From: Hans Holzherr
To: Stefan Hartmann
Recently, over 30 technicians and engineers (most of them
retired) were allowed to visit the Methernitha group in Linden,
Switzerland, where they witnessed a demo of the different
Here is a report from Hans Holzherr from Switzerland who was
Hello Mr. Hartmann,
To your questions: > Have you seen live a machine with a
load? If so, what load?
I am referring in the following to the model with the 50-cm
diameter disks. This machine was already running when the
visitors stepped into the room, and was not halted during the
whole time --- we were there for about 1.5 hrs. As a first
load a 1000-Watt lamp was connected for approximately 10 seconds
whose brightness did NOT diminish --- the corresponding sequence
on the Testatika film is just an effect of the camera aperture's
automatic adjusting to the sudden brightness! The second load
was a U-shaped heating element, that Mr.Baumann handed to me. It
became so hot within one second that I had to put it down
immediately! What was particularly impressive was that while he
pulled back one of the contact wires (that was with the lamp, I
believe), a 1-cm long arc appeared between the output electrode
and the connecting wire for approximately one second. The
apparatus was under a plexiglass hood. Near the base it had two
holes which Baumann used to insert the contact wires to touch
the output electrodes.
How do you think the high wattage is produced ?
Good question! I'd love to know the answer, too!
Did the disks slow down when a load was placed across the
output electrodes ?
I did not notice that (nobody else did), but of course you tend
to turn your look to 'where the action is' (the lamp etc.) The
disks turned with 15 rpm, which is quite slow. The spin rate was
What general impression did you have ?
It was really impressive! One can hardly believe it, with this
slow rotation. In any case, this cannot be explained in terms of
bare electrostatics in the sense of the Wimshurst machine. The
perforated sheets seem to have a key function... Beside the
pick-up and the drive electrodes there are a number of small
plexiglass blocks with glued-on perforated sheets, whose
function is unknown.
As Adolf Schneider already mentioned, my colleague Bernhard XXX
and I want to try to copy the principle experiment shown by
Baumann --- without much hope to find anything extraordinary,
The device consists of a horizontal swiveling plexiglass arm
with a small rectangular plexiglass plate at both ends glued to
the lower side of the arm. The lower side of the arm is covered
with perforated aluminum sheets (square holes), while the bottom
of the plates is covered with brass wire mesh. Beneath each
plate five additional plates are glued onto the base plate.
There is also wire mesh between each pair of plates in the two
blocks. From the mesh layer between the lowest plate and the
base a wire goes to the two capacitors, which are connected in
parallel . Baumann seized the arm with both hands and turned it
about ten times back and forth (a full rotation was not
possible, because the capacitors were in the way), then measured
the DC voltage with a digital measuring instrument: 60 Volts.
Then, as he short-circuited the condensers a loud crack could be
heard. I don´t know if that already is an abnormal result...
On my question Baumann replied that with metal foil (instead of
wire mesh) the device would not produce that effect.
For more information, Contact: [email protected]
Paul E. Potter
That the Swiss Methernitha group's Testatika machine is thought
to be based on a Wimshurst electrostatic generator, is only a
sparse approximation of the truth --- of the great multitude of
electrostatic influence machines developed around the 1900's it
more closely follows the charge-separation-and-collection system
used by the 1898 Pidgeon machine [note 1] for its electrical
Its 50-per-disc steel grilles or 'gitter-grilles' are plainly
unique to the Methernitha (see fig.1) but in principle follow on
from previous research and patents for corrugated sectors which
were found to be more efficient charge carriers [note 2] than
flat ones, and from a similar example in more recent times of
aluminium rods extending out like wheel spokes from an
insulating hub of perspex [note 3].
Another unique function of these perforated grilles attached to
the discs is how they induce charge from the rotating discs onto
the special collecting pads, or 'tasten' antennae keys (which
are also perforated --- so as to more readily pick up charge);
for in a Wimshurst you had conductive brushes or rails of sharp
points which actually touched the discs or were placed very
close to them, but in the Methernitha the charge has to be made
to traverse a parallel air-gap to the pads and for this purpose
the metal gitter-grilles are so designed to create miniature
eddy-currents of charged air which circulate in and out of the
perforated metal's surface charges, and are more easily bounced
out to the collecting pads. This process is categorised as
VARIABLE CAPACITANCE electrostatic generation.
Careful note needs to be made of how the Methernitha uses its
basically Pidgeon setup with regard to its neutralising rods
(that equalise and stabilise the opposite charges --- see
fig.2), and how charges are picked up from one area and
accumulated at others, so that the polarities of charge are
distributed correctly to specific areas on both discs [note 4].
