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Ruggero SANTILLI

Concave Lens Telescope









Related: SANTILLI, R.: Magnegas
/ SANTILLI, R.: Patents



https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/639279/SCIENTISTS-discover-invisible-alien-entities-spying-on-us-on-Earth

The incredible pictures scientists say prove 'invisible alien entities ARE here on Earth'

SCIENTISTS seeking evidence of anti-matter in space claim to have stumbled across a previously unknown "invisible life form" here on Earth, which alarmingly could be SPYING on us.

By Jon Austin

Thunder Energies Corporation, an optics, nuclear physics and energy company, claims to have detected "invisible entities" living in Earth's atmosphere... The corporation is run by controversial Harvard-educated Italian-American nuclear physicist Dr Ruggero Santilli... The nuclear physicist says the discovery was made using the Santilli Telescope he has developed to try to discover proof of theoretical anti-matter galaxies, anti-matter cosmic rays and anti-matter asteroids... It uses a concave lens - the opposite to the convex lenses of standard telescopes...

He said: "This is an exciting discovery. We do not know what these entities are, they’re completely invisible to our eyes, our binoculars, or traditional Galileo telescopes, but these objects are fully visible in cameras attached to our Santilli telescope..."



Videos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTPZcYnGHFk
Presentation Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHj3MN9Sf2A

TEC Releases Extended Executive Summary Video of Optical, Nuclear, and Combustion Technologies.


Extended Summary of Thunder Energies Technologies. Thunder Energies Corporation presents Ruggero Santilli and George Gaines discussing the revolutionary technologies being used in their Optical, Nuclear and Combustion divisions.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=neh-GV_YyNA

Explaining the Santilli Telescope to View ITEs /Anomalies - Apr 16, 2016

We just took delivery & got trained on the new 70mm & 150mm Santilli telescopes from Thunder Energies last weekend. Here is a vid showing what can be seen (ITEs / UFOs / UFEs / Anomalies) with them, typically over power plants & military installations:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iUb-nmz5mg

Dr Ruggero Santilli: Isodual Telescope, Antimatter, New Energy, Applications of Hadronic Science

PROJECT CAMELOT TV NETWORK LLC

Ruggero Santilli



http://www.thunder-energies.com/

Division of Optical Equipment (TEC-DOE)

The production, promotion, sale and service of pairs of Galileo telescopes with convex lenses to detect matter-galaxies & Santilli telescopes with concave lenses to detect antimatter-galaxies (international patent pending). The universe was believed to be comprised galaxies solely made up of matter. Research has shown that this was due to the inspection of the night sky with Galileo telescope with convex lenses, since the inspection of the night sky with Santilli revolutionary telescope with concave lenses has identified for the first time antimatter galaxies.

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1. Foreword

Dr. R. M. Santilli, Chief Scientist of Thunder Energies Corporation (see his Curriculum , Prizes and Nominations , Publications in antimatter , and the General Archives ) has conducted three decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on antimatter initiated in the early1980s when he was at at Harvard University under DOE support.

This extended research has produced basically new telescopes, today known as Santilli telescopes, which have been conceived, designed, constructed, tested and produced to detect antimatter galaxies, antimatter cosmic rays and antimatter asteroids (international patent pending irrevocably owned by TEC without royalty payments).

Since matter and antimatter annihilate at contact into light, as a condition for its existence at the classical macroscopic level, antimatter must have all characteristics opposite to those of matter. For instance, matter-light has a positive index of refraction while, as a condition for its existence, antimatter-light must have a negative index of refraction (Figure 1).

Consequently, the focusing of images of matter-light require convex lenses as occurring in the Galileo telescopes, while the focusing of images of antimatter-light requires concave lenses, as occurring in Santilli telescopes (Figure 2).

The above features imply that none of the refractive Galileo-type telescopes existing on Earth or in space can detect antimatter-light because they are all based on convex lenses.

Similarly, we will never see images of antimatter-light with our naked eyes because our cornea is convex, and as such, it disperses images of antimatter-light all over our retina. The sole possibility to detect images of antimatter-light is via images on a digital or film camera.

2. Detection of antimatter galaxies

The Santilli telescopes should always be used in pair with optically aligned conventional Galileo telescopes, both telescopes having the same diameter of the primary lenses. the same curvature of the primary lenses and the same focal distances, with the understanding that curvature and focal distances become negative for the Santilli telescopes (Figure 3).

Under these conditions, the detection of antimatter galaxies with a pair of the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes can be made according to the following rules (consult TEC for more technical information):

1) All alignments in the night sky are done with the Galileo telescope which is generally equipped with an eyepiece;

2) All images are taken from equal digital or film cameras in both the Galileo and the Santilli telescopes as shown in Figure 3;

3) Whether digital or film, the images from the two telescopes are subjected to the same magnification, until faint images become detectable over the background;

4) Digital cameras are sufficient for initial scans of the night sky, although much more detailed views can be obtained via a film camera; and

5) Images focused by the Santilli telescope are considered valid, if and only if, they do not exist in the images from the Galileo telescope under the same magnification.

Since antimatter galaxies cannot exist in our galactic environment and can only exist far away, their images are faint. Consequently, the detection of their images are suggested to be done with long camera exposures, such as exposures for 15 seconds.

This long exposure generates streaks in the digital cameras that, as such, can be clearly distinguished from the background as well as from impurities or imperfections of the cameras since said impurities and imperfections remain stationary.

The tracking of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope is discouraged at the moment. This is due to the fact that, in case of tracking, antimatter galaxies will produce small stationary dots in the camera that, as such, cannot be distinguished with certainty from camera impurities or anomalies.

Matter-Antimatter annihilation also requires that antimatter-light must have energy opposite that of matter-light, as predicted by P. A. M. Dirac in 1932 and verified by R. M. Santilli in his decades of research on antimatter (see the the theoretical confirmation and the experimental confirmation).

