(Water Control by Vortex Action)
( 1885 - 1958 )
Austrian Patent # 113,487: Construction for Creating Wild Brooks & Flow Regulation
Austrian Patent # 122,144: Artificial Channel for Transporting Logs
Austrian Patent # 134,543: Conduction of Water in Tubes & Channels
Austrian Patent # 136,214: Installation & Correction of Flow in Draining Channels...
Austrian Patent # 138,296: Water Conduction
Austrian Patent # 142,032: Construction for Fabricating Tap Water...
Austrian Patent # 166,644: Plow
Austrian Patent # 196,680: Tubing for Flowing & Gaseous Media
Austrian Patent # 117,749: Jet Turbine
French Patent # 1,057,576: Processes and Equipment for the Conveyance of Liquid, Gaseous or Aeriform Media Processes [ &c ]...
Austrian Patent # 145,141: Air Turbine
British Patent # 1,187,632: Apparatus for Agitating Body of Fluid
US Patent # 1,775,871: Apparatus & Method for Sorting Wood
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Austrian Patent # 113,487
Einbau zur Wildbachverbauung und Flussregulierung
Austrian Patent # 113,848
Verfahren und Vorrichtung, um beim Schwemmen verschiedene Holzsortimente voneinander zu trennen
Austrian Patent # 113,526
Vorrichtung zum Heranziehen und Überführen von Holzsortimenten aus Fangstauen in die Schwemmstrasse
Austrian Patent # 113,772
Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum Ausländen und Weiterbefördern von Langhölzern aus Schwemmanlagen
Austrian Patent # 114,660
Auslände- und Sortieranlage für verschiedene auf Schwemmstrassen gebrachte Hölzer
Austrian Patent # 117,749
EC: IPC: C02F1/00; C02F1/00
Austrian Patent # 118,713
Auswurfvorrichtungen für Langholz u. dgl. aus Transportvorrichtungen, Riesen, Transportbändern u. dgl.
Austrian Patent # 122,144
Künstliches Gerinne zum Schwemmen von Holz u. dgl.
Austrian Patent # 125,819
Einrichtung zum Transport von Langhölzern
Austrian Patent # 134,543
Wasserführung in Rohren und Gerinnen
EC: E02B5/00; E03F3/04; (+2) IPC: E02B5/00; E03F3/04; F15D1/06 (+5)
Austrian Patent # 136,214
Anlage und Einrichtungen zur Regelung des Abflussgerinnes von Staubecken und Festigkeitserhöhung deren Abschlussdammes
Austrian Patent # 138,296
Austrian Patent # 142,032
Verfahren zur Herstellung von Quellwasserähnlichem Trinkwasser
EC: B01F3/04C8G; B01F3/08F3; (+6) IPC: B01F3/04; B01F3/08; B01F5/06 (+17)
Austrian Patent # 143,069
Verfahren zum Heben von Flüssigkeiten oder Gasen
Austrian Patent # 145,141
Austrian Patent # 166,644
Austrian Patent # 196,680
Rohrleitung für Flüssige und Gasförmige Medien
German Patent # 809,725
EC: A01B35/26 IPC: A01B35/26; A01B35/00
French Patent # 763,215
EC: F15D1/06B IPC: F15D1/06; F15D1/00
French Patent # 785,965
Procédé d'Obtention d'une Eau Potable Analogue à l'Eau Minérale
EC: B01F3/04C8P IPC: B01F3/04; B01F3/04
French Patent # 1,057,576
Procédé et Dispositif pour la Commande de Processus de Décomposition ou de Composition Moléculaires dans des Milieux en Mouvement
EC: B01D3/12; B01J19/08; IPC: B01D3/12; B01J19/08; B01J19/24
USP # 1,775,871
Method and Apparatus for Assorting Timber
EC: B07C5/14 IPC: B07C5/14; B07C5/04
German Patent # 1,442,734
Engine Exhaust System (Walter Schauberger)
Classification: - international: B01D53/86; B01J19/24; B01D53/86; B01J19/24; - European: B01D53/86; B01J19/24B
Austrian Patent # 113,487
(June 10, 1929)
Construction for Creating Wild Brooks & Flow Regulation
The invention corresponds to a construction for creating wild brooks and flow-regulation through the speed of water that is dammed, so that with oriented stones no destruction may come along the course of the waterpath through the damming constructs, and to place the central line of the watercourse in the middle of the stream.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings; Figure 1 is an example of water-conduction and damming in the shape of transversely-placed dams.
The dams (1) are hollow and made of concrete placed and anchored to the ground with suitable anchors (2), so that they cannot be displaced by the streaming water. The striations are placed against the direction of the waterflow, upon which the water runs and along which it will sluice; through this coursing the water loses the greatest portion of its energy and does not strike too hard against the placed dams, forcing them out of place.
The dams can be placed at far or close distances from each other in the course of the constructed brook. In order to lay the theoretical middle of the stream in the midst of the flow in far-off places and also to prevent the destruction of the river shore through erosion, we will place constructions by the sides of the flow that will act as dams as seen in Figure 2. In this figure the dams are indicated by (3), while the stones are placed at (4) in opposite places. The middle line of the waterflow (5) runs through them as illustrated.
Figure 3 shows in greater detail one of such constructs and Figure 4 a transverse cut through one of them.
The constructions (3) are essentially triangular-shaped, and are jammed into the soil against the shore so as to elevate and make the water flow towards a middle point.
The effect made by these constructions is further illustrated in Figure 4, where the dashed line (6)-(6) in the transversal cut of the ground before the construction, which obliges the ground to place itself along the dashed line because of the disturbed waterflow.
The oriented stones are placed between the constructions (3) and this builds a zone of still water close to them, next to the shore, and also serves the purpose of directing the waterflow and to protect the shores from erosion through water (Figure 3). The full line (5) indicates the middle of the stream in the corresponding construction, while dashed line (5’) indicates the middle line in the brook under the influence of the constructs.
Austrian Patent # 122,144
(April 10, 1931)
Artificial Channel for Transporting Logs
by Viktor Schauberger
The transportation of logs and other varied loads through water channels and other artificial channels, though its low cost makes it competitive against other transportation means, suffers under the condition that when moving along the water flow some logs, especially in curves, tend to remain stuck and in this way sop the following logs, diminishing the general speed of the transport. This is especially true for hard and dense woods that remain at the bottom of the channel and move forward very badly.
It is known that the speed displayed by logs in water channels is greater than that of the waterspeed; at those places the speed of the logs greatly surpasses that of the transporting medium and it is seen from Figure 1 that the floating log creates a frontal wave (0) as it moves.
While lighter wood (Figure 2) floats without problems, heavier wood sits at the bottom of the channel (Figure 3) and remains stuck; therefore the water impulse in channels is not enough to produce the usual motion through sliding without external water spillage.
The invention pertains to a discovery that corrects these evils, namely the elimination of water spillage through the implanting of wedges made of wood and the transportation of hard and dense woods through sliding in the channels.
The speed of the water depends overall also on its sliding over the channel walls; in the usual slanted channels, this important factor is eliminated because of their construction.
The channels’ cross-section is not semi-circular or straight, but rather, as seen in Figures 2, 3 and 4, semicircular (B) with an added semicircular bottom (U) which radius is half that of the upper portion (B), so that along the line (E)-(F) in Figures 2 and 3, a resting portion (L) can be included; the internal wall at the upper semicircular portion is of striated material (unretouched cement, directionally nailed wood, etc.), and the underlying portion (U) of a sliding material (flattened cement, polished wood, etc.), so that the water speed in the lower region (U) is much greater than in the upper part (B).
This causes at once the sinking of water in the middle of the stream (Figure 4); in practice, when a weight falls a certain distance, the water striking against the striated channel walls moves further, maintaining the mass (H) in the midst of the flowing medium by means of the polished underzone (U) that displaces the water faster.
