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Peter PLICHTA

Silane Fuel









http://webmoneymerlin.com/top-secret-new-free-energy-source-discovered-in-switzerland-governments-big-corporate-investors-trying-to-keep-it-secret/

Top Secret New Free Energy Source Discovered In Switzerland – Governments & Big Corporate Investors Trying To Keep It Secret

by Lie Sniffer   

Transforming Sand Into Fuel - Silicon Oil As A Vitality Bearer



http://blog.hasslberger.com/2010/03/turning_sand_into_fuel_silicon.html

Turning Sand into fuel - Silicon oil as an energy carrier

by

Sepp Hasslberger

Dr Peter Plichta studied chemistry, physics and nuclear chemistry in Cologne, Germany. He obtained his doctorate in chemistry in 1970, and in the years following he did much research, on the subject of silanes. Similar to hydrocarbons, silanes are hydrosilicons, molecules that incorporate atoms of both silicon and hydrogen.

Plichta also studied law, and in the 1980s he studied and researched logics, numbers theory and mathematics. As a result, he published several books outlining a new theory on prime numbers in German. In this article however, I will only discuss his proposal to use silanes as a highly energetic fuel.

Silicon is more abundant than carbon. It oxidizes or combines with oxygen into silicon dioxide, which forms crystals present in rocks like quartz, basalt and granite. Silicon dioxide is especially prevalent in sand which fills deserts and sea shores. We process silicon dioxide into glass and purify the silicon for use in electronics. Both of those processes require much external energy input.

Before the 1970s, silanes were considered unsuitable for use as fuels, because they instantaneously self-combust at room temperature. Not satisfied to leave it at that however, Plichta went to work and succeeded in producing longer-chained silanes that appeared as clear, oily liquids and were stable at room temperature. He argues that these higher (long-chain) silanes could be used as an abundant fuel as an alternative to both hydrocarbons and pure hydrogen.

Unlike hydrocarbons, silanes use both the nitrogen and the oxygen in air for combustion. While the hydrogen component of silanes reacts with oxygen, the silicon oxidizes in a highly energetic reaction with nitrogen. So the burning of silanes produces much higher temperatures and frees more energy than the burning of hydrocarbon fuels. The silane reaction leaves no toxic residues.

Much of the information in this article comes from a recent description of Plichta's discoveries and his proposed silane fuel cycle written by Norbert Knobloch and published in the German magazine Raum & Zeit.

Peter Plichta's book "Benzin aus Sand" (Gasoline from Sand), first published in 2001, advocates a change in energy strategy away from burning hydrocarbons to using the energy potential of silanes or, as I would term them, hydrosilicates....

The book, so far only in German, is available from Amazon:

http://www.amazon.de/s/ref=nb_ss_b?__mk_de_DE=%C5M%C5Z%D5%D1&url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=Peter+Plichta&x=0&y=0

Benzin aus
          Sand

Nitrogen oxidizes silicon

Silicon is the most abundant element in the earth's crust. Combined with hydrogen, silicon forms what in chemistry are known as "silanes". Given sufficient heat, silanes react with the nitrogen in the air. This is a new discovery. Nitrogen was thought to be inert, as far as combustion is concerned. So we obviously must re-think the possibilities of combustion. Silicon makes up 25% of the earth's crust, while nitrogen makes up 80% of air. A process that uses silicon/nitrogen combustion in addition to the known carbon/oxygen cycle, presages some mind boggling new possibilities.

While carbon is also a relatively abundant element, its prevalence is way lower than that of silicon. The relation is about a hundred to one. In addition, most of the available carbon is bound up in carbonaceous minerals such as marble and other carbon-based rocks and some of it is in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Those forms are not available for use in the combustion cycle. Only one in about a hundred thousand carbon molecules is bound to hydrogen, making it available for the purpose of combustion. So while carbon has served us well for the first century and a half of industrialization, it is a rather limited fuel.

Using 100% of air for combustion

Plichta's idea was to exchange chains of carbon atoms in hydrocarbons for chains of silicon in hydrosilicons or silanes. The long chained "higher silanes" are those with five or more silicon atoms in each molecule. They are of oily consistency and they give off their energy in a very fast, highly energetic combustion.

While hydrocarbon-based gasoline only uses oxygen, which makes up 20% of air, for their combustion, the hydrosilicon-based silanes also use nitrogen, which makes up the other 80% of air, when they burn. Silanes with chains of seven or more atoms of silicon per molecule are stable and can be pumped and stored very much like gasoline and other carbon-based liquid fuels.

The efficiency of combustion depends on the amount of heat that is created. Expanding gases drive pistons or turbines. When hydrocarbons are burned with air as the oxidant, efficiency of combustion is limited by the fact that the 20% of air that partakes in the combustion also has to heat up the nitrogen gas, which isn't participating but has to be expanded as well. When burning silanes, practically all of the air participates directly in the combustion cycle, making for a much more efficient expansion of all the gases involved.

Burning silanes

The combustion process of hydrosilicons is fundamentally different from the exclusively oxygen based combustion we know from burning hydrocarbons. In a sufficiently hot reaction chamber, silanes separate into atoms of hydrogen and silicon, which immediately mix with the oxygen and nitrogen of the air. The hydrogen from the silanes and the air's oxygen now burn completely leaving only water vapor, bringing the temperature of the gases close to 2000 degrees C.

Since there is no more oxygen, no silicon oxide can be formed in the following phase. What happens instead is an extremely energetic reaction of the 80% nitrogen in the air with the silicon atoms present, that forms a fine powder called silicon nitride (Si3N4).

For those more technically inclined, taking the example of hexasilane (Si6H14), here is what the reaction would look like:

2 Si6H14 + 7 O2 + 8 N2 -> 4 Si3N4 + 14 H2O

After this first reaction, a great deal of unreacted nitrogen is still in the combustion gases, which would now react in a stochiometric combustion as follows:

4 1/2 Si6H14 + 18 N2 -> 9 Si3N4 + 63 H

Overall, on the input side of the equation we would have:

6 1/2 Si6 H14 + 7 O2 + 26 N2

and on the output side, we get:

14 H2O + 13 Si3N4 + 63 H

The silicon nitride we find in the "exhaust" is the only known noble gas that exists in solid form, an original discovery by Peter Plichta. That white powdery stuff is a rather valuable raw material for ceramics.

Wikipedia says that silicon nitride powder will form "... a hard ceramic having high strength over a broad temperature range, moderate thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, moderately high elastic modulus, and unusually high fracture toughness for a ceramic. This combination of properties leads to excellent thermal shock resistance, ability to withstand high structural loads to high temperature, and superior wear resistance. Silicon nitride is mostly used in high-endurance and high-temperature applications, such as gas turbines, car engine parts, bearings and metal working and cutting tools. Silicon nitride bearings are used in the main engines of the NASA's Space shuttles."

Rocket fuel for space propulsion

One of the first uses Peter Plichta envisioned for these long-chain hydrosilicons he discovered was to be a fuel for rockets. Space travel today is hindered by the immense weight of fuel a rocket has to carry to lift itself plus the fuel, plus its payload, into space. With a more efficient combustion process, and an oxidant that could be "scooped up" in the atmosphere, a disk-shaped craft could be propelled to great speed and altitude, before having to fall back on a rather small amount of oxidant that may be carried as liquefied air or liquid nitrogen.

I found a discussion of this on the net, here, which I reproduce below in shortened and slightly edited form:

http://discaircraft.greyfalcon.us/Richard%20Miethe.htm

"Dr Plichta can use his concepts of cyclic mathematics to effect a revolution in space travel. He has already received several patents for the construction of a disc-shaped reusable spacecraft which will be fueled by the diesel oils of silicon. The special feature of these carbon analog substances is that they do not only burn with oxygen, but also with nitrogen. Such a spacecraft can use the atmosphere for buoyance. Its engines can inhale air and thus do without the standard oxidant reservoir.

"In 1970 Peter Plichta disproved the textbook theory that the higher silanes are unstable. One of his achievements was to create a mixture of silanes with the chain lengths 5 to 10 (Si5H12 to Si10H22). He also managed to separate the oil into the individual silanes by of means gas chromatic analysis. This showed the surprising result that silanes with a chain length of over 7 silicon atoms will no longer ignite spontaneously and can thus be used for commercial purposes.

"Multi-stage rockets function from the mathematical point of view according to principles of rocket ascent. At the first stage of the launch they have to lift their whole weight with the power of fuel combustion. Because they quickly lose weight as they use up fuel, they then accelerate although the power of thrust remains the same. The discarded stages are burned in the atmosphere, which can only be described as a ridiculous waste of money. The Space Shuttle was intended to make space travel less costly; but actually the opposite has happened. Just as the invention of the wheel made all human transport easier, a circular spacecraft will some day soon replace the linear design of current multi-stage rockets. We are all familiar with the elegance with which a disc or a Frisbee is borne by the air through which it flies.

"Peter Plichta got the idea of constructing a disc in which jet-turbines attached to shafts would drive two ring-shaped blade rings rotating in opposite directions. This will cause the disc to be suspended by the air just like a helicopter. The craft can then be driven sideways by means of a drop-down rocket engine. When a speed of over 200 km/h has been reached, the turbines for the blade rings will be switched off and covered to enhance the aerodynamic features of the shape. The craft will now be borne by the up-draught of the air, just like an aircraft is. This will also mean that the critical power required for rocket ascent will not be necessary. When the spacecraft accelerates into orbit, the N2/O2 mixture of the air will first be fed in through a drop-down air intake, as long as the craft is still at a low altitude of 30 km (1 per cent air pressure). The air will be conducted to the rocket motor and the craft will thus accelerate to a speed of 5000-8000 km/h. This is where a standard rocket jettisons its first stage, because by then about 75% of the fuel has already been used up.

"The disc on the other hand will continue to accelerate to 20,000 km/h and will thus reach an altitude of about 50 km (1 per thousand of air pressure). The speed will increase as the air pressure drops, so that the process can be continued until an altitude of about 80 kilometers and 25,000 km/h can be maintained. In order to reach the required speed of 30,000 km/h and an altitude of around 300 km, only a relatively small quantity of oxidation agent will be needed at the end.

"In the hot combustion chamber silanes decompose spontaneously into hydrogen and silicon radicals. The hydrogen is burned by the oxygen in the air and water formed. Because molecular nitrogen is very tightly bonded, it must be preheated and subjected to catalytic dissociation. The extremely hot silicon radicals will provide additional support for this process, which will in turn lead to silicon nitride being formed. In order to burn superfluous nitrogen, Mg, Al or Si powder can be added to the silane oil.

"When the spacecraft returns from space the ceramic-protected underside of the disc will brake its speed to approximately 500 km/h. Then the covering will open again, making the blade rings autorotate. The jet turbines will then be started for the actual landing operation..."


In 2006, Plichta developed a new low-cost procedure for the production of highly purified silicon. This makes it possibile to hypothesize a more widespread use of silanes. If widely and cheaply available one day, the new fuel could be used in turbines and modified internal combustion engines, in addition to space rocket use.

Large-scale production of silanes

In order to use long-chain silanes as a fuel, the possibility of large scale production of those silicon oils will have to be experimentally confirmed. According to Plichta, this process would also involve production of pure silicon for use in photovoltaic or other industrial applications. High grade energy is needed to transform silicon oxide into pure silicon, to be hydrated producing the silanes.

One possible way to go about this is to use photovoltaic electricity to disassociate hydrogen and oxygen from water. Those gases could then be used to process sand into pure silicon and to obtain silanes.

Another procedure, widely used today, is to purify silicon dioxide using heat from coal, but Plichta has now developed a new process that would use tar, pitch and bitumen as well as aluminium silicate to produce pure silicon and silanes at a very low cost. The highly exothermic process produces large amounts of hydrogen and it involves super heated hydrogen fluoride. Monosilanes, a by-product of this new process, could be reacted with carbon dioxide to obtain water and silicon carbide, an extremely hard substance and industrial raw material.

Details are still confidential. The process is being patented.

Turbines and engines

Plichta
          turbine

Since the silane combustion process is substantially different from that of the hydrocarbons used today, specially designed turbines and engines will be needed to make use of the new fuel. Dr Plichta has patented a turbine that would optimally use the silicon-based combustion process.

A mixture of silane oil (10) and silicon powder (11) are mixed and injected by a pump (7) into the main combustion chamber. There the fuel is burned together with pre-heated air (8). In the secondary combustion chamber (2) the fuel mix is further burned with a large amound to cold air (9), quickly lowering the temperature of the gases from about 2000 degrees C to a few hundred degrees. This brings a large pressure increase. If the silicon nitride powder produced by the combustion process were too hot and not diluted with air, it would destroy the turbine blades.

The resulting mixture of gases (H2O, O2, and Si3N4 of oily consistency) is now able, in the turbine chamber (3), to cause the turbine blades to rotate. The rotation is transmitted over a connected shaft (5) to the compressor chamber (4) where air is aspired through air inlets (6). The air is mostly conducted into the secondary combustion chamber (2) and a small part of it goes, after heating, to the first combustion chamber (1). The the absorption of heat by the air also provides needed cooling of the combustion chambers.

The water vapor produced by the combustion process leaves the turbine through exhaust openings (21) while the cooled down, solid silicon nitride is trapped in dust bags (20), ready to be passed on for later industrial uses.

Internal combustion engines of the Otto and Diesel type would suffer breakdown of lubrication if made to burn silicon oils. The temperatures of combustion are considerably higher than those reached by gasoline or diesel. But according to Plichta, the Wankel-type rotary piston motor could be modified to accomodate the high temperatures. It parts would have to be coated with silicon nitride ceramics or be entirely constructed using the even harder silicon carbide.