Under 15 second exposure, the Galileo telescope creates an image of matter galaxies consisting of streaks of light over the conventional background (Figure 4) while, by contrast, the detection of antimatter galaxies with the Santilli telescope creates streaks of darkness (Figure 5) over the conventional background.

This is essentially due to the fact that the negative energy of antimatter-light annihilates in the camera pixel the positive energy due to matter-light of the background, resulting in this way in streaks of darkness.

It then follows that a conventional matter-light background is necessary (under our current knowledge) for the detection of antimatter galaxies because, in its absence, no image of far away antimatter galaxies could be visible in the camera due to darkness of the background.

This is the reason all detections of the night sky with the Santilli telescope have been done to date at sea level where the conventional matter-light background is sufficient to distinguish streaks of darkness.

3. Detection of antimatter asteroids

The detection of antimatter asteroids follows rules different than those for antimatter galaxies. Since matter and antimatter repel each other gravitationally (antigravity), antimatter asteroids are repelled by Earth's gravitation and can impact Earth only when they have certain value of kinetic energy computed by Dr. S. Beghella-Bartoli in the scientific work

Therefore, antimatter asteroids hitting Earth must have said minimal impact kinetic energy or more; they annihilate at contact with our matter atmosphere; and they produce instantaneous streaks of darkness (under 15 second exposure) in the digital or film camera generally in the downward direction of penetration in our atmosphere. Streaks of darkness over the matter-light background in the Santilli telescope under 15 second exposure are candidates for the detection of antimatter asteroids when they have a direction different than those of the streaks of matter and antimatter galaxies (Figure 6).

It should be indicated that, at this stage of our knowledge, we do not know how to detect antimatter asteroids in space prior to their impact on Earth, because our matter-light (whether from our Sun or from our lasers) could be absorbed without reflection when hitting antimatter asteroids that generally are at absolute zero degree temperature.

One of the reasons Thunder Energies Corporation is involved in the study of antimatter light is precisely due to the need to develop new technologies for the advance detection of antimatter asteroids because, in the event we are hit by a small antimatter asteroid the size of a football, all our military, industrial and civilian communications will be disrupted for days due to the extreme excitation of our atmosphere from the radiations emitted by the matter-antimatter annihilation, as suggested by Dr. R. Anderson et al. in the scientific work

4. Detection of antimatter cosmic rays

The detection of antimatter cosmic rays follows rules different than those for the detection of antimatter galaxies and antimatter asteroids. As it is the case for conventional cosmic rays of matter, antimatter cosmic rays are the result of primordial explosions in the universe.

Consequently, antimatter cosmic rays reach our atmosphere at very high speeds; they annihilate in the upper layer of our atmosphere; and their sole detection is that via the antimatter-light produced by their annihilation that reaches us at the ground level.

The detection of antimatter cosmic rays via the Santilli telescope is then provided by dots of darkness over the matter-light background despite the 15 seconds exposure, which feature confirm the virtually instantaneous propagation in our atmosphere of antimatter-light originated by the antimatter cosmic rays (Figure 7).

It should be clarified that the instantaneous dots of darkness created by antimatter cosmic rays by the Santilli telescope are not caused by ordinary light since the same dots are absent in the Galileo telescope. Also, antimatter-light is physically different than ordinary matter-light (see Figure 1 for the different refraction).

5. Expected new technologies

Due to the democracy between matter and antimatter requested by physical laws (such as the PCT theorem), the above advances predict the possible future development of a basically new digital camera with pixels detecting photons with negative energy, as a complement of current pixels that solely detect photons with positive energy. In the eventuality, the indicated new camera is developed, the matter-light background is not needed for the detection of antimatter images.

DETECTION OF INVISIBLE TERRESTRIAL ENTITIES (ITE) OF THE FIRST AND SECOND KIND

While it's deep space capabilities are well documented in scientific journals, it was only by chance that our telescope detected invisible terrestrial entities within the earth's atmosphere. Scientifically, this should be impossible because when ordinary matter and anti-matter come into contact, the annihilate one another.

So, what are these invisible terrestrial entities (ITE) that have been observed and photographed? These entities defy our current scientific knowledge. Some appear to move at highly erratic speeds while others appear to be almost stationary. Some ITE appear as dark entities (Figure 8) while others give off a luminous glow (Figure 9). To say anything beyond this would be speculation. What I can say is that these entities are invisible to the human eye and to conventional telescopes and binoculars; they can only be observed with our telescope.

Dr. Santilli has developed his telescope with concave lenses also for the study of other forms of light besides antimatter light. Thunder Energies Corporation is supporting research for the possible conversion of matter-light, from its conventional form with positive index of refraction, into a form with negative index of refraction without its necessary origination from antimatter (TEC international patent pending).

REFERENCES ON ANTIMATTER GALAXIES, ASTEROIDS, & COSMIC RAYS

R.M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine, Springer (2006)

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/antimatter-detect-2014.pdf
American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, pages 34-41 (2015)
Confirmation of antimatter detection via Santilli telescope with concave lenses,
S. Beghella-Bartoli, Prashant M. Bhujbal, Alex Nas

General Review

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-Isodual-Theories.pdf
P. M. Bhujbal, Santilli's Isodual Mathematics and Physics for Antimatter, International Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2015),

http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/ITE-paper-12-15-15.pdf
American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 5, issue 3, pages 45-53, 2016
R. M. Santilli, "Apparent Detection via New Telescopes with Concave Lenses of Otherwise Invisible Terrestrial Entities (ITE)"

http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/Santilli-Refractor.pdf
Independent confirmation: K. Brinkman, “Santilli Refractors,” power point from a lecture delivered at the St. Petersburg Astronomy Club on September 25, 2015

http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/TEC-report-ITE-II-01-15-16.pdf

Thunder Energies report on the bright ITE detected on 01-15-16

Scientific Archive
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/news.html



http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final.pdf
http://www.cliffordanalysis.com

APPARENT DETECTION OF ANTIMATTER GALAXIES VIA A REFRACTIVE TELESCOPE WITH CONCAVE LENSES

Ruggero Maria Santilli

Abstract.