And although there have been some fanciful claims, or
misinformation, that it uses all sorts of radioactive materials
to achieve its pulsed output I most strongly believe that the
auxiliary electromagnetic circuit, that wraps itself around the
rotating discs, portrays a simple electronic approach; afterall,
who would use radium radioactive emission alongside leyden jar
capacitors ! Indeed, the more you look into certain elements of
its construction the more they point to three main eras of
electronics development, the 1900's, the 1920's and the
1950/60's. The authentic Methernitha was designed and developed
by purists who believed they had discovered a previously unknown
electronic phenomenon, but they wanted to keep an integrity to
the early pioneering days of the Pidgeon, Wimshurst and Holtz
electrostatic machinery; they would not use such modern devices
as transistors or IC chips (more's the pity) --- but they do use
some pretty uncommon electronic engineering in their circuit
Obviously, the electronics are in two parts; one --- the
electrostatic generator and its particular technologies of how
to direct what charge where, and two --- the very unique
auxiliary electromagnetic circuit of inductances, capacitances
and rectification that mobilises that 'static' electricity. To
understand how they convert static energy into an electromotive
force you would do well to go back to the earliest years of
radio. From the pages of spark radio you soon appreciate just
how important oscillation circuits and their valve rectifiers
were, and moreover, how difficult it proved to engineer them.
For although radio transmitters and receivers from the 1900's
used resonating circuits their oscillations were controlled by
sparks between two contacts and, of course, they were relatively
inefficient. Not until the 1920's did the first electric current
oscillations become an observable controlled phenomenon when
someone coupled a rectifier valve, a capacitor, and a resistor
together [note 6]. The early 1920's also saw the best era of
experimentation and invention for novel devices that turned
static energy into useable electromagnetic energy; it was in a
1921 patent that we see a German physicist Hermann Plauson
describe in great detail his methods to convert static power,
not only from rotary influence machines but also from balloons
collecting atmospheric electricity up in the sky; and by using
thermionic rectifiers, leyden jar capacitors and inductor coils
he proposed a free-energy network that was to power the whole of
Germany [note 7] ! The thermionic rectifier valve heralded a new
era for radio and high voltage physics, and as it was then
subjected to such a broad array of experiments and modifications
to improve its efficiency so it paved the way for all sorts of
new avenues in electronics. Indeed, with such a technical
catalogue of similarities with what we see in the available
photographs of Testatika it can be assumed without doubt that
the horizontal glass tube which sits on top of the Methernitha
machines is exactly what a home-made vacuum thermionic
rectifying valve would look like; with its internal anode
mesh-plate, surrounded by a coiled copper grid, fed by a glowing
(heated) cathode wire running horizontally across its centre and
capped by two black end-pieces, which are too big and bulbous to
be mere end-caps and must surely be black rubber vacuum seals to
seal the glass tube and the input/output wires [note 8].
With such a rectifier, some induction coils, and some leyden
jar capacitors you have a circuit that oscillates, and that's
what has to happen with a Methernitha, the electromagnetic
circuit has to oscillate for it to work, and then the
oscillations have to be rectified (or even modulated) so that
the resulting single-pole pulses can be channeled through the
big cans, which are basically high-efficiency transformers, and
outputted as reduced voltage higher current DC pulses (see
The precise components used to oscillate the primary
oscillating circuit are, I believe, not to be seen in any of the
available photographs, but there are various hints for their
approximate whereabouts on the machine. Firstly, according to
electronic design there should be a capacitor and coil
configuration in close proximity to the rectifier. Well, from
the picture "3KWREAR" can be seen the two long upright tubes
which, according to those who have seen them first-hand,
comprise a spirally turned aluminium strip (which indicates they
are chokes [note 9]) inside a glass tube, inside the same sort
of outer shielding that the big cans have (which indicates they
are electrostatic shields), inside yet another glass tube, and
are terminated at the top with a brass connecting rod which does
a right-angled turn and passes into the side of the tower ---
but only two-thirds up the height of the tower. These two
assemblies must form a connection to the rectifier, because the
rectifier is at the top of the tower, so why don't these
electrostatically sensitive tubes extend all the way up to it ?
Again, from the photographs of the rear and front of the
Methernithas there is a wire that comes out of the tower's side
wall at about 4 inches above the upright's brass terminals and
this wire then passes through a short black tube and on to the
rectifier valve. This, of course, would happen on both sides of
the tower, enabling a connection to both ends of the rectifier.
But why have this 4 inch gap of connections at the top of the
tower ? Something is placed inside the top of the tower in this
intermediate space which is very necessary to the circuit, and I
think it must be the location of the capacitor/inductor
configuration to oscillate the circuit. This (fig.4) is how I
would see the inside of the top of the towers [note 10].
I've seen some of the patented inventions that rotate discs ---
by using magnets (i.e., H.Rosenberg's permanent magnet
excited rotational machine, US Patent # 3,411,027 ), and by
utilising inscribed metalised discs (US Patent # 3,239,705 for
instance), but there simply isn't enough room for these to be
located in the Methernitha disc setup --- also, you don't want
to interfere with the ES fields that zip around the revolving
discs: From the reports of those who have seen the small
machines working it appears their discs were rotated by small DC
electric motors after they were hand-started, some re-wound with
thinner wire (to presumably increase their torque) and powered
directly from the discs' generated electricity --- but I have
also seen how two discs can continue to rotate simply by careful
placement of curved electrodes [note 11] which would act on the
charges on the discs --- like the 3kw Testatica Distatica
After reading through the many early accounts of electrostatic
rotary machines, and some of the more recent ones, you can't
help but be puzzled by the Methernitha's incredibly low
rotational speed of just 60 rpm (and in the 1999 engineers
report as low 15 rpm !). Most other early experimenters boasted
up to 3000 rpm. J.G.Trump in his work on high voltage generation
in space [note 12] spun his rotary machine at 10,000 rpm (to
produce 433 Watts at 24 KV no less). One reason for this low
speed might be to do with the close proximity of the 50 lamellas
(gitter-grilles) on the discs at their inner ends, they are very
close together, I think too close. Air, normally an insulator,
breaks down and conducts at around 25-35 KV (this figure has
been fairly constant from day-one of electrostatic machine
experiments right through to the present day --- because air has
a breakdown field strength of 3x106 volts/metre) and
short-circuits the circuit. I feel that because this design of
grilles is prone to short-circuiting at high voltages the
Methernitha people have limited their rotational speed so as to
ensure a low operating voltage --- of what I'd guesstimate to be
only 12 to 24KV.
