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SPIRULINA ALGAE CULTIVATION








Spirulina



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirulina_%28dietary_supplement%29

Spirulina is a microscopic blue-green alga in the shape of a spiral coil, living both in sea and fresh water. Spirulina is the common name for human and animal food produced primarily from two species of cyanobacteria: Arthrospira platensis, and Arthrospira maxima. Though referred to as 'algae' because they are aquatic organisms capable of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are not related to any of the various eukaryotic algae.[1]

Arthrospira is cultivated around the world, and is used as a human dietary supplement, as well as a whole food, and is available in tablet, flake, and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries.[2]

Biology

Arthrospira

Arthrospira are free-floating filamentous cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix. They occur naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes with high pH and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. Arthrospira platensis occurs in Africa, Asia and South America, whereas Arthrospira maxima is confined to Central America.[2]

These maxima and platensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. There is now agreement that they are in fact Arthrospira; nevertheless, and somewhat confusingly, the older term Spirulina remains in use for historical reasons.[2][3]

History

An illustration from the Florentine Codex showing how the Aztecs harvested spirulina off lakes by skimming the surface with ropes (right) and then drying the algae into square cakes which would be eaten as a nourishing condiment (left).

Spirulina was a food source for the Aztecs and other Mesoamericans until the 16th century; its harvesting from Lake Texcoco and subsequent sale as cakes is described by one of Cortés' soldiers.[4][5] The Aztecs called it Tecuitlatl, meaning stone's excrement.

Spirulina was found in abundance at Lake Texcoco by French researchers in the 1960s, but there is no reference to its use there as a daily food source after the 16th century.[3] The first large-scale spirulina production plant, run by Sosa Texcoco, was established there in the early 1970s.[2]

Leo Szilard postulated the development of algae-based food supplements (which he called "Amruss") in his 1961 short story, The Voice of the Dolphins.

Spirulina may have an even longer history in Chad, as far back as the 9th century Kanem Empire.[citation needed] It is still in daily use today, dried into cakes called dihé, which are used to make broths for meals, and also sold in markets. The spirulina is harvested from small lakes and ponds around Lake Chad.[6]

Cultivation

Most cultivated spirulina is produced in open-channel raceway ponds, with paddle-wheels used to agitate the water. The largest commercial producers of spirulina are located in the United States, Thailand, India, Taiwan, China, Pakistan, Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar) and Chile .[2]

Nutrients and other chemicals

Protein

Spirulina contains an unusually high amount of protein with, between 55% and 77% by dry weight[7], depending upon the source. It is a complete protein,[8] containing all essential amino acids, though with reduced amounts of methionine, cysteine, and lysine when compared to the proteins of meat, eggs, and milk.[citation needed] It is, however, superior to typical plant protein, such as that from legumes.[3] [9]
[edit] Essential fatty acids

Spirulina is rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and also provides alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).[9][10]

Vitamins

Spirulina contains vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinamide), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic acid), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin A, and vitamin E.[9][10]

B12

The bioavailability of vitamin B12 in spirulina is in dispute. Several biological assays have been used to test for the presence of vitamin B12.[11] The most popular is the US Pharmacopeia method using the Lactobacillus leichmannii assay. Studies using this method have shown spirulina to be a minimal source of bioavailable vitamin B12.[12] However, this assay does not differentiate between true B12 (cobalamin) and similar compounds (corrinoids) that cannot be used in human metabolism. Cyanotech, a grower of spirulina, claims to have done a more recent assay, which has shown spirulina to be a significant source of cobalamin. However, the assay is not published for scientific review, so the validity of this assay is in doubt.[13] The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada in their position paper on vegetarian diets state that spirulina cannot be counted on as a reliable source of active vitamin B12.[14]

Minerals

Spirulina is a rich source of potassium, and also contains calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium, sodium, and zinc.[9][10]

Photosynthetic pigments

Spirulina contains many pigments, including chlorophyll-a, xanthophyll, beta-carotene, echinenone, myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, diatoxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, beta-cryptoxanthin and oscillaxanthin, plus the phycobiliproteins c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin.[2]

Considerations and Potential Dangers

Spirulina contains phenylalanine, which should be avoided by people who have the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria, where the body cannot metabolize this amino acid, and it builds up in the brain, causing damage.[15] Because spirulina is a dietary supplement, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the production and quality of the product. Although rare, cyanobacteria like Spirulina may contain toxins called microcystins, which accumulate in the liver and can potentially cause cancer or other liver diseases. Currently, no standard exists to regulate the safety of spirulina.[16]

In vitro research

Spirulina extract inhibits HIV replication in human T-cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and Langerhans cells.[17]

An in vitro study in 2008 concluded that Spirulina may possess iron chelating properties. Human neuroblastoma cells were treated with a toxic amount of iron, and then treated with Spirulina. When treated, the iron-induced oxidative stress was reduced.[18]

Animal research

Spirulina helps prevent heart damage caused by chemotherapy using Doxorubicin, without interfering with its antitumor activity.[19] Spirulina reduces the severity of strokes and improves recovery of motor control after a stroke;[20] reverses age-related declines in memory and learning;[21] and prevents and treats hay fever.[22]

A study on the metabolism of mice indicates that it has little effect on their metabolism, and therefore probably that of humans, too.[23]

A study with diabetic rats concluded that Spirulina maxima was effective in correcting the abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms caused by excess fructose within the body.[24]

Human Research

Spirulina has been found to increase weight gain and correct anemia in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative undernourished children[25] because of its excellent nutritional quality. Spirulina is effective for the clinical improvement of melanosis and keratosis due to chronic arsenic poisoning.[26]

A study in 2005 found that spirulina protects against hay fever.[27] A more recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 2008 concerning 150 allergic rhinitis patients found that Spirulina platensis significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin-4 by 32%, and the patients experienced symptomatic relief.[28] Furthermore, Spirulina was found to reduce the inflammation involved in arthritis in geriatric patients by stimulating the secretion of interleukin-2, which helps in regulating the inflammatory response.[29]

A 2007 study[30] found that 36 volunteers taking 4.5 grams of spirulina per day, over a six week period, exhibited significant changes in cholesterol and blood pressure: (1) lowered total cholesterol; (2) increased HDL cholesterol; (3) lowered triglycerides; and (4) lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This study, however, did not contain a control group; researchers cannot be confident that the changes observed are due totally, or even partially, to the effects of the Spirulina maxima, as opposed to other confounding variables (i.e., history effects, maturation effects or demand characteristics). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study involving geriatric patients determined that spirulina helped to significantly reduce the LDL-to-HDL ratio after four months of supplementation.[29]

A 2007 study concluded that spirulina improved the antioxidant potential of many geriatric patients who were administered it for 16 weeks. The plasma of these patients showed a measured increased level of total antioxidant status.[29] A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 2006 found that spirulina supplementation decreased the amount of creatine kinase ( an indicator of muscular breakdown) in individuals after exercise. Furthermore, the experimental group's time to exhaustion during all out treadmill exercise increased by 52 seconds. These effects were thought to be due to spirulina's antioxidant potential.[31]

See 2010 published study: Maria Kalafati; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Vassilis Paschalis; Anastasios A. Theodorou; Giorgos K. Sakellariou; Yiannis Koutedakis; Dimitris Kouretas, Ergogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Spirulina Supplementation in Humans, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise®. 2010;42(1):142-151, concluding a positive effect occurred, although the mechanism was not well understood.