In preceding works, the author has: 1) developed an anti-Hermitean image of the mathematics used for matter characterized by a map called isoduality and denoted with the upper symbol d; 2) achieved the isodual classical representation of neutral antimatter via the conjugation of all physical quantities and their units, thus resolving the inconsistencies of negative energies; and 3) shown that the the isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy Ed = 􀀀E, experiences a negative curvature tensor Rd = 􀀀R gravitational repulsion) when in a matter gravitational fi eld, and possesses a negative index of refraction nd = 􀀀n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. In this paper, we show, apparently for the first time, that the only possible detection of antimatter light with a negative index of refraction is that via a telescope with concave lenses; we build the first known antimatter telescope verifying these conditions; and report the first known detection of images apparently focused by a telescope with concave lenses, which images appears as being of darkness, rather than light, thus supporting the negative energy of their origination. In the event confi rmed, these unusual images may result in being the fiorst detection of antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays. The main result of this paper is an apparent con firmation of Dirac's [5] original 1928 conception of antiparticles as possessing negative energy because necessary for consistency with the negative energy of light in the electron-positron annihilation e+ + e􀀀 􀀀!  + d, the consistency of negative energies being apparently assured by their treatment via the isodual mathematics. The paper ends with the suggestion to test the gravity of the photons in the electron-positron annihilation and conduct other truly basic tests on antimatter.



http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Con-Ant-Tel-2013.pdf

PRELIMINARY CONFIRMATIONS OF ANTIMATTER DETECTION VIA SANTILLI'S TELESCOPE WITH CONCAVE LENSES

P. M. Bhujbal, et al.

Abstract. In preceding works, R. M. Santilli [1] has developed the new isodual mathematics and related theory for the treatment of antimatter at the classical as well as quantum levels in a way compatible with existing experimental knowledge, and the prediction that antimatter light has a negative index of refraction. More recently, Santilli [2] has shown that the sole possible detection of antimatter light with a negative index of refraction is that via a telescope with concave lenses; he has built such a telescope for the first time, hereon called Santilli's telescope and provided tentative views of the Epsilon Alpha and Beta region of the night sky suggesting the possible detection of antimatter galaxies, asteroids and cosmic rays. In order to initiate the expectantly laborious process of veri cation or dismissal of these findings, by using the same telescopes, the same camera and the same conditions as those used by Santilli [2], in this paper we present pictures providing apparent con rmation of the focusing of light in a telescope with concave lenses whose most plausible origination is that due to antimatter light.



Hyperfine lnteractions 109 (1997) 6}{l

Does antimatter emit a new light?

Ruggero Maria Santilli
Instituto pcr la Riccrca di Basc, Molise, Italy

Contemporary tbeories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulatod the recent construction of the new iso&al theory b?[,1d on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called kofualiry. ln this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emined by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isoduat theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual phoion, thi positron and the antiproton cxperience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as ihe reversal ofthe sign ofthe curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted ' to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy ofthe hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states ofelementary panicles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of "the new physics of antimatter" are pointed out.


   
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/description?CC=US&NR=2016363756A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=3&date=20161215&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP

US2016363756
Novel Optical Instruments with Concave Lenses

Inventor: SANTILLI RUGGERO MARI     
Applicant: SANTILLI RUGGERO MARIA/ THUNDER ENERGIES CORP [US]     

The invention introduces for the first time telescopes for the detection of images originating from light emitted by antimatter stars or galaxies whose specifications are opposite to those of conventional telescopes for the detection of images of far away stars or galaxies in accordance with known conjugations in the transition from matter to antimatter. In particular, conventional convex lenses or concave mirrors for the detection of stars and galaxies are replaced with concave lenses and convex mirrors for the detection of antimatter stars or galaxies. The invention also includes means for the conversion of conventional refractive or reflective telescopes for the detection of matter stars or galaxies into their conjugate for the detection of antimatter stars or galaxies.

BACKGROUND

Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates to a novel arrangement of optical lenses, and more particularly, an arrangement of optical concave lenses.

[0003] There exist today a large variety of telescopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lens assemblies and other such arrangements of lenses, hereinafter referred to as conventional optical instruments, to focus and amplify light. The light focused by conventional optical instruments is typically the light that is emitted by matter at high temperature, including for example, the light of a star or the light of a flame, hereinafter referred to as matter-light.

[0004] Turning to FIG. 1, conventional optical instruments essentially operate in the manner of Galilean's refractive telescopes, or equivalent optical arrangements, whose main principles are as follows. Light 2 is attracted by the gravitational field of a matter body 1 such as Earth, as illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0005] FIG. 2 depicts a matter-light beam 4 penetrating within a transparent matter-medium. As a complement of the attraction described above and illustrated in FIG. 1, a matter-light beam 4 penetrating within a transparent matter-medium such as water 3 experiences a deviation from its natural trajectory for an angle 5. The angle 5 will tend to be positive, as light passes from a medium of one density (e.g., air) to a medium of a greater density (e.g., water). The deviation of the light from its natural trajectory is called refraction, as illustrated by angle 5 in FIG. 2.

[0006] FIG. 3 depicts a convex lens. Conventional optical instruments use refraction, as described above in conjunction with FIG. 2, to focus the image of a faraway matter object such as a star. This is typically done in a telescope or binocular using one or more convex lenses 6, of the general type depicted in FIG. 3. A convex lens is characterized by curvature that is oriented toward the source, as illustrated in FIG. 3.