But, is this a waste of extra potential ? Not necessarily, for
I don't think that the main power output comes solely from what
the two counter-rotating discs supply.
There is, I believe, a far more important power generator ---
the electron cascade generator, and the Methernitha has two of
them, held inside the two horseshoe magnets, and providing the
circuits to the magnets are made to oscillate at the right
frequency at a high enough voltage then these metalised-perspex
laminated blocks can enmass A MUCH LARGER AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY
THAN WHAT IS PUT INTO THEM.
This, perhaps, is the previously unknown electronic phenomenon
that the Methernitha group have so zealously been trying to
protect against unscrupulous entrepreneurs. But I would say that
this copious supply of free energy is already known to the world
--- it is not readily available - and its principles are not
fully understood, as yet, but it is known about.
As the descriptions say (on the Testatika website), between the
horseshoe magnet legs are four blocks of transparent
'plexiglass' type material alternated with copper and aluminium
plates (that may or may not be perforated), in the sequence
c-p-a-c-p-a-c-p-a-c-p-a (also see fig.6). And according to the
Linden Experiment, where Paul Baumann induces a resonance of
about 80-140 MHz in a coiled horseshoe and then has an
aluminium-insulator-copper block moved between the horseshoe
legs, a voltage could be taken off the plates of the block which
measured 700 volts (DC presumably) [note 13]. This incredible
phenomenon has never been replicated by any 'outside
researcher', and is said to be the basis by which the
Methernitha machine could be understood how to work [the clue,
possibly, to this Principle Experiment may be
variable-capacitance and dielectric-absorpsion].
But what, I hear you say, is an electron cascade... Well, it
was only by chance, very recently, that I happened to listen to
an audio tape by a Dr. Flanagan about crystal water; when I
switched the tape over after the end of side one Dr. Flanagan
then began talking about an electronic configuration that
applied a high frequency, high voltage alternating field across
an insulator --- that created what he called an electron cascade
effect --- Yes, I thought, here is the answer to the Methernitha
The electron cascade or avalanche effect is where air molecules
are accelerated to the device at such a high velocity that they
collide with other molecules and atoms in the air to liberate
new electrons which in turn also collide and liberate even more
'free electrons' from other air molecules (see fig.5), all of
which become accelerated by the electric field, and an avalanche
of electron-multiplications progresses throughout the whole
immediate environment [note 14]. It's a chain reaction, and an
entirely safe one, it happens in a more ferocious way in
lightning strikes, and is a natural phenomenon. And, as in this
case, the environment actually becomes part of the circuit [note
15] because the process is actually negatively-ionising the air
surrounding the Methernitha machines, and that is why those who
have been near these generators when working say the air around
about them is cool and fresh [note 16].
In view of the fact that it's designers have chosen to wind
insulated wire (which may or may not be bifilar) around the
horseshoe metal it is likely that the horseshoes are used for
some form of induction [note 17], it would also be very possible
to draw directly from this part of the circuit the extra
electric current produced from the electron cascade blocks, with
suitable connections that might lead downward into the wooden
base (where it is believed that an alternate layering of
perforated metal plates and insulating plates - making up a
large high-voltage storage capacitor - is located). This power
could then be discharged as a pulsed output of high wattage,
especially if the final output part of the electronic circuit is
configured as a Pulse Forming Network of multiple sections of
inductor / capacitor combinations [note 18].