There are no known side effects to spirulina, however the body may react to the consumption of it with symptoms including fever, dizziness, nausea, rashes or itchiness[32].

Organic Certification

Until recently, much spirulina was certified organic. In 2002, the USDA's National Organic Standards Board voted to disallow the use of Chilean nitrate. They granted a three-year window to spirulina producers, which expired in 2006. As a result, leading spirulina manufacturers have stopped labelling their spirulina as organic, citing safety concerns of nitrate alternatives.[33]

Advocates

The United Nations World Food Conference in 1974 lauded spirulina as the 'best food for the future'. Recognizing the inherent potential of spirulina in the sustainable development agenda, several Member States of the United Nations came together to form an intergovernmental organization named the Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (IIMSAM).[34] IIMSAM aspires to build a consensus with the UN Member States, international community and other stakeholders to make spirulina a key driver to eradicate malnutrition, achieve food security and bridge the health divide throughout the world.

Spirulina has been proposed by both NASA (CELSS)[35] and the European Space Agency (MELISSA)[36] as one of the primary foods to be cultivated during long-term space missions.

Notes & references

   1. ^ Cyanobacteria: Life History and Ecology, UCMB Berkeley
   2. ^ a b c d e f Vonshak, A. (ed.). Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-biology and Biotechnology. London: Taylor & Francis, 1997.
   3. ^ a b c Ciferri, O. "Spirulina, the Edible Microorganism." Microbiological Reviews. 47, 4, Dec. 1983. PMCID: PMC283708. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC283708/
   4. ^ Diaz Del Castillo, B. The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico, 1517-1521. London: Routledge, 1928, p. 300.
   5. ^ Osborne, Ken; Kahn, Charles N. (2005). World History: Societies of the Past. Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press. ISBN 1-55379-045-6.
   6. ^ Abdulqader, G., Barsanti, L., Tredici, M. "Harvest of Arthrospira platensis from Lake Kossorom (Chad) and its household usage among the Kanembu." Journal of Applied Phycology. 12: 493-498. 2000.
   7. ^ http://www.nutritionalsupplementshq.com/spirulina-side-effects/
   8. ^ http://www.bitterpoison.com/protein/11667/
   9. ^ a b c d Babadzhanov, A.S., et al. "Chemical Composition of Spirulina Platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan." Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40, 3, 2004.
  10. ^ a b c Tokusoglu, O., Unal, M.K. "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galbana." Journal of Food Science. 68, 4, 2003.
  11. ^ Variations in the Growth Response of Four Different Vitamin B12 Assay Microorganisms to the Same Tissue and Standard Preparations. Elizabeth A. Cook and Lillian N. Ellis. Appl Microbiol. 1968 December; 16(12): 1831–1840.
  12. ^ Watanabe, F. et al. "Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae." Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, Oct. 2002, 48 (5):325-331.
  13. ^ Spirulina Pacifica as a Source of Cobalamin Vitamin B-12. Jan. 1999.
  14. ^ Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets
  15. ^ Robb-Nicholson, C. (2006). "By the way, doctor". Harvard Women's Health Watch 8.
  16. ^ Gilroy, D., Kauffman, K., Hall, D., Huang, X., & Chu, F. (2000). "Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements". Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (5): 435–439. doi:10.2307/3454384. PMID 10811570. PMC 1638057. http://jstor.org/stable/3454384.
  17. ^ Ayehunie, S. et al. "Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by an Aqueous Extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis)." JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology. 18, 1, May 1998: 7-12.
  18. ^ Barmejo-Bescós, P., Piñero-Estrada, E., &Villar del Fresno, A. (2008). "Neuroprotection by Spirulina platensis protean extract and phycocyanin against iron-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells". Toxicology in Vitro 22 (6): 1496–1502. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2008.05.004. PMID 18572379.
  19. ^ Khan, M., et al. "Protective effect of Spirulina against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity." Phytotherapy Research. 2005 December;19(12):1030-7.
  20. ^ Wang, Y., et al. "Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage." Experimental Neurology. May, 2005 ;193(1):75-84.
  21. ^ Gemma, C., et al. "Diets enriched in foods with high antioxidant activity reverse age-induced decreases in cerebellar beta-adrenergic function and increases in proinflammatory cytokines." Experimental Neurology. July 15, 2002; 22(14):6114-20.
  22. ^ Chen, LL, et al. "Experimental study of spirulina platensis in treating allergic rhinitis in rats." Journal of Central South University (Medical Sciences). Feb. 2005. 30(1):96-8.
  23. ^ Yin, J; Zuberi, A; Gao, Z; Liu, D; Liu, Z; Cefalu, WT; Ye, J (Jul 2008). "Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice". Metabolism: clinical and experimental 57 (7 Suppl 1): S47–51. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2008.03.004. ISSN 0026-0495. PMID 18555854.
  24. ^ Kulshreshtha, A., Zacharia, J., Jarouliya, U.,Bhadauriya, P., Prasad, G.B.K.S., & Bisen, P.S. (2008). "Spirulina in Health Care Management". Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 9 (5): 400–405. doi:10.2174/138920108785915111. PMID 18855693.
  25. ^ Simpore, J., et al. "Nutrition Rehabilitation of HIV-Infected and HIV-Negative Undernourished Children Utilizing Spirulina." Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 49, 2005: 373-380.
  26. ^ Mir Misbahuddin, AZM Maidul Islam, Salamat Khandker, Ifthaker-Al-Mahmud, Nazrul Islam and Anjumanara. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. (Risk factors ). Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 44.2 (March 2006): p135(7).
  27. ^ Mao, TK, et al. "Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients." Journal of Medicinal Food. Spring 2005;8(1):27-30.
  28. ^ Cingi, C., Conk-Dalay, M., Cakli, H., & Bal, C. (2008). "The effects of Spirulina on allergic rhinitis". European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Larynology 265 (10): 1219–1223. doi:10.1007/s00405-008-0642-8. PMID 18343939.
  29. ^ a b c Park, H.; Lee, Y.; Ryu, H.; Kim, M.; Chung, H.; Kim, W. (2008). "A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly Koreans". Annals of nutrition & metabolism 52 (4): 322–328. doi:10.1159/000151486. PMID 18714150.  edit
  30. ^ Torres-Duran, Ferreira-Hermosillo, & Juarez-Oropeza. (2007). Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: A preliminary report. Lipids in Health and Disease. 6, 33
  31. ^ Lu, H.K., Hsieh, C.C. Hsu, J.J., Yang, Y.K., & Chou, H.N. (2006). "Preventative effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise induced oxidative stress". European Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2): 220–226. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0263-0. PMID 16944194.
  32. ^ http://www.healthsession.com/articles/spirulina-side-effects.html
  33. ^ Organic standards spark spirulina row
  34. ^ IIMSAM, Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition
  35. ^ Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential. Normal, Al.: Alabama A&M University, 1988.
  36. ^ Cornet J.F., Dubertret G. "The cyanobacterium Spirulina in the photosynthetic compartment of the MELISSA artificial ecosystem." Workshop on artificial ecological systems, DARA-CNES, Marseille, France, October 24–26, 1990.



http://www.cyanotech.com/   

Cyanotech Corporation, a world leader in microalgae technology, produces BioAstin® Natural Astaxanthin and Hawaiian Spirulina Pacifica®—all natural, functional nutrients that leverage our experience and reputation for quality, building nutritional brands which promote health and well-being. Cyanotech's spirulina, FDA reviewed and accepted as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as a food ingredient, augments energy and immune response. BioAstin's benefits derive from its superior antioxidant activity and from its ability to fight free radical damage and combat ongoing oxidative stress, enhancing skin, muscle and joint health.* Cyanotech produces these products from microalgae grown at its 90-acre facility in Hawaii using patented and proprietary technology and distributes them to nutritional supplement, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical makers and marketers in 58 countries on six continents.