The silane oils could not be compressed together with air, they would have to be injected at the point of maximal compression. The silicon nitride contained in the combusting fuel/air mixture would initially be in gaseous and liquid form, providing the necessary lubrification and acting as a sealant. Exhaust gases, still very hot, could be further burned in a turbine, with the addition of cold air as in the second stage of Plichta's turbine design.

Like in the turbine, combustion in this engine would produce small amounts of silicon nitride in powder form, which would be filtered out from the exhaust gases and collected by filling stations, to be passed on for industrial uses...



https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Plichta

Peter Plichta

Peter Plichta

Peter Plichta (* 21. Oktober 1939 in Remscheid) ist ein deutscher Chemiker, Apotheker und Autor.

Leben und Wirken

Peter Plichta studierte Chemie in Köln, legte 1966 seine Diplomprüfung ab und wurde 1970 mit einer Dissertation über Silane („Präparative und spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Darstellung von Disilanyl- und Digermanylverbindungen und Germaniumwasserstoffen“)[1] unter Franz Fehér[2] am Institut für Anorganische Chemie der Universität Köln promoviert. 1977 erlangte er die Approbation als Apotheker.

Zu Plichtas technischen Konzepten gehört ein Fluggerät, das in seiner Form einem Diskus ähnelt. Dieses Konzept soll nach Plichta das heute übliche Mehrstufenantriebs-Prinzip in der Raumfahrt ablösen, welches nur zur Beförderung sehr geringer Nutzlasten (etwa 4 Prozent bei Ariane 5) in der Lage ist. Seinem Buch Benzin aus Sand zufolge ist das „einstufige“ Erreichen der erdnahen Umlaufbahn möglich, weil der von Plichta entdeckte Treibstoff (siehe unten) nicht nur in Sauerstoff, sondern auch in Stickstoff brennt, und deshalb in der Erdatmosphäre kein Oxidationsmittel mitgeführt werden muss.

Peter Plichta hat in mehreren Ländern Patente auf einige seiner Entwicklungen angemeldet, darunter in den USA. Sein Entwurf wird von der Fachwelt abgelehnt. Bis heute wurde kein ernstzunehmender Versuch einer Realisierung unternommen.

In den 1970er-Jahren begann Plichta, sich mit der synthetischen Treibstoffgewinnung aus Silicium, insbesondere aus Sand, zu beschäftigen. Plichta gibt an, als erster stabile, längerkettige Silane synthetisiert zu haben. Trotz Plichtas Veröffentlichungstätigkeit zu diesem Thema (Hauptwerk: „Benzin aus Sand. Die Silan-Revolution“) blieben seine Forschungen bisher ohne nachhaltige Resonanz in der Fachwelt und bei Automobilherstellern. In einer der wenigen Rezensionen des Werks in einer Fachzeitschrift wird Plichtas Vorschlag der Silan-Revolution als „origineller Vorschlag“ bezeichnet und die Frage gestellt, ob dieser „… belastbar oder gar seriös?“ sein könne. Das Buch informiere den Leser „… in einer eigenartigen Mischung aus Selbstbewusstsein, verkanntem Genie, Besserwisserei und Weinerlichkeit über selbstgewählte Höhepunkte …“ und folge in seinen Deutungen einer dem Rezensenten nicht zugänglichen Logik. Auch wenn nicht klar würde, was das Werk solle, gehe ein gewisser Reiz davon aus.[3]

Seit 1991 veröffentlicht Peter Plichta seine Überlegungen zu seinem Weltbild. Er möchte dabei die physikalisch-chemische Realität aufbauend auf zahlentheoretischen und zahlenmystischen Überlegungen beschreiben, wobei insbesondere Primzahlen eine wichtige Rolle spielen.[4] Er behauptet, mit seiner Arbeit die Quantenmechanik obsolet gemacht zu haben:

    „Diese Vorgehensweise ersetzt das ganze Kartenhaus der modernen Naturwissenschaft, die Quantenmechanik, durch exakte Mathematik. Deren Struktur ist euklidisch und im Dezimalsystem, dem einzig möglichen Zahlensystem der Natur, angelegt.“[5]

Plichta stellt den Anspruch, seine Theorie mathematisch „bewiesen“[6] zu haben. Er schließt Indeterminismus damit kategorisch aus:

    „Für jede Theorie, die auf zufälligem Geschehen aufbaut, ist mit einem Schlag das Ende eingeläutet. Einstein muß es geahnt haben.“[6]

Die Urknalltheorie lehnt Plichta ab. Er vertritt eine alternative Erklärung für die Bindung des Sauerstoffs ans Hämoglobin im Blut.[7]

Die Chemiker Jan C. A. Boeyens und Demetrius C. Levendis haben Plichta in ihrem Werk Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter referenziert. Ebenso wie Plichta versuchen sie die moderne Quantenphysik durch elementare zahlentheoretische Überlegungen zu ersetzen, im Gegensatz zu Plichta stellen sie jedoch nicht die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie in Frage, in der der Raum nicht euklidisch ist, und sehen keine ausgezeichnete Rolle des Dezimalsystems (The specification of common numbers in decimal notation is almost certainly a remnant of counting practice using a ten-finger base[8]). Peter Plichta trat seit 2011 mehrfach als Gesprächspartner beim Alpenparlament.tv sowie 2013 beim Alpenparlament Kongress auf.[7]



http://www.plichta.de/

Der Erfinder und Entdecker

Dr. Peter Plichta, Jahrgang 1939, studierte Chemie, Physik, Kernchemie und Jura an der Universität Köln. Promotion 1970 über Silanverbindungen, deren Darstellungen bis dahin als unmöglich galten. Zu Beginn seiner Habilitation 1971 gelang ihm die Gewinnung der Dieselöle von Siliziumwasserstoffen (Höhere Silane). 1973 - 1976 Studium Pharmazie und Biochemie an der Universität Marburg. Ab 1981 Privatgelehrter auf den Gebieten Logik, Zahlentheorie und Mathematik. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt löste er das geometrische Problem der 4. Dimension aus der Verteilung der Primzahlen. Der Raum um einen Atomkern ist schalenförmig und von der Form zweier sich durchdringender Flächen und besitzt die Dimensionen Länge hoch 4. Damit war die Verknüpfung der 3 Dimensionen des Raumes mit einer eindimensionalen Zeit als eine geistige Fehlentwicklung entlarvt. 1991 Veröffentlichung der ersten beiden Bücher "Das Primzahlkreuz" Band I und II.

http://www.plichta.de/plichta/siliziumzeitalter



http://www.plichta.de/media/Benzin_aus_Sand.pdf

Raum & Zeit : "Benzene from Sand"

[ PDF ]

Raum und Zeit



http://www.aetheraware.org/files/ThePrimalCode.pdf

God's Secret Formula – deciphering the riddle of the universe and the prime number code.

Title of a 1997 non-fiction book by scientist Peter Plichta.




https://worldwide.espacenet.com/advancedSearch?locale=en_EP

Silane Patents by Plichta

DE102007058654
Cyclic production of silicon or silicon compounds and hydrogen...

A cyclic method for production of crystalline silicon (Si), silane, silicon nitride or carbide and hydrogen (H 2) is based on pyrolysis of oil-containing sand or shale (I) (as mixture of hydrocarbons and silicates), contaminated with potassium aluminum silicate and carbonate. Released H 2is heated with fluorine to give hydrogen fluoride, which is reacted with the Si of (I) to give silicon tetrafluoride for conversion into Si by thermite methods using aluminum. Cyclic production of crystalline silicon (Si), silane, silicon nitride or carbide and hydrogen (H 2) involves pyrolyzing oil-containing sand or shale (I) (as mixture of hydrocarbon energy source (tar) and silicates (SiO 2)), contaminated with potassium aluminum silicate and carbonate, at more than 2000[deg] C. The released H 2is fed into a gas main or heated at ca. 4000[deg] C with a specific amount of fluorine (F 2) to give hydrogen fluoride (HF). The hot HF is immediately reacted with the Si of (I) to give silicon tetrafluoride (SiF 4) gas and water vapor; and the hot SiF 4(contaminated with HF) is fed directly into a combustion chamber supplied continuously with aluminum (Al) powder, in which SiF 4is converted into high purity crystalline Si by a thermite process. The obtained Al fluoride (AlF 3) powder (stable towards aqueous base) is filtered off before electrolytic conversion (in hexafluorosilicate form) into more Al and F 2. The necessary DC current is permanently obtained using process heat; the thermite process stoichiometrically releases 1172 KJ of energy per unit time and cooling with preheated water gives steam for AC generation. Heat from SiF 4production is also used for electricity generation. In the pyrolysis stage, the SiF 4-H 2O mixture is passed into the center of an Al powder-filled rotating drum with a welding flame in the cylinder center, and heat conduction causes exponential decrease of high temperatures in the cylinder wall direction (as in the subsequent thermite process). Cooling of the double-walled drum with water allows generation of a large amount of current, and Al and F 2are recycled to the cyclic process.

DE102007058654a
DE102007058654b

DESCRIPTION

Cyclic large-scale production of crystalline silicon / photosilicon or the fuel silane or the ceramics silicon nitride or silicon carbide and very large amounts of gaseous hydrogen from oily sands / slags using aluminum and the mixture of fluorine and hydrogen which provides 4,000 ° C hot hydrogen fluoride on combustion , Is carried out in such a way that the welding flame temperature only pyrolytically cleaves the stoichiometric content of the oil / tar content into graphite and hydrogen and is achieved by means of a device in which the vessel wall is heated only to about 400 ° C.

The stocks of oil-bearing sands (SiO2) and slate (SiO2 + [CO3] <2>) are, as is well known, much higher than the world oil reserves. The technical processes used to separate oil and minerals are inefficient and too expensive.

The combustion products required to generate heat generate CO2. So far, it is only in patent application 10 2006 023 515.0 that mention is made of the use of the sand present in the mixtures as energy carriers and to extract new raw materials from the products, whereby the oil pitch present in the sands and obliques itself becomes a supplier of gaseous hydrogen.

The object of the present invention is to provide a cyclic process in which only a certain amount of fluorine and aluminum is used in addition to the oil sand / shale. This amount is constantly recycled, as will be explained below. In fact, only as much silicate is to be converted into silicon fluoride, as is available per primary unit of oil / tar as primary energy. In this procedure, for example, as with an Archimedean screw, oil sand / shale or a mixture of sand and waste oils, Strongly sulfur-containing petroleum is passed through a rotating stainless steel boiler. The burner arrangement is located in the center of the vessel so that the enormous heat of almost 4,000 ° C decreases exponentially during the rotary movement of the sands to the outer vessel spacing. It is thereby achieved that the boiler wall which is coated with hard metal, which is not attacked by gaseous hydrogen fluoride, is supplied with little heat. The liberated heat can be converted into electrical current via the generation of water vapor via a turbine.

The mixture of silicon fluoride, hydrogen and carbon dioxide is now passed into a second vessel, in which stoichiometrically enough aluminum granules are fed per unit of time, so that, as above, the gas mixture is fed back into the middle via a rotating drum. The resulting termite reaction produces so much heat that the double-walled boiler must be cooled with water. This generates so much electrical current that the amounts of current can be used for the electrolysis of the aluminum fluoride. Here, the ALF 3 is admixed with potassium fluoride, so that potassium aluminum hexafluoride is formed. The cryolite thus obtained can be melted with purified bauxite and used to obtain aluminum. The object of the invention is also to recover electrolytically the fluorine used in copper boilers. The amounts of current for recovering the fluorine and aluminum used can be achieved via the three-phase current generators.

The hydrogen gas required for the application can be removed from the hydrogen produced.

Overall, the primary energy of the oil / tar provides so much heat and hydrogen that 100% recycling of the fluorine and aluminum is ensured.

The crystalline silicon obtained is chemically very pure. The large amounts of hydrogen can be used for the production of aluminum, whereby no CO 2 is liberated when hydrogen is burnt, while today the aluminum plants work with brown coal. The remaining hydrogen is chemically separated from the carbon dioxide and can be fed into existing gas networks instead of natural gas, which burns to carbon dioxide.

Since 40 billion tons of oil shale are stored in Jordan alone, the process described here can be used to produce photosilicon at incredibly low prices. At the same time, the process can be coupled with an aluminum production. The cleaning of bauxite and silicate, which has hitherto been carried out, can be carried out very simply in a further patent chemically.
The cyclic process is now to be explained in more detail chemically by several digits. Annex 1 shows a series of large-scale production plants, which begin with the fact that oily sands / shale are transported to the decomposition plant I on mechanical transport routes.

Annex II shows the points 1 and 3 of Annex I schematically. 1) With patent (a) DE 21 53 954 and (b) DE 195 33 765, it is known that, when the fluorine is hydrogenated with hydrogen, the hydrofluoric silicatified rock formed is completely converted into gaseous components SIF4, AlF3 (see a) The resulting silicon fluoride is rendered harmless with sodium hydroxide solution in this process (see b). 2) Oil-containing sands can be treated with the very hot hydrogen fluoride (over 3,000 ° C) formed during combustion, so that silicon fluoride is produced in the main (one, one). A lot of heat is released. 3) The heat pyrifies the involved oil pitch to carbon / graphite, which can be removed from the process (two, two). If slate is present, calcium oxide CaO is also created to be reused elsewhere. 4) The gaseous SiF 4, possibly contaminated by AlF 3 and traces of potassium fluoride and other metal fluorides, is now transferred together with the large amounts of hot hydrogen gas to (3, 3).