When transporting floating light woods (Figure 2), this will not cause any disorder in the flow of water, for the underzone (U) will run faster than the upper zone (B); in this manner it will not be necessary to build dams outside the channel to contain the spilled water.
From light woods we expect little problem, but with hard and dense wood we must expect it to sink deeper and to advance with difficulty, so that this kind of wood will sink itself into the faster-running underzone (U), and advance in this fashion as if advanced by a transporting band.
When transporting hard and dense woods (Figure 3), different laws come into play; the wholly submerged log (H) is entirely in the faster-running water, so that the pressure upon (E) and (F) of the submerged sliding skids (L) makes them enter into action, for this time the usual impulse of water is not enough to make the log (H) advance. If these means are not added the logs must remain stuck in the bottom of the channel.
In opposition to the present (1931) transportation of hard wood through channels built with hardened materials, the dense and hard wood will be transported by doubly-concave channels with wall built with lighter materials, for they are not obliged to withstand such heavy loads. In curves, where the moving wood is obliged to follow them we can, through the proper construction (Figure 5) of the channel, with only a one-sided channel wall, make the log move towards the outside where it will be held by the running water along the curve; if need be, we can add sliding skids (L) as seen, which can be improved by the addition of wheels.
Austrian Patent # 134, 543
( August 25, 1933 )
Conduction of Water in Tubes & Channels
by Viktor Schauberger
This invention relates to the concentration of flowing water within polished conduits (pipes), channels and tubes, so as to increase the amount of flowing medium passing through them.
The inventor has discovered that when a certain kind of turbulence happens in flowing water, then a temperature difference takes place within it, producing also a difference in the water speed, and that this happens especially in Waltz-like flows.
It is known that to hinder sedimentation, water channels and tubes are built of circular cross-section, so that the flowing medium may drag with itself any sediments left; this is to provoke a screw-like movement of water so that it may attract all particles in its path.
This invention pertains to a further development of this principle, to drag sedimented masses with moving water.
The main idea of this invention is seen in Figure 2, where the usual path of flowing water (4) is detoured by a wedge-shaped device into a different way (5).
Figure 5 shows an improvement of this idea by adding striations (6) to the wedge placed on the inner wall of a channel or tube.
In Figure 1, we see the wedges grouped (2)-(2’)-(2") in groupings of three, and producing as a result the screw-like flow (3)-(3’)-(3") through the internal portion of the conduit (1).
This makes the waterflow concentrate at the center of the tube, with a concentrical motion, dragging along any particles left upon the walls.
Figure 3 also shows, in a lateral view, how the normal water path (4) is changed to a concentrical one (5), to generate a concentrical flow in the flowing medium.
Figure 4 shows how open semi-circular channels can also be adapted to the same purpose.
Austrian Patent # 136,214
(January 10, 1934)
Installation & Correction of Flow in Draining Channels by a Contention & Stabilization of Dammed Water
This invention pertains to an installation related to the conduction and regulation of flwo in water channels by contention and stabilization in higher levels by means of dams integrated into them that depend on the outer temperature of flowing water and mixing at will of light and hard water conducted out of the basin by its own means, with which it is convenient to direct the outer-flowing hard water for cooling the layers of lateral walls of the dam of the basin, as will be shown herein.
It is known that for the management of water channels in all channel-building techniques that a weighty argument, such as water temperature in earth vessels and air temperature as the temperature difference between still and running water, is always left out; and it is also known that the temperature differences between two or more watercourse modifies their speed when they mix.
So far, only through artificial constructs in dams, the naturally-built water channels running underground or only through ramparts (where only hard water with a temperature close to +4 degrees C. comes out), or by means of aquaducts placed atop dams (through which channels of only light water of high temperature flows), find obstacles in their coursing through the channel and cause erosion in their shores.
However, through a channel can also flow those waters with the corresponding right temperature, so that they can be directed to damming the water masses and to diminish their forward-going impulse or to increase their speed and their forward-going impulse in the willed direction. We can also affect works of shore-correction just by correct regulation of water temperature and also through the emplacement of dams which capacity of endurance is directly proportional to the amount of water dammed and also to achieve an obstacle-free flow of water. The widening of the channel through the emplacement of stones or elimination of same (ballast banks) and the elevation of the shore, especially in curves, can be made by the corresponding directing, but usually provokes a counterflow that erodes the whole work. Through several devices that will be explained here, it is possible to steer both light and hard waters, corresponding to the temperatures of each and also to the related fall of temperature, so that by means herein explained each water will run along its own level.
At the same time with the regulation of the waterflow, it is necessary to install in the construction of the closing dam of the basin, pipes that will effect the cooling of the dam’s pores through the sides of the dam by means of small watercourses directed through the materials.
Then as temperature diminishes, the water within the dam’s pres loses its attraction for dissolving salt and other stuffs, until it reaches its balance point at +4 degrees C, at which its capacity for dissolving is the least and the filtration in the dam’s wall is the strongest. So far, it is then when the light water infiltrated in the wall for cooling will go inside the materials through the pores; in this moment, the channel walls close to the dam are filled with hard water at a temperature of +4 degrees C, which lose their salts into the neighboring ground as they move, creating in a few weeks of impregnation a further barrier against erosion, and if frost comes, it will also contribute to the strengthening of the walls
In the drawings we find a further explanation of a device for this kind of installation; it is seen in transverse cut in Figure 1 and in upper view in Figure 2; at Figure 3 we see an internal cutaway view of the apparatus for steering water.
For the sake of regulating the flow of cold hard water and warm light water, ground nozzles (O) are placed in the dam chamber (K) of basin (B) on both sides of the dam, which doors are activated through a floating device (G) that moves because of temperature differences. The pipes (W) of the nozzle (O) lead up to the upper-placed potion (K1) where the flow conduits (U1)-(U2)-(U3), which are closed through gravity-activated valves (V1)-(V2), branch in different heights from the upper-going pipe (W), and that lead further into the lateral wall of the basin, spreading out there into the corresponding casts. At the foot of the dam’s internal wall will be conveniently placed the outstanding portion (K2) to produce a whirling and better mixing of the water masses flowing over the wall. The door (T) in the nozzle (O) cleaves the soil of the water channel, sinking itself into it, and is connected vertically by means of a shaft (F), coursing inside the dam’s wall (H), with the floating device (G) that is built as a submersible bell. In the illustrated wall (H), we find at different heights over the ground-nozzle (O) tube-shaped outlets (A) that communicate with the tube leading upwards to the bell (G) and allow the automatic emptying of the water basin.
When the pipe (W) is allowed to fill through the opening of door (T), it will allow a communication between the pipe and the basin that will release pressure from door (T) unilaterally, and in this fashion allow its free motion upwards. The door (T) should be built of wood to allow the free motion of the bell (G) when the right water level is attained. The floating bell (G), which connecting shaft (F) goes downward, can in this fashion, and because of the only motion it is allowed to make, float upwards; the bell (G) in Figure 3 has an air valve (P) through which opening can be introduced pressurized air within, so that the door (T) will be activated at once. Through both an open end and with the outstanding tube (R), we can create a flow of water through the floating up or down of the bell.
When the diving bell is fully sunk, without any air margin, it acts to totally close the valve; and when we inject air within it, then raises to allow the opening of door (T).
In normal work, the atmosphere imprisoned within the bell (G) is equal to the usual atmospheric pressure and thus the outer temperature of the environment acts as a control; depending on the imprisoned air volume within (G), the outer temperature will make it raise or descend, allowing the steering of door (T) upwards, so that the mass of hard water that will be conducted through the nozzle (O), the pipe (W) and the flow tubes (U1)-(U2)-(U3), will depend on the changes of outer temperature; the light water flows over its own flowing plate placed atop the dam’s crown in the basin.