The two big cans at the side, the big capacitors, are probably
not highly technical (see fig.7), once the fundamental formula
has been decided upon all models of a Testatika generator would
follow a similar construction process. The written descriptions
are a little contradictory but they seem to suggest a central
input rod, or tube, connecting at the bottom of the cans to a
stack of inter-linked pancake coils, that are wound
secondary-outside primary-inside, fitted around a core of 6
hollow donut-ring magnets stacked in such a way with plastic
spacers as to allow air gaps between them, and then finally the
output of each can is a connection from the top coil of the
secondaries of the pancake coils to a brass ring around the
centre of the black plastic top lid --- and from the photographs
can be seen a large diameter wire or tube [note 19] connecting
that polarity's output terminal to the top lid's brass ring via
a brass screw terminal. I would suggest that the ring magnets
(of anistropic ferrite perhaps) are gapped in this way to
prevent the magnetic flux fields of the pancake primaries
co-joining as one sprawling field, because it would be more
advantageous, and safer, to have each separate pancake's
magnetic flux cut it's own adjoining secondary coil, and divide
the secondary output voltage into smaller amounts of potential,
thus depending less on complicated insulating procedures that
accompany high voltage single primary / single secondary
The use of aluminium mesh and solid copper sheeting is commonly
used in electronic construction; the outer aluminium mesh
cylinder would be used to shield stray electrostatic charges,
and the solid copper cylinder is to shield the large amount of
stray electromagnetic fields produced by the transforming
process from high voltage/low current to lower voltage/higher
current [note 20]. Obviously they don't want field contamination
taking place between the sensitive electrostatic generator and
Within these two outside shielding-cylinders are 'grid
condensers' which, according to the 1999 report by the 30
engineers, can be as many as 20 layers of perforated sheet
(presumably as concentric cylinders) - which I have indicated
(in fig.7 for instance) as being electrically connected BETWEEN
each separate secondary winding - in the fashion of an old
discovery from the early days of wireless telegraphy and based
on the 'disruptive discharge coil' devised by Nikola Tesla, that
such a condenser connected in the center of a secondary coil
collects the maximum amount of voltage created by that
secondary. This configuration of one condenser inside another
inside another etc etc, has a striking similarity to the layout
of a pulse forming network [see note 18].
In the red wired can the transformer is wired to output
negative, and the blue wired can's transformer is wired to
output positive polarity. Special note should be made of a
similar arrangement for divided primary / secondary windings
devised by Van de Graaff in his 'High Voltage Electromagnetic
Charged-Particle Accelerator Apparatus Having an Insulating
Magnetic Core' [note 21] with respect to magnetic reluctance
Whilst it has been said that the clear perspex disc was
designated the 'cloud' disc, and the (rear) dark disc the
'ground' disc I would think this relates to different types of
acrylics or plastics that might become charged to different
polarities, as in the triboelectric series, where frictional
charging of different plastics --- and then bringing them close
together, might cause donation or acceptance from one to the
other; I would think from the above that cloud represents a
donator (positive charge) and that ground must mean an acceptor
(negative charge). Has anyone tried the combination of a teflon
disc (extremely negative charge) with a glass disc (highly
positive charge) ?
Or discs doped with paramagnetic particles perhaps [note 22] ?
Back-Engineered Methernitha --- Notes
Note 1 --- For more information on the Pidgeon machine
see "Electrical Influence Machines" by John Gray, 1903 p. 206
& "Philosophical Magazine" Dec 1898, p. 564, and of course
the Pidgeon patents.
Note 2 --- See "Modern High Speed Influence Machines" by
V.E. Johnson, 1921, p. 76. Johnson was not only a researcher of
electrostatic machines but was also an innovative constructor of
them, and as such was keen to try any technique that made his
generators more powerful than even the specialised Wommelsdorf
multi-disc condenser machines. This book is an absolute must for
those who wish to work in this field. Another 'must' is the
website of Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz (
http://www.coe.ufrj.br/~acmq/electrostatic.html ) which is
absolutely full of information about (and with links to)
present-day developments in electrostatic machines.
Note 3 --- See "Self-Excited, Alternating, High-Voltage
Generation Using A Modified Electrostatic Influence Machine" by
M.Zahn, et al., American Journal of Physics, Vol 42 (1974) p.
Note 4 The Methernitha designers have taken a basic
Pidgeon electric field system and added a few modifications of
their own, partly to lock a certain polarity of charge to a
certain area so as to stabilise it, and also to boost certain
areas with charge. As in their use, for example, of an extra
field plate located at the top-centre in front of the front disc
(just under the rectifying valve), note also that this plate, or
antennae key, is indirectly coupled to the rest of the circuit,
via a coil setup. Much the same occurs with the two plates
slightly below it, these plates are connected to a brass
terminal which connects to a copper wire that goes down and
winds in a coil shape around a hollow plastic tube, and inside
the tube will be another wire or small coil that draws off the
electric charge. So these three plates are using not direct
connection but induction to get their charge.
Note 5 ------- By looking at how each of the
photographed machines have been constructed you can see that
these are high quality crafted structures. I would think each
would start off as sub-assemblies fitted together by pairs or
small groups of members, those sub-assemblies of wooden base,
big cans, perspex framework, discs with bearings and axles, when
completed would be passed on to the electrical engineers of the
community who would then fit the wiring connections, vacuum tube
rectifier and make sure that not only did they work but that
they looked like a work of art.
Note 6 --- The Fleming valve had been around since 1905
and while it progressed to the thermionic valve and audion, by
1922 the ‘Pearson and Anson Effect’ was discovered whereby
oscillating currents could be produced with a resistor,
capacitor and thermionic valve coupled together.
Note 7 --- See US Patent 1,540,998 (9 June 1925)
Conversion of Atmospheric Electric Energy by Hermann Plauson. He
also wrote a book of the subject titled "Gewinnung und
Verwertung der Atmospharischen Elektrizitat" in 1920 in German
(which is currently held in the British Library).