Cyanotech was the first microalgae company in the world to obtain ISO 9001:2000

http://www.cyanotech.com/pdfs/spirulina/Spirulina_Abstracts.pdf
The Medical Research of Spirulina.



www.wapra.com/
World Algae Producers & Researchers Association

CULTURE -- VOLUME --  PRICE.

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Spirulina Nutrition Calculator
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http://www.roberthenrikson.com/SpirulinaSource/earthfoodorigin1.html

Part 1: The Early History of Spirulina Cultivation in the USA

The foundations of Earthrise were begun 20 years ago. Larry Switzer, a visionary bioneer and catalyst, founded the progenitor, Proteus Corporation, in 1976 to develop spirulina blue-green algae as a world food resource. Proteus was funded by a group of private California investors committed to the vision and hope spirulina represented. Joined by myself, this team began cultivation in the late 1970s....



www.espacenet.com Advanced Search : "spirulina production"

CN101748067 --- Method for promoting polysaccharide accumulation of spirulina cells

Abstract -- The invention relates to a method for promoting the polysaccharide accumulation of spirulina cells, which is characterized by standing cultured spirulina to make the spirulina float, irradiating the floating spirulina by strong light before processing and drying to make the cells to sink under high temperature, collecting and washing the sunken cells to obtain algae mud with high polysaccharide content or prepare a dry powder product or be used as the material for extracting spirulina polysaccharide. Therefore, enterprises can extract spirulina polysaccharide of more folds from the product on the basis of equivalent production capacity. With the method, the production cost of the spirulina polysaccharide can be greatly reduced, and the method provides a material basis for the wide application of the spirulina polysaccharide, thereby greatly improving the economic benefits of the enterprises and increasing the competition of the enterprises in markets.



CN101709009 --- Nutrient solution for domestic culture of spirulina

Abstract -- The invention discloses a nutrient solution for the domestic culture of spirulina. In the traditional culture of the spirulina, fresh water culture or seawater culture is adopted, the obtained spirulina is called fresh water spirulina or seawater spirulina, and the two culture modes both need a culture pool which is suitable for the growth of the spirulina. However, the domestic culture of the spirulina enjoys extensive development space. The invention provides the nutrient solution suitable for the domestic culture of the spirulina. The nutrient solution is prepared from fresh water, inorganic salt and trace elements. The invention is mainly used for the domestic culture of the spirulina, can regulate the growth rule of the spirulina aiming at the physiological characteristic of the spirulina, promotes the growth and the development of the spirulina, improves the product quality and enhances the product yield.



CN101705189 --- Spirulina mixed culturing technology and device

Abstract --- The invention discloses a spirulina mixed culturing technology, comprising the following steps: air sterilization: performing steam sterilization on a ring-shaped transparent glass tube through multiple steam inlet ports arranged in the ring-shaped transparent glass tube; inoculating: inoculating after the device is sterilized, culturing 150-180L of purified sterile spirulina seeds in a lab, placing the spirulina seeds into the device through a sterilized peristaltic pump, and opening a circulating pump; sterilizing culture medium; placing the sterilized culture medium into the device successively in a sealed and sterile state after inoculating; ventilating; introducing mixed air containing 15-20% of carbon dioxide into the device through the air inlets; regulating temperature: controlling the temperate to be at 28-33 DEG C for culturing; and discharging: discharging from a discharge hole. The invention effectively uses carbon dioxide, and reduces carbon dioxide emission, thus having the advantages of environment protection, low cost, high yield and stable quality, and the spirulina is food-grade.



MX2009007354 --- PROCESS TO PRODUCE BIOMASS AND PROTEINS BY MICROALGAE

Abstract -- The present invention refers to a process to produce biomass and proteins from microalgae, advantageously using as a source of development of said microalgae rejects from the alcohol industry, notably sugar cane husks and carbon dioxide originating from fermentation vats. The process according to the present invention comprises basic steps of preparation of cane husks, adaptation and preparation of inoculum with the microalga Spirulina platensis OF 25, cultivation of the microalga under controlled conditions and use of CO2, separation of algal biomass and optional recirculation of the water phase in the process until acceptable DQO and DBO levels by environmental regulations are reached.



CN101463322 ---Method for cultivating large area organic Spirulina

Abstract -- The invention discloses a method for cultivating organic spirulina in large areas, which comprises the following steps: 1. the selection of a cultivation base; 2. choosing the concentrated solution of organic fertilizer with fine quality for use; 3. Cultivation; a track pool is added with enough purified water, the concentrated solution of the organic fertilizer according to the 1000: 1-5 weight ratio of the concentrated solution of the purified water and the organic fertilizer and spirulina seed; the photosynthesis is carried out on the spirulina by stirring; the cultivation is carried out; when per kilogram of culture fluid contains 0.5-0.7 g of spirulina dry powder, the collection is carried out; and the concentrated solution of the organic fertilizer is supplemented again; meanwhile, the carbon dioxide gas is filled till the pH value of the cultivate fluid reaches 8.5-9 to cause that the spirulina continuously grow; the steps are cycled in sequence. In the method, the chemical synthetic fertilizer or the chemical treatment are entirely not used or basically not used, thus fundamentally solving the problem of the chemical substance residue of the spirulina products and the overproof of the heavy meta; of the spirulina, guarantying the organic performance and safety of the spirulina powder and increasing the yield of the products.



CN101455285 --- Treatment method of heavy metal polluted helical alga

Abstract : A method for using heavy metal mild pollution spirulina to extract phycocyanin, and using its algal residue as principal substrate to adsorb and remove lead, arsenic and cadmium in the water, pertains to the field of environmental biotechnology. The method can be widely used in innocent treatment of mild heavy metal pollution spirulina without accessing market standards in industrial production. The inventive method has main features the method adopts the features of mild heavy metal pollution that it only stick on cell walls, uses a improved purification method to obtain spirulina further processed product phycocyanin that conforms to safety criterion and has higher economic value, wherein, the accompanying diagram is a mass spectrogram of the extracted phycocyanin; and fixs the algal residues, for preparing biological adsorbent for obtaining lead, arsenic, cadmium and other heavy metals.