The interpenetration of light and hard waters can be improved through the construct (K2) placed at the foot of the dam’s inner wall, and also because of the fact that hard water falls vertically while light water does so spirally through flow tubes (U1)-(U2)-(U3), so that during their fall they will combine.
Through heating from the sun’s rays, the diving bell (G) will further raise the door (T), and through the channel a greater percentage of hard water will be eliminated with respect to the light water that flows over the dam’s top, and instead with cooler external temperatures the door (T) will remain either totally or almost totally closed and the channel will only conduct warm overflowing liquid.
For a better mixing of light and hard water flowing over the dam’s top, I have placed the flow tube (U2) in the lower part of the dam’s wall (K), so that it or (T) will prevent the water from overflowing the basin’s level.
The water flowing within the dam’s lateral walls contributes to further cooling them and also to leave deposited salts and other stuffs that it loses when reaching a temperature of +4 degrees C.
By opening the flow tube (U3) atop the dam’s wall, the upper portion of the dam can be affected as indicated in the former paragraph; the welfare of the dam’s wall (in all its portions) needs this process of impregnation so that its pores are closed and no filtration may happen.
The upper plate (M) serves to allow the overflowing of light water and to separate the hard water flowing through the conduit (U3), thus helping to further its endurance.
Austrian Patent # 138,296
(July 10, 1934)
This invention pertains to a further improvement of the tubes and channels shown in Austrian Patent # 134,543, where the water flowing within a conduit is led into the middle of the pipe to force it to effect a circular motion, as seen in the forementioned patent.
This invention pertains to an improvement of said idea by conveniently placing in the water’s path a device to produce whirling motions in the fluid.
The simple emplacement in the outer zone of the device will create turbulence between the center and the perimeter, so as to generate a well-defined flow zone in the center and layers of well-established stability from the perimeter inwards. The emplaced devices are of the kind illustrated in Figure 1, where we have an element (2) with its two ends bent (4)-(5) and striations dug out at the back (6); this device, when inside the tube (1) as seen in Figure 2, will meet the incoming flow and twist it along the new path (3), so as to createa circular motion in the liquid.
Figure 3 shows the device of Figure 1 straightened out so as to show its true shape.
Austrian Patent # 142,032
(June 11, 1935)
Construction for Fabricating Tap Water like that of Natural Springs
It is known that, to fabricate mineral water through devices, without any unhygienic condition in the pipes or through the mixing of salts and compressed gases under pressure of at least 2-3 atmospheres, this is usually made under an even higher pressure.
It is also known that to generate soda water the water will be mechanically made to flow through carbonic acid under a pressure of 12 atmospheres, so that the corresponding enrichment in the forementioned cells make the water "active". In other procedures, this is done through "cracking".
The creation of artificial mineral water will also include carbonic acid under more or less great pressure of at least 1 atmosphere, so that the salts will mix evenly, as is done in several kinds of mineral water; and in other kinds of waters there is a slight dissolution of carbonates (for example, sodium bicarbonate) that also include carbonic acid, obtaining from this a prickling taste. In the forementioned procedures it is necessary, for producing a good mineral water, that the ingredients not be in free form but in combination and in relation so that the final product be as similar as possible to natural spring water.
As shown in the Figure 1, sterilized water flows through cold mercury light in tube (M) and mixes with the diluted salts coming from (1). In container (C) the mentioned salts are diluted in water and well mixed by revolving fan (G). The mixture and kinds of salts direct themselves naturally through the sterile water outlet, and do so with different and permanent degrees of hardness.
On the other side, so that the concentration is not too high, the artificially generated mineral water’s hardness must not exceed factor 12 so that industry may not be hindered by it; anyway, outgoing water needs for every 10 liters output 1 liter of diluted salts in the following constituency and proportions:
Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 0.02 gr
Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4), 0.02 gr
Sodium Biphosphate (NaPh2), 0.02 gr
Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), 0.008 gr
Calcium Oxide (CaO), 0.2 gr
The kind and proportion of these salts are the results of several hundreds of experiments. While the calcium oxide dissolves itself in water, on the other hand the calcium hydrate is very sensitive to the oxygen in the carbonic acid, and thus is affected by it and the mercury light.
For the sake of regulating the liquid flowing out of the container (C), this is inside at a constant pressure of 0.1 atmosphere = 1 meter of acid water; the concentrated diluted salts will fall dropping along the pipe (1) and when mixed with the contents from (A) will flow into the apparatus (D) which turns them into droplets, where they will jump from the outflow holes of pipe (N) towards the walls of the apparatus (D); during the process the water already processed through carbonic acid will flow outside through the tube (K).
The droplets of both mixed liquids fall downwards and mix in the way as happens in nature, where the droplets of rain first lose their salts and diluted gases when hitting the ground. This mixed water flows within and through the tulip-glass device (E), where it always goes up in the outer tulip glasses and down in the inner ones, so that it will pass into the other following tulip-glass vessel after it has climbed into the innermost one of the former stage and thus continues its flow. The water makes a meandering motion to carry on the following indicated goal.
The gas, especially carbonic acid, collects itself in the upper portion of the tulips and will then, through the corresponding growing pressure, flow through pneumatic tube (R), in which fine nozzles is also injected water for flowing, so that the carbonic acid that is not already combined with the water will be later. On the axis of this device’s stages are placed alternately gold and silver foils, isolated form each other; between both metals there is an electric potential that creates a reduced ionization in the flowing liquid.
In its further motion, water penetrates into the main mixer (F), which is insulated against heat and silvered within, and within which is located an upwardly spiraling path which direction of winding goes against that of the snail and is made out of wire mesh.
On the spiral’s surface are orderly placed cooling spirals that take the temperature of water from 17 degrees C to 4 degrees C. The goal of this temperature fall is to properly combine the chemical elements. The absorption of the gases in water will be increased by the cooling, and otherwise makes possible the combination and enrichment of free carbonic acid of the resulting masses without the use of pressure.
The Ca(HCO3)2 presents a weak exterior combination that the enrichment with the forementioned carbonic acid had worked out, but the enrichment of Ca(HCO3)2 with carbonic acid is possible only through cooling in water and the maintenance of an even temperature.
The temperature of outflowing water must not be over 20 degrees C and its final temperature (once it was processed) should not be over 4 degrees C; it must also be taken into consideration that the speed of flow must not be too fast to allow the proper mixing of liquids; after leaving the container (F), the liquid is made to flow through gold and silver foils until it reaches vessel (I), which is divided into chambers (G) and (H).
First, the water that overflows from (G) falls into chamber (H), and so on out of the device (Z).
By the treatment of water as indicated, many reactions are produced; first of all, the water is made wholly drinkable. It is also necessary to eliminate any possible exposure to light during the process, for light falling on the treated liquids produces a loss of quality in the final results.
Austrian Patent #166,644
(August 25, 1950)
It resulted from numerous experiments that a better plowing of the soil can be achieved with copper-covered plows instead of using plows made of iron or steel. This difference becomes stronger when one notices that the speed of plowing becomes faster and that the friction between the ground and the corresponding portion of the plow is greater.
This effect of greater speed produces the slow disintegration of the copper cover, and the minute copper particles deposited in the soil produces a catalytic effect that in turn generates better water retention in the ground and also a further increase in the quality of plowing.
These findings were made when passing a plow which body was either covered or entirely made of copper.
But as the building in whole of the plow with copper is disadvantageous, it will be convenient to cover those portions with copper layers in hardened condition, which can be made through several different methods. The deposit of copper particles under the ground does not break the magnetic permeability of the soil, as does iron or steel.
Two embodiments are shown in the illustrations. Figures 1 and 2 show a lateral view and Figures 3 and 5 show a transverse cut, a longitudinal cut, and one plowing protrusion.