Note 8 --- Whilst some have seen the smaller 300 Watt
machine’s discharger/rectifier quite open and not encased in a
vacuum tube the vacuum tube models would be much more efficient
and would waste less current. Also, the rectifier tube must have
a heated filament (which on the 3KW machines can be seen as a
glowing line running the whole length of the grid and coil
assembly between the two black end caps, and in the films you
can see faint flashes coming from behind the rectifier so
possibly the filament is wrapped around the other side of the
grid/coil assembly as well). Coolridge, back in the 1900’s,
discovered that no discharge from the cathode to the anode would
occur, even at 100,000 volts, unless the filament was heated
(Physics Review, Vol. 2, Dec 1913, p. 418). Aluminium mesh will
give off electrons quite readily and can be used as a cold
cathode --- but a heated cathode offers the advantage of being
able to control the oscillations.
Note 9 --- The two long upright tubes are without doubt
choke coil assemblies in precisely the right place to slow down
the current where it gets oscillated and rectified. In a choke
the higher the flow of current the greater will be its
resistance to that current flow. An even better form of choke
will have some form of iron core inside it.
Note 10 --- I have come up with 6 different circuits for
this oscillation section, some of which include small quartz
crystals. (See notes 13 and 16 on frequency of oscillation). The
black dial at the rear of the 3kw machine is most likely to
select a variety of capacitances so as to control the
oscillations of the circuit, which in turn control disc
Note 11 --- The phenomenon of electrostatic motors has
been well researched over the years (see "Electrostatic Motors"
O. Jefimenko in "Physics Teacher" Vol. 9, March 1971, p. 121-9,
and in "Electrostatics And Its Applications" by A.D. Moore
(1973) p. 131-147; "Electrostatic Motors" by B.Bollee in
"Philips Tech. Review" Vol 30 (1969), p. 178-194). The
Methernitha Testatika generators (see a recent report by 30
engineers) auto-rotate, after they have been started by hand, by
the same principles of these ES motors.
Note 12 --- J.G.Trump worked for the US Air Force and
pioneered some highly efficient electrostatic machines around
the 1960’s (see"Electrostatic Sources of Electric Power" in
"Elec. Eng." 66:525, June 1947; and "High Voltage Generation in
Space:The Parametric Electrostatic Machine" in "Progr.
Astronaut. Rocketry" (vol 3 --- Energy Conversion for Space
Power) 1961 p745).
Note 13 --- Although the ‘Linden Experiment’ was thought
to register a frequency of 80-140 MHz this does not necessarily
mean that the Methernitha generators would oscillate at that
rate also. Such a frequency seems unnecessarily high.
Note 14 --- See "Plasma --- The Fourth State of Matter"
by D.A. Frank-Kamenetskii (1972) pp10, and Dr.Patrick Flanagan’s
US patents 4,743,275 (May 10, 1988) and 4,391,773 (Jul 5, 1983).
Note 15 --- The effect is very similar to the converging
forces in a non-uniform field, the oscillating perspex blocks
become one ‘electrode’ and the surrounding air in the room
becomes the opposite ‘electrode’, and by the processes of
electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis the electrically charged
particles in the air (the electrons and negative ions) are drawn
toward the central electrode, which in this case is the perspex
block assembly (see "Nonuniform Electric Fields" by Herbert A.
Pohl in "Scientific American" (Dec 1960) p. 107-8). I am much
more inclined to believe that the ingenuity of the design of
these types of machines comes from physicists and not electronic
Note 16 --- Dr. Flanagan actually uses the electron
field generator in his own special ionizer (see Method of
Purifying Air and Negative Field Generator US Patent 4,391,773).
How does an electron cascade generator work, I would think that
while you have an alternating electron movement (and Dr.
Flanagan reckons this effect occurs with a high voltage field
alternating at above 20 KHz) at the metal electrodes, the
perspex blocks sandwiched between them would transfer the
electricity not through their mass but around it, as surface
charge --- actually in the layer of air right next to the
insulator’s surface. Its the same principle as dielectric
absorption - the perspex blocks don't discharge themselves fast
enough to keep up with the alternating voltage and so they
accumulate more and more charge --- until it forms as a layer of
charge on the insulator's surface. This means that at a high
enough frequency the surface-air molecules polarize, with the
more mobile electrons separating from the slower bulks of those
molecules and while the electrons get thrusted back and forth a
secondary layer of (slower) positive air ions develops, and so
on, and the process of high voltage high frequency polarization
triggers the electron avalanche effect.
In the event that the perspex blocks are indeed ELECTRETS (as
free-energy researcher Geoff Egel and others suggest) I would
think that they would work in a similar fashion to the above
process, of dielectric absorption that charges up the blocks
before they produce the cascade-effect. Because in the electret
the electrons charged into the perspex/plastic, and the positive
ions, would still be manipulated by the reversing
electromagnetic field in such a way as to orientate (as with
dipoles) back and forth, to eventually reach the point (if the
whole circuit is tuned properly) where they would attain
resonance with the immediate air surrounding them. And if this
effect is similar to an inductance then possibly a back-emf will
result also, to increase the output voltage. Either way I
believe the effect will still be an electron cascade through the
environment and the product of this oscillating output (at the
blocks) could similarly be drawn off and accumulated in the
multi-layered base capacitor network.