CN201292358 --- Spirulina cultivation machine

Abstract -- The utility model relates to a spirulina cultivation machine for automatically controlling a light source and a heat source. The spirulina cultivation machine is technically characterized in that a liquid crystal electric power board which can automatically control the light source and the heat source has extremely high requirement on temperature and light intensity during spirulina cultivation; and the prior spirulina cultivation machine is generally manually controlled, and the control of the light source and the heat source is hard to manage. The spirulina cultivation machine is characterized in that a temperature control device which can automatically control the heat degree and the light intensity is arranged on the liquid crystal electric power board and is mainly used for controlling the growth, the illumination and the temperature adjustment of the spirulina in a photosynthesis box. When the inner temperature of the photosynthesis box exceeds the growth requirement of the spirulina, the temperature control device can automatically cut off power so as to retain the optimal growth temperature and the illumination of alga, and the energy can be saved. One external power cord is connected to the bottom of a base to enable the spirulina cultivation machine to be convenient and safe. The spirulina cultivation machine is quite easy and convenient to operate by household users and the persons having no experience of spirulina cultivation.




CN101240244 --- Sea water cultivation of functionality series fresh-keeping spirulina platensis and spirulina maxima

Abstract -- The invention belongs to sea water breeding pure natural fresh-keeping type dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina which are alga for world wild production at present. The domestication descendiblity mutagenesis, controlling temperature, controlling light, controlling Ph and conditioning all kinds of nutrition constituent two alga variety are breed into high yield (390g/square meter/day), large alga body (1,2 to 1.05 times) and maintaining all nutrition constituent alga variety in special sea water, some nutrition constituent also are higher than primary alga, for example, Gamma-linolenic acid and Beta-carotene are respectively higher 56and 32than primary alga. We have breed functional series fresh-keeping spirulina and produced in clean environment in large scale. The newly breed sea water production alga has 11 kinds and their function respectively are fatigue protection, blood sugar dropping, beauty treatment, pruritus protection, hemostasia, alga mud, fodder, invigorating the stomach, invigorating the kidney and weight losing.



CN101240243 --- Fresh water cultivation of series function fresh-keeping spirulina platensis and spirulina maxima

Abstract -- The invention belongs to sweet water breeding pure natural fresh-keeping type dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina which are alga for world wild production at present. Functional fresh-keeping new patern dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina variety which are emanated by cobalt (60)10 gray-25000 gray for 5 minutes to 10 hours, after controlling temperature, controlling light, controlling pH and conditioning all kinds of nutrition ingredient, single excellent mutagenesis variety screened by micromanipulator are purified and cultured are chosen. The functional fresh-keeping new patern dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina variety have stabilising germ line and higher nutrition ingredient than general dull-tip spirulina, ultra-large spirulina and other mutagenesis variety, especially some ingredients are more several times than present dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina. The alga wall of the new type spirulina is very thin, the width and length of alga body are larger than present dull-tip spirulina and ultra-large spirulina. We have breed five kinds of sweet water production alga variety whose functions are respectively fatigue protection, blood sugar dropping, beauty treatment, pruritus protection and hemostasia in indoor large scale clean environment deep layer (1 to 1.5meter).



CN201089772 --- Spirulina cultivator




CN101126067 --- Method for determining high quality spirulina production series

Abstract -- The invention relates to a method used for determining the production line of qualified spirulina. By designing a random primer and adopting PAPD equimolecular biology, the specific stripes of 5 strains of sprial alg systems Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-4 and Sp-5 are cloned; cluster analysis discovered that: 5 strains can be divided into two types: wherein one type is Sp-1 and Sp-2, the other is Sp-3, Sp-4 and Sp-5, and the cloning maps of primer S35 and primer S99 have specific stripes that can identify the two type of strains; the specific stripes that have molecular weight of 680bp and 900bp only occurred in Sp-3, Sp-4 and Sp-5 stratins, and the specific stripes that have molecular weight of 900bp and 650bp only occurred in Sp-1 and Sp-2 stratins. The stripes, that respectively have molecular weight of 680bp and 900bp, cloned from candidate strains by primer S35 and primer S99 properly have comparatively better performance and are suitable for mass production; while the stripes, that respectively have molecular weight of 900bp and 650bp, cloned from candidate strains by primer S35 and primer S99 properly have comparatively poorer performance and are not suitable for mass production.




CN101104870 --- Method for identifying spirulina strain production characteristics

Abstract -- Disclosed is an identification method for spirulina strain production characters. Through extracting total DNA of 5 strains of spirulina sp-1, sp-2, sp-3, sp-10, sp-NC and electrophoresis analysis, the 5 strains can be classified into two main categories according to the chromosome external DNA numbers(exDNA): wherein sp-1, sp-2, sp-10 and sp-NC fall into one category with only one exDNA; sp-3 falls into the other category with two exDNA . When two exDNAs are contained in total DNA of candidate strain, the production character is much better and is good for large scale production; when only one exDNA is contained in total DNA, the production character is probably not good and can not be used for plant production.




CN101240242 --- Screening method for industrially cultivating excellent strain of spirulina

Abstract -- A method for filtering spirulina to breed superior strain factory is provided. By designing particular primer, the corresponding gene order of seven spirulina strain Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-4, Sp-5, Sp-6, Sp-7 are cloned and tested using molecular biology method such as PCR, the gene is translated into aminoacid before the gene is carried out multiple sequence matching discover using DNAStar v6.13 software, the seven strain can be divided into two class according to the seventh, twentieth, thirtieth, fifth-sixth and seventy second sites of 1 to 80 amino acid sequence: in which Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-6 are one class, Sp-3, Sp-4, Sp-3, Sp-5 and Sp-7 are another class. The 1 to 80 sites amino acid sequence of candidacy strain is compared with Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-4, Sp-5, Sp-6, Sp-7, if they are same to the strain of Sp-3, Sp-4, Sp-3, Sp-5 and Sp-7, they may be excellent production and suitable for large scale production, if they are same to the strain of Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-6, they may be not suitable for factory production.



CN1903751 --- Treatment technology of spirulina waste water

Abstract -- The present invention relates to a water, salt-contained waste water, sewage and sludge treatment method. In particular, it relates to a treatment method of high-salt waste water produced in spirulina prince production process. Said method includes the following steps: making the waste water be fed into the inlet of regulation tank, recovering spirulina princes by utilizing filtering screen, then making the waste water be fed into regulation tank, regulating water quality and water quantity, pumping said waste water into diatomite filter to remove solid matter, then making the waste water be fed into intermediate tank, pumping said waste water into filtering system to farther remove smaller solid and living beings, then making the filtered waste water be fed into the disinfection system to kill microorganism and algal single spore,; and making the waste water be flowed into electrodialysis device so as to obtain weak brine and strong brine. The weak brine is flowed into weak brine system, the strong brine is flowed into strong brine tank, and is undergone the process of drying solidification, then its residuum is buried.