In Figures 1 and 2 is illustrated a plow with point (1) made of steel as usual, but it can also be covered with the corresponding copper cover; this portion cuts through the ground, generating friction in the process; another is in the smaller portion (2), upon which upper portion there is usually a small heap of sol because of pressure when the plow moves forward. It will be furnished with an endtail (3), also made of copper, that will create a "screwing" motion in the soil by means of sunk "screw" (4) located at portion (2). In order to make the whole of this latter portion hard enough, it must be hammered during construction.
The plowing protrusion (5), corresponding to Figure 3 to 5, is made with a backward open sheet (6) of copper; to fasten upon the protrusion the usual arrow, we use lock (7) of protrusion (5) placed at a high location and which is furnished with the corresponding key; here it is also convenient to place the copper cover by hammering upon the protrusion.
Austrian Patent # 196,680
(March 25, 1958)
Tubing for Flowing & Gaseous Media
Already there are many propositions for the conduction of fluid or gaseous media so as to eliminate losses in pressure or speed of motion. Thus it is to prevent the formation of air vesicles that it is suggested an increase in resistance to flow as in British Patent #409,528, wherein is described a tubing that has spirals engraved within and which area in transverse section will be limited by two segments of circle arcs.
From the British Patent #28,543 (1913) comes a tube which transverse section is egg-shaped, which is furnished with guiding means to prevent the formation of water whirls. In the US Patent #1,655,197, as in the Swiss Patent #126,637, are indicated either conical or cylindrical tubes for the sake of limiting the sedimentation where the tube serves as axis for the dragging of sediments; this is further explained in Austrian Patent #28,099 exhibiting indented piping.
This invention pertains to a tube for flowing and gaseous media to prevent the formation of incrustations and to hinder the loss of flow speed, which cross-section is made out of several circle arcs, being the tube wound helically and having its cross-section an egg-shape with an indentation (Figure 1), and helically wound (Figures 2-4) around different forms.
With the aid of such tubing, the reduction in friction losses and the hindrance of incrustations within the pipe will follow; for the sake of increasing the former properties it is convenient to wrap the tubing and its cover around circular conduits. This axis of winding will also serve as axis for dragging along sedimentary materials, and will also contribute to reduce in scale the cross-section of the tube for winding.
Figure 1 shows the cross-section of the proposed tubing, and Figures 2-4 the different ways of winding the conduit.
In Figure 1 is shown the employed egg-shape with an indentation close to the (---) line; the winding of the conduit can be made as shown in Figures 2-4 around an imaginary solid or in the form of a circular spiral, or in any other convenient way.
In the winding or in its cover, in Figures 3 and 4, we can scale the shape of the winding to make it turn around those imaginary bodies or in a straight line. One can also arrange the tubing, in relation to the fluids conducted, to make the axis of winding equal to the one of dragging sedimentary materials to reduce incrustations and losses in flow speed.
Austrian Patent # 117,749
( 10 May 1930)
The object of the invention is a hydro-electric device, which exploits the kinetic energy of a water jet for the purposes of generating electricity.
The invention is characterised by a cone-shaped rotor, whose apex points towards the outlet opening, and rotates about an axis common to both rotor and water jet. The outer face of the cone is formed of upward-facing, concave, corkscrew-like blades. In this way the water-jet is split up and deflected from its path and imparts its full force to the rotor, so that, with the appropriate proportions between the height of the cone and the width of its base, and a suitable pitch of the blades, the size of which is dependent on the velocity of the impacting water-jet, the water flows from the machine quietly without creating spray.
An example of the arrangement of the invention is schematically depicted in the diagram.
The rotor, whose axle 1 is parallel and common to the axis of the jet exiting from the jet-pipe 2, is formed of corkscrew-like blades 3. The ends 4 of the blades 3 are curved upwards slightly towards the impacting water-jet so as to deflect the jet and to effect the greatest possible transfer of its kinetic energy to the rotor. In the jet-pipe 2 screw-like ribs 5 are incorporated, which, according to observations, increase the velocity of the exiting water-jet and the efficiency of the device.
1. The jet-turbine is characterised by a cone-shaped rotor positioned in the axis of the water-jet, by means of which the water-jet is split up. Corkscrew-like blades
(5) are incorporated around the cone's periphery (7).
2. In accordance with Claim 1, the jetturbine is further characterised by a jetpipe (2) incorporating rifling ribs (5), which impart a spin to the rotor in the direction of its rotation.
French Patent # 1,057,576
Processes and Equipment for the Conveyance of Liquid, Gaseous or Aeriform Media Processes and Equipment for the Conveyance of Liquid, Gaseous or Aeriform Media...
Also published as:
Portugal # 29,729 (1953)
Brazil # 43,431 (1953)
This invention relates to a process for the conveyance of media in a liquid, vaporous, gaseous or aeriform state and which can be described, for example, as emulsions or suspensions, etc. Moreover, it also relates to the equipment required to carry out such processes. The invention also concerns processes for controlling molecular separation or reduction, transformation and synthesis with or in the media moved in accordance with the invention. It further relates to the procedures for achieving increases in mechanical efficiency and output as well as equipment for the carrying out of such processes.
Pursuant to the invention itself, it is essential that the media to be conveyed are imparted a movement which conducts them inward towards the centre, in the course of which the media are conveyed through grooves, pipes, etc. By means of such laminar, inwinding, and especially a multiple inwinding motion, significant advantages can be achieved in comparison with the methods of conveying such media in use today. This occurs through the transport of the media in channels, grooves, fluting, pipes or vessels with a cross-section in the form of an egg, or more accurately part of an egg, having a curved indentation, which is twisted like a screw in the direction of flow. If pipes are used, then these should take the form of the longitudinal cross-section of an egg, but with a curved indentation incorporated on one side at the more pointed end and which encompasses a quarter or less of the total circumference. In open conduits, the cross-section corresponds to a portion of such an indented egg-section. Under the term 'egg-shape' is to be
understood the classical egg-shape or an approximative egg-shape. The imparting of an inwinding motion can also be induced through conduction along appropriately shaped surfaces.
The conduits, pipes and vessels as well as the guiding surfaces can have a straight axis, although a meandering or screw-form axis is preferable. Through the combined orbital and rotational motion thus imparted, the conveyance of the media is facilitated and improved, and in this way a series of specific effects are achieved. Thus it was, that Professor Dr. Ing. habil. Franz Popel of the Institute of Hygiene at Stuttgart Technical University was able to establish through comparative experiments, that in an indented or fluted, egg-shaped profile, wherein the indentation is twisted like a screw in the direction of flow, the level of friction did not increase with increased volume and velocity of flow. On the contrary, at certain velocities the friction diminished and overall it was significantly less than in conventional pipes of circular profile.
In liquids conveyed by this invention, the frictional resistance of the liquids on the inner wall-surfaces of the conducting pipe is reduced to a remarkable degree. It has also become evident that any variety of copper enhances or facilitates the inwinding motion catalytically. Instead of being wholly made out of copper, copper facings can also be used, which are affixed to the inside of the pipe. The desired results are achieved simply because the liquid comes in contact with the copper from time to time, the more frequently the better. Alloys of copper can also be used to equal advantage. Instead of copper, other metals belonging to the same electromotive series can be used, such as silver or gold.
The best effect corresponding to the intent of the invention, is achieved with the use of doubly twisted pipes. These are pipes in which the indented, eggshaped,
cross-section is first twisted along the length of the pipe and the whole then wound into a coil.
Apart from this, the desired effect can also be intensified by the application of magnets. These are either laid continuously or spaced at certain intervals along the length of the pipe.