I would suggest that a test program to find the best type of
blocks would be; One --- try different types of
plastic/acrylic/ceramic materials for the blocks.
Two --- try different methods of electrifying the plastics (as
with electrets). Three --- try plastics doped with
semiconducting particles. Four - try plastics doped with
paramagnetic particles. Five - try hollow plastic blocks
containing an electrolytic fluid. More information on plastics
will be found on the Electret vs Dielectric Absorption Page.
Note 17 --- There are several definitions of Bifilar,
one where the wires cancel out their magnetic fields, and one
where the wires are wound to ensure a tight low-loss magnetic
flux coupling, in this case you need all the magnetic flux you
can get so it must be the latter --- See "Transformers For
Electronic Circuits" by Nathan R. Grossner (1967), p. 224 etc.
Most commonly used magnetic metal is Mumetal, which is an
easily saturable magnetic material, routing magnetic flux
through it rather than in the surrounding air, so as to enhance
the mutual induction between the two coilings of red wire around
the horseshoe legs.
Note 18 --- So that the machine's output voltage doesn't
drain away when it is connected up to a large load, what is
needed here is a Pulse Forming Network (or artificial delay
line). "Such a network is an improvement on simple capacitor
storage because of the cascading action from one capacitor to
the next along the chain. At the beginning, all capacitors are
charged to the same voltage but as soon as the first one starts
to loose voltage, the one behind it is then free to discharge
into it. This topping-up action, which trickles down the network
from capacitor to capacitor, is the mechanism by which the
voltage across the output terminals tends to hold onto its
original level." (see "High Energy Discharge Systems"
A.P.Stephenson, Electronics Today International, March
1992, pp. 24-26).
Note 19 --- When voltage of a high potential and high
frequency flows along a wire it does so on the outer surface
(called the ‘skin effect’) and so the Methernitha would use
thick wiring or even 1/8" tubing to connect its circuit.
Note 20 --- Two references for shielding are: "A
Shielded Loop" by S. Goldman in "Electronics" Vol 11 (1938), pp.
20-22; and "Measurements in Radio Engineering" by F.E. Terman
(1935), p. 218 & p. 341.
Note 21 --- For information on maximum voltage in the
center of a secondary coil see "A Handbook of Wireless
Telegraphy" by J. Erskine-Murray (1913) p. 42; and an article
called "Dielectric Hysteresis at Radio Frequencies" by E.F.W.
Alexanderson in "Proc. I.R.E., Vol. 2 (June 1914) p137-157. For
Van de Graaff's transformer see US patents 3,323,069 (May 30,
1967) and 3,187,208 (June 1, 1965). These patents were not just
for a Van de Graaff high voltage generator, they were for a
special system devised by Van de Graaff long after his generator
had been in use to convert static electricity into current
electricity. This system may be a little too complicated for the
Methernitha but, nevertheless, the principles he used for
multiple primary / secondary windings may be of some interest.
Note 22 --- Dr. Flanagan modified his insulator blocks,
made of resin, by doping them with paramagnetic granules (such
as silicon carbide) to enhance even more the electron cascade
effect; which is an idea that the physicist Thomas Townsend
Brown first experimented with (by using lead oxide granules) in
his US Patent 3,187,206 (June 1, 1965) to good effect. The
surrounding air could also be ‘enhanced’ in similar fashion to
polarise it's electric charge and improve its side of the
performance (for those interested in the ‘physics’ of this see
an article by W.A.Douglas Rudge "On Some Sources of Disturbance
of the Normal Atmospheric Potential Gradient" in Proc. Royal
Soc. A, Vol. 90 (1914) pp. 571, etc).
Note 23 --- Some other generators with similarities to
the Testatika machine are the "Electrostatic Energy Field Power
Generating System" invented by William W. Hyde (US Patent
4,897,592 of Jan 30, 1990) is a rotor/stator variable
capacitance machine capable of producing 300 KV. Other such
generators are; "Parametric Electric Machine" invented by
Ferdinand Cap (US Patent 4,622,510 of Nov 11, 1986) which has a
series resonant (LCR) circuit structured into it so that it
oscillates --- and indeed operates AT RESONANCE to ensure a high
output; "Electrostatic Generator" invented by Dan B. Le May, et
al. (US Patent 3,094,653 of Jun 18 1963) is a very ingenious
system of variable capacitance; the "Electrostatic Machine" by
Noel Felici (US Patent 2,522,106 of Sep 12, 1950) is a good
standard which utilizes a valve rectifier; and the
"Electrostatic Generator" by William S. Spencer (US Patent
1,415,779 of May 9, 1922) is an early rotor/stator generator
which transferred its electric impulses through a transformer to
produce a higher current output.
Paul E. Potter
With respect to the 30 engineer's report (of 1999) the
'principle experiment' was set up in such a way (see diag 1)
that by swivelling the cross-piece over two other plexiglas
blocks a current was transferred into two capacitors. Possibly
when someone grabs hold of the swivelling cross-piece they
transfer some static electricity from their body to the grilles
of the cross-piece which, when vigorously turned back and forth
will initiate a transfer of electric charge to the two stacks of
blocks below them attached to the base. This may either be
because anyone walking over a carpet or wearing man-made fibres
will already hold thousands of volts of electrostatic charge -
which will be enough to 'prime' this apparatus after touching
it, to get it to work, much the same as when a rotating
influence machine has to be primed with an electric charge
before it will work; or, as many researchers have surmised
already, that the plexiglas blocks glued to the swivelling
cross-piece had been charged up with electricity as an ELECTRET.