There, it is mixed with aluminum granules (10, 10) by the Thermit method in the form of the salt SiF4 · 2KF = K2 [SiF6] according to the equation 3SiF4 + 4Al? 3Si + 4AlF3 + 1172.7 kj is converted into crystalline silicon by evaporation of air. The heat liberated in (1, 1) and (3, 3) can be withdrawn from the system by the production of hot water vapor by built-in cooling coils and converted into three-phase current (fourteen, 14). 5) The mixture of crystalline silicon, AlF 3 and H 2 arriving in (4, 4) is free of CO and CO2, since the process is carried out under airtight conditions. If the pitch oil mixture contains shale, CO2 is formed next to calcium oxide, which is separated in (4, 4) in aqueous solution with calcium hydroxide. The CO2 can thus be bound as calcium carbonate with the CaO obtained in (2, 2) and removed from the system. 6) The main quantity of hydrogen is fed into existing heating gas pipeline systems (seven, 7), while the stoichiometric quantity of H2 required for the circuit is fed back via a line (8, 8) (one, one).

7) The dried, powdered AlF3 (insoluble in water and lye) freed from the water by filter pressing is subjected to melt flow electrolysis (9, 9). For this purpose, the stream produced with the self-produced hydrogen will be used (thirteen, 13). In addition, there are bundled streams (fourteen, fourteen) (one, one) and three (three). 8) The aluminum (ten, 10) resulting from the electrolysis will largely be cyclically reused in (3, 3). The unused part of the aluminum can be removed. The resulting F2 (eleven, 11) is used again without loss in (one, 1). 9) In the equation under no. 4) there are 3 moles of silicon on the right side as well as 1172 kj. At present, crystalline silicon is represented by an elaborate process using coal, high electrical costs and fractionating chlorosilanes with subsequent pyrolysis. The price is very high, since it is agreed worldwide. The new cyclic process would reduce the kilo price for photosilicon to one hundredths.

10) If desired, this crystalline silicon can be converted directly to pure silicon nitride by ignition with pure cold nitrogen, since the reaction is strongly exothermic. (Si3N4 is a solid noble gas [Plichta]. ) The most important ceramics used in the art - Silicon nitride (with its remarkable thermal conductivity) and silicon carbide (with its diamond-like hardness) Can be obtained in this way, since the very pure carbon from (2, 2) can also be used here. 11) The available crystalline silicon is surface active and could be catalytically treated with hydrogen to form monosilane. This monosilane can be removed from the reaction chamber and converted into long-chain silanes in a further patent application. These are not only to be used in space travel because they supply atomic hydrogen in the heat (Plichta). The atomic hydrogen can also be used in a fuel cell, which can be inferred from an additional patent application.

12) The heat generated in (1, 1) and (2, 2) and (4, 4) is, as discussed above, so low that it can be used to produce electricity. In general, the use of open-cast oil sands and slate is so high that it can be compared with the combustion of coal, lignite and natural gas, with the scouring of fossil deposits and the emission of carbon dioxide from electricity factories And vehicles as irresponsible. Only the use of low-cost solar cells can be referred to as "perpetuum mobile" when low-cost silane gasoline is subjected to a nitrogen cycle, in which ammonia is produced by the production of Si3N4 and its cleavage, which produces electricity during combustion Nitrogen back into the atmosphere. (Plichta)



DE10059625
Production of long-chain silanes for use as fuels comprises performing a modified Muller-Rochow synthesis with monochlorosilanes, partially methylated monochlorosilanes or monofluorosilane


The present invention relates to a plurality of processes for producing higher silanes, in particular with regard to the inexpensive recovery and use as fuels.

The decomposition of magnesium silicide with acids produces hydrogen and monosilane. The yield of the liquid silanes tri- and tetrasilane is approx. 5%.

It is known from patent 21 39 155 to obtain higher silanes by pyrolysis of tri-, tetra- and pentasilane. Higher silanes are non-toxic, since heptasilane is no longer self-igniting and thus safe to handle. Such higher silanes can be used as a propellant according to patent specification 44 37 524 in that they are combusted with atmospheric air. In hot combustion chambers, silanes decompose into free silicon atoms which react with the air nitrogen, which is considered inert, to form silicon nitride Si3N4. The hydrogen content of the silane reacts with the air oxygen to water. Both reactions provide energy. In order to burn the air nitrogen completely, it is also known, as disclosed in Patent Specification No. 196 12 507, to add silanol, additionally dispersed silicon powder or dispersed metal silicides, which also react with the air nitrogen with heat dissipation.

For example, the stoichiometric combustion equation for heptasilane is Si7H16 with air consisting of 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen: 16H + 4O2? 8H2O; 7 Si + 16 N2 + 17 dispersed Si? 8 Si3N4.

DE10059625a

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention is to produce higher silanes or partially methylated higher silanes inexpensively and in high yields and to remedy the disadvantages of the prior art. As a basic substance, silicon compounds that are already being used in industry in large scale, such as, for example, Mono- or disilane, or mono- or disilane Disilanes with different methyl groups or chlorine residues. The use of fluorosilanes is also advantageous since these can be prepared directly from SiO 2.

Method I
(Modified Müller-Rochow synthesis)

The object is achieved according to the invention by the fact that silicon powder is contaminated with catalysts, and is reacted under pressure and heat with silyl chlorides or disilyl chlorides or methylated silyl or disilyl chlorides. According to the conventional Mueller-Rochow synthesis, methyl chloride CH3Cl is reacted with powdered silicon in the presence of copper / copper oxide as catalyst to give methylchlorosilanes. 80% of dimethyldichlorosilane (CH3) 2SiCl2 is formed, followed by (CH3) SiCl3 (10-15%) and other methylchlorosilanes.

(A) It is proposed to first modify the Müller-Rochow synthesis in such a way that the methyl chloride is replaced by silyl chloride. SiH3Cl can be obtained from tetrachlorosilane SiCl4 by hydrogenation. On the other hand, it can also be catalytically chlorinated with HCl according to Alfred Stockmonosilan. Silyl chlorides, however, are generally used as waste products in silicone chemistry.

Thus, silicon powders with catalysts such as copper / copper oxide are reacted under pressure and heat with silyl chloride to give disilyldichlorosilane (SiH3) 2SiCl2 (a trisilane).
The next step is to extend the Si-Si chain even further. To this end, the trisilane must first be partially hydrogenated to the monochloride (SiH 3) 2SiHCl. If this monochlorotrisilane is again introduced into the Miiller-Rochow apparatus and allowed to react with elementary silicon, [(SiH3) 2SiH] 2-SiCl2 is formed, an iso-heptasilane dichloride:
The chlorine atoms can then be easily hydrogenated so that (SiH3) 2SiH-SiH2-SiH (SiH3) 2, a pure iso-heptasilane.

It is, of course, possible to introduce the heptasilane hydrogenated into the monochlor form once more into the Miiller-Rochow synthesis so as to obtain a Si15H30Cl2 or hydrogenation Si15H32 after hydrogenation.

It is obvious that other metals / metal oxides could also be used as catalysts. The possibility of using silanichloride SiH 2 Cl 2 or even SiHCl 3 as the starting product is also to be covered by the process described here.

Instead of chlorosilanes, fluorosilanes such as SiH 3 F could also be used. The advantage is that this material can be obtained directly from sand or rock, so that smaller amounts of expensive elementary silicon are needed. For this purpose, SiO 2 is mixed with hot hydrogen fluoride gas or alternatively with hydrofluoric acid / conc. Sulfuric acid mixture, SiF4 being formed. Chlorofluorides such as ClF 3 can also be used, whereby silicon fluorofluorides such as SiClF 3 are formed. These resulting fluorides, ie, SiF 4 or SiClF3, can now be hydrogenated to mono- or di-fluoroform analogously to the procedures described with chlorosilanes at the beginning of this section and fed into the Rochow synthesis.

The processes described in paragraphs 1b), c), d) and method 2 also work with the corresponding fluorides as well as with chlorides.

B) Disilan monochloride Si2H5Cl could also be used. This substance is obtained from hexachlorodisilane Si2Cl6 by hydrogenation. (Si2Cl6 itself is prepared from tetrachlorosilane SiCl4. ) In this case, the main product is dis-disilyldichlorosilane (Si2H5) 2SiCl2, a dichloropentasilane.

Further, an industrial waste product, such as a disilane containing both chloro atoms and methyl groups, could again be used. A silane of this kind is then hydrogenated to a form in which it contains only one chlorine atom, in order subsequently to employ the Miiller-Rochow synthesis. In the case of a disilane, a dichloropentasilane with methyl substituents is formed. One of the two chloro atoms can then be hydrogenated, so that the Müller-Rochow synthesis can be used once more. The result is an undecasilane, the methyl groups of which are of little importance when used as a fuel.

As in FIG. 1a), it is also possible here to directly use a partially methylated chlorosilane with two or even several chlorine atoms.

C) The chlorosilanes described in 1a) or 1b) can also be dimerized or cyclized directly with alkali metals such as lithium or alkaline earth metals such as magnesium. One of the two free chlorine atoms on the central silicon atom can also be hydrogenated and the dimerization can then be carried out.

The higher silanes (SiH3) 2SiH - SiH (SiH3) 2, a hexasilane, or the (Si2H5) 2SiH - SiH (Si2H5) 2, a decasilane can thus be used as a propellant in the form of a non - ignitable mixture. Even higher cyclic compounds such as substituted pentasilanes are, of course, not self-ignitable.

D) The chlorosilanes obtained by (1a) and (1b) could also be chain-extended by pyrolysis, as described in pure silanes, as described in German Patent 31,315,155. Subsequently, the thus-obtained substance would be hydrogenated to obtain a pure silane.

Method 2

The object is achieved according to the invention by the fact that silicon tetrachloride SiCl 4 or hexachlorodisilane Si 2 Cl 6 is hydrogenated either by lithium hydride, if possible by hydrogen pressure hydrogenation on the catalyst, so that mono- or Disilane is formed. It can, of course, also be based on mono- Disilane, which are obtained as gaseous products in the case of the Cane acid decomposition, and are usually flaked off.

These two silanes, in turn, are then reacted with liquid sodium-potassium alloys in higher ethers, so that the monosilane, potassium silyl, is SiH3K, from the disilane potassium disilyl Si2H5K. The filtered solutions contain the two potassium compounds in liquid form. Both attack chlorosilanes, whereby KCl precipitates. The iso-octasilane (SiH3) 3Si-Si (SiH3) 3 is formed from hexachlorodisilane from tetrachlorosilane, for example, from the tetrachlorosilane, the longer-chain iso-pentasilane.

It is also proposed to replace the above-described modified Müller-Rochow synthesis and the chain extension with potassium silane compounds in the course of the preparation of longer-chain silanes.

This is done with the intention of allowing continued chain extensions. If the chlorosilanes are treated with too large a quantity of potassium silyl, then all the chlorinatoms with the potassium combine to form KCl, and further chain lengthening is impossible. If, however, the potassium silane is added in a lesser quantity, the chlorosilanes formed still contain some, and in the ideal case a chlorine atom. This allows the Müller-Rochow synthesis to be used again for chain elongation, and then again to carry out chain lengthening by potassium silyl.



DE2139155
Synthesis of higher silanes and higher germanes

Crude tri-, tetra- and penta-silanes are vaporised under high vacuum in a boiler heated with warm water, passed through a vertical Pyrex column packed with glass wool catalyst and heated by external electrical heating elements, the products being collected in a receiver at the top of the column cooled to -196 degrees C. The mixed products are fractionated by vapour phase chromatography at 220 degrees C. To produce up to 7-Si chains (n- and iso-heptasilane) the column is run at 420 degrees C, for 8-si chains at 410 degrees C, for 9-Si chains at 360 degrees C, and for 10-Si chains with a glass wool-silica gel-platinum (5%) catalyst at 410 degrees C. For the prodn. of higher germanes from trigermane the column is run at 300 degrees C. The fractionated higher silanes are diluted with benzene and frozen at -80 degrees C for storage.; To increase yields the pyrolysis is repeated several times by deep cooling the original boiler and heating the original receiver, and vice-versa.

DE2139155a 

The invention relates to a process for the preparation of higher silanes by pyrolysis of trisilane, n-tetrasilane and / or n-pentasilane and of higher germanes by pyrolysis of Trigerman.
The device further relates to a device for carrying out said method.

It is known that, in the decomposition of magnesium silicide with loic hydrochloric acid, not only silicon-hydrogen but also higher silanes are formed, which can be fractionated as a liquefied mixture in the high vacuum into the individual constituents.

This is the classical Stock method, in which the following reactions have obtained some significance for the preparation of higher silanes: the pyrolysis of low silanes; The effect of silent electric discharge on low silanes; The pyrolysis of (SiF2) X with aqueous hydrofluoric acid; The hydrogenation of perchlorosilanes and the reaction of halosilanes with potassium silyl. None of these methods has so far led to the preparation of higher silanes with chain lengths of more than 6 silicon atoms.

In addition, the technical yield of higher silanes is low in the known processes.

The object of the invention is to produce higher silanes, even with chain lengths of more than 6 silicon atoms, at a high yield. Moreover, the object of the invention is to prepare higher germanes from the starting substance Trigerman and to remedy the disadvantages of the prior art with regard to the production of higher silanes and germanenes.

The object is achieved according to the invention by the fact that the starting silane or Is vaporized in the high vacuum, the starting / German on a glass wool contact at a temperature in the range from 360 C to 420 C or

Is pyrolyzed below 300 ° C. for the production of higher germanes, then the decomposition products are condensed and converted gaschromatically into individual higher silanes or Germane.

According to the method according to the invention, it is possible to present higher silanes and germans in a comparatively simple manner with high yield. Moreover, it was found that, unlike previous views, the higher silanes are stable with more than six silicones, and pure heptasilane is not self-ignitable in the presence of air, 1 as has always been assumed. This opens up new possibilities for technology.