CN1900315 --- Method for screening high quality spirulina princeps strain for large scale production

Abstract -- The method of screening high quality spirulina strain for large scale production includes designing primer of 16S-23S rRNA transcription spacer, cloning and measuring 16S-23S rRNAITS sequences shown in SEQ No. 1 of 7 spirulina strains Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-5, Sp-9, Sp-10 and Sp-15 by means of PCR technology; separating the 7 spirulina strains into two groups, including the first group comprising Sp-3, Sp-5 and Sp-15, and the second group comprising Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-9 and Sp-10 according to the similarity of the sequences; and measuring the 16S-23S rRNAITS sequence of the candidate strain and comparing with those of the said strain. When the candidate strain may be classified into the first group, it has excellent character and is suitable for large scale production; when the candidate strain may be classified into the first group, it is not suitable for large scale production.



CN1864474 --- A method for breeding spirulina

Abstract -- The spirulina cultivating process is one sealed industrial cultivating process including cultivating spirulina in cultivating solution inside separate transparent cultivating barrels, setting the cultivating barrels inside a sealed shed with transparent top or side, mounting heating pipes below the cultivating barrels, setting ventilating units connected via ventilating pipe into the cultivating barrels, and controlling the temperature inside the cultivating barrels at 16-38 deg.c and pH value in 8-12. The said spirulina cultivating process is suitable for cultivation all the year round, can avoid great area contamination and can produce spirulina in high yield, and the fresh spirulina may be eaten directly.




CN1807571 --- Method for cultivating spirulina

Abstract -- This invention discloses a method for spirulina culture, which contains constructing culture environment of spirulina, confecting culture liquid, nursing during culture process, gathering and harvesting spirulina. Firstly construct culture environment of spirulina; then confect culture liquid, whose components and the mass proportions are as follows: NaHCO3 10-15Kg, KH2PO4 0. 1-0. 9Kg, microelement1-8Kg, pure crude water1 ton, and the culture conditions are as foolws: water temperature keeps at 25deg C- 35deg C, humidity keeps at 40íÒ-60íÒ, charge oxygen in the time of the day and illuminate for at least 12 hours a day; then gather the spirulina: flush the filter spirulina and test with pH paper, and it is up to grade when the paper showing neutrality; supplement nourishment: after series gathering, feed each nutrimental materials proportionally into culture crock, consquenty guarantee the spirulina get plenty nourishment. When the pH value of culture liquid ascends to 11, add NaHCO3 to maintain its pH value in 8-11. Continuely culture and harvest to keep the spirulina of certain density; add NaHCO3 to stabilize the pH value of culture liquid and accelerate growth and breeding of spirulina in the culture liquid.




CN2856054 --- Enclosed spirulina culturing appts

Abstract -- The utility model discloses a shell-type helix algae cultivation apparatus including a tectorial house noumenon and transparent containers collocated in the house for holding helix algae culture solution and helix algae. The house is equipped inside with terraced brackets. Said transparent containers are equipped with air charging devices that are set up on the terraced brackets. Said house includes a supporting wall, a supporting skeleton set and a cover of light transmission film on the supporting skeleton set. Said house is equipped with a heating device, an exhaust device, a ventilation device, an illumination device and a humidity regulation device. The entrance of the house is equipped with a buffer room and a dressing room. The adoption of the said blueprint keeps the helix algae free from being prone to suffer from contaminations and inset pests and plant diseases because the adverse factors caused by the external environment changes are overcome. The terraced cultivation makes full use of the space pattern of the tectorial house and optimization of illumination conditions and technical operation, thereby having a rather good practical value for market promotion.




CN2928860 --- High efficiency cultivator for spirulina princeps

Abstract --- The utility model discloses a highly effective spirulina incubator which comprises a culture container, a machine base, an air supply pipe, an air pump, a heat booster, a stirrer, a magnetic field generator, a secondary light source, a guide shell and an eduction valve, or the like. The machine base is positioned at the bottom of the culture container and an opening at the bottom of the culture container is communicated with the eduction valve positioned in the machine base. The guide shell is arranged in the middle of an opening at the bottom of the culture container, the heat booster is arranged in the middle of the guide shell, the air supply pipe is arranged at the bottom of the guide shell, the air pump is positioned inside the machine base or upon the culture container and is connected with the air supply pipe, and the stirrer, the magnetic field generator, and the secondary light source are positioned in the culture container. The highly effective spirulina incubator can not only generate a rotating magnetic field for making the luminous intensity generate periodic changes from light to shade alternatively, but also can prevent and clear the surface accumulated algae inside the culture container and bare pipes, or the like. The utility model achieves a spirulina cultivating device with higher productivity and better quality.




CN1813528 --- Method for indoor cultivating edible spirulina and controlling its oxygen release

Abstract -- The present invention discloses a control method of edible spirulina indoor culture and its oxygen release and ecological landscape formation. Said method includes the following steps: preparing culture container for indoor culture of spirulina, defining culture method, collecting frond cell, controlling food application and oxygen release and regulating and controlling ecological landscape formation. Said invention also provides the concrete steps of said regulation and control method.




CN2904637 --- Spirulina household purified cultivation device

Abstract -- The utility model relates to a spirulina culture device for family purifying use. The spirulina cultivating device consists essentially of a culture vessel, a foundation, and an upper cover; wherein, inside the culture vessel is provided with a heater, subsidiary light source, and a air supply tube, the bottom of the culture vessel is provided with a settling tank, an observation port, and an air cleaner, the top of the culture vessel is provided with a spirulina taking pump. The utility model adopts a completely closed purified environment for the culture of spirulina and therefore the culture process is clean and to make frequent cleansings to the culture vessel and to make frequent replacement of culture solution, and meanwhile the production cost is low is unnecessary.




CN1341707 --- Application technique of solar collector in microfine algae cultivation

Abstract -- In the course of closed of opened culture of microfine algae of spirulina princeps, etc. a certain quantity of solar collectors are series-connected, parallelly-connected or series-parallelly connected with culture pool, culture tank and culture pipe, and a pumping method or other methods are used to make microfine algae culture pass through solar collectors and flow, so that under the irradiation of sunlight the solar collectors can utilize adsorbed selective coating layer to high-effectively convert light energy into heat energy and transfer the heat energy into microfine algae culture, so that it not only can high-effectively raise temp. of microfine algae culture, but also can reduce its production cost of microfine algae in cold area, therefore, it possesses important and extensive application valve.



CN2420287 --- Spirulina cultivator
Abstract --- The utility model discloses a spirulina cultivator, which is composed of a square box seat and a transparent cultivation barrel, wherein, a spirulina-taking pipe is erected on the middle part of the cultivation barrel, a heater and a secondary light source are fixed near the spirulina-taking pipe, and the sensed temperature information of the cultivation barrel is transmitted to a main board by a temperature sensor stuck to the wall of the cultivation barrel; after the temperature information is compared, magnified and treated, a temperature indication display displays a set temperature range and controls heating operation and temperature rise, an annular air feed pipe is arranged on the bottom of the barrel, and a plurality of pinholes are arranged on the pipe. The utility model has the advantages of high automation, reasonable structure and low fabricating cost, and is a household requisite.    




CN2422289 --- Spirulina cultivation device with light guide system

Abstract -- The utility model relates to a spirulina cultivation device with a light guide system, and the utility model is the product belonging to light industry. The utility model is composed of a transparent top cover, a light transmission pipe, a reflecting mirror and stable accessories, wherein, the utility model transmits sunlight into the deepest part of a spirulina cultivation pond through the light guide system, spirulina in the deepest part can receive more sunlight and gain much more sufficient photosynthesis, and thus, spirulina with high protein is produced. The device has the advantages of less investment and reasonable design, and provides a new method for cultivating the eutrophic spirulina.