[0007] FIG. 4 depicts a conventional optical instrument in the form of a Galilean telescope. A Galilean telescope for viewing light 50 from a faraway star is composed of a tube 7 containing in its interior a convex primary lens 6 that focuses the image in the eyepiece or camera 8. The telescope is completed with a mechanism 9 configured for a fine adjustment to alter the distance between lens 6 and the eyepiece or camera 8. The adjustment assures that eyepiece or camera 8 is at the correct focal distance of lens 6, as illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5. Binoculars or other conventional optical equipment for viewing images of matter-light adhere to the same general principles as the Galilean telescope.

SUMMARY

[0008] Embodiments disclosed herein address the above stated needs by providing systems and methods for making and using optical instruments with concave lenses.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute part of the specification, illustrate various embodiments of the invention. Together with the general description, the drawings serve to explain the principles of the invention. In the drawings:

[0010] FIG. 1 illustrates matter-light being attracted to a gravitational field.
us1

[0011] FIG. 2 depicts a matter-light beam 4 penetrating within a transparent matter-medium.

[0012] FIG. 3 depicts a convex lens.


[0013] FIGS. 4-5 depict a conventional optical instrument in the form of a Galilean telescope.
us2
us3

[0014] FIG. 6 depicts a convex lens assembly according to an embodiment of the present invention.

us8


[0015] FIG. 7 illustrates antimatter light being repelled by the gravitational field of a matter-body.

[0016] FIG. 8 illustrates the refraction of antimatter light as it passes from a transparent material of a given density to a material of higher density.

[0017] FIG. 9 depicts a concave lens for focusing antimatter-light from a faraway antimatter star or galaxy.

us12

[0018] FIG. 10 depicts an isodual optical instrument using a concave lens as shown in

[0019] FIG. 9 according to various embodiments disclosed herein.

[0020] FIG. 11 depicts a concave lens assembly that includes a concave lens and a conjugate lens for reducing aberration in the viewed object according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0021] FIG. 12 depicts an isodual telescope according to various embodiments disclosed herein paired with a conventional Galilean telescope for spotting purposes.
us12

[0022] FIGS. 13-15 depict experimental results from both an isodual telescope and a conventional Galilean telescope.
us13-15

[0023] FIG. 16 depicts an optical arrangement of two lenses designed to decrease aberration according to various embodiments disclosed herein.

us16-21

[0024] FIGS. 17-18 depict an optical arrangement for converting a Galilean refractive telescope into an isodual telescope according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0025] FIG. 19 depicts another class of telescope for the focusing of matter-light based on a concave mirror 111, rather than lens 5, according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0026] FIG. 20 depicts an isodual reflective telescope according to embodiments disclosed herein according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0027] FIG. 21 depicts an isodual optical assembly resulting from the conversion of a Galilean reflective telescope according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0028] FIG. 22 depicts a single convex lens with flat back surface illustrating double refraction for proper focusing of matter-light and FIG. 23 depicts the isodual lens of FIG. 22 showing that antimatter-light 301 is subjected to the new isodual refraction.


[0029] FIG. 24 depicts an improved single, primary, concave lens with front main concave surface and a back equally concave surface with larger diameter for proper focusing of antimatter-light according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0030] FIG. 25 depicts an improved doublet to focus antimatter-light consisting of a primary concave lens an inter media convex lens to reduce aberration and a back concave surface with radius larger than the primary one for proper focusing of the antimatter-light according to various embodiments disclosed herein.


[0031] FIG. 26 depicts a convex lens suitable for use in various types of telescopes including Galilean refractive telescopes.


[0032] FIG. 27 presents TABLE 1 listing manufacturing data for a conventional telescope with 2010 mm primary convex single lens and 1.250 focal distance.


[0033] FIG. 28 depicts a single primary lens with double concave surfaces for the proper focusing of antimatter-light.


[0034] FIG. 29 presents TABLE 2 listing the manufacturing data for an isodual telescope with single double convex 210 mm lens and 1.250 focal distance.


[0035] FIG. 30 depicts a flowchart for a method of practicing an embodiment disclosed herein.
us30

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0036] Various embodiments disclosed herein deal with a new type of optical instrument that may take the form of telescopes, monoculars, binoculars or other optical instrument specifically conceived, developed and tested to focus light emitted by antimatter at high temperature. Such light may derive from an antimatter star or antimatter fuel combustion, and is hereinafter called antimatter-light. The new optical equipment is the culmination of research in antimatter by the present inventor—research that began with the discovery of a new mathematics built by the inventor as a member of the Department of Mathematics at Harvard University in the early 1980s. Today this branch of mathematics is known as isodual mathematics. The telescope, binocular or other optical instruments based on the isodual mathematics are, therefore, called isodual telescope, isodual monocular, isodual binocular, or more generally, an isodual optical instrument.

[0037] Experimental evidence establishes that in the transition from matter to antimatter there is the conjugation of each and every property belonging to matter. This total conjugation is necessary for the representation of the annihilation of matter and antimatter when they touch each other, to such a level that, in the event only one property of matter is not conjugated in the transition to antimatter, would be inconsistencies for the representation of matter-antimatter annihilation.

[0038] The isodual mathematics has been constructed to achieve the conjugation of all physical quantities of matter. The mathematics underlying the conventional Galilean telescope and other optical instruments for matter-light is characterized by the basic left and right units +1 at all levels of study. By contrast, the isodual mathematics underlying the isodual optical instruments is based on the left and right negative unit -1, and then the reconstruction of functional, differential calculus, mechanics, optics, etc., in such a way to admit -1 as the correct left and right unit. On mathematical grounds, the transition from matter to antimatter requires an anti-isomorphism in order to represent experimental evidence, for instance, the annihilation of matter and antimatter at contact. The most elementary mathematics which is anti-isomorpohic to the conventional mathematics used for matter is that whose fundamental left and right unit is -1 at all levels, including numbers, functional analysis, differential calculus, or the like.