For the preparation of iso-tetrasilane, isa-pentasilane, n- and iso-hexasilane and n- and iso-heptasilane, it is preferably proposed to use trisilane as the starting substance and to carry out the pyrolysis at a temperature of 4200.degree. This is used as the main product to produce n- and iso-pentasilane Si5H12.

It is important that iso-tetrasilane is also formed as 5-loX.

For the preparation of especially n- and iso-heptasilane Si7H16, according to a further proposal of the invention, n-tetrasilane is to be used as the starting silane and the pyrolysis is carried out at a temperature of 410 ° C. In order to arrive at a main product n- and iso-octasilane Si8H18, n-pentasilane is used as starting silane in a suitable embodiment of the invention and the pyrolysis is carried out at a temperature of 3600.degree.

The pyrolytic decomposition of n-tetrasilane on the glass wool silica gel platinum contact, preferably on a glass wool silica gel platinum (5 ff) contact, even results in the preparation of decasilane.

The production process according to the invention includes, as the last process step, the gas-chromatographic separation into individual higher silanes or Germane. The gas chromatographic separation is preferably carried out at a temperature of about 220 ° C., in which the straight-chain silanes can be separated well from their isomers. The condensation of the silane of the German steam prior to the gas chromatographic separation is preferably carried out at a temperature of -1960.degree.

Silanes with chain lengths of six to ten silicon atoms are oily, colorless liquids. While hexasilane Si6H14 spontaneously ignites spontaneously in the air, gaseous pure heptasilane is no longer self-igniting and first flames with the aid of a catalyst, B. Cellulose paper. Higher silanes are much more stable than previously thought. This shows their preparation at temperatures around 400 ° C. and their gas chromatographic separation at a temperature of 220 ° C.

At room temperature, higher silanes decompose after standing for a long time with the deposition of white flakes. Such abundant quantities spontaneously flinch in air, which is due to the formation of low silanes. This can be proved by gas chromatography. In a further embodiment of the invention, it is therefore proposed to dilute the products with absolute benzene for the purpose of storing the higher silanes and subsequently to freeze the solutions at a temperature of -8.degree. The benzene is easily separated off by gas chromatography if this is again necessary.

To increase the yield of higher silanes, the pyrolysis can be repeated several times, with heating baths being ensured that the higher silanes formed are not thermally decomposed a second time.

According to the invention, the apparatus for carrying out the described process for the production of hydraulic silanes or germanics is characterized in that a heatable pyrex tube filled with glass wool is provided, one open end of which is connected to a container for receiving the starting silane or geranium And the other end of which opens into a condenser which is coolable to a temperature of 1980 ° C by means of a cooling unit, and that the vessel and the condenser are connected to a high vacuum system and are provided with pressure-tight openings for filling and / The starting substances used for carrying out the process according to the invention trisilane, n-tetrasilane, n-pentasilane and trigerrnane can be prepared in a known manner. The starting substances thus obtained are treated according to the method according to the invention in the apparatus described below, which is schematically illustrated in the drawing. The essential element of the apparatus suitable for carrying out the process, which is shown in the drawing, is a pyrolysis column consisting of a pyrex tube 1, which is filled internally with glass wool as filling material.

The pyrex tube 1 is suspended essentially vertically and is surrounded by a heating device which is capable of producing temperatures of more than 420 degrees Celsius inside the pyrex tube 1. In the exemplary embodiment, the heating device consists of an outer winding 2 consisting of heating strip (asbestos and electrically conductive wires), which extends almost over the entire length of the pyrex tube 1. With its lower end, the pyrex tube 1 is connected to a glass flask 3, which is a container for receiving the starting silane or gander. The connection is designed to be highly vacuum tight by means of a corresponding cut.

The glass flask is provided with two openings 4, 5, one of which is for connection to a vacuum chamber and the other is vacuum-tightly closed by means of a known rubber cap, which is made of a material which prevents the filling and emptying of the glass flask 3 by means of a syringe- Without the risk of access to external atmosphere. The connection of a @ Oueckilber steam jet pump to the opening 5 of the glass bulb 3 is indicated in the drawing by an arrow. The schematically illustrated rubber cap is provided with the reference numeral 6.

The glass flask 3 is surrounded by a Dewar vessel 7, which is suitable for receiving a heating bath or liquid nitrogen.

A substantially similar arrangement is located at the upper end of the pyrex tube 1. A glass bulb 9 is also vacuum-tightly connected to the pyrex tube 1 via a glass tube line 8, which is surrounded by insulating material. The glass flask 9 has an opening 10 with which the vacuum chamber can be connected and an opening 11 for filling and emptying the glass flask 9, which is provided with a through-cut cap 12 corresponding to the rubber cap 4. The glass flask 9 is arranged within a Dewar vessel 15 which can be filled with a heating bath or liquid nitrogen. For the preparation of the silanes used, a robust mixture is prepared by decomposing magnesium silicide with aqueous phosphoric acid, which is separated by preparative gas chromatography. The process is carried out with the utmost exclusion of oxygen and moisture in an atmosphere of ultra-fine nitrogen in the apparatus described. First, hot water is filled into the Dewar vessel 7 and the starting silane is filled into the glass flask 5 by means of a syringe .

Liquid nitrogen is then introduced into the Dewar vessel 15 to build up a condenser at the upper end of the pyrex tube 1.

The high vacuum pump, which is connected to the opening 10 of the glass bulb 5, is adjusted and maintains a high vacuum in the apparatus. At the same time, the heating is switched on by applying a voltage to the coil 2 of the heating coil. The result of this is that the starting fluid evaporates and rises through the pyrex tube 1 filled with glass wool. Pyrolysis takes place. The pyrolysis product condenses in the glass flask 9, that the glass flask 9 now has a content, while the glass flask 3 is emptied.

Subsequently, aeration of the apparatus to atmospheric pressure with nitrogen takes place, and the Dewar vessel 7 is filled with liquid nitrogen, in order to remove a condenser at this point. Analogously, the Dewar vessel 15 is filled with hot water and the high vacuum is built up through the opening 5 of the glass bulb 5. The reverse process takes place as described above, and a new pyrolysis takes place. This process is repeated up to 8 ×, it being pointed out that the higher silanes which are formed do not pyrolyze again since they have a higher boiling point. At the end of the process, the higher silanes shown are placed in the glass flasks 5 and 9 in approximately the same amount. They are removed through openings 4 and 11 and fed to the gas chromatographic separation.

In the case of pyrolysis, additional products are hydrogen, monosilane and disilane. During the reaction, the hydrogen is withdrawn continuously from the mercury vapor jet pump of the high vacuum system, and the monosilane and the disilane are also removed after each reccondensation.

In carrying out the process according to the invention, the quantitative compositions described in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3 were prepared, for example, on higher silanes. In the pyrolysis of n-tetrasilane on a glass wool-silica gel platinum (5%) contact, n- and iso-decasilane Si101122 was prepared. The iso-decasilane is a clear paraffin-like oil.

The gas chromatographic separation of the pyrolysis products can be carried out with the known, known devices. The substances are collected by means of an injection needle, which is soldered to the gas-chromatographic outlet, in collecting tubes with rubber caps and V2A taps in order to reduce the risks when working with self-igniting substances.
In the pyrolysis of Trigerman Ge3H8 according to the method according to the invention, n-tetragerman Ge4H10, iso-tetragerman i-Ge4H1O, iso-pentagerman i-Ge5H12 and n-pentagerman Ge 012 are produced, where n-tetragerman is the main product. As a working temperature, a temperature of less than 3000 ° C. is preferred in carrying out the pyrolysis of Trigerman. At this temperature higher germans can be produced with high yield than at temperatures above 3000 ° C., in which the decomposition into germanium and hydrogen predominates.

TABLE 1
DE2139155t1

TABLE 2
DE2139155t2

TABLE 3
DE2139155t3



WO0244085 / AU2344702
METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGHER SILANES TO BE USED AS FUEL

Process for the preparation of higher silanes with regard to their use as propellants The present invention relates to a plurality of processes for preparing higher silanes, in particular with regard to the inexpensive recovery and use as fuels.

The decomposition of magnesium silicide with acids produces hydrogen and monosilane. The yield of the liquid silanes tri- and tetrasilane is approx. 5%.

It is known from patent 21 39 155 to obtain higher silanes by pyrolysis of tri-, tetra- and pentasilane. Higher silanes are non-toxic, since heptasilane is no longer self-igniting and thus safe to handle. Such higher silanes can be used as propellant according to patent specification 44 37 524 in that they are combusted with atmospheric air. In hot combustion chambers, silanes decompose into free silicon atoms which react with the air nitrogen, which is considered inert, to form silicon nitride Si3N4. The hydrogen content of the silane reacts with the air oxygen to water. Both reactions provide energy. In order to burn the air nitrogen completely, it is also known, as disclosed in Patent Specification No. 196 12 507, to add silanol, additionally dispersed silicon powder or dispersed metal silicides, which also react with the air nitrogen with heat dissipation.

For example, the stoichiometric combustion equation for heptasilane is Si7Hl6 with air consisting of 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen: 16H + 4028H20; 7 Si + 16 N2 + 17 dispersed Si Si4N4.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention is to prepare higher silanes or partially methylated higher silanes inexpensively and in high yields and to remedy the disadvantages of the prior art. As a basic substance, silicon compounds that are already being used in industry in large scale, such as, for example, For example mono- or disilane, or mono- or disilane.
Disilanes with different methyl groups or chlorine residues. The use of fluorosilanes is also advantageous because these can be prepared directly from SiO 2.

Method I (modified Müller-Rochow synthesis)

 The object is achieved according to the invention by the fact that silicon powder is contaminated with catalysts and is reacted under pressure and heat with silyl chlorides or disilyl chlorides or methylated silyl or disilyl chlorides.

According to the conventional Mueller-Rochow synthesis, methyl chloride CH3Cl is reacted with powdered silicon in the presence of copper / copper oxide as catalyst to give methylchlorosilanes. 80% of dimethyldichlorosilane (CH3) 2SiCl2 are formed, followed by (CH3) SiCl3 (10-15%) and other methylchlorosilanes. A) It is proposed to first modify the Müller-Rochow synthesis in such a way that the methyl chloride is replaced by silyl chloride. SiH3C1 can be obtained from tetrachlorosilane SiCl4 by hydrogenation. On the other hand, it can also be catalytically chlorinated with HCl according to Alfred Stockmonosilan.

Silyl chlorides, however, are generally used as waste products in silicone chemistry.

Thus, silicon powders with catalysts such as copper / copper oxide are reacted under pressure and heat with silyl chloride to give disilyldichlorosilane (SiH3) 2SiCl2 (a trisilane). <Img class = "EMIRef" id = "013737427-00020001" />

The next step is to extend the Si-Si chain even further. For this purpose, the trisilane must first be partially hydrogenated to the monochloride (SiH 3) 2SiHCl.
If this monochlorotrisilane is again introduced into the Miiller-Rochow apparatus and allowed to react with elemental silicon, [(SiH3) 2SiH] 2-SiCl2 is formed, an iso-heptasilane dichloride: <img class = "EMIRef" id = "013737427-00020002" />

Subsequently, the chloro atoms can be easily hydrogenated so that (SiH3) 2SiH-SiH2-SiH (SiH3) 2, a pure iso-heptasilane.

Of course, it is possible to feed the heptasilane hydrogenated into the monochlor form once again into the Müller-Rochow synthesis, so that a sil5H30C12 or hydrogenation silsH32 is obtained.

It is obvious that other metals / metal oxides could also be used as catalysts. The possibility of using silanichloride SiH2C12 or even SiHCl3 as the starting product is also to be covered by the process described here.

Instead of chlorosilanes, fluorosilanes such as SiH 3 F could also be used. The advantage is that this material can be obtained directly from sand or rock, so that smaller amounts of expensive elementary silicon are needed.

For this purpose, SiO 2 is mixed with hot hydrogen fluoride gas or alternatively with hydrofluoric acid / conc. Sulfuric acid mixture, SiF4 being formed. Chlorofluorides such as C1F3 can also be used, whereby silicon chlorofluorides such as SiCIFs are formed. These resulting fluorides, ie, SiF 4 or SiCIFs, can now be hydrogenated to mono or di-fluoroform analogously to the procedures described with chlorosilanes at the beginning of this section and fed into the Rochow synthesis.

The processes described in paragraphs (Ib), (c), (d) and Method 2 also work with the corresponding fluorides as well as with chlorides. B) Disilane monochloride Si2H5C1 could also be used.

This substance is obtained from hexachlorodisilane Si2C16 by hydrogenation.

(Si2Cl6 itself is prepared from tetrachlorosilane SiCl4. ) In this case, the main product is dis-disilyldichlorosilane (Si2H5) 2SiC12, a dichloropentasilane.

Further, an industrial waste product, such as a disilane containing both chloro atoms and methyl groups, could again be used. A silane of this kind is then converted by hydrogenation to a form in which it contains only one chlorine atom, in order to subsequently employ the Miiller-Rochow synthesis. In the case of a disilane, a dichloropentasilane with methyl substituents is formed. One of the two chloro atoms can now be hydrogenated so that the Müller-Rochow synthesis can be applied once more. The result is an undecasilane, the methyl groups of which are of little importance when used as a fuel.

As in 1a), it is also possible here to directly use a partially methylated chlorosilane with 2 or even several chloro atoms. C) The methods described in la) and Ib) can also be dimerized or cyclized directly with alkali metals such as lithium or alkaline earth metals such as magnesium. One of the two free chlorine atoms on the central silicon atom can also be hydrogenated and the dimerization can then be carried out.