CN2317233 --- Domestic cultivation device for Spirulina

Abstract --- The utility model relates to a domestic cultivation device for spirulinas. The utility model is composed of a container, a stirrer, a light source, a spirulina receiving bag, etc., wherein, the container is a ware with an upper opening; the stirrer is a publicly known miniature air pump, and an air outlet head is arranged in solutions of the ware. The utility model reduces a principle and the structure of outdoor cultivation, a ware container is used for replacing an outdoor cement pool, spirulina seeds which are matched with proper nutritive salt components and water are led into the ware, gas lifting stirring is carried out on spirulina solutions in the ware, the light source which can emit light for photosynthesis is assisted, when air temperature is slightly low, a warming device is started, and a purpose of successful cultivation can be achieved. Fresh spirulinas with the weight of 40 grams can be collected every day, and compared with dry powders, the dosing effect of the fresh spirulinas is superior.




CN2317232 --- Stirring and collecting integral device for cultivation pool of Spirulina

Abstract -- The utility model changes a fixed stirring mode for a half pool width in the existing cement pool cultivation into a stirring mode reciprocating along a pool length and traveling on a whole pool width, an alga receiving bag is placed on a moving rack, and algae are received when a stirring rack moves; therefore, stirring quality is enhanced, and a disadvantage of receiving the algae by manual work can be avoided. A gear which is arranged on a shaft of the stirring rack is matched with rack bars which are arranged on a pool wall along a lengthwise direction, and the shaft of the stirring rack is driven by a bidirectional motor.




CN1177002 --- Method for external gene conversion for spirulina

Abstract -- The present method takes the plasmid which contains exogenous gene and possesses protonucleus expression element as conversion carrier, and passes through conventional inversion method to proceed transformation treatment against spirulina cell, then proceed selective cultivation of step generation, so as to obtain the transgene spirulina. This method possesses the advantages of simple in operation and good in effect.



CN2367618 --- Spirulina cultivation apparatus

Abstract --- The utility model relates to a spirulina cultivation device which is an improved novel device used for cultivating spirulina. The device is composed of a step type bracket (1), a plastic shallow tray (2) and a plastic cultivation bag (3). As the device is made of angle iron and transparent plastic, materials are easy to be gotten and are not easy to be damaged, and the light transmission property of the utility model is superior to that of a glass vessel easily adsorbing incrustation scale. Besides, as the device has the step type bracket, stereoscopic cultivation can be carried out to the spirulina.




WO2007129327 --- A PHOTO BIO-REACTOR FOR CULTIVATING AND HARVESTING A BIO-MASS AND A METHOD THEREOF

Abstract -- The present invention proposes to meet the long standing need for Photo Bio-reactors for the laboratory scale and mass cultivation of photosynthetic organisms such as spirulina and many other micro algae. The photo bio reactor comprises a system of coaxial helical transparent autoslavable tubular coils (1) for flow of a culture medium containing micro algae to be cultivated. The annular spaces between the adjacent coils and the space enclosed by innermost coil are provided with means (3) of providing predetermined alternate periods of light and darkness on the inner and outer surfaces of each of said coil and for temperature control of the medium to improve photosynthetic performance. The tubular coils have high surface area to volume ratio for extensive dissolution of the carbon-dioxide gas injected into the media. For cultivating biomass suitable for producing hydrocarbon, the organism used is the blue-green micro algae Botryococcus braunii.




WO2006018668 ---AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF SPIRULINA

Abstract -- The present invention relates to an economical and efficient method for mass production of spirulina using seawater-based medium composition of pH ranging between 6.5 and 8.0 comprising sodium bicarbonate of concentration ranging between 1.2 to 3.0 % w/v, nitrogen of concentration ranging between 0.1 to 0.3 % w/v, phosphorus of concentration ranging between 0.1 to 0.3 % w/v, potassium of concentration ranging between 0.1 to 0.3 % w/v seawater and composition thereof.



FR2914315 --- Photosynthesis of algae e.g. Spirulina...

Abstract -- The process for photosynthesis of algae, comprises injecting liquid culture and algae spores in a transparent pipe, operating a pressurized fluid transport unit to force the liquid culture to flow towards a oxygen jet so that the liquid culture refills the oxygen jet to form a rotating spray to make the oxygen to escape, collecting the liquid culture from the oxygen jet in a controlling area, and automatically conducting the liquid culture through the transparent pipe for another photosynthesis. The liquid culture flows downwards in the transparent pipe to generate oxygen. The process for photosynthesis of algae, comprises injecting liquid culture and algae spores in a transparent pipe, operating a pressurized fluid transport unit to force the liquid culture to flow towards a oxygen jet so that the liquid culture refills the oxygen jet to form a rotating spray to make the oxygen to escape, collecting the liquid culture from the oxygen jet in a controlling area, and automatically conducting the liquid culture through the transparent pipe for another photosynthesis. The liquid culture flows downwards in the transparent pipe to generate oxygen by photosynthesis; towards a connecting section; and towards the pressurized fluid transport unit through the connecting section and a temperature control unit. A device is arranged for spraying water on transparent pipe. A device is arranged for emitting light on the transparent pipe.; A gate assembly is arranged for removing the liquid culture after flowing through the transparent pipe. An independent claim is included for a system for photosynthesis of algae.






UA81508 --- METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDST.) GEITLER.

Abstract -- A method for preparation of nutrient medium based on Zarucca medium for cultivation of Spirulina platensis (Nordst.) Geitler is proposed. By means of change EDTA concentration, namely increasing to 0.16 g/l of water solution as compared with 0.08 g/l in a control (Zarucca) and change of the technology for preparation of nutrient medium, namely previous chelating with 0.16 g/l EDTA of salts, containing ions of calcium, magnesium and iron, the elimination of deposition, wherein the deposit contains these elements, and increasing of productivity of Spirulina platensis cyanobacteria cultivation to 20% as compared with the cultivation on control nutrient medium (Zarucca medium) were achieved.



MD3171 --- Process for Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium biomass obtaining

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, namely to a process for obtaining Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium biomau industry, as well as in the clinical and experimental medicine. The process, according to the invention, includes inoculation of cyanobacterium in the quantity of 0,40`0,45 g/l in a nutrient medium containing, g/L: NaHCO3 - 16,8, K2HPO4@3H2O - 0,1, NaNO3 - 2,5, NaCl - 1,0, K2SO4 - 1,0, CaCl2@6H2O - 0,04, MgSO4@7H2O - 0,20, H3BO3 - 0,00286, MnCl2@4H2O - 0,00181, CuSO4@5H2O - 0,00008, MoO3 - 0,000015, water - up to 1L and [Zn(Gly L-Ser)] - 0,02`0,03, which is added by instalments: 1/3 on the first day and 2/3 on the third day of cultivation, and cultivation thereof during 6 days in the accumulation regime by a light of 3000`4800 lx, at a temperature of 30`35?C and pH 9,5`10,0.