[0039] The above mathematical and theoretical foundations are described in detail in the monograph by R. M. Santilli entitled “Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine,” Springer (2006), the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety for use in explaining the theory and principles of isodual mathematics.

[0040] FIG. 6 depicts a convex lens assembly according to an embodiment of the present invention. Since faraway stars have to be studied at the classical level and must be assumed as being neutral, the isodual mathematics has permitted the classical conjugation from a neutral matter-star to a neutral antimatter-star via the conjugation of all physical quantities, except charge. The above main features can be improved in a variety of ways. FIG. 6 illustrates a convex lens assembly for the reduction of the aberration consisting of a convex lens 10 and a conjugate lens 11, with the flat terminal surface arranged as shown in FIG. 6.

[0041] Consequently, physical quantities of a matter-star such as mass, energy, speed, or the like are characterized by positive numbers usually measured with positive units of mass, energy, speed, or the like. By contrast, all characteristics of an antimatter-star, such as mass, energy, speed, or the like have negative values as a condition to comply with matter-antimatter annihilation, although said negative values are measured via negative units of mass, negative unit of energy, negative unit of speed, or the like. The referral of negative physical values to negative units of measurement eliminated known inconsistencies for negative physical quantities.

[0042] There is a similar conjugation for the transition from matter-light and antimatter-light. Recall that light has no charge. Hence, charge conjugation cannot be used for the conjugation of light. The isocdual mathematics allows indeed a consistent conjugation from matter-light to antimatter-light characterized by the change of sign of all physical quantities, such as energy, frequency, polarization, or the like, although always measured in terms of corresponding negative units. In particular, antimatter-light has negative energy as originally predicted by P. A. M. Dirac in 1932 although measured with a negative unit of energy.

[0043] Following decades of mathematical theoretical and experimental research, the present inventor has identified and experimentally confirmed the principles of the isodual telescope indicated below, including for example, the following five principles illustrated in FIGS. 7-11:

[0044] 1) FIG. 7 illustrates antimatter light being repelled by the gravitational field of a matter-body. For example, antimatter-light 13 is repelled by the gravitational field of a matter-body 12 as illustrated in FIG. 7.

[0045] 2) FIG. 8 illustrates the refraction of antimatter light as it passes from a transparent material of a given density (e.g., air) to a material of higher density (e.g., water). As a complement of the above repulsion, an antimatter-light beam 14 penetrating within a transparent matter-medium such as water 3 experiences a deviation from its natural trajectory for an angle 15 which is the opposite of the angle 5 of FIG. 2 for matter-light, and is therefore assumed to be being negative. Thus, the antimatter light has a negative index of refraction defined by angle 15, since the antimatter light is deflected in the opposite direction by an amount angle 15 as compared to the deflection angle 5 of FIG. 2 for matter-light. That is, the antimatter light is deflected towards the left side of FIG. 8 (forward, as compared to the angle of entry into the higher density medium) rather than being deflected towards the right side of FIG. 2 for the matter-light (rearward, as compared to the angle of entry into the higher density medium). The deviation of antimatter light passing from a transparent material of a given density (e.g., air) to a material of higher density (e.g., water) is called isodual refraction, as illustrated in FIG. 8.

[0046] 3) FIG. 9 depicts a concave lens for focusing and amplifying antimatter-light from a faraway antimatter star or galaxy. As a result of a refraction opposite that for matter-light refraction, in order to focus antimatter-light from a faraway antimatter star or galaxy, a telescope must use one or more concave lenses 16 namely lenses whose curvature is oriented away from the source, as illustrated in FIG. 9.

[0047] 4) FIG. 10 depicts an isodual optical instrument using a concave lens as shown in FIG. 9. The isodual telescope, isodual monocular, isodual binocular or isodual optical instrument for viewing antimatter-light 51 from a faraway antimatter-star or galaxy is typically composed of a tube 52 containing in its interior concave lens 16 that focuses the image of a faraway antimatter star or galaxy in the eyepiece or camera 8. The tube 52 is typically made of a material with sufficient rigidity and strength to hold the lens(es) and eyepiece or camera 8 securely in place. Such materials may include metal, cardboard, plastic or other synthetic solid materials, or the like. The tube 52 often has a round cross-section, but may be configured with a cross-section having various other shapes, e.g., rectangular, triangular, oval, or the like. The tube 52 may be configured with one or more adjustment mechanisms that allows a user to alter the distance between the lens(es) and the eyepiece or camera 8. The device depicted in FIG. 12 is configured with a fine adjustment mechanism 9 to alter the distance from lens 16 to the eyepiece or camera 8. This ensures that the concave lens 16 can be adjusted to be the correct focal distance from the eyepiece or camera 8. The device may also be configured with a course adjustment mechanism for making larger adjustments to the distance from lens 16 to the eyepiece or camera 8. The eyepiece or camera 8 depicted in FIG. 10 is shown mounted at the end of tube 52. In some embodiments, for convenience of the user, the eyepiece or camera 8 is located alongside the tube 52 with an additional assembly of lenses provided to reflect the image from the rear of the tube (where eyepiece or camera 8 is shown in the figure) forward to the more convenient location of the eyepiece or camera 8. In such embodiments the eyepiece or camera 8 may be located anywhere alongside the tube 52, or even away from the tube itself, so long as a lens or mirror assembly is provided to allow antimatter-light 51 traveling down the tube 52 to be directed to, and pass through or into, the eyepiece or camera 8. That is, the eyepiece or camera 8 is configured to receive antimatter-light 51 travelling down the tube 52 and focused by the concave lenses 16 or other lens assembly within the tube.