The higher silanes (SiH3) 2SiH-SiH (SiH3) 2, a hexasilane, or the (Si2H5) 2SiH-SiH (Si2H5) 2, a decasilane can thus be used as a propellant in the form of a non-ignitable mixture. Even higher cyclic compounds such as substituted pentasilanes are, of course, not self-ignitable. D) The chlorosilanes obtained by 1a) and / or lb) could also be chain-extended by pyrolysis, as described in pure silanes, as described in German Patent No. 31 39,155. Subsequently, the thus obtained substance would be hydrogenated to obtain a pure silane.
Method 2: The object according to the invention is achieved by hydrogenating silicon tetrachloride SiC14 or hexachlorodisilane Si2Cl6 either by means of lithium hydride, but preferably by hydrogen pressure hydrogenation on the catalyst, so that mono-

Disilane is formed. It can, of course, also be used on mono or multi- Disilane, which are obtained as gaseous products in the case of the Cane acid decomposition, and are usually flaked off.

These two silanes, in turn, are then reacted with liquid sodium potassium alloy in higher ethers, so that the monosilane is potassium silyl SiH3K, from which disilane forms potassium disilyl Si2H5K. The filtered solutions contain the two potassium compounds in liquid form. Both attack chlorosilanes, whereby KCl precipitates. The iso-octasilane (SiH3) 3Si-Si (SiH3) 3 is formed from hexachlorodisilane from tetrachlorosilane, for example, from the tetrachlorosilane, the longer-chain iso-pentasilane.

It is also proposed to replace the above-described modified Müller-Rochow synthesis and the chain extension with potassium silane compounds in the course of the preparation of longer-chain silanes.

This is done with the intention of allowing continued chain extensions.

If the chlorosilanes are treated with too large a quantity of potassium silyl, then all the chlorates with the potassium are combined with KCl, and further chain extension is impossible. If, however, the potassium silane is added in a lesser quantity, the chlorosilanes formed still contain some, and in the ideal case a chlorine atom. This allows the Müller-Rochow synthesis to be used again for chain elongation, and then again to carry out chain lengthening by potassium silyl.



US5996332
Method and apparatus for operating a gas turbine with silane oil as fuel

The invention relates to a method of driving a shaft by reaction of silanes, preferably silane oils, with air in a double combustion chamber and an assiciated drive mechanism. The hydrogen of the silanes reacts in the first combustion chamber with an insufficient level of oxygen of the air supplied, thereby producing high temperatures. At said high temperatures, the nitrogen from the air supplied reacts with the silicon of the silane to form silicon nitride. The resultant combustion gases and dust and the non-combusted hydrogen are mixed in the second combustion chamber with a large quantity of cold compressed air, the hydrogen undergoing late burning, and they subsequently enter a turbine chamber to actuate turbine blades connected to a shaft. The method is particularly environmentally-friendly since no toxic or polluting waste gases are produced.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a method of driving a shaft as well as to a drive mechanism for carrying out such method.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

From DE-OS-22 31 008 it is known to use tetrasilane (Si4 H10) as a rocket propellant. DE 42 15 835 c2 also describes silicon hydrides, preferably silane oils, as rocket propellants. The production of such silane oils is described in DE-PS 21 39 155. In the systems described in these publications the silane oils are burned together with liquid oxygen, liquid chlorine or liquid fluorine.

In the non-published German patent application P 44 37 524.7 (see also U.S. Pat. No. 5,730,390 of Mar. 24, 1998) a method for operating a reaction-type missile propulsion system and a drive mechanism for carrying out such method are described. The drive mechanism is operated in such a manner that silicon hydride compounds are reacted with nitrogen and/or nitrogen compounds at increased temperatures in the presence of an oxidizing agent for the hydrogen of the silicon hydride compounds. Preferably, the nitrogen and the oxydizing agent can be taken from the atmosphere of the earth so that a corresponding oxidizing agent for the silicon hydride compounds need not be carried along in the missile. Preferably, silane oils are burned as silicon hydride compounds.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of driving a shaft as well as a drive mechanism therefor which operate with very high temperatures and a correspondingly high efficiency and which have little pollution effects.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to the invention this the following steps:
a. introducing silicon hydrides and air into the first part of a double combustion chamber;
b. reacting the hydrogen of the silicon hydrides with a sub-stoichiometric amount of oxygen of the introduced air for the generation of increased temperatures;
c. reacting the excess of the introduced nitrogen of the air at the increased temperatures with the silicon of the silicon hydrides for the generation of silicon nitride;
d. discharging the combustion gases and combustion dusts and the non-burned hydrogen portion from the first part into the second part of the double combustion chamber and mixing these combustion products with a large amount of air with after-burning of the hydrogen; and
e. directing the combustion gases and combustion dusts into a turbine chamber for driving turbine blades connected to a shaft.

The N2 -molecule as such, notwithstanding its triple bond, is extremely inactive and tends to open its linkage only with electron bombardment, for instance in thunderstorms, and reacts with oxygen so that nitric oxides are formed. However, above 1400 DEG C. hot nitrogen reacts with finely distributed silicon and forms silicon nitride Si3 N4. The reasons for this nitrogen combustion can be found in the fact that silicon, in contrast to carbon, cannot enter into double bonds or triple bonds. Nitrogen shows an especially good reaction performance with silicon hydride compounds. The invention takes advantage of this recognition and uses intentionally nitrogen or nitrogen compounds for the reaction with silicon hydride compounds whereby an especially efficient propelling system can be obtained. Nitrogen is at disposal in big amounts in the atmosphere so that a high efficiency with low costs results.

When burning silicon hydride compounds, especially silane oils, with compressed air the oxygen portion reacts with the hydrogen of the silane chain in accordance with the equation

4H+O2 =2H2 O.

In this hydrogen-oxygen combustion temperatures of about 3000 DEG C. are reached. This temperature is sufficient in order to crack the N2 -molecule which is presented by the supply of the compressed air. According to the equation

4N+3Si=Si3 N4

the nitrogen radicals now attack the free silicon atoms with extreme vehemence. Silicon nitride is formed which has a molecular weight of 140 and thus is nearly three times as heavy as carbon dioxide.

Of course, the cited reaction occurs only with correspondingly high temperatures. In the air silane oils after ignition burn only to develop red-brown amorphous silicon monoxide since the combustion substance has not enough oxygen on account of the rapidity of the combustion. No reaction with nitrogen takes place since nitrogen does not form any free radicals under these conditions.

In other words, at a sufficiently high temperature the silicon hydride compounds are ultimately thermally decomposed into Si and H. The highly reactive H-atoms bind the oxygen of the air for the generation of water. The linkage enthalpy of H2 O becoming free thereby supplies necessary energy for achieving high combustion temperatures. The N2 -dissociation increases very much above about 2500 K. Since the oxygen is bound in water the highly reactive atomic nitrogen reacts with Si for the generation of Si3 N4. During this reaction the very high linkage enthalpy of Si3 N4 is liberated. It amounts to -745 kJ/mol at T=298 K.

Since air consists of oxygen for only 20% and since the oxygen/hydrogen reaction is energetically more beneficial than the oxygen/silicon reaction, the ratio between the supply of air and the supply of silicon hydride can be adjusted such that a portion of the hydrogen is not burned while the nitrogen combustion of the silicon takes place quantitatively. In this I prevent the generation of silicon oxides altogether. With a conventional jet engine the 80% hydrogen of the air are coaccelerated in a non-burned manner. The same occurs if silicon hydrides are burned with an excess of air. The generated silicon oxides would prevent confirming of nitrogen. Accordingly, the described method provides an air-breathing rocket propulsion unit since no oxygen tank has to be carried along and the mixture of the oxygen of the air and the nitrogen is 100% burned.

Preferably, as silicon hydride compounds silane oils, especially those with a chain length of Si5 H12 to Si9 H20, are used. Such silane oils are described in the already mentioned DE-PS 21 39 155. Surprisingly, such long-chain silanes are not self-inflammable in the air. They have the constistency of paraffin oils and can be manufactured simply. They can be pumped so that they can be supplied to an appropriate combustion chamber without problems.

According to the inventive method water vapor and silicon nitride dusts are generated. Both substances are not toxic and do not represent an environmental load. The generated dusts can be collected by filtering the combustion gases after leaving the turbine chamber while the gases substantially consisting of water vapor can be discharged into the atmosphere. Accordingly, the method and the corresponding drive mechanism have very little pollution effects.

Preferably, compressed air is introduced into the combustion chamber for improving the efficiency. The air is taken from the environment, is compressed by means of a compressor and is introduced into the combustion chamber. Preferably, the compressor is driven by the shaft.

Accordingly, air is taken from the atmosphere and is then preferably compressed. By contact of the air line with the walls of the double combustion chamber the same are cooled and thus protected from vaporization. The air heated to above 1500 DEG C. helps to initiate the N2 -dissociation. Of course, the combustion chamber has to consist of metals suitable for this.

In order to save costs with the inventive method but also in order to completely exclude the silicon/oxygen combustion it can be advantageous to add powdered silicon or metal silicides, for instance magnesium silicide, to the silicon hydrides. It is known that magnesium reacts with nitrogen with the discharge of a large amount of heat.

After the start of the described combustion in the first chamber of the double combustion chamber and after the adjustment of the corresponding operating temperatures the method will run in the described manner, and a part of the non-burned hydrogen together with the hot H2 O--Si3 N4 mixture with a temperature between 2500 and 3000 DEG C. will flow into the second part of the double combustion chamber (after-burning chamber). These gases are much too hot in order to drive a shaft by means of turbine blades. Therefore, in the second part of the combustion chamber heat is directly used for compressing cold air.

Cold air compressed by the compressor is introduced into the upper part of the second combustion chamber through controllers. The combustion gases having a temperature of more than 2500 DEG C. are cooled with a multiple amount of air, wherein simultaneously the non-burned hydrogen is after-burned. In this manner large amounts of turbine gases convertable into work are generated, which are introduced into a turbine chamber and drive the turbine blades there. As already mentioned, the turbine shaft is connected to the air compressor.

Practically, the outlet of the turbine chamber leads into a filter chamber which has an outlet leading to the atmosphere. In the filter chamber the silicon nitride dusts generated by the reaction are retained so that substantially only water vapor is discharged into the atmosphere.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

The invention is described below in detail by means of an example in connection with the drawing.

The sole FIGURE of the drawing shows a schematic longitudinal section through a drive mechanism formed according to the invention.

US5996332a

SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION

The drive mechanism consists of a housing including, in the FIGURE from left to right, in succesion, a main combustion chamber 1, an afterburner chamber 2, a turbine chamber 3 and a compressor chamber 4. The housing is restricted between the several chambers so that appropriate connection channels are formed. Of course, the housing is comprised of appropriate materials or is provided with suitable linings in order to withstand the increased temperatures (up to 3000 DEG C.), especially those occuring in the main combustion chamber 1, as well as the occuring increased pressures.

A fuel mixing chamber 7 is located at the left end of the FIGURE. A conduit 10 for the supply of silane oil and a conduit 11 for the supply of silicon/metal silicide dust open into the mixing chamber 7. Furthermore, an appropriate mixing device is provided within the mixing chamber 7. A channel extends from the mixing chamber 7 into the main combustion chamber 1. A plurality of air supply apertures 8 are annularly disposed laterally from the central supply channel for the fuel (silane oil+Si/metal silicide).

These air supply apertures are connected to a supply conduit 12 for hot air annularly surrounding the main combustion chamber 1, the afterburner chamber 2 and the turbine chamber 3. The supply conduit 12 for hot air is connected to an outlet 17 of the compression chamber 4. Furthermore, the compression chamber 4 has an outlet 18 which is connected to a supply line 9 for cold air which laterally opens into the afterburner chamber 2. The supply line 9 for cold air extends through a controller 13 by means of which the supply of cold air into the afterburner chamber can be regulated.

A shaft 5 is centrally disposed within the turbine chamber 3 and within the compressor chamber 4 and extends through both chambers. The shaft 5 is rotated by the reactions taking place within the main combustion chamber and the afterburner chamber and can supply, for instance, mechanical energy or electrical energy through a generator. Turbine blades are disposed at the shaft within the turbine chamber 3. These turbine blades are driven by the combustion gases or combustion dusts entering into the turbine chamber from the afterburner chamber and rotating the shaft 5 hereby. Blades disposed within the compressor chamber 4 compress air entering through inlets 6 by means of the rotating shaft 5. The air is introduced into the conduits 9 and 12 through the outlets 17 and 18.

The turbine chamber 3 is connected through outlets for the combustion gases or combustion dusts to filter boxes 19 in which replaceable filter sacks 20 are disposed. These filter sacks 20 retain the dusts (substantially silicon nitride) while the combustion gases (substantially water vapor) are discharged to the atmosphere through outlets 21.

The above-described drive mechanism operates in the following manner:

Silane oil is pumped into the mixing chamber 7 through the conduit 10. Metal silicide dust is supplied through the conduit 11. These components are mixed within the mixing chamber. The generated mixture is introduced into the main combustion chamber 1 through the corresponding introduction conduit. The main combustion chamber 1 receives compressed hot air through the introduction apertures 8. The oxygen of the air reacts vehemently with the hydrogen of the silane oil. The nitrogen of the air reacts with the silicon of the silane oil and generates silicon nitride by the generated very high temperatures. The generated combustion gases or combustion dusts (with an excess of H2) enter the afterburner chamber 2 into which compressed cold air is introduced through the conduit 9. The introduced cold air causes a combustion of the excess H2 to form water vapor. The turbine blades in the turbine chamber 3 are applied with the gases and dusts discharged by the afterburner chamber 2 so that the shaft 5 is rotated. The corresponding gases and dusts leave the turbine chamber through the outlets 16, enter the filter sacks 20 within the filter chambers 19 in which the dusts are filtered, and are discharged into the atmosphere through the outlets 21.



