
The employment of the rotatable contact intensifier in the coherer circuit materially increases the sensitiveness of the latter and renders the transmission of the signals accurate and certain.
In order to properly adjust the detectors or receiving instruments at various stations the intensifiers at such stations are set to rotate at different speeds and a condenser 95 137 (see Fig. 11) or other suitable capacity which may be varied, is connected to the coherer circuit and the opposite side of the condenser or capacity may be, if desired, connected to ground. The ground connection however has not been found necessary over short distances. This form of receiver having the peculiar intensifier, as described is specially and peculiarly applicable for use in connection with an influence machine transmitter. It has been found in practice that by changing the length and thickness of the sparks generated by the static machine transmitter, by varying the speed of the intensifying disk at different stations and by 110 properly arranging the capacity areas at the transmission station and at the different receiving stations, the selective transmission of signals may be accurately effected. By running the disk of the intensifier at high 115 speed and using a small capacity area, the receiver will respond only to heavy discharges of the influence machine transmitter and by running the disk at low speed and increasing the capacity area the receiver 120 will respond only to light sparks sent out by the transmitter.
It is obvious that numerous changes may be made in the details of structure and arrangement of parts without departure from 125 the essentials of the invention.
Having described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:...