[0048] 5) FIG. 11 depicts a concave lens assembly that includes a concave lens 17 and a conjugate lens 18 for reducing aberration in the viewed object. The above main features of the isodual optical instruments can be improved in a variety of ways. For instance, for the reduction of the aberration, the concave lens assembly consists of a concave lens 17 and a conjugate lens 18 with flat terminal surface shown in FIG. 11.

[0049] FIG. 12 depicts an isodual telescope paired with a conventional Galilean telescope for spotting purposes. It should be noted that the isodual telescope does not focus images originating from matter-light, since the latter is dispersed in the internal walls of the telescope. In the same way, the Galilean telescope cannot focus or amplify any image whatsoever caused by antimatter light because the latter too would be dispersed in the internal walls of the telescope.

[0050] Consequently, in order to identify which portion of the night sky is observed, the isodual telescope may be combined in pair with a Galilean telescope, as illustrated in FIG. 12 with the optically achieved parallel alignment of their respective symmetry axes 23 and 24 as well as viewfinders 21 and 22. This may be implemented by aligning the two telescopes and fastening them together using brackets 55 and 56. In this way, the identification of the observed region of the sky is made via Galilean telescope and finders 21 and 22.

[0051] Both the Galilean and isodual telescopes have a diffused background light 60 that can create difficulties in the detection of images via a digital or film camera. In order to distinguish faint images from said background, the coupled Galilean and isodual telescope are set to view a given region of the night sky for a sufficiently long exposure, such as 15 seconds, or any required length of time from 1 second to 180 minutes or more. Using a sufficient time exposure will create images in the form of a streak 35 in the Galilean telescope that, as such, is so clearly distinguished from the background that its existence is beyond scientific doubt.

[0052] Contrary to expectations, the inspection of the night sky via the above identified pair of telescopes has established that the isodual telescope does focus and amplify streaks 36 depicted in FIG. 14 which have the same orientation and length as those of the Galilean telescope. While streaks 35 of FIG. 13 in the Galilean telescope are streaks of light, streaks 36 of FIG. 14 in the isodual telescope are of darkness, thus confirming that antimatter-light has negative energy. The only conceivable or otherwise plausible origin of black streaks 36 is that they originate from antimatter stars or galaxies since there is no possibility whatsoever that such streaks could be formed by matter-light in a telescope with concave lens. More specifically, streaks of ordinary light are formed on a conventional digital camera thanks to the photoelectric effect occurring at the level of individual pixels, according to which ordinary light hitting a pixel creates a different of electric potential which is used by the electronic system to form an image. Since observations have been conducted to date at sea level, the camera used for FIG. 14 did detect diffuse light originating from ordinary galaxies which is depicted as a background in the figures. Therefore, the streaks of darkness repeatedly detected by the inventor and depicted in FIG. 14 can only be created by annulling the photoelectric effect at the level of individual pixels caused by ordinary light. In turn, such annulment of the photoelectric effect is a confirmation of the historical hypothesis by Paul M. Dirac, the discoverer of antimatter, according to which antimatter carries a negative energy. In fact, only a light carrying negative energy can annul the difference of potential created by the photoelectric effect of ordinary. In turn, the negative value of the energy of light emitted by antimatter is a confirmation of the isodual mathematics based on the left and right unit -1. Note the absence of contradiction for negative energy since they are measured with negative units, thus being equivalent, but conjugated to ordinary positive energies measured with positive units.

[0053] The present inventor has additionally detected clear dots 37 of FIG. 15, as well as darkness in the image focused by the isodual telescope. The dark dots originate from antimatter cosmic rays since the dots were obtained from a 15 second exposure. Only a virtually instantaneous propagation of light under a 15 seconds exposure could have created dark dots 37. In turn, the sole scientific origin is that of antimatter cosmic rays annihilating in the upper regions of our atmosphere with the resulting antimatter-light rapidly reaching the observer at sea level.

[0054] The present inventor has also detected long streaks 38 of FIG. 15 of darkness. This too was observed under 15 seconds of exposure. It should be noted, however, that streaks 38 have an orientation and length completely different than those of streaks 35 and 36. Consequently, the objects originating the latter streaks cannot possibly be faraway antimatter stars or galaxies and cannot possibly be antimatter cosmic rays. The sole plausible scientific origin is that of small antimatter asteroids at great speed annihilating in our upper atmosphere.

[0055] FIG. 16 depicts an optical arrangement of two lenses designed to decrease aberration. The basic concave lens of various embodiments disclosed herein can be improved in a number of ways. FIG. 16 illustrates an improvement to decrease aberration via the pairing of concave lens 100 and a convex lens 101 with matching conjugate curvature, the latter ending with a plane surface perpendicular to the symmetry axis.

[0056] It should be noted that the human eye will never be able to view antimatter object in a distinct way in the manner of viewing matter objects because the human iris is convex and, as such, it will disperse all over the retina antimatter light, rather than converge it into an image. Yet another novelty of this invention is the experimental confirmation that a film camera 8 is distinctly better than currently available digital cameras for the detection of faint images caused by antimatter-light. This is due to the fact that the chemical processes in a film occur at molecular distances, while processes in the pixels of a digital camera occur at distances at least one thousand times larger. The greater sensitivity of the former over the latter is, therefore, evident.