US2004074470
Method for powering an engine by combustion of silicon hydrogens and silicon powder with self-generating silicon nitride lubrication

The invention relates to a method for powering a motor by using a combination of an explosion motor and a turbine. The combustion reaction in said combination occurs by the reaction of a variable mixture consisting of silicon hydrogens, silicon powder in a water solution and air, whereby water and silicon nitride are produced as exhaust gas. The inner wall of the motor should be coated with silicon nitride, which continuously and simultaneously takes place during the combustion process. A sufficient lubricating film consisting of silicon nitride is always is always provided in the fringe area between the inner wall of the motor and the combustion chamber so that no friction occurs. After being expelled from the explosion engine, the excess heat in the combustion gases is mixed with cold, compressed air, which is then used to drive a turbine whose shaft is coupled to the shaft of the explosion engine to enable the latter to run uniformly. By mixing the exhaust gases with cold air, the combustion gases are cooled off so that the silicon nitride can be filtered as solid dust during the end phase and subsequently processed industrially.

US2004074470aUS2004074470b

[0001] By German patent 196 12 07 it is known to burn silicon hydrides with air in a turbine with two combustion chambers. Dispersed silicon powder or dispersed metal suicides are added to the fuel in order to completely burn the nitrogen of the air.

[0002] For example, the stoichiometric combustion equation for a heptasilane Si7H16 mixed with silicon powder with air consisting of 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen is
16H+402->8H2O (equation 1)

7Si+16N2+17 dispersed Si->8Si3N4 (equation 2)

[0003] It is the object of the present invention to describe a method, as supplement of German patent 196 12 507, for driving one and the same shaft primarily with an explosion engine and additionally and secondarily through the mechanical rotary forces which are generated in a joined turbine chamber in which the very hot combustion gases from the explosion engine are mixed with cold air sucked from the atmosphere and are cooled in this manner. The dusty silicon nitride generated thereby is captured and subsequently processed for the generation of ammonia, as known from German patent application 100 48 472.7. A mixture of air and not self-igniting higher silane has the characteristic to immediately ignite when compressed. Accordingly, one can desist from an ignition spark in an explosion engine operated with silane. The difference with regard to a conventional Diesel engine consists in the fact that one can desist from the high pressures necessary for igniting a Diesel air mixture. On the other side, the silane Diesel fuel cannot be injected during the compression phase since it ignites with the air untimely. In place of that the silane oil is only injected at the time of the maximum compression of the working space volume with high pressure and ignites instantaneously (see FIGS. 2A, b). Especially, conventional Wankel engines have the additional disadvantage that the working space is insufficiently sealed so that a carbon Diesel operation is practically impossible on account of the necessary high pressures.

[0004] When operating with silanes the combusiton temperature within the explosion engine is very high since the nitrogen does not cool the total reaction as inert passive gas, as this is the case with conventional combustion reactions, but acts as an oxidant, i.e. supplies additional combustion heat. Water H2O and silicon nitride Si3N4 are generated as combustion products. Therefore, the inner space of the engine has to be coated with ceramic. However, silicon nitride is used as material for the construction of turbines and engines just on account of its hardness and abrasion resistance and heat resistance up to 1900[deg.] C. If the engine parts adjacent to the working spaces are coated with silicon nitride the inner walls of the engine consist of the same substance as the combustion product Si3N4 which is continuously generated in the inner space of the engine.

[0005] Since the engine parts are cooled from the outside a kind of solid-liquid interface layer is formed on the inner wall of the engine in which the substance silicon nitride is present in different phases at temperatures up to 1900[deg.] C. However, since silicon nitride is always present in excess on account of the continuous new generation a mechanical abrasion of the engine walls does not occur. Simultaneously, the interface layer acts as sealant or lubricant.

[0006] Since conventional explosion engines work at substantially lower temperatures the efficiency of the described silane explosion engine is substantially higher.

[0007] The amount of the injected silane oil is stoichiometrically dependent on the amount of the oxygen from the sucked air since the formation of silicon monoxide is suppressed. Accordingly, the major part of the 80% nitrogen portion of the sucked air is not influenced by the reaction with the silane. In place of that this reacts with additionally introduced silicon powder (see reaction equations 1 and 2).

[0008] This silicon powder can be either injected as dispersion together with silane or it is already blown in during the compression phase together with air or it is used as dispersion with water (see FIGS. 1B, b). In addition to that additional water can prevent an overheating of the engine and simultaneously does additional work by evaporation.

[0009] It has to be taken care that the total amount of silicon is not larger than the total amount of nitrogen in every combustion process since otherwise silicon would remain which might cause abrasion. This is especially important during a cold start phase. The first two operation steps 1 and 2 of the silane Wankel engine are shown in FIG. 1 while the operation steps 3 and 4 are shown in FIG. 2 schematicly. The central triangular rotary piston rotates anticlockwisely therein. The three sides of the rotary piston are characterized by the letters a, b and c and form together with the combustion chamber wall three part-ranges. In these part-ranges sequentially different processes take place during the course of rotation of the rotary piston which are shown in the drawing. After the operation step 4 the combustion cycle is terminated. The next begins again with operation step 1.

[0010] The combustion products discharged from the explosion engine have still an enormous temperature. In order to use this energy in the second part of the engine the hot combustion gases are mixed with the multiple amount of compressed cold air. This mixture operates a turbine for the additional generation of energy whose shaft is connected to the shaft of the explosion engine.

[0011] Consequently, the silicon nitride cooled in this manner can be subsequently captured or filtered and does not enter into the atmosphere but into an replacable container.

[0012] Furthermore, if a Wankel engine is used the coupling of the shaft improves the running characteristic of the same just at small speeds.



US2004063052
Novel concept for generating power via an inorganic nitrogen cycle, based on sand as the starting material and producing higher silanes

The invention relates to a novel energy concept that relates to an artificial silicon-nitrogen cycle and that constitutes the complement to the natural carbon-oxygen cycle. Pure silicon is produced from sand using solar energy. By repeated Muller-Rochow synthesis with silylchlorides the silicon is converted to higher silanes. The silylchlorides used are either silicons derived from chemical wastes or are economically produced from monosilanes or disilanes. They are mixed with silicon powder and combusted with air to give H2O and silicon nitride Si3H4, thereby generating power. The silicon nitride is converted to ammonia NH3 under alkaline conditions, thereby producing silicates. Part of the NH3 is converted to follow-on products, the major portion however is combusted with air to give H2O and N2, thereby generating power. The N2 cycle is thereby closed.

US2004063052

[0001] In the periodic system of elements silicon is situated directly below carbon and is very similar to it. However, the hydrogen compounds of the silicon have some differences with respect to the hydrocarbons. Already Friedrich Wöhler discovered the silicon homologue of the methan CH4, i.e. monosilane SiH4, during the change of the century. At the beginning of the 20th century Prof. Alfred Stock, Karlsruhe was able to produce the longer-chain homologues of the hydrocarbons ethane, propane and butane, namely the disilane Si2H6, trisilane Si3H8 and tetrasilane n-Si4H10 which, however, are all self-igniting in air.

[0002] 1951 the silane research started in Cologne with Prof. Franz Fehér. At the beginning of the seventies his assistant Peter Plichta succeeded in producing the so-called higher silanes of the pentasilane Si5H12 to the decasilane Si10R22 for the first time which were unknown until this date (German patent 21 39 155 (1976)). One came to know that-in contrast to the opinion up to this date higher silanes do not become instable with increasing chain length but, in contrast, become more stable so that, for instance, already the heptasilane (n-Si7H16) is no more

[0003] Copper Oxide in the Direct Process, a Dangerous Mixture?"). self-ingniting at ambient temperature. Higher silanes are handle-safe, non-toxid liquids similar to diesel oil and thus pumpable.

[0004] Silanes can be used as energy producing fuels (German patent 42 15 835 (1994), U.S. Pat. No. 5,775,096 (1998)).

[0005] In the following the combustion of hydrocarbons is compared with the combustion of silicon hydrides.

[0006] As one knows, when combusting hydrocarbons not only the hydrogen portion but also the carbon portion reacts only with the 20% oxygen portion of the air:
H2+1/202->H2O and C+O2->CO2

[0007] Disadvantages: The nitrogen portion of the air which is 80% remains unused. Furthermore, the breathing poison carbon dioxide is generated.

[0008] In contrast to carbon, silicon has the characteristic to form a very stable nitride compound, i.e. the industrially known silicon(tetra)nitride Si3N4:
3Si+2N2->Si3N4+750 kJ

[0009] The technical production of Si3N4 was carried out up to now by the reaction of molecular nitrogen with Si powder at 1100-1400[deg.] C. However, tests carried out at Wacker Chemie AG have shown that even cold (about 200[deg.] C.) nitrogen reacts with silicon (catalytically) or ignites (Congress "Silicon for the Chemical Industry V", May 29-Jun. 2, 2000, Tromso (Norway), speech of Dr. G. Tamme: "Silicon Cyclone Dust and Copper Oxide in the Direct Process, a Dangerous Mixture?").

[0010] In an air breathing driving mechanism the following reactions are possible:
3Si+2N2->Si3N4+750 kJ (I)
H2+1/202->H2O (II)
Si+O2->SiO2 (III)

[0011] Advantages: The nitrogen of the air can be co-utilized during the combustion of silanes.

[0012] It is the aim of a combustion with silicon hydrides to combust the hydrogen portion stoichiometrically with oxygen of the air in a combustion chamber (as with hydrocarbons), however, to simultaneously let the nitrogen portion of the air react with silicon. In order to reach the complete combustion of the added nitrogen of the air one might add dispersed silicon powder to the silane fuel (German patent 196 12 507 (1997), U.S. Pat. No. 5,996,332 (1999)). The silane/silicon mixture remains pumpable.

[0013] For instance, if one selects the n-heptasilane Si7H16(boiling point 226.8[deg.] C., density 0.859 g/cm<3>) the following stoichiometrical combustion of a normal air mixture consisting of 20% O2 and 80% N2 results:
16H+402->8H2O
7Si+16N2+additional 17 dispersed Si->8Si3N4

[0014] The chemical equations show that indeed the sucked amount of air can be used as oxidizing agent with a yield of 100%. During this reaction the inert gas nitrogen has the function of an oxidant. Furthermore, during this reaction no breathing poison but in addition to water only silicon nitride is generated which can be even collected or filtered.

[0015] In order to be able to carry out such a combustion in practice a jet engine was already developed which manipulates the very hot combustion gases in two combustion chambers arranged behind one another in such a manner that a shaft can be driven (German patent 196 12 507 (1997), U.S. Pat. No. 5,996,332 (1999)). This jet engine serves as substitute for conventional explosion motors. Furthermore, an air breathing rocket motor (without oxidation tank) is known which is to be used in supersonic aircrafts and space shuttles (German patents 44 37 524 (1996) and 44 39 073 (1996)).

[0016] With the German patent applications 100 46 037 of Sep. 18, 2000and of Sep. 29, 2000 it is known to produce higher silanes by the repeated use of the modified Muller-Rochow synthesis (i.e. with silylchlorides instead of methylchlorides) in a cheap manner.

[0017] Accordingly, the presuppositions are present to make silanes for the central component of the energy supply of the future.

[0018] It is the object of the present invention to indicate a novel chemical, inorganic cycle according to which silicon dioxide, the main component of the earth crust, at first is converted into pure silicon by means of the sunlight. Thereafter, higher silanes produced therefrom are combusted with nitrogen of the air with the production of energy wherein silicon nitride Si3N4 is generated. This Si3N4 is converted into ammonia NH3 in an alkaline manner. During this reaction silicates are generated either which, however, have not to be introduced into the cycle since SiO2 is available without any costs. When combusting NH3, again N2 is generated with the production of energy so that the nitrogen cycle is closed.

[0019] On principle, the individual steps are known, can be found in chemistry books or are already protected.

[0020] However, the present invention describes the idea to connect the individual known steps to a cyclic system which is similar to that of the natural carbon cycle. The conventional carbon cycle consists of the dualism or the symbiosis of the organisms of the plants on the one side and of the living beings on the other. side: CO2 is assimilated in the plants by photosynthesis with the assistance of sunlight and O2 is generated. The products of hydrocarbons generated in the plants during this procedure serve as food for animals and human beings. The oxygen generated by the plants is breathed by the animals and human beings wherein energy is produced. During this procedure CO2 is generated which is needed by the plants for surviving.

[0021] During the millions of years of the evolution a balance adjusted which keeps the carbon dioxide portion in the atmosphere constant. However, this balance has become more and more unsteady with the beginning of the industrial era up to now. The more and more increasing industrial CO2 output threatening the whole ecological system worldwide is accompanied by the fact that the crude oil reserves become more and more shorter.

[0022] Furthermore, it is an object of the present invention to show a way out of this more and more critical situation.

[0023] The advantages of the use of silanes as fuels is the unlimited availability of the element silicon in contrast to the very limited crude oil sources. 25% of the earth crust consist of silicon. For instance, sand has the chemical formula SiO2.

[0024] (I) The high demand for pure silicon can be met by reducing the sand (SiO2) with coal and solar current in an electrical arc furnace in situ to obtain pure silicon. In the same manner as the sunlight provides in the plants for the use of electrons for the C-C-coupling, in the here described inorganic cycle electrical current is generated by means of solar cells consisting of silicon, the generated electrical current being required for. the production of pure silicon in the arc furnace.

[0025] The pure CO2 generated in this process can be used for the generation of the basic organic chemical substance methanol so that the CO2 does not enter the atmosphere. Methanol is an upgraded form of coal. The hydrogen required for the upgrading of CO2 for methanol CH3OH according to the formula CO2+3H2 ->CH3OH+H2O is generated by electrolysis wherein the electrical current necessary herefor is generated by the solar cells.