The use of mesh around the cross-piece guarantees a variable
capacitance to the moving arms --- and as these are moved
quickly over the base blocks (again, alternated with mesh and
Plexiglas) an amount of electric charge will be transferred to
them EACH TIME the arms go backward-and-forward over them.
Electronically, you have one variable capacitance acting upon
another variable capacitance - which is why Baumann said that if
metal foil were used instead of the mesh it would not produce
the same effect.
What happens next is called "dielectric absorption", and the
following extract, from "Dielectrics" by P.J.Harrop (1972) pp71,
"When a given dielectric [i.e., plexiglas] has a field put
across it, and this field is then removed, the electrodes are
briefly shorted out (not enough for all the ions and particles
to relapse back) and the device left on open circuit one finds
subsequently that it has partially charged up again.
This is due to the slow-moving charge carriers remaining in
position. It can be a frightening phenomenon with practical
dielectrics since a person who has briefly discharged a charged
insulator may subsequently touch it and be severely shocked."
Some dielectric materials being more prone to this effect than
others, and so obviously some experimentation will be needed to
choose the best perspex, plexiglas, plastic, or acrylic
materials so as to take the most advantage from this dielectric
Once the blocks are being charged up the electric charge simply
flows into the two interconnected capacitors and accumulates.
Linden Experiment ~
A look at the only available diagram of the Linden experiment
(see diag 2) shows a horseshoe magnet coupled to what seems to
be a closed-ended wire. It can also be seen in this diagram that
the wire coils around the magnet are sufficiently spaced apart
so as to provide capacitance (between each coil of the wire) in
the circuit. So, with capacitance, coils (for induction), and
magnetic flux, you have all the ingredients needed to make an
oscillating circuit --- provided there is a supply of voltage
and some sort of interruption mechanism - then you have a
circuit that will resonate. And this leads us back to that oft
repeated question --- is the block used in the Linden Experiment
an electret. The first person to PUBLISH how they have
duplicated this experiment will be the one to answer that
But there is something wrong with this diagram --- the resonant
frequency of this simple circuit --- depending only on the
values of inductance and capacitance included in the circuit
would consequently enable it to oscillate at only a few
kilohertz at best. No circuit of capacitance/inductance can be
made to resonate at such a high frequency as claimed, not even
if it included any form of quartz crystal. If, as the diagram
says, it resonates at 140 MHz then there must be a Lecher wire
system (the running of two conducting wires in a parallel line,
about a foot apart or less, for several feet) to make it
resonate at such a high frequency. It would seem to me also that
a required modification of the Linden Experiment diagram would
be to put a different metal into this circuit where the wire is
said to be "closed-ended", say for instance a zinc plate, then
there will be a contact voltage established between the copper
wire and the zinc plate. Such a voltage would start the circuit
resonating, for the reasons stated above.
And as with the Tini setup if a block comprising two metal
plates separated by a suitable dielectric material (such as
plexiglas) is placed in an oscillating electric field the
electric charge on the metal plates will permeate into the
dielectric, and for the same reasons as detailed above in the
Principle Experiment, will temporarily accumulate voltage
because of dielectric absorption. As I have already said
elsewhere there is a great similarity between the phenomenon of
the Testatika horseshoe blocks (and the Tini setup) and the
principle behind Patrick Flanagan's Electron Field Generator
which energizes an electron cascade mechanism throughout the
Geoff Egel (1997) --- http://www2.murray.net.au/users/egel
Rectifier Circuit ~
Unidentified European Report ~
"Believe or Not, Here It Is!"
The first really running "free energy" machine coming from
Switzerland, Europe. It was developed over a 20 years Research
period by a religious group called: METHERNITHA. This group
lives in CH-3517 Linden, Switzerland. The inventor of this
superb machine, Mr.Paul Baumann claims, its running principle
was found by studying the lightning effects from nature.
And here are the facts :
* Testatika is an influence-type Wimhurst machine which runs on
it's own energy, once started by counterclock revolving it's 2
dics by hand !!!
* Testatika not only runs on it' own energy, but produces also
a huge amount of excess power, at least 3 KWATTS of power! That
is enough to supply a one-person apartment with one machine!
* The machine you see during this demo-animation is only about
70 cm wide, 40 cm deep and about 60 cm tall !
* It delivers DC-Voltage ranging from 270 til 320 Volts, only
depending on the dryness of the air! At this voltage it can
supply at least 10 Amperes of DC-current !
* Testatika is not a perpetuum mobile, but an energy machine
that collects it's huge amount of "FREE" energy from the charged
and ionized air particles. But there are still some
technological tricks implemented to overcome the normal
drag-resistance of a conventional Wimhurst machine, which is
still the secret of the Methernitha group !!!
When will this technology be available for everyone?
The Testatika machines, (there already exists also some smaller
units which only deliver about 200-300 Watts) are not yet
mass-production type models! They are still laboratory prototype
units, although they are build with a very good craftmansship !