To date it has not been known that it is possible to move liquid, gaseous or aeriform media in such a way that molecular activity can be controlled at will. With today's conventional systems of movement, e.g. in straight-drawn, smooth pipes, the through-flowing media will indeed be transported. However, a reactive, structure-loosening tendency evolves as a secondary effect, which provokes further molecular disintegration. This cannot be controlled. These disintegrative events increase quite considerably with an increase in velocity caused by increased pressure, additional warming or mechanical centrifugating, etc.
If the molecular structure of a moving liquid, gaseous or aeriform medium is to be maintained or a process of molecular synthesis actually inaugurated, then the aforesaid structure-loosening tendency must be prevented as a first priority.
The aim of the invention includes processes and appliances, which not only prevent unwanted molecular disintegration and the de-energising of the moving liquid and gaseous media, but also enable the achievement of molecular synthesis and a build-up of energy. These also lead to increases in mechanical efficiency and output.
In certain cases these molecular processes have to take place in a certain, special, rhythmical interplay of forces, in which expansion and contraction alternate with each other. By preventing molecular disintegration or separation, a condition can be achieved in which encrustations and sedimentation in the moving water or other liquid can be eliminated.
In accordance with the invention, the desired effect is achieved through a particular process, as a result of which the medium is primarily imparted a definite laminar, multiple-inwinding motion. It is the special construction of these pipes, conduits or vessels that makes this form of motion possible. The molecular synthesis, recombination and transformation, energetic upgrading, bio-catalytic reduction, etc. is achieved with the processes associated with this invention:
(a) through the laminar, multiple inwinding of the media to be moved in these involution enhancing forms, fabricated with certain materials, and if necessary,
(b) through the addition of substances of diverse molecular and atomic structure or if need be, of trace-elements, active substances and the like, and
(c) through the energetic bonding (coupling) of the media and the added material by means of catalysts. This can also be effected by directly or indirectly incident rays of light of different frequencies, e.g. blue, ultraviolet light, etc. The stimulation of pulsation or vibration by means of ultra-sound is also possible. Excessive structure-loosening influences of light of certain frequency bands must be reduced to the minimum value prescribed for each medium.
By way of example, the design of a conduit producing a multiple-inwinding flow-motion, which at least maintains the molecular structure of media to be moved, is to be provided with an 'open profile' and must exhibit the following features:
(a) it must have a variable cross-sectional profile, which is envisaged as having been derived from the pointed end of an egg-shaped form, whereby in one of its longitudinal halves the near-identical profile is incorporated as a concavity. (Fig. 1)
(b) It must have a longitudinal profile that is so shaped as to take the form of a wave, or meander, as shown in Figure 2a.
The form of the conduit itself must be so constructed that along the length of the meandering longitudinal profile the convex portion of the 1/2 egg-shaped profile migrates from the right-hand of Section A-A1, via the neutral point of Section B-B1, rising to its extreme value again on the left-hand side of Section C-C1. In this process of migration the size of the indentation gradually reduces and displaces laterally.
In natural channels (streams, rivers, etc.) the previously described channel shape is the prerequisite for inwinding motion. Natural channels are therefore the prerequisite for the regeneration of the watercourse and for the maintenance of the biological laws of bio-hydraulics.
If the previously described, partial egg-profile containing the convex indentation is supplemented by fully rounded, longitudinal portion on the opposite side, then the cross-sectional form of the 'closed profile' is produced (Figure 3 ).
In Figure 4, by way of example, an arrangement is depicted in which a pipe with a closed profile is wound around the outer face of an imaginary cylinder. This design can be usefully applied, for example, to drinking water pipelines, the reticulation of industrial water and for pipelines of all kinds.
If in addition an acceleration of the flow is desired, i.e. for purposes of reducing the cross-sectional area and the resultant savings in costs of the pipes themselves, then these specially profiled, closed pipes, either singly or severally, can be wound around and attached to a cylindrical core (Figure 4), which is then made to rotate. The volume conveyed and the increase in mechanical efficiency and output can be regulated by varying the rate of rotation. This arrangement is particularly suited to the conveyance of liquid, gaseous and aeriform media.
A further example of the design, which serves for certain syntheses (transformative, recombinant and upgrading processes), is depicted in Figure 5a, 5b, In these configurations the closed profile shown in Figure 3 can also be used. In this design a pipe possessing the said profile is wound around a conical, rotating core.
Depending on the desired purpose, the cross-sectional profile either reduces in size towards the point of the cone (Figure 5b), for example, for the conveyance and transformation of seawater into freshwater, or towards the base of the cone-shaped core (Figure 5a), for example, for the separation of mixtures. For particular applications, several such pipes can be connected top to top, or bottom to bottom (for example, in the stimulation of pulsations for processes of synthesis).
Likewise several such twisted pipes can be grouped about a common axis. Open, slotted, perforated or partially open and closed pipes and pipe systems of the above type can also be used, for example, to achieve diffusive or filtering effects.
With the possibility of regulating the rotational velocity of such pipes or pipelines, not only can the discharge velocity of the media be increased and with it an increase in mechanical efficiency and output, but also the speed of the molecular transformation can be controlled.
On the other hand, with a non-rotating pipe configuration of similar nature, the process of molecular transformation takes place over a correspondingly longer pathway.
Experiments have shown that a particularly useful shape of vessel can be developed from the egg-shape and is especially suited to the mixing, stirring, etc., of media, or the carrying out of biochemical processes and fermentation processes. This shape can also be developed from rotating egg-shaped or ovoid bodies or if necessary from paraboloid or hyperboloid, rotating bodies and the like, whereby these vessels can likewise be set in regulable rotation as the case demands.
The driving mechanism for all these rotating bodies can also be designed in such a way, that these bodies are imparted a rhythmically alternating direction of rotation. Drives of this nature require no further elaboration here, since they are already well-known to technology.
The inclusion of additives can take place in any desired fashion and relates to substances in a solid, liquid, gaseous or aeriform state, and is ordered according to the nature of the desired molecular synthesis or organisation. The intrinsic qualities of the material required to upgrade the water must be introduced in doses in accordance with the findings of the analyses of the said drinking, medicinal and /or mineral water.
The energetic coupling, the actual bonding of these additives to the media, is achieved through the interaction between the aforesaid types of motion. The bonding takes place by way of bio-catalysts inter alia through the appropriate choice of materials from which the previously described pipes, channels or vessels are made. In such applications, copper, silver and gold and their alloys have proved to be particularly suitable. However, synthetic resins (plastics) with or without mineral or metallic inclusions or crystals, or natural stone, woods such as larch, fir, etc. and combinations of such materials can also be used.
For example, in a vessel made with an appropriate copper alloy, water with a corresponding valency (healing property) can be produced.
... [Missing text ] have a specific, energetic proportional relation, which in any event is sufficiently well understood in the field of catalysts and their application.
In addition, the energetic coupling (bonding) can take place through direct irradiation by light of various frequencies (blue, ultra-violet, etc.) or through the mechanical stimulation of vibration, as has already been stated.
The distinctive, multiple-inwinding motion, characterised above by the orbital and rotational, inwinding tendency of the moving medium (water, earth, air, etc.) leads to a drop in temperature towards the anomaly point of +4°C (39.2°F) and its specific densation, which is the case with water in particular.
These effects are integral to the possibility of controlling the induced molecular processes and to the achievement of a substantially higher output and performance. They can be applied to drive turbines, propel ships, locomotive devices, aircraft, the conveyance of all kinds of media, to the raising of the carrying capacity and tractive force of the water in small, artificial channels, conduits or flumes, etc.