[0026] (II) In the next step higher silanes are produced from the silicon by the modified Müller-Rochow synthesis with silylchlorides. For this, as silylchlorides ideally industrial waste of the silicon chemistry, as methyl chlorodisilanes, which otherwise have to be discarded in an expensive manner, is to be used. Alternatively, one obtains the silylchlorides by the chlorination of monosilanes and disilanes generated in large amounts during the acidic decomposition of magnesium silicide.

[0027] (III) In the third step the higher silanes are combusted to water H2O and silicon nitride Si3N4 with the addition of dispersed silicon powder with atmospheric air (20% O2, 80% N2). This silicon nitride Si3N4 which is also required in the industry is a grey-white completely non-toxic dust which melts only at temperatures of about 1900[deg.] C. with decomposition.

[0028] (IV) Si3N4 can be solved in lyes and can be converted into ammonia NH3. The silicates which are generated in this process are harmless and have not to be recycled since sand SiO2 is available in large amounts. Parts of the ammonia can be used for the production of artificial fertilizer.

[0029] (V) However, the major part should be combusted in the next step with atmospheric air to nitrogen N2 and water H2O again with a high output of heat. By this, nitrogen is again introduced into the atmosphere which is then again available for the combustion of the higher silanes.

[0030] The above-described reactions result in their cooperation in a novel chemical cycle which is shown in FIG. 1.

[0031] The described silicon-nitrogen cycle represents a completely novel energy concept. This cycle is the artificial complement to the natural carbon-oxygen cycle. The silicon era was announced by the introduction of silicon rectifiers, transistors, diodes, memory chips etc. in physics and with the introduction of silicon oils and silicon plastics in chemistry, with the cycle introduced here it finally succeeds. It has to be emphasized that the energy set free from the described cycle, in the last analysis, stems from the sunlight, as this is the case with the photosynthesis.

[0032] Indeed, the five individual steps of the cycle are not novel per se. However, the complete cycle is novel in the art.



DE102006041605
Producing silane fuels by high-pressure synthesis...

Producing silane fuels by high-pressure synthesis comprises producing monosilane from finely divided etched crystalline silicon at 300[deg] C using a catalyst, contacting the monosilane with silicon and catalyst at a temperature below 300[deg] C and performing a third step to increase the chain length of the silanes to produce a fuel with a consistency and boiling point similar to that of diesel fuel. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Preferred Process: The catalyst is e.g. subgroup elements or their mixtures with metal oxides. The product comprises n- and iso-silanes with an average chain length of about five silicon atoms.

The gaseous silanes: monosilane (SiH4) to 80% and disilane (Si2H6) to 15%, as well as the liquid silanes trisilan (Si3H8) and tetrasilane are formed during the decomposition of magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) in hot acid, which is called Stocksch's method (Si4H10). Higher liquid silanes were produced by F. Fehér in 1974, after winning three liters of a liquid crude silane mixture in 1970. For example, he gained over 700 grams of n- and iso-pentasilane. Previously, in 1970, his university assistant, P. Plichta, had succeeded in obtaining silanes with five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten silicon atoms as pure pure iso- and iso-isomers in the milliliter range by simple pyrolysis of tri- and tetrasilane DE 21 39 155). It was found that higher silanes, in contrast to the theory (A. Stock), are completely stable at room temperature. The proven false view of the instability of the silane is still 36 years later still in the chemist's books in this world.

While the boranes prepared by Stock were used, which led to the award of a Nobel Prize, the liquid silanes first came into contact with DE 44 37 524, because P. Plichta demonstrated their nitrogen combustion in 1994. In 1970 the monosilane was still fired at the only silane institute in the world because nobody had grasped its importance for the production of photosilicon and computer chip silicon. In the meantime, monosilane is produced industrially in quantities of thousands of tons.

The representation of raw silicon in Norway is very expensive. Accordingly, chlorosilanes and monosilane are so expensive for the production of photosilicon that the generation of electricity from light via solar cells does not occur to the extent that electricity can be produced on the roofs of buildings all over the world. With the patent applications AZ 10 2006 023 515.0 and AZ 10 2006 029 282.0, P. Plichta was able to prove that oil-containing sands / shales can be very cheap photosilicon. As early as the year 2000, P. Plichta had filed a major synthesis of higher silanes by means of a modified Müller-Rochow process (AZ 100 59 625.8). In 2006, P. Plichta developed a "silane fuel cell with pure nitrogen silicon combustion from fed-in air." According to P. Plichta in 2006, a "vehicle engine with silane nitrogen drive for the generation of three-phase current for driving a motor vehicle without mobile engine parts" (AZ 10 2006 009 907.9) "(AZ 10 2006 028 063.6).2003

P. Plichta and A. Kornath (University of Dortmund) succeeded in developing a large-scale synthesis of pure cyclopentasilane by means of an organic base diphenyl dichlorosilane (Phe2CL2Si) for the first time. In the meantime, Plichta's assistant, B. Hidding, 2003 (University of the German Armed Forces, Munich), had proved that all combustion spirals published by F. Fehér were wrong. Plichta, Hidding, and Kornath also demonstrated that the combustion tyne of cyclopentasilan, which was measured by N. Auner 1998 (Unversität Frankfurt) at the ICT Berghausen, is completely false.

Since liquid silanes will be the fuel of the future, it is necessary to develop a process to present liquid silanes so cheaply that they will completely replace the fuels gasoline, diesel and liquid hydrogen. At the instigation of P. Plichta at the University of Dortmund 2003 preliminary experiments were undertaken.

The object of the present invention is to develop a process for producing gaseous and liquid silanes from inexpensive crystalline silicon. The process is characterized by synthesizing monosilane as a whole in two steps in order to convert it into liquid silanes. These liquid silanes could then be pyrolyzed if it is necessary not to produce self-ignitable silanes.
Preliminary tests have shown that etched silicon reacts with monosilane (SiH4) with the addition of a catalyst in an autoclave. The choice of the catalyst such as platinum or copper is apparently not important. More importantly, it is very difficult to grind crystalline photosilicon obtained from oil sands / oil shales and to treat them with hydrogen under pressure at temperatures of over 300 °. The SiH4 / H2 mixture obtained in this way can then immediately be converted into a second autoclave, the main being trisilane (Si3H8). The gas mixture of hydrogen, monosilane, disilane, trisilane and tetrasilane can then be converted into a third autoclave at temperatures of about 250 ° C. and react again with crystalline silicon. The higher silane mixtures obtained in this way can be fractionated in vacuo. Similar to gasoline or diesel, this fuel is also a mixture of n- and iso-silanes with a high proportion of pentasilane.

Since crystalline silicon is obtained directly from the production of oil sand / oil shale because silicon fluoride (SiF4) is liberated (AZ 59607219.8 P. Plichta) and is converted into aluminum fluoride by means of aluminum grits in a termite process, the production of cheap synthetic silicon-containing gasolines is nothing More in the way. The dangers of the oil shortage are now done.



DE102006009907
Production of a rotary stream for driving a motor vehicle comprises using a silane-air drive which burns atomic hydrogen of the silane chain into water and free silicon radicals are burned with atmospheric nitrogen to form silicon nitride

Production of a rotary stream comprises using a silane-air drive which burns atomic hydrogen of the silane chain into water and the free silicon radicals are burned with atmospheric nitrogen to form silicon nitride. The residual nitrogen is likewise burned using excess liquid or gaseous silane. Preferred Features: Blades of the gas turbine of the motor are coated with silicon nitride so that the silicon nitride particles are not attacked at a temperature of less than 300[deg] C.

DE102006009907

By patent application, it is known that liquid silanes (a mixture of Si3H8 to Si8H18) can be burned to the point that no silicon oxides are formed, but only water vapor, amorphous silicon nitride and the main atomic hydrogen. (Plichta) According to Gibbs-Helmholtz equation: F = ?H + ?S, a molecule Si3N4 is formed during the union of three Si atoms with four N atoms, which is important for entropy. Si3N4 (Wöhler 1859) is indeed a solid noble gas.

The patent has already been attempted in a two-chamber motor without mechanical elements to drive a shaft with two turbine elements in such a way that heat is converted into rotational energy by silane combustion, the heat being cooled down by compressed cold air and gas pressure being generated.

The present invention is based on the object of constructing a motor vehicle motor which no longer has mechanical motor elements, such as pistons or washers, and thus does not have to be lubricated, characterized in that two stoichiometric equations are used in the invention which prove that the method Thermodynamically not only true, but also technically feasible.

The method is now to be explained in detail with reference to the appendix: 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by means of a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released.

7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air.

All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4).

4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of approx. 3,000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time.

Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9).

The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels.

(These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6).

The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket.

12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released.

7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air.

All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4)

4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time.

Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9).

The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels.

(These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6).

The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket.

12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released.

7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air.

All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4).

4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time.

Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9).

The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels.

(These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6).

The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket.

12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released.

7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air.

All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4).

4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time.

Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9).

The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels.

(These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released. 7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6).

The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air. All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket.

12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14). 1. The system shows an air intake funnel (1). 2. Behind it is a compression turbine, which is driven electrically (2), (+ -). 3. Compressed air is conducted into a combustion chamber through the air channel (1), (2) (FIG. 4). 4. Liquid silane or compressed gaseous silane is injected into the same combustion chamber (11), (12). 5. The combustion chambers (4), (6), (7) are of silicon ceramics such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. According to the state of the art, an SiC chamber can be produced three-dimensionally by a machine in such a way that it contains a network of cooling channels. (These are not explicitly shown in the drawing. ) 6. Silanes are oxidized by heat during the heat so that the air oxygen and the air nitrogen are stoichiometrically combusted, which is to be represented by a hexasilane: 2Si6H14 + 7O2 + 8N2? 4Si3N4 + 14H2O + ?W The amount of nitrogen unburned per unit time is calculated according to the equation 41/2Si6H14 + 18N2? 9Si3N4 + 63H1 +? W is oxidized and a large amount of atomic hydrogen is released.

7. Since the motor housing (4) is extremely loaded despite cooling at the occurring temperatures of about 3000 °, it is absolutely necessary to inject a calculated amount of water (3) at a particular time. Here, the water evaporates and generates pressure, while the pressure drops due to the disappearance of the nitrogen. Overall, heat of 3,000 ° is converted into gas pressure of about 1000 °. 8. The highly compressed water vapor / silicon nitride oil mist (14H2O + 13Si3N4) and the atomic hydrogen (63H1) are chased through a Lavalle nozzle (6). The atomic hydrogen has a lifetime of half a second so that it reaches the chamber 7 as the H atom. 9. Behind the Lavalle nozzle the pressure continues to rise in the funnel-shaped space (7). 10. In order to burn the atomic hydrogen with oxygen, cold compressed air is supplied to each time unit via supply lines (5). This creates further heat and water vapor. It is necessary to come down from the high temperature to about 300 ° by further feeding compressed air.

All in all, heat is simply converted into work and the large turbine (8) is driven. 11. Behind the large gas turbine (8), which generates alternating current for the drive of the motor vehicle and the compressed air pumps, the now 300 ° hot mixture of water vapor, air and silicon nitride powder is to be filtered (9). The dust filter acts like a silencer. The silicon nitride is collected in the dust filter (9), the filter wall being applied to a screen jacket. 12.200 ° hot water vapor and air escape (10). 13. The gas turbine (8) is connected to a three-phase alternator (13). The electric current (+ -) is transmitted to the electric motors driving the wheels of the motor vehicle (Patent No. 14).

While a steam-powered locomotive has an efficiency of about 10% and a high-tech TDI motor vehicle has an efficiency of 45%, the present silane nitrogen drive achieves an efficiency of more than 90% in the illustrated form. Precisely because silanes disintegrate in the heat and thereby heat is released and atomic hydrogen, the foundations of thermodynamics have to be recalculated. The resulting dusty Si 3 N 4 is collected in a filter bag and fed into the chemical industry and processed into ammonia by the prior art.



DE102006050193
Recovery of crystalline silicon from liquid silane in fuel cells or engines...

A method for the recovery of crystalline silicon from liquid silanes used for hydrogen storage in fuel cells or engines with no moving parts, in which the silicon radicals left after the removal of atomic hydrogen are cooled to form crystalline silicon which can be recycled to the silane production process, while the atomic hydrogen rapidly combines to form molecular hydrogen for use in the fuel cell. A method for the recovery of crystalline silicon (I) from liquid silanes used for storing hydrogen in fuel cells or engines with no moving parts, in which the silicon radicals left after the removal of atomic hydrogen form (I) on cooling, so that the silicon obtained can be recycled to the silane production process; this offers a new approach to silicon production which should be changed due to the cost of carbon and electricity, while the silicon formed can be used again (crystalline (I) has until now been obtained by the pyrolysis of chlorosilanes). In this way silicon can perform the functions required of a metal hydride storage medium and the hydrogen from the silanes can, e.g. keep a fuel cell running so that the rest of the silicon acts as an accumulator which admittedly stores no electrons but stores atomic hydrogen which has a half-life of 0.5 second before it combines to form molecular hydrogen. Skilful arrangement should enable the effective operation of a fuel cell and replace the prior-art chemical process (pyrolysis of silicon radicals with nitrogen) because, whereas in a scramjet atomic hydrogen has to leave the jet nozzle unburnt due to its low molecular weight, in a car the fuel cell supplies useful current directly, while the silicon atoms crystallise out on cooling and do not migrate into the fuel cell.