MD3129 --- Process for Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium biomass obtaining

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, namely to a process for Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium biomass obtaining and may be used in the pharmaceutical industry, clinical and experimental medicine. The process, according to the invention, includes inoculation of the cyanobacterium in the quantity of 0,40...0,45 g/L into a nutritive medium containing, g/L: NaHCO3 - 16,8, K2HPO4 - 0,1, KNO3 - 3,75, NaCl - 1,0, K2SO4 - 3,75, CaCl2.6H2O - 0,04, MgSO4.7H2O - 0,7, H3BO3 - 0,00286, MnCl2.4H2O - 0,00181, ZnSO4.7H2O - 0,00022, CuSO4.5H2O - 0,00008, MoO3 - 0,000015, FeSO4.7H2O - 0,024, Fe-EDTA - 0,025, water - up to 1 L, to which on the first day of cultivation it is added the coordinative compound [Fe2MgO(C4H3OCOO)3(CH3COO)3(H2O)(C4H8O)] in the quantity of 0,under at the light of 3400...4800 lx, at the temperature of 31...36?C, pH 9,5...10,0. The result consists in raising the activity of superoxidedismutase in the obtained biomass.



MD3128 --- Process for Spirulina platensis biomass obtaining

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, in particular to a process for Spirulina platensis biomass obtaining that may be used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in the clinical and experimental medicine. The process for Spirulina platensis biomass obtaining includes preparation of the nutrient medium, containing, g/L of water: NaHCO3 - 16,8; K2HPO4 - 1,0; KNO3 - 3,75; NaCl - 1,0; K2SO4 - 3,75; CaCl2(6H2O - 0,04; MgSO4(7H2O - 0,70; H3BO3 - 0,00286; MnCl2(4H2O - 0,00181; ZnSO4(7H2O - 0,00022; CuSO4(5H2O - 0,00008; MoO3 - 0,000015; FeSO4(7H2O - 0,024; Fe-EDTA - 0,025, inoculation of the Spirulina platensis suspension in the amount of 0,40...0,45 g/L and cultivation thereof during 6 days in the accumulation regime under the light of 3400...4800 lx, at a temperature of 31...36?C and pH of 9,5...10,0. Novelty of the invention consists in that on the first day of cultivation into the medium is added the coordinative compound [Fe2Mg(CCl3COO)6(CH3OH)3] in the quantity of 0,005...0,025 g/L.



MD3417 --- Nutrient medium for cultivation of Spirulina platensis cyanobacyterium

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, in particular to a nutrient medium for cultivation of Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium and may be used for obtaining spirulina biomass with an increased content of iodine, selenium and germanium. The claimed nutrient medium comprises the Zarrouk standard medium, wherein it is additionally added Kl, Na2SeO3 and GeO2, in the following ratio of ingredients, g/L:Kl 0,004à0,005Na2SeO3 0,010à0,0105GeO2 0,0025à0,0030.



MD2501 --- Process for Spirulina platensis biomass obtaining

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, in particular to processes for Spirulina platensis biomass obtaining, enriched with peptides, amino acids, proteins, phycobiliproteins, polysaccharides and lipids, used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industry. The claimed process consists in spirulina cultivation on the nutrient medium Gromov No. 16 in the accumulation regime, with periodic mixing, at the temperature of 35+- 2 degree C and permanent illumination of 12...15 thousand erg/cm2 in the first 24 hours of utilization and of 18...21 thousand erg/cm2 in the next 96 hours. In the first day of cultivation, after Spirulina platensis inoculation, in the medium is added white or red wine in the amount of 1...2 ml/L. The result of the invention consists in increasing the content of amino acids, proteins, peptides, phycobiliproteins, polysaccharides and lipids in the Spirulina platensis biomass.



US4431738 ---Method of plant tissue and cell culture

Abstract -- In a plant tissue and cell cultivation, a method for facilitating both cell multiplication and differentiation is attained by conducting the cultivation in a culture medium containing an extract of micro algae such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Spirulina




US6698134 ---  Method of cultivating fresh spirulina at home and device thereof

Abstract -- The present invention discloses a method and an apparatus for cultivating and consuming fresh Spirulina at home. The method comprises species selection of Spirulina for cultivation at home, cultivation environment and apparatus conditions, cultivation and maintenance of Spirulina, collection of fresh Spirulina, consumption and storage of fresh Spirulina. The invention changes the situations that Spirulina are only produced in plants and the finished products of Spirulina are bought in stores or hospitals. The invention not only enables the nutrients of Spirulina to be stored and utilized much completely, but also comprehensively utilizes this original biological resource and characteristics of Spirulina (such as absorption of carbon dioxide, release of fresh oxygen and production of high-protein nutrient source) and thus develops and popularizes much quickly the edible Spirulina to meet the needs of the public to health foods.




US4217728 --- Apparatus for cultivating algae

Abstract -- A flow rectifying device is provided in a cultivation basin used in the cultivation of algae of the type in which there is a horizontal circulating flow of the cultivation water. The flow rectifying device avoids the formation of puddles or stagnant water and provides for uniform flow of the circulating water as the direction of flow changes at corners of the basin. The flow rectifying means includes a plurality of curved parallel fins for smoothly deflecting the flow of the circulating cultivation water and thereby prevents contamination of the cultivation liquid by preventing algae from being destroyed. The apparatus is particularly useful in cultivating blue-green algae of the genus Spirulina and other aquatic lower algae.






MD20010258 --- Process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, in particular to a process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis includes seeding of spirulina on the Gromov's medium No. 16, wherein on the third day of cultivation it is added in the capacity of zinc source one of the coordinative compounds: [Zn(CH3COO)2ò4H2O], [Zn (CH2ClCOO)2ò4H2O], [Zn(CH2BrCOO)2ò4H2O], [Zn(CHBr2COO)2ò4H2O], [Zn(CCl3COO)2ò4H2O], [Zn(CBr3COO)2ò4H2O]in the concentration of 5...20 mg/L. The cultivation is carried out during 6 days at the lighting of 3000...4000 lx and the temperature of 30...35 degree C.The result of the invention consists in increasing the productivity of spirulina with increased content of peptides and aminoacids.