The increase in performance itself is to be attributed inter alia to the substantial elimination of the centrifugally-acting, reactive wall-pressures. In all systems of motion of this nature, the speed of motion is increased. The process of molecular syntheses is strengthened through the increase in specific density. In the case of rotating pipes, pipes systems and vessels, a regulable reversed flow and/or counter-rotation occurs between the rotating forms and the media moving through them, which accelerates and augments the aforesaid processes as well as the mechanical increase in output and efficiency. Accordingly, the areas of application of the invention are manifold and of extremely wide scope. The implementation of this process and the associated appliances has proved to be particularly effective in the prevention of encrustation in pipes, sedimentation in channels, the transformation of seawater into freshwater with a range of properties, the biological purification of polluted drinking water and general purpose water, and in high-grade molecular syntheses. It is equally suited to processes of energetic concentration and transformation, for example, in the transformation of molecular structures of liquid nature into gaseous, etheral or volatile states and vice versa. It demonstrates the nature of the build-up of blood, and sap in the world of plants.
It should also be mentioned that, as a result of this invention, new designs for turbines, propulsion systems for ships and aircraft, and differently designed water reticulation and transfer installations can be developed. With more specific reference to the invention itself, it should also be noted with reference to Figure 6, that the movement mentioned above (which can equally take place in the opposite direction), and multiple inwinding movement in particular, should be conceived as the tendencies represented in Figure 6. In this figure, which depicts a closed profile, D is the direction in which the profile itself rotates and E is the direction of the tendency to inwind. As inwinding forms, apart from the inwinding motion described above, equal consideration should be given to the coiling of the profile shown in Figure 6 about various other forms depicted schematically in Figures 4, 5c & 5d. These other forms can also include an extended egg-shape (tear-drop shape) or a contracted (extreme) egg-shape.
Amongst the base core-forms mentioned above, inwinding tubes or systems of inwinding tubes of a special design can be incorporated (as in Figure 7). Curved or inwinding tubes of a special shape can likewise be attached to the external envelope or the internal periphery of the bodies of the rotating conical shapes or the others described above, whose spiral configurations rotate in opposite directions, for example, a left-hand external spiral and a right-hand internal spiral configuration, or vice versa.
The invention is characterised notably by the following features and possible permutations and combinations:
1. Procedures for the control of processes of molecular decomposition, transformation or composition taking place in the moving media, liquid, gaseous or aeriform through which an increase in mechanical performance and output can be achieved; Procedures characterised by endowing the media with a particular laminar movement, which then inwinds upon itself several times in the above conduits, tubes or receptacles of a certain shape and material conducive to such form of movement.
2. Given that different media have different molecular and atomic structures, these are transformed into molecular organisations of different nature through the interactions occurring during such laminar multipleinwinding movement by means of energetic coupling.
3. Elements existing as trace-elements, active substances and such like are incorporated into the said processes in order to contribute or participate in the energetic interactions.
4. The energetic interaction (coupling) between the media or substances is produced, for example, by way of catalysts, which amongst other things, desirably correspond to the base material of the artefact, or through the direct or indirect production of oscillations (for example, light of different frequency regions or ultra-sound), the said interaction being additionally assisted by the production of mechanical oscillations.
Austrian Patent # 145,141
It is known that impellers can be caused to rotate by moving air. It is equally known that an air current can be generated through evacuation. The present invention, however, makes use of mechanical and physical forces.
In the accompanying diagram (see fig. 19), the object of the invention is portrayed in Sections A-A and B-B. A snailshell-shaped housing a in which the impeller b is mounted is connected to a double-spiral pipe c by means of a hollow shaft d. The double-spiral pipe c is joined to an egg-shaped, hollow body e at f, which is divided into two spaces by means of a wire mesh g. In the inner chamber of e gas-burners or electric arc-throwers are incorporated that combust the inflowing gas at about 2,000°C (3,632°F). The inner chamber is connected to an exhauster via a heatable double-spiral pipe h. To this exhauster, streamlined, egg-shaped nozzles i are attached and the whole arrangement is activated by an external force.
The impeller incorporated inside the snailshell housing is constructed in such a way that fresh air can only enter the hollow shaft d when the impeller blade k passes over the slot j incorporated in the hollow shaft. The flywheel l, whose cross-sections are egg-shaped and which is mounted on the hollow shaft d, is installed in an externally airtight housing m. The air present in the hollow space n is sucked out through a connecting passage o, so that in the highly rarefied space n the flywheel is offered very little resistance to rotation. To maintain the combustion process, a combustible gas is introduced at p. The double-spiral pipe c mentioned at the beginning has been granted an Austrian patent, No. 138296. This pipe consists of an external pipe made of wooden staves and an asbestos sleeve. Within the latter there is a metal sleeve, which has wood-shaving-like metal elements bent out from the periphery, whose axis is inclined towards the pipe-axis at an angle of 30° to 45°.  [3: consult patent 138296] These metal elements are aligned along several spiral pathways. The peripheral air-masses will thus be forced to describe a path corresponding to a spiral within a spiral.
The inner metal sleeve is heated electrically. In addition, the heat arising from friction on the outer walls leads to the warming of the outer air-masses, through which in particular all the oxygen contained in the air expands, concentrates itself at the pipe-walls, becoming even warmer on its multi-spiral path along the pipe-walls. The remaining gases contained in the air pass down the centre of the pipe and rise through the agency of the gas introduced at p. Because the warmer and therefore more aggressive oxygen brushes along the outer pipe-walls and the colder residual components of the air flow through the inner region of the pipe, inner tensions arise between the materials due to the temperature differences obtaining, which become more pronounced the longer the distance travelled, until interactions ultimately occur. These interactions proceed in the form of small explosions and assist the reaction that takes place through the combustion of the highly energised gases within the egg-shaped safety mesh g.
In the egg-shaped body e a sieve (safety mesh) g is incorporated, outside of which the separated oxygen mentioned earlier accumulates, passes through the sieve into the centre, wherein, with the aid of the electric or gas arcs, it contributes to the almost complete combustion of the centrally conducted combustible gases. As a result a much greater vacuum evolves than has hitherto been achieved using currently known methods. At the same time the exhaust gases are reduced to a minimum and extracted mechanically via h and i. Through the creation of the vacuum in e, the air will be sucked in with even greater force, setting the impeller in motion in the process.
1. The air-turbine is characterised by the fact that the air-masses in a doublespiral pipe can be so strongly moved, that due to frictional heat and externally supplied heat between the peripheral air-masses and those streaming down the pipe-axis, differences in temperature arise, which lead to cold interactions in the air flowing through the double-spiral pipe, whose end-product is an almost total vacuum.
2. In accordance with Claim 1 the air-turbine is further characterised by the complete combustion that takes place in a partitioned chamber by means of a safety mesh having a pipe-shaped extension towards its base.
3. In accordance with Claims 1 & 2, the air-turbine is characterised by the fact that the attached flywheel is caused to rotate in a rarefied space.
4. In accordance with Claims 1-3, the air-turbine is characterised by the fact that the supply of air takes place pulsatingly through a slot in the hollow shaft.
5. In accordance with Claims 1-3, the air-turbine is characterised by the fact that the discharge of exhaust gases takes place by means of a heated pipe in which a temperature higher than that of the exhaust gases prevails.
British Patent # 1,187,632
Apparatus for Agitating Body of Fluid
Cl. B1 C(5, 9, 18A1); Intl. Cl. B 01 f 7/20
( 8 April 1970 )
This invention relates to methods and apparatus for agitating a body of fluids, in particular for the purpose of making a mixture, solution, emulsion, suspension and the like, from a plurality of fluids or from a quantity of material and one or more fluids, or for the purpose of incorporating air into the body of fluid.
In some industrial and chemical processes it is often necessary to mix a fluid and another material to form a solution, emulsion, suspension or the like. Such mixing operations are required for example in the preparation of mineral drinks, fluid mixtures containing a small amount of a particular substance, mixtures of carbon dioxide with a fluid, and also in the purification of bodies of water.