With patent application AZ 10 2006 041 605.8 "Pressure synthesis of higher silanes" (P. Plichta) and with AZ 10 2006 028 063.6 "Silane fuel cell with pure nitrogen / silicon combustion from fed air" (P. Plichta) and AZ 10 2006 009 907.9 " (P. Plichta), it is known that liquid silanes are excellently suitable as hydrogen storage media because the silane chain decomposes in atomic hydrogen and in silicon radicals on heating. See: (AZ 10 2006 038 912.3) "Method for operating a single-stage blasting machine in the sub-, over- and hypersonic range: scramjet, which stoichiometrically burns liquid silanes with the 78% nitrogen content of the fed air, the hot, unburned Atomic hydrogen of the silane chain with its Mg of 1 represents the main thrust element. (Plichta, P.)

The present invention is based on the object of using atomic / molecular hydrogen H1 / H2 as energy storage means with the aid of silicon / silanes using a cyclic method. That the recovery of the pyrolytically separated atomic / crystalline silicon is used worldwide. Thus, it becomes possible to drastically reduce the production cost of the fuel silane. In simple terms, liquid silanes represent an accumulator that does not store electrons but hydrogen. For decades, we have been looking for a metal hydride store.

In the catalytic representation, for example, of pentasilane (AZ 10 2006 041 605.8) by pressing monosilane onto the etched silicon, neo-pentasilane Si (Si H 3) 4 would have to be formed. A simple consideration shows that such an isomeric silane has a much lower boiling point than the n-pentasilane and the iso-pentasilane (DE 21 39 155) "Process for the preparation of higher silanes and germanenes" (P. Plichta). The cruciform compound neo-pentasilane decomposes to four silicon radicals at about 300 ° C. during the heat and provides heat upon decomposition (AZ 10 2006 038 912.3) (P. Plichta). The remaining twelve atomic hydrogen atoms have a half-life of half a second before they turn into molecular hydrogen H2 with the release of heat. This hydrogen can now be used to drive a fuel cell or a motor without mechanical elements. The remaining silicon radicals can be converted back into crystalline silicon by cooling, so that this silicon can be returned to the production process of silanes by collecting.

In this way it is achieved that silicon in the form of silanes can be used as hydrogen storage, since subsequently no expensive crude silicon or even more expensive pure crystalline silicon is required permanently for the production process of higher silanes. Silane is traditionally represented with the aid of acid decomposition in such a way that hydrogen in statu nascendi forms gaseous silanes at the silicon anions in the main. During the combustion of silanes, these atomic hydrogen atoms are released again, so that the cleavage yields energy which has not been disclosed by inorganic textbooks. (Plichta, P. & B. Hidding)

The production of raw silicon costs coal and electricity, because the 2,200 ° C heat can only be generated by expensive electric power. The subsequent chlorination for the production of crystalline silicon was modified by P. Plichta by fluorination. (AZ 10 2006 023 515.0 and AZ 10 2006 029 282.0) because the oil sands and oil shale used are available as practically free resources. Overall, a very large amount of higher silanes, For example, neo-pentasilane, in order to reduce the production of such silanes by repeatedly using the same amount of liberated crystalline silicon.

The described hydrogen storage silicon is thus produced without the use of coal and electrically produced heat and then processed with the hydrogen from oil sand / shale to silanes.
Since liquid hydrogen will never be used in vehicles or in households, the patent application described here represents a preliminary conclusion of the step into the silicon period since the nitrogen-burning properties of the silanes are thermodynamically the departure from the age of the hydrocarbons.



https://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=18005.0

Topic: Peter Plichta's one stage rocket disc

A revolutionary concept that would make a 10 000$ space voyage possible.

The Düsseldorf chemist and mathematician Dr Peter Plichta is the author of the book "God's Secret Formula” (Element Books) which has just been published in England and the United States. The book deals with the famous Euler formula for unit circle which connects the transcendental mathematical constants e, i and p with the numbers +1, -1 and 0. The astonishing thing, however, is that Dr Plichta can also use his concepts of cyclic mathematics to effect a revolution in space travel. He has already received several patents for the construction of a disc-shaped reusable spacecraft which will be fuelled by the diesel oils of silicon. The special feature of these homologue substances of carbon is that they do not only burn with oxygen, but also with nitrogen. Such a spacecraft can namely lie on the atmosphere, inhale its air and thus do without the standard oxidation tank.

In 1933 the chemist Alfred Stock published his book "Hydrides of Boron and Silicon" in the United States. During and following the First World War he worked at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe, Germany and showed that silicon-hydrogen compounds could be synthesised. Because the element silicon is listed in the periodic table below the element carbon, this result was actually expected. Stock managed to reach a chain length of 4 silicon atoms, with the first two silanes being gaseous, the third and fourth liquid. All these silanes are very highly prone to self-ignition.

In 1970 Peter Plichta disproved the textbook theory that the higher silanes are unstable. One of his achievements was to create a mixture of silanes with the chain lengths 5 to 10 (Si5H12 to Si10H22). He also managed to separate the oil into the individual silanes by of means gas chromatic analysis. This showed the surprising result that silanes with a chain length of over 7 silicon atoms will no longer ignite spontaneously and can thus be used for commercial purposes.

Silicon has already made a significant contribution to our century as a means of rectifying alternating currents, and more importantly in the replacement of radio tubes by transistors; and, of course, no computer could function without memory chips made of silicon. Its importance can be seen in chemistry, too. Silicon oils, silicon-based plastics and newly developed ceramics, e.g. cerane, have finally arrived and they are here to stay.

It has been known since 1924 that nitrogen at a temperature of 1400 oC reacts with powder silicon to form silicon-nitride while emitting heat. This material can resist temperatures of up to 1900 oC, indicating a very high bonding strength in the molecule. In contrast to silicon, carbon atoms cannot burn for reasons of quantum mechanics, which means that rocket fuel such as kerosene, liquid hydrogen and hydrazine in an air-intaking engine can do nothing with the 80% nitrogen contained in the air but agitate it through the engine.

Multi-stage rockets function from the mathematical point of view according to principles of rocket ascent. At the first stage of the launch they have to lift their whole weight with the power of fuel combustion. Because they quickly lose weight because of the spent fuel, they then accelerate although the power of the thrust remains the same. The discarded stages are burned in the atmosphere, which can only be described as a ridiculous waste of money. The Space Shuttle was intended to make space travel less costly; but actually the opposite has happened. Just as the invention of the wheel made all human transport easier, a circular spacecraft will some day soon replace the linear design of current multi-stage rockets. We are all familiar with the elegance with which a disc or a Frisbee is borne by the air through which it flies.

Peter Plichta got the idea of constructing a disc in which jet-turbines attached to shafts would drive two ring-shaped blade rings rotating in opposite directions. This will cause the disc to be suspended by the air just like a helicopter. The craft can then be driven sideways by means of a drop-down rocket engine. When a speed of over 200 km/h has been reached, the turbines for the blade rings will be switched off and covered to enhance the aerodynamic features of the shape. The craft will now be borne by the up-draught of the air, just like an aircraft is. This will also mean that the critical power required for rocket ascent will not be necessary. When the spacecraft is orbiting the planet, the N2/O2 mixture of the air will first be fed in through a drop-down air intake when the craft is still at a low altitude of 30 km (1 % air pressure). This will be conducted to the rocket motor and the craft will thus accelerate to a speed of 5000-8000 km/hour. This is where a standard rocket jettisons its first stage, because by then about 75% of the fuel has already been used up.

The disc on the other hand will continue to accelerate to 20,000 km/h and will thus reach an altitude of approx. 50 km (1 per thousand of air pressure). The speed will increase as the air pressure drops, so that the process can be continued until an altitude of approx. 80 kilometres and 25,000 km/h can be maintained. In order to reach the required speed of 30,000 km/h and an altitude of around 300 km, only a single measure of oxidation agent will be needed at the end.

In the hot combustion chamber silanes decompose spontaneously into hydrogen and silicon radicals. The hydrogen is burned by the oxygen in the air and water formed. Because molecular nitrogen is very tightly bonded, it must be preheated and subject to catalytic dissociation. The extremely hot silicon radicals will provide additional support for this process, which will in turn lead to silicon nitride (Hf = -750 kJ) being formed. In order to burn superfluous nitrogen, larger amounts of Mg, Al or Si powder can be added to the silane oil.

When the spacecraft is returning from space the ceramic-protected underside of the disc will brake its speed to approximately 500 km/h and the covering will open again, while the blade rings will automatically begin to rotate. The jet turbines will then be started for the landing operation.



https://wn.com/german_inventor_dr._peter_plichta_wants_to_build_a_flying_saucer_shaped_aircraft
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbqeRh1mjlU

GERMAN INVENTOR DR. PETER PLICHTA WANTS TO BUILD A FLYING SAUCER SHAPED AIRCRAFT

Plichta Disk Craft



https://www.academia.edu/6265185/3413-New_Approach_for_Single_Stage_Ascent_to_Orbit.....3412-Silicon_Based_Fuels_for_Space_Flight

Silicon Based Fuels for Space Flight

David Padanyi-Gulyas and Andras D. Bodo

Nitronics Aerospace Technologies, LLC

ABSTRACT

Limiting factors in air and space propulsion systems affect both design and operation of the engines and the energy derived from a fuel source. Translation of the fuel source to energy (combustion) always requires an oxidizer. The process of breaking the energy-laden bonds of the fuel has classically been achieved using the oxygen in air for air-breathing engines or an onboard source of oxidizer for spaceflight. This is a critical limitation for a possible single-stage vehicle, because the weight of the fuel and oxidizer needed to achieve the necessary speed and altitude for orbit is excessive. This problem was overcome using multi-stage engines that are discarded sequentially during vertical ascent. However, the relative inefficiency of fuels currently available perpetuates the requirement for multi-stage engines to achieve orbit. Multi-stage rockets still require onboard fuel and oxidizer at lift-off that can account for over 95% of the lift-off weight. Only with more efficient fuels and propulsion systems will it become possible to achieve orbit and spaceflight without this limitation. More effective spacecraft designs incorporating a propulsion system powered by a more efficient fuel would greatly reduce the oxidizer to payload ratio. This could be accomplished with a vehicle that uses air while in the atmosphere and switches to onboard oxidizer only after reaching the upper limit of the atmosphere. This more efficient fuel is now available. The use of silanes (silicone hydrites) provides the fuel necessary to achieve this radically different and efficient means of propulsion, using both the oxygen and tthe 80% nitrogen of our atmosphere for combustion.



Related Patents by Plichta

US5836543
Discus-shaped aerodyne vehicle for extremely high velocities

US5836543a  US5836543b

A discus-shaped aircraft is provided with a peripheral jet arrangement for generating lift and, in the bottom of the aircraft, at least one rocket engine supplied with silicon hydride and compressed air and operated under conditions in which the silicon hydride is reacted with nitrogen of the compressed air to form silicon nitride while the nitrogen of the silicon hydride compounds reacts with oxygen to form H2O.



US5775096
Process for operating a reaction-type missile propulsion system and missile propulsion system

US5775096

A method for accelerating a vehicle in the atmosphere, space or aerospace includes the steps of supplying a propellant having silicone hydride compounds into a combustion chamber, compressing air and delivering compressed air into a ring formed with a plurality of circumferential orifices which open into the combustion chamber, reaching thereby temperatures of about 3000 DEG C., cracking nitrogen molecules present in the air at the temperature which attack the silicon atoms to generate great mass.



US5730390
Reusable spacecraft

US5730390a  US5730390b

A reusable space craft having a disk-shaped casing which receives buoyancy upon horizontal travel through a gas atmosphere and three drive systems on the casing. A first drive system utilizes counter-rotating rotors driven by jet engines on the periphery. A second drive system utilizes a rocket rotor which can swing out from the both of the casing into an inclined position. The third drive system is a main thruster rocket at the center of the bottom fueled by an Si5 to Si9 silane propellant.



DE102006038912
Operating method for ramjet engine...

The method involves decaying of a material mixture from the start of flight. The emerging free silicon atoms corrode the gaseous molecular air nitrogen by heat supply and form non-gaseous silicon nitride. The water and silicon nitride emerge as combustion products, and the non-combusted, atomic hydrogen has molecular weight of one. The gaseous nitrogen disappears from the reaction mixture, and the combustion chamber pressure is compensated by the non-combusted hydrogen. The mixture discharges from the combustion chamber, where center molecular weight of mixture is computed at 23 milligram.



DE102006036941
Method for flying a spacecraft comprises melting protons and neutrons to form a single ball having a charge on the surface with a complex tetrahedron structure

DE102006036941a DE102006036941b

Method for flying a spacecraft comprises melting protons and neutrons to form a single ball having a charge on the surface with a complex tetrahedron structure. The electrical charge is a physical reciprocal time and sits on the surface of atom cores. Preferred Features: The spacecraft has spatial gliders on the front side which can combust oxygen and nitrogen from the planets with a scramjet.



DE102006036847
Tailback radiation motor operating method for use in e.g. aircraft, involves forming toroid shaped passenger compartment, and reverting disks in sandwich

DE102006036847aDE102006036847b

he method involves providing a toroid with a sandwich component, which has individual modules. A toroid shaped passenger compartment comprising a circular seat is formed using metallic, ceramic and plastic materials. The disks in the sandwich component are reverted back to the earth, so that the individual disks rotate around 180 degrees. The disks are fixed to a parent ship, which is operated chemically.



DE102005005934
Ramjet engine operating method, involves utilizing hydrosilicon mixture in hot combustion chamber, where mixture disintegrates into atomic hydrogen and silicon and twenty one percent of oxygen portion in air is burned stoichiometrically

The method involves utilizing hydrosilicon mixture in a hot combustion chamber made of silicon ceramics. The hydrosilicon mixture disintegrates into atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon due to the heat in the combustion chamber, where 21 percent of oxygen portion in the air is burned stoichiometrically without formation of silicon oxide. Atmospheric nitrogen constituting 78 percent with atomic silicon burns to silicon nitride.





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