[0057] FIG. 17 depicts an optical arrangement for converting a Galilean refractive telescope into an isodual telescope. Recall than mankind has produced a large variety of telescopes, with several of them being in orbit around Earth outside of the atmosphere and the distortion it introduces. Yet none of the variety of conventional telescopes are capable of detecting antimatter stars or galaxies. Another novelty of this invention is the conversion of a Galilean or similar refractive telescope into an isodual telescope. The conversion may be achieved via the addition of a removable concave lens assembly depicted in FIG. 17 consisting of a tube 107 with outside diameter equal to the inside diameter of tube 103 of a conventional Galilean telescope, which tube 107 is open at one end and at the opposite end a concave lens 106 whose curvature radius is the same as that of the convex lens 104. The concave lens assembly 109, as depicted in FIG. 18, is then inserted inside the tube 103 of the Galilean telescope in such as way that the insert of the concave lens 106 achieves the desired concave conversion of the convex lens 104, at which point the Galilean telescope is turned into an isodual telescope.

[0058] The embodiments disclosed herein that convert a conventional refractive telescope into a refractive isodual telescope afford the advantage of the knowledge of the exact location of the region of the sky under detection, since such a location can be accurately detected via the conventional Galilean telescope prior to its conversion into an isodual telescope.

[0059] FIG. 19 depicts another class of telescope for the focusing of matter-light is based on a concave mirror 111, rather than lens 5. In this case, as depicted in FIG. 19, matter-light 110 from a faraway star of galaxy enter the tube 120 of the telescope, is reflected by the concave mirror 111 resulting in an image on a camera or other instrument located at the focal point 112.

[0060] FIG. 20 depicts an isodual reflective telescope according to embodiments disclosed herein. Yet another novelty of this invention is given by the isodual reflective telescope of FIG. 20 in which the main mirror 150 is convex due to the negative character of the index of refraction and refection of antimatter light. Convex mirror 150 is housed at one end of tube 151 the opposing end being open. Antimatter-light from a faraway antimatter star or galaxy reaches mirror 150 and it is focused on a detecting apparatus 114 which is located at the focal point of mirror 150, The reflective isodual telescope is equipped with mechanical means for small adjustments of the position of detecting apparatus 114 so as to ensure proper focus, external conventional viewer and other conventional components, the details of which would be known to those of ordinary skill in the art and are therefore not depicted in the figures.

[0061] FIG. 21 depicts an optical arrangement for converting a conventional reflective telescope into a reflective isodual telescope. Yet another novelty of this invention is the conversion of a conventional reflective telescope into a reflective isodual telescope. As depicted in FIG. 21 the conversion is done via an assembly 118 similar to that of FIG. 18 housing a convex mirror 116 with the same but conjugate focal distance of concave mirror 111 and its own detection apparatus 117 located at the focal point of convex mirror 116. Following the removal of detection apparatus 112 from the conventional telescope, assembly 118 is inserted in inside tube 120 of the conventional reflective telescope, at which point the latter becomes a reflective isodual telescope. The conversion herein considered has the advantage that the region of the sky inspected by the isodual telescope is known with precision because detected via the conventional refractive telescope.

[0062] FIG. 22 depicts an isodual optical assembly with a single, primary, convex lens with flat back surface. Another novelty of this invention is given by accurate means for focusing antimatter-light. In FIG. 22, we present the main optics of a single, primary, convex lens 200 with flat back surface 201 perpendicular to the symmetry axis 202, by showing that a conventional matter-light 300 is first subjected to a conventional refraction with angle 203 when passing through the convex lens, and then to a second refraction with angle 204 when passing through the flat back surface, both refractions and related angles being crucial for the accurate prediction of the focal distance as well as its accurate construction, as well known to the skilled in the art.

[0063] FIG. 23 depicts the isodual lens of FIG. 22 by showing that, in this case, the flat back surface is divergent, rather than convergent. FIG. 23 illustrates the corresponding case for antimatter-light by showing that antimatter-light 301 passing through the primary concave lens 205 is indeed subjected to the new isodual refraction of this invention with negative angle 207 also called isodual angle, but that, contrary to the case for matter-light of FIG. 22, when antimatter-light passes through the flat back surface 206, it experience a deflection with angle 208, rather than the second isodual refraction needed for proper focusing of the antimatter-light.

[0064] FIG. 24 depicts an improved single, primary, concave lens with front main concave surface and a back equally concave surface with bigger diameter for proper focusing of antimatter-light. FIG. 24 illustrates one embodiment disclosed herein for the solution of the above problem and the proper focusing of antimatter-light. FIG. 24 shows the case of one single primary concave lens and essentially consists in the replacement of the flat back surface of FIG. 23 with a concave surface whose radius 210 is bigger than the primary concave radius 209 for an amount set by the isodual focal distance, here referred to the focal distance for isodual lenses of the isodual optical instrument.

[0065] FIG. 25 depicts an improved doublet 214 configured to focus antimatter-light consisting of a primary concave lens an inter media convex lens to reduce aberration and a back concave surface with radius larger than the primary one for proper focusing of the antimatter-light according to various embodiments disclosed herein. The embodiment depicted in FIG. 25 may be achieved by combining two complementary flat backed isodual lenses 212 and 213 which are similar to the lens shown in FIG. 23. The lenses 212 and 213 are mated at their flat surface 213.

[0066] The following paragraphs include specifications of an embodiment for an isodual telescope or monocular for the focusing of antimatter light as depicted in FIG. 10 with manufacturing data as per actual samples constructed and tested by the inventor.

[0067] FIG. 27 presents TABLE 1 listing manufacturing data for a conventional telescope with 2010 mm primary convex single lens and 1.250 focal distance. Consider a conventional refractive Galilean telescope with conventional, convex primary single lens of 210 outside diameter (OD) and 1.250 meter in focal length. The body of the telescope, also called tube, is notoriously realized in light weight synthesis substances, such as PVC, or in aluminum depending on needs. Since such a body is widely available commercially all over the world, its detailed construction data are ignored, and will not be needed by one of ordinary skill in the art. Therefore, we shall concentrate here on the manufacturing data of the primary convex 2010 mm lens which is depicted in FIG. 26 and its manufacturing drawing for the indicated OD and focal length are presented in Table 1 which is provided as part of FIG. 27, with all data, including curvatures and focal distances expressed via positive numerical values as well known to the skilled in the art.