MD20010148 --- Process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis

Abstract -- The invention refers to biotechnology, in particular to a process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, representing a source of phycobiliproteins and carotenoids, used in the pharmaceutical, food industries and in cosmetology. The process for cultivation of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis includes inoculation of spirulina in a quantity of 0,4...0,5 g/L on a nutrient medium in the following ratio of ingredients (g/L): NaHCO3 - 16,8; K2HPO4A3H2O - 1,0; NaNO3 - 2,5; NaCl - 1,0; K2SO4 - 1,0; CaCl2A6H2O - 0,04; MgSO4A7H2O - 0,20; H3BO3 - 0,00286; MnCl2A4H2O - 0,00181; ZnSO4A7H2O - 0,00022; CuSO4A5H2O - 0,00008; MoO3 - 0,000015.; On the third day of cultivation in the said medium it is added 5...10 mg/L of one of the following co-ordinative compounds with nitrate: hexa-A-glycinato (O,O')-A3-oxotriaquotriferrum(III)trihydrate-[Fe3O(Gly)6(H2O)3] NO3A3H2O, hexa-A-treoninato(O,O')-A3-oxotriacquotriferrum(III)-[Fe3O(Gly)6(H2O)3]NO3 or hexa-A-alaninato(O,O')-A3-oxotriaquotriferrum(III)tetrahydrate-[Fe3O(Ala)6 (H2O)3]NO3A4H2O. The process is carried out at a temperature of 30...35 degree C and illumination of 3000...4000 lx.The result of the invention consists in the intensification of the synthetic process that facilitates the increase of the spirulina biomass productivity as well as the content of carotenoids and phycobiliproteins



RO117388 --- MUTANT OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (NORDST) GEITL, CULTURE MEDIUM, PROCESS AND INSTALLATION FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW CULTIVATION

Abstract -- The invention relates to a mutant of Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl deposited in the CCTE collection as Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl CCTE-1997, under the number 3, at 09.08.97. The culture medium, especially conceived for the Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl CCTE-97/3 consists of mineral water and thermo-mineral water, HCO3, nitrites, ammonium, SO-2 4, chlorides, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, iron, phosphorus, NaHCO3 and NaNO3. The invention also describes a process for continuous flow cultivation of Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl CCTE 97/3 for preparing biomass, which is developed in a pyramid-type construction having square basis, glass lateral surface and a ratio of 1.618 between the side of the basis and the height, the sides of the basis being oriented along the directions N-S and E-W, having determined sizes, ensuring natural light for 10...12 h/day. The invention also relates to an installation for the continuous flow cultivation of the Spirulina platensis (Nordst) Geitl CCTE 97/3 form, which comprises the Spirulina culture assembly consisting of tanks (1a, 1b, 1c and 1d), electrically-operated valves, pipe, flowmeter, filter, pump, pipe connections, pipe, electrically-operated valves, tank for supplementing the waste medium, strainer pump, float devices, the circuit for inoculum and completion with fresh medium comprising a fresh medium preparation tank, pump, pipe, pipe connection, inoculum tank, signalling float device, distributing pipe, electrically-operated valves, the suspension ventilation assembly comprising a device for increasing the pressure of the free or CO2 enriched air, pipe and nozzles for forming air microbubbles; the suspension temperature control assembly comprising a thermal plant, a pipe and heat exchangers; the suspension stirring assembly consisting of paddles; the additional illumination automatic assembly comprising lamps and sensors; the pH measuring and signalling assembly consisting of devices.






JP3254674 --- CULTIVATION OF BLUE-GREEN ALGA OF GENUS SPIRULINA

Abstract -- PURPOSE:To culture the subject blue-green alga useful as a raw material of functional food by increasing gamma-linolenic acid accumulated in the alga with further adding ammonium salt to a medium at logarithmic growing stage thereof in a cultivation using a specific inorganic liquid medium. CONSTITUTION:A blue-green alga of genus Spirulina is cultured in an inorganic liquid medium containing nitrate of alkali metal as an N-source and ammonium salt is further added to the medium at a logarithmic growing stage of the blue- green alga to culture the objective blue-green alga. Besides, said blue-green alga is once harvested during a period from middle stage to final stage in the logarithmic growing stage and blue-green alga harvested at the next time is preferably cultured again in a medium containing ammonium salt.



JP62074280 --- CULTIVATION OF ALGA OF GENUS SPIRULINA

Abstract -- PURPOSE:To carry out the mass cultivation of Spirulina which is an alga belonging to Cyanophyceae, in high efficiency, by adding sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate to the residual liquid of methane fermentation and culturing the alga in the mixture. CONSTITUTION:The residual liquid of methane fermentation is filtered, and the filtrate is added with about 0.8% sodium bicarbonate, about 0.1% sodium chloride and about 0.2% sodium nitrate to obtain the culture liquid. The liquid is sterilized and inoculated with Spirulina, and the alga is cultured in an incubator at about 30 deg.C under the light irradiation of 3-4K-lux for 8hr a day. After the cultivation for about 30 days, about 0.7g of the dried cell of the Spirulina is obtained per 1 liter of the culture liquid.



JP59213386 --- CULTIVATION OF SPIRULINA BELONGING TO CYANOPHYCEAE

Abstract -- PURPOSE:To carry out the mass cultivation of Spirulina which is an alga belonging to Cyanophyceae, in high efficiency, by adding sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate to the residual liquid of methane fermentation and culturing the alga in the mixture. CONSTITUTION:The residual liquid of methane fermentation is filtered, and the filtrate is added with about 0.8% sodium bicarbonate, about 0.1% sodium chloride and about 0.2% sodium nitrate to obtain the culture liquid. The liquid is sterilized and inoculated with Spirulina, and the alga is cultured in an incubator at about 30 deg.C under the light irradiation of 3-4K-lux for 8hr a day. After the cultivation for about 30 days, about 0.7g of the dried cell of the Spirulina is obtained per 1 liter of the culture liquid.



JP52081286 --- CULTIVATION OF SPIRULINA SEAWEED



CA1171372 --- METHOD OF CELL CULTURE

Abstract -- A method of culturing human cells which comprises effecting cultivation in a culture medium containing an extract of micro algae, such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Spirulina, said method permitting the normal successive cultivation of human cells to be maintained efficiently without giving birth to any morphological and genetic mutation over a much greater number of successions of generations than was hitherto even by the incorporation of animal serum in the culture medium, the improvement occurring even when the addition of such animal serum is cut down substantially, or even completely excluded.



CA1165707 --- METHOD OF TISSUE CULTURE

Abstract -- In a tissue culture of animal cells, it is made possible to perform successive cultivation of animal tissue efficiently under sparing or even without use of animal serum which is indispensable in the conventional method, by conducting the tissue culture using a culture medium containing an extract of micro algae such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Spirulina and so on.



ITAN920007 --- Plant for the industrial cultivation of microalgae such as Spirulina, Scenedesmus, Chlorella and the like

ZA200702121 -- An economical and efficient method for mass production of spirulina

KR20100113180 ---METHOD FOR CIRCULATORY CULTIVATING SPIRULINA SP

KR20100094965 --- DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MEDIA FOR MASS CULTURE OF SPIRULINA

KR100697610 --- The culture method of spirulina using deep water and spirulina cultivated by the culture method

KR20090073954 --- A METHOD TO PRODUCE A SPIRULINA ALGAE USING DEEP SEA WATER

KR100704436 --- METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SPIRULINA SP. ALGAE

KR100808115 ---THE METHOD OF PREPARING SPIRULINA MEDIUM USING DEEP WATER


Abstract -- A method for preparing a spirulina medium is provided to be able to improve the spirulina medium by using purified deep sea water through precipitation and filtration, thereby the prepared medium capable of promoting the growth of the spirulina and efficiently mass-producing the same. A method for preparing a spirulina medium comprises the steps of:  preparing a culture medium by putting 18.61 grams of sodium hydrogen carbonate in 500ml of distilled water without adding sodium carbonate and potassium dihydrogen diphosphate thereto; and (b) mixing 10% of deep sea water, which is obtained by being precipitated at a temperature of 40 deg.C for 7 days and then filtered through 0.2mum filter, with the culture medium.



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