On the latter connection, it has been found that the self-purifying capacity of still or relatively slowly flowing water is less than that of more rapidly flowing water, for example, flowing at 20 centimeters per second. The greater self-purifying capacity of rapidly flowing water is due to the fact that, owing to turbulence produced in the water, oxygen has a greater analysis to be incorporated into the water and decompose the organic substances before they settle. The relatively rapid flow causes the oxygen consumed in the decomposition process to be quickly replaced. In still or relatively slowly flowing water, such as lakes or reservoirs, however, settling of the organic substances not only results in the lower regions of the water becoming saturated wit such substances, but in addition, causes an oxygen deficit in the upper layers of the water, for the reason that oxygen consumed in the decomposition of the settling substances is not replaced, owing to the slower flow or complete stagnation not producing turbulence to cause oxygen from the atmosphere to be incorporated into the water. As a result, the organic substances are not consumed by oxygen and the water becomes impure or polluted. It is possible to overcome such pollution by agitating the water to reduce the settlement of organic substances and in particular, to increase the amount of oxygen absorbed into the water at its surface from the adjacent atmosphere,, so that a greater amount of oxygen is available to decompose the organic substances and thereby purify the water.
According to the present invention, there is provided apparatus for agitating air into the fluid, comprising a vessel to contain the fluid and having an upwardly facing opening, and a rotatable shaft extending upwardly into the vessel from the bottom thereof and carrying at least one stirring blade, the configuration of the vessel being such that in a portion adjacent the shaft, the walls of the vessel diverge upwardly in a continuous curve from the location of the shaft, in the form of an end portion of an egg-shape.
Embodiments of an apparatus according to the present invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which: ---
Figure 1 is a vertical cross section of one embodiment of the apparatus;
Figure 2 is a vertical cross-section of a second embodiment of the apparatus;
Figure 3 is a vertical cross-section of a third embodiment of the apparatus
Figure 4 is a partial vertical cross-section of a third embodiment of the apparatus;
Figure 5 is a vertical cross-section of a fifth embodiment of the apparatus, showing a vessel within a larger body of fluid.
Referring firstly to Figure 1, the embodiment shown comprises a vertically arranged closed egg-shaped vessel 1 containing a fluid F to be mixed. The larger end of the vessel 1 is disposed upwardly, while the configuration of a substantial portion of the body of the vessel 1 lying between the larger and smaller ends thereof is defined by an exponential function which is represented in polar coordinates by the general equations r = a0 and r = a0 + b, and in a specific case by the equation r = e0 + b, where r is the radius vector, a and b designate any constant, and e is the base of the natural logarithm. [phi]
At the larger end of the vessel 1, an opening 2 is provided on the axis of symmetry of the vessel 1 for introducing materials M into the body of fluid F. The materials to be mixed with the fluid may include air or other matter in solid, liquid or gaseous form, Depending on the nature of the material to be mixed with the fluid F, pressurized injection into the vessel may be required, particularly of the material is in the form of a powder or small particles.
Located at the lower end of the vessel 1 and also on its axis of symmetry is a rotatable shaft 3 carrying at its upper end a single bladed stirring element 4 for stirring the fluid F and imparting to it a whirling or vertical motion, as shown by the arrows of Figure 1. Thus the flow of the whirling body of fluid in the vessel 1 comprises an upwardly flowing spiral at the outer periphery of the whirling body, extending substantially to the surface of fluid F. Inside the upwardly flowing spiral there is also a vertically upward flow to the surface, which then turns inwardly, also mixing with the downward flow resulting from the upward spiral. The vortex or whirling action created by the stirring element 4 and the walls of the vessel 1 is similar to the eddy or whirlpool phenomena occurring in a flowing stream of water. The vortex in the fluid F creates a lower pressure region along the axis of the vortex, while has a suction effect so drawing fluid downwardly at the center and also drawing in air from the region adjacent the surface of the fluid F. In Figures 1 and 1a, the path followed by an individual fluid particle p is shown as it passes in an upwardly flowing spiral within the body of Fluid F. Any materials introduced into the vessel 1 through the opening 2 are pulled or sucked into the body of fluid F by its vortex action, which also provides a mixing effect.
Referring now to Figure 2, the apparatus comprises a vessel 5 of the same general configuration as the vessel 1 shown in Figure 1, but which is in an inverted position, that is, with its larger end downwards. Located at the lower end of the vessel 5 is a rotatable shaft 3 having a double-bladed stirring element 4’ at its upper end. The vessel5 contains a fluid F, the level of which is such as to leave a space as shown between the fluid F and the upper end of the vessel 5. An inlet pipe 6 opens into the vessels 5 by way of an inlet opening 6’ such that material is injected tangentially into, and below the surface of, the whirling volume of fluid F.
Axially arranged in the upper end of the vessel 5 is a short tubular member 7 containing a lens or filter 8. Aligned above the filter 8 is an irradiation source 9 for directing radiation, such as ultraviolet rays, downwardly through the filter 8 into the fluid F. The direction of the rays from the source 9 is along the axis of the vortex created in the body o fluid F by the stirring element 4’.
The shape of the vessel 5 is, as shown, similar to that of the vessel in Figure 1, the configuration of a substantial portion between the ends of the vessel 1 being defined by the equations set forth hereinbefore with reference to figure 1.
In both vessels 1 and 5, the stirring elements 4, 4’ combine with the vessel walls to create a vortex in the body of fluid F. I Figure 2, materials to be mixed are injected tangentially into the vessel 5 and are picked up by the upwardly flowing spiral at the vessel wall, which then carries them into the center of the vessel 5 and downwardly, so that they become intimately mixed by the vortex action. The rays from the source 9, which pass through the filter 8, are absorbed into the whirling body of the fluid F and, due to the continuous mixing effect, irradiate the fluid F and any additional matter it contains.
Figure 3 shows a vessel 10 similar to that shown in Figure 2 except that its upper end is open, giving it a goblet-like shape. Carried at its lower end, the vessel 10 has a rotatable shaft 3 with single-bladed stirring element 4’’ at its upper end for whirling the fluid F. As the upper end of the vessel 10 is open, it can be used in various processes for the treating and mixing of fluids. Materials to be mixed are introduced through the opening in the upper end of the vessel 10, while the vessel 10 could be used by itself or within a larger tank for mixing a fluid.
Where a vessel is to be positioned within a larger tank of fluid to be mixed, or within a natural body of water, into which oxygen is to be absorbed to decompose any organic matter therein and thereby purify the water, the embodiments shown in Figure 4 and 5 are preferred.
In Figure 4, the fluid F’ is contained within a large tank or container 25. Extending upwardly from the base of the tank are support members 21 which carry a dome-shaped vessel 20 which is of a configuration similar to the lower portion of the vessels 5 and 10 shown in Figures 2 and 3, thus forming an open bowl-type container. Extending through the lower end of the vessel 20 is a rotatable shaft 23 carrying a its upper end a single-bladed stirring element 24 located in the bottom of the vessel 20. Disposed below the vessel 20 is a motor 22 for driving the shaft 23 and is stirring element 24. In operation, the stirring element 24 creates a whirling action within a body of fluid f shown in dash-dotted lines in Figure 4. The container 25 may be a collecting tank, settling tank, water reservoir or similar fluid-holding device in which a mixing action is to be produced.
The other embodiment of a mixing vessel positioned within a body of fluid F’, shown in Figure 5, comprises a vessel 30 of a cup-shaped configuration which is similar to the lower portion of the vessel 1 shown in Figure 1. Mounted at the lower end of the vessel 30 is a hollow rotatable shaft 33 with a single-bladed stirring element 34 located at its upper end. Fluid, or any material S’, below the vessel 30 may also be drawn into the vessel through the hollow shaft 33 so that such fluid may be incorporated upwardly into the whirling volume of fluid f. Additionally, it should be noted that the irradiation source 9 shown in Figure 2 could be used in either of the embodiments shown in Figures 4 or 5 to provide radiation treatment of the fluid.