[0068] We now consider the isodual telescope or monocular of FIG. 6 for the focusing of antimatter-light with one single, primary, concave lens also of 210 mm OD and with the isodual focal lens of -1.250 meters (that's minus 1.250 meters), by noting that in the isodual optics all isodual quantities, including radii and focal distance are expressed in terms of negative numbers. FIG. 28 presents a drawing of the new single, primary lens with double concave surfaces of this invention while all its construction data are presented in Table 2 which is provided as part of FIG. 29. The extension of the manufacturing data to the double isodual lens of FIGS. 6 and 25 would be known to those of ordinary skill in the art and, therefore, it is omitted for brevity and clarity of description.

[0069] FIG. 30 depicts a flowchart for a method of practicing an embodiment disclosed herein. The method of FIG. 30 begins at block 3001 and proceeds to block 3003 to identify information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). In block 3003 the operator identifies an accurate consistent with the GPS system, and also identifies the GPS Coordinates of the optically aligned pair of Galilean and isodual telescopes of FIG. 12 mounted in any desired tripod, the details of which would be known to those of ordinary skill in the art and are therefore not depicted in the figures. The pair of telescopes are then aligned in block 3005 via conventional viewers 21 and 22 to a desired star in the night sky. In block 3007 the selected digital or film camera 8 is set at the desired sensitivity and at the desired exposure generally of the order of 15 seconds or more. Proceeding to block 3009, camera 8 is placed in the Galilean telescope and in block 3011 its focal position is adjusted via means 9m. In block 3013 pictures of the selected region of the night sky may be taken. In block 3015 the same camera 8 may be mounted on the isodual telescope, as depicted in FIG. 12, following assurance that its focal position is the same as that of the Galilean telescope. In block 3017 additional pictures are taken of the selected region of the night sky with the isodual telescope. Block 3019 involves comparative analysis, to detect valid images of antimatter object that are solely present in the pictures taken by the isodual telescope, but absent in the corresponding pictures taken with the Galilean telescope. The method of FIG. 30 ends in block 3020.

[0070] The same procedure as above also applies for view of the night sky taken via the conversion of a Galilean telescope into an isodual telescope according to FIGS. 17 and 18. In this case, pictures are first taken via the Galilean telescope, then concave lens assembly 209 is inserted in the Galilean telescope which is then converted into the isodual telescope. Additional pictures of the same region of the sky with the same camera and the same exposure may then be taken with the converted isodual telescope, and the related pictures are subjected to the above indicated comparative analysis.

[0071] The same or similar procedures also apply for a pair of conventional reflective and isodual telescopes respectively of FIGS. 19 and 20 optically aligned according to the same rules used for the aligned of the refractive telescopes of FIG. 12. Pictures in the two telescopes are then taken via the same rules as above and subjected to comparative analysis the same rules as those for the conversion of the refractive telescope into an isodual version also apply for the conversion of a reflective telescope into an isotopic version as depicted in FIG. 21.

[0072] The following passages describe operation of the isodual telescope or monocular in a first embodiment of this invention, that coupled to an equivalent Galilean telescope or monocular according to FIG. 12, both telescopes having the same 210 mm OD primary lens, the same focal length in absolute value, the same tubes, the same conventional exterior alignment scopes, the same adjustment for the fine setting of the focal distance, and the same final detection, whether a conventional digital or film camera as commercially available all over the world and as very well known to any skilled in the art.

[0073] Upon identifying the accurate time, the operator identifies the GPS Coordinates of the optically aligned pair of Galilean and isodual telescopes of FIG. 12 mounted in any desired tripod (not shown). The pair of telescopes may be adjusted to align them via conventional viewers 21m 22 to a desired star in the night sky. The selected digital or film camera 8 is set at the desired sensitivity and at the desired exposure generally of the order of 15 seconds or more. The length, in time, of the exposure depends on the desired length of the streaks so as to be clearly distinct over the background.

[0074] Longer, in time, exposures will produce longer lines on the film. Camera 8 is then first placed in the Galilean telescope and its focal position is adjusted via means 9m after which pictures of the selected region of the night sky are taken. Then the same camera 8 is mounted in the isodual telescope as depicted in FIG. 12 following assurance that its focal position is the same as that of the Galilean telescope, and additional pictures are taken of the selected region of the night sky with the isodual telescope. Via subsequent comparative analysis, valid images of antimatter object are those solely present in the pictures taken by the isodual telescope and absent in the corresponding pictures taken with the Galilean telescope.

[0075] A similar procedure as above applies for view of the night sky taken via the conversion of a Galilean telescope into an isodual telescope according to FIGS. 17 and 18. In this case, pictures may first be taken via the Galilean telescope. Then the concave lens assembly 209 may be inserted in the Galilean telescope to convert it into an isodual telescope. Additional pictures of the same region of the sky with the same camera and the same exposure may be taken with the converted isodual telescope, and the related pictures are subjected to the above indicated comparative analysis.

[0076] A similar procedure also applies for a pair of conventional reflective and isodual telescopes respectively of FIGS. 19 and 20 optically aligned according to the same rules used for the aligned of the refractive telescopes of FIG. 12. Pictures in the two telescopes are then taken via the same rules as above and subjected to comparative analysis the same rules as those for the conversion of the refractive telescope into an isodual version also apply for the conversion of a reflective telescope into an isotopic version as depicted in FIG. 21.

[0077] The extension of the above specifications from to arbitrary smaller or bigger diameter telescopes, or to a monocular optical device, is within the skill of one of ordinary skill in the art and it is, and therefore is not further described.



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