Method and apparatus for
the processing of fluid by radiation.
Inventor: PEQUIGNOT MICHEL
Processing of the fluid: S by radiations (light or different) is
subjected to two constrained main. :
1. The need to operate with the shelter of the air in order to
avoid the secondary actions: mainly intense oxidation due very
often to the ionization of ambient oxygen by the radiations to
use; 2. The need to present fluid, always somewhat or
substantially the not transparent one with the radiations; in
very thin layers.
In the methods and apparatuses, used for this purpose, one
generally makes pass the fluid one to treat between two walls,
transparent, either in webs .de low thickness, or divided in
channels of small dimension
parents of very low diameter.
The industrialization of the preceding apparatuses is blocked by
their low flow:
function of the fluid pressure, this last being rapidly limited
by the low resistance of materials used (glasses, quartz, etc).
A fortiori, their employment is impossible in operations in
front of necessarily being carried out with ha.ute pressure
(chemical syntheses, fluid treatment containing of dissolved
In addition, the homogeneity of the processing is there always
very. defective, in consequence of the unequal pressure
distribution, in the tubes or channels, and especially of the
the inherent inaccuracy with the material and the machining
It is known indeed that the flow, of a .canal of low section is
proportional with the fourth power of his diameter, which leads
for low differences of this last to extremely variable flows.
It is to be also noticed that, the field of the radiations
intended to act, either on a beam of tubes, or on, faces:
internal and outer of a sleeve, is not uniform, whatever the
ingeniousness of the systems employed, and that, same if it were
it, the play of the incidences and the indices of refraction of
the transparent materials, make that the different generators of
the irradiated surfaces, are it very unequally.
The present invention has as an object a method which makes it
possible to cure these disadvantages and to increase the
effectiveness and the flow of the apparatuses with irradiation.
According to this method which comprises the displacement of
fluid to treat in the sanaux ones subjected to Faction of the
radiation source, one combines with the longitudinal moving
speed of fluid, the shape of the channels which ensures a
swirling relative movement of fluid pendent its passage in front
of the source radian .e. Thanks to this mouvemnt, one creates
inside the fluid mass in movement at the same time of the
molecular internal slips and a rotation of the mass fluid- on it
same. So all the molecules of the mass with will trai er come
successively in contact with the active surface limiting the
flow channel. It results from it that all the parts of the fluid
mass in movement are subjected, with the radiation and that the
activation is very homogeneous.
Following a mode of setting in uvre of the method, the relative
swirling movement is obtained by not making R the fluid mass in
shaped channels of circular propeller around the radiant source.
With this provision, the fluid flowing one in each channel is
subjected to the centrifugal force due to its circular movement,
ac ion which is added to those resulting of lives of flow and
the section of the channel, to ensure a relative movement which
creates a stirring int nse of the molecules and ensures their
regular exposure to the radiation of the source.
For the application of this method, one realization
inside a metal tube where they can be readily machined with
precision (like the scratches of a firearm). Dams the tube me Al
with inner channels, is introduced another tube, this one
transparent with the radiation and surrounding the radiating
Inner surfaces of the 'metallic and outer ube of transparent
tube coïncid-NT exactly; fitting is obtained from it by lapping,
of fate:. what each channel plot in the opaque material is
closed with its free surface by a material window transparent?
With this apparatus, one obtains on the same tube a precise
series of channels of dimensions', pusiqu' they are machined in
metal, the surface of the tube transpar' NT smooth and being
simply rectified. These channels allow an equal distribution of
fluid resulting in equal losses in load in the different
channels all the flows, and whatever the intake pressure. This
advantage could not be obtained with the known apparatuses where
the channels are entirely carried out in the material
transparency, that hereinafter not being able to be exactly cut
or molded with dimensions specified.
The apparatus made up at the same time by a metallic wall and an
inner tubular transparent member is particularly rési.stant with
the pressure. Whereas the conventional apparatuses are
exclusively made up out of somewhat resistant transparent
material, in the apparatus in accordance with the invention, the
outer part supporting the efforts of extension is carried out in
metal and can support without difficulty of the vées pressures
él. it left transparent
which it resists readily. One can thus use pressure raised,
therefore to carry out substantial flows. Moreover the apparatus
resists the incidental overpressures readily (water hammer).
Moreover, the apparatus comprised only one rédui.e part out of
transparent material, which allows a saving of this material
vée of the shocks, which R Nd the resistant and somewhat brittle
Another essential advantage, when they are industrial
apparatuses, resides in the possibility da instantaneous
disassembling of the body of flow in two parts. The cleaning
operation, which is a quasi impossible problem in the
apparatuses comprising a body indémontable, is easier here.
It be: to also notice that single the apparatuses of the object
kind of the invention, employs a single producer of radiations,
which constitutes a considerable saving, which makes it possible
in addition to obtain with the central position of the radiant
source inside the transparent tube, a perfectly uniform field of
radiations, essential factor of the homogeneity of the
The method and the apparatus making the object
all the fluid ones. Thus they can be used for the activation of
milk by the rays: ultraviolet or for the processing of other
liquid such as the Vin. They. can also be put in uvre for the
processing by irradiation of gases, for the gaseous syntheses
for example. They are applicable, that they which are the
radiations used: light, actinic, radioactive or simply caloric.
The annexed drawings represent, with; title of example, an
embodiment of the following apparatus the invention.
is a part in
perspective out of longitudinal cut of an element. Figure 2 is
transverse a-cut following line II-II of figure 1. This
apparatus is made up. by a metallic envelope 1, for example out
of stainless steel. With the inner surface of this tubular
portion 1 are machined Des., helical grooves 2 of suitable step,
for example, a corresponding step with the length to-
for the third time an unspecified regular geometric .section,
the best adapt one with the improved efficiency and the facility
of execution was determined as being that of a triangle will
equip with deadened angles. Inside envelope 1 is laid out a tube
out of transparent material with the radiations considered. For
example if they are rays, ultraviolet, the tube is out of molten
quartz, the outer surface is rigorously gauged and polished.
Tube 3 extends on both sides beyond outer tube 1. Inside tube 3
and at the center - 'laid out the source radiating 4 finds, such
as a generator of ultraviolet (tubular lamp with mercury vapor
or other). With this source can be associated. a selector filter
- not represented.
The ends, of envelope 1 are connected to collectors: intake
manifold 5, collector of delivery 6. The connection with
transparent tube 3 is ensured by D S joined suitable comprising
a plastic element 7 clamped on support 8. The fluid one to treat
is brought by collector 5. Arrived at the left end; tube 1, it
can pass only in helical channels 2. Dimensions of those are
determined so that the fluid one takes there the speed necessary
with its swirl in the aforementioned channels. The particles of
fluid are thus highly brewed, whereas the rotation of the fluid
vein on itself successively brings them all in contact with the
part of channels 2, limized by the surface of transparent tube
3. They are thus subjected to the irradiation of source 4.
Following the requirements, of the flow and the duration of
sensitizing of fluid, a certain number of element identical with
that which has been just described are grouped in series or
parallel. Especially, one carried out substantial flows with a
single construction, by the parallel circuit of several tubes 1
and 3 on collectors 5 and 6. These element 1-3 are superimposed
without complication and without. sensitive increase of the
Of course, the description which precedes does not aim of an
embodiment of the invention. All variants, of application of the
method return in the object of present the bre-. vet.