In Figures 4 and 5, a vortex or whirling movement is produced in the fluid F’ to be mixed, whether it is a natural body of water, such as the water of a lake, or a large container holding some other fluid, by the stirring elements 24, 34 disposed in the lower portion of vessels, 20, 30 respectively. The general outline of the body of fluid f to which the whirling movement is imparted is shown by the dash-dotted line in Figures 4 and 5. Additionally, in Figure 4, the flow pattern within the body of fluid f is shown by a number of solid lines bearing directional arrows. The flow pattern is the same as previously described for Figure 1, the outer layer of the body of fluid f moving in an upwardly flowing spiral to the surface of the fluid. Similarly, inwardly of the upwardly spiraling layer is an upwardly flowing layer which reverse direction in the upper region of the whirling body of fluid f moving in an upward flowing spiral to the surface of the fluid. Similarly, inwardly of the upwardly spiraling layer is an upwardly flowing layer which reverses direction in the upper region of the whirling body of fluid f, then passing inwardly and downwardly at S along the axis of the vortex. The suction effect developed by the vortex produced in the body of fluid f tends to suck in any materials to be mixed with the fluid; this suction effect may be used in the case of water to draw oxygen into the water to provide a biochemical purification action. In both the embodiments shown in Figures 4 and 5, as the vessel 20, 30 extends only a short distance above the stirring element 24, 34, it does not interfere with any mixing at the interface of the main body of fluid F’ and the fluid f in the whirling volume.
In the mixing operation, whether in the closed vessels shown in Figures 1 and 2 or in the open vessels of Figures 3m 4, and 5, a relatively small amount of energy is needed to rotate the stirring elements and create the vortex in the fluid. Moreover, where an open vessel is used, as in Figures 4 and 5, not only is it possible to produce circulation of fluid within the boundaries of the whirling body of fluid f, but the fluid F’ is also drawn into hat whirling body so that a complete mixing action can be achieved. Additionally, when either the open or closed vessels are used, the whirling body of fluid will show resonance phenomenon when a relatively high speed stirring element is employed; under such conditions the intensity of fluid circulation produced by the stirring element can be increased by increasing the speed of the elements, with only a relatively small additional energy consumption.
What we claim is: --- [ Claims not included here ]
US Patent # 1,775,871
Method and Apparatus for Sorting Timber
This invention relates to an improved method of and arrangement for sorting and discharging separated different kinds of timber, such as long-tailed timber, log timber, billet wood, etc.
The simultaneous floating of different kinds of timber, presents difficulties, because each kind moves with different speed and the slow moving short wood is overtaken by the faster floating log-timber, particularly at the curves, and therefore a sorting of the timber is carried out at the outlet of the retaining basin.
The method of separating the different kinds of timber is based on the fact, that the pieces of wood of different thicknesses are submerged in the water to different depth and therefore by draining off the topmost water-layer only, at first the smaller billet-woods, floating on the surface, are set into motion, while the log-timber and long-tailed timber which float deeper in the water can float off only in case the overflow is made to a greater depth. Thus by a suitable adjustment of an overflow door the different kinds of timber are sucked into a short channel which preferably is arranged in communication with a retaining or collecting basin. Timber, floating at a greater depth, is prevented from floating off by occasionally lifting the overflow-door, whereby a retaining action arises, which stops the start of the undesirable movement. After the discharge from the said short channel, a further separation of the different kinds of timber is carried out by reason of the fact that the small pieces of wood float on the top and in case the overflow-door is lowered very slightly only, these small pieces are discharged into a wet-chute which lies at a proper depth opposite the floor of the channel, while after a further lowering of the overflow-door the log-timber is discharged into a higher timber cute by reason of the greater speed of the water. The short channel is provided with longitudinal ribs, in order to prevent a rotation or eddying of the water in this part. The outflowing water passes into a discharge pit, which is provided with a grate for catching the billet-wood and for guiding the latter into the chute. In this manner the billet-wood and log-timber pass in a wet condition into the dry chute. Whereby the sliding capacity of the wood is increased by about 8% and consequently the slope of the chutes can be decreased considerably. The dropping water may be employed for driving mechanical means as will be described hereinafter. However, as a rule the valuable long-tailed timber cannot be conveyed on the chutes constructed for log-timber in consequence of their curvatures. And therefore it is of advantage to separate the long-tailed timber and convey it in another manner. According to the present invention this is accomplished in the following manner: ---
A supporting device, for instance a wire-rope or rail, which follows the direction of the flow of the water, is arranged in a suitable height (about 7 feet) over the upper water-level above the short channel. Overhead cranes provided with chains or gripers, are arranged on this supporting device. After the long-tailed timber has been sucked into the short channel similar to the log timber, the overflow-door is raised, whereby the oncoming wood is stopped immediately and the long-tailed timber is disposed exactly underneath the supporting device. If the water rises further, the long-tailed timber is disposed exactly underneath the supporting device. If the water rises further, the long-tailed timber is also raised until it can be readily attached to the supporting device by means of chains or grippers. If the overflow-door is again lowered the water flows off faster in consequence of the gradient thus formed, the timber hanging on the supporting device is taken along and now freely floats, also at a slight gradient, with the speed imparted by the water, until it is deposited either at the place of destination or at a place, from which it is conveyed by vehicles or a waterway, adapted for long-tailed timber.
A sorting device arranged at a retaining basin is illustrated in cross section by way of example on the accompanying drawings.
A slightly inclined channel 42 (about 0.5:1000) is in communication with the retaining basin 41 for receiving the different kinds of timber, which come down from the different sides or are supplied upon chutes. A working stand 43 is arranged alongside the channel 42. An overflow door 44, which is vertically slidable in a slot 45, serves for closing the end of the channel 42 and is raised by the buoyancy of the water, in order to close the channel 42. An overflow door 44, which is vertically slidable in a slot 45, serves for closing the end of the channel 42 and is raised by the buoyancy of the water, in order to close the channel 42. Also upwardly acting weights, springs and the like (not illustrated) may be provided in order to promote the buoyancy and effect an automatic closing of the door. Rollers 46 are arranged on the door 44 and passes over pulleys 48 and 49. By means of a lever 50, attached to the pulley 49, the door 44 may be readily and comfortable operated from the working stand 43. The graduations I, II, and III of a dial correspond to the discharge parabolas I, II, and III. A water-discharge channel 51, located in front of the door 44 or slot 45, is sufficiently wide to allow the water to flow off even in case the door 44 is fully opened.
The chute 52 for the long-timber is connected to the channel 51 slightly below the floor of the channel 42. The chute 53 for the billet-wood lies below the chute 52. the wood passing over an inclined grating 54, which traverses the channel 51. A supporting rope 55 is arranged above the channel 42 and carries cable grippers 56, which are provided with chains 57 for securing the timber.
The workman standing on the platform 43 controls the level of the water in the channel 42 according to the thickness of the timber passing through the latter at the time by raising or lowering the door 44 by means of the lever 50. If a log-timber enters the channel 42, the workman lowers the door 44 by means of the lever 50. If a log-timber enters the channel 42, the workman lowers the door 44 in such a way, that the log-timber is discharged onto the chute 52. In the case of billet-wood the door 44 is lowered to such an extent, that the same is discharged onto the chute 53, while the small pieces of wood are discharged through the channel 51 by operating the door in such a way, that the said wood follows the way of the discharge parabola I.
I claim: --- [ Claims not included here ]
German Patent # 1,442,734
Engine Exhaust System
( 11-21-1968 )
Classification: - international: B01D53/86; B01J19/24; B01D53/86; B01J19/24; - European: B01D53/86; B01J19/24B