For more info contact directly:
METHERNITHA, CH-3517 LINDEN, Switzerland
TEL.-Nr.: ++ 41 31 97 11 24
The pictures are from some photos and from a video-tape
Methernitha sells. It shows the machines (also the smaler ones)
and explains also Methernitha's spiritual aims. The tape has a
running length of about 40 minutes and is really worth looking
at it! It is also available in
VHS-NTSC and American language. It also shows Methernitha's
earlier research developments like huge wind generators.
With the Testatika there is no fraud, hidden batteries or any
other hidden energy source. It is really running! They
already have the technology of ten years ahead! No more oil, no
more pollution, no more atomic waste products, no more hunger in
this world! This is the machine the mankind has dreamed about
for centuries. Now it has come true!
More information about the Methernitha machine is also
available in the German magazine RAUM & ZEIT, issue
Jean L. Naudin Labs (4 February 1998) ~
"Testatika Generator and Over-Unity"
Having read Nelson Camus’ article purporting to "explain" the
Testatika over-unity generator
(http://members.aol.com/overunity2/nelson/testatic.htm), I am of
the opinion that the real explanation is hidden amongst the 19th
century electrical mumbo jumbo which makes up much of the
machine (Leyden Jars, Horseshoe Magnets, Wimshurst Generator and
so on). From the description of spiral-wound foil capacitors
containing radioactive material and placed within current
carrying coils it strikes me that perhaps the real energy comes
from Beta particles (fast electrons) absorbed into the
To extract energy from Beta particles it is not just enough to
capture them. Clearly this will result in a current flow
according to the capture rate, but current by itself is not
power. The kinetic energy of the particle must be captured and
this will result in potential difference or voltage. If a Beta
particle enters a thin foil conductor normal to its surface and
is captured, then the potential difference associated with
giving up its kinetic energy can be expected to occur across the
opposite faces of the foil. If however the Beta particle were
turned so as to enter at a shallow grazing angle to the surface,
not only would the probability of capture be increased (since
the particle will travel further within the material) but the
potential difference will occur along the length of the foil.
Beta particles travelling even at relavistic velocities can be
turned within short distances by relatively weak magnetic
fields, so the concept shown in the following Figure suggests
Methernitha Statement of Purpose ~
"The Research Work of Methernitha in the
Field of the so-called Free Energy"
Ever since the foundation of Methernitha there existed a
department for research, development and electronics, which was
concerned with the problem of alternative energy sources, namely
with technologies, which were suited to exploit the inherent
forces of nature and thus to unlock sources of energy
without disturbing natures ecological balance in any negative
way. Any technology man invents should serve him in short as
well as in long terms, and this condition is not fulfilled as
soon as it opposes nature in any way.
This team of research within Methernitha works completely
autonomous and is financed out of the co-operatives own
resources, without any outside support.
The efficient utilisation of wind energy was one of the first
objectives of Methernitha's research program. At the beginning
generators with special excitation were developed, which allowed
to load the cells of accumulators even at low RPM at times when
there are only moderate air movements.
Utilising the kinetic energy of water currents was another
field of interest of the development team, but it was
pursued more as hobby. The key problem was here to transfer the
slow revolutions of the waterwheel to an extent that the
excitation threshold of the generator could be surpassed by a
minimal loss of energy.
Also solar cells and solar heat collectors attracted the
attention of our researchers since a long time. But since in
these fields other institutions have attained outstanding
results, Methernitha started, and this was already more than 30
years ago, to concentrate its efforts on lesser known and even
generally unknown sources of energy. The result of this
scientific work is the Thestatica machine.
The question arises: How it comes, that Methernitha,
nothing more than a private organisation, could invest so much
time, engagement, perseverance and financial resources in
this kind of research.
Research and development are integrated parts of the
general idealistic concept of Methernitha. To make you
understand these ideals and goals, we will now introduce you
into the practical sides of this spiritual community
Methernitha, as it functions as a co-operative of people,
living and working together.
Linden is a calm village of farmers just as dozens of
others in the region of the valley called Emmental. However
Linden is also the home of a special form of human life, which
is capable of attracting more and more people from all over the
globe, and which has repeatedly caused astonishment through its
excellent functioning, even in extremely difficult situations.
There is no doubt that the formation of Methernitha is
also a good part of the life story of Paul Baumann. Through his
extraordinary technical capabilities, but also through his
astonishing practicable wisdom he opened relations to all kind
of people with ideals and in many places, and pretty soon, the
idea to form a co-operative enterprise took shape.
"In the name of the God Almighty" people of equal thinking
gathered and founded a co-operative, which could serve as the
economic basis of this spiritual community.
"We want to be a united group of brothers, and never separate
however severe the burden may be", this was the solemn vow.
Renunciation of alcohol and smoking and the will to realise a
harmonious community life without dispute and discord like in
the original Christian communities were the prerequisites to
become a member. For the members Methernitha is an ideal
opportunity to lead a fulfilled life by practising charity.
A workshop was erected and soon, one house after the other grew
on these premises. Also all construction was done out of own
resources and solely with the savings from the common work.
Today Methernitha is a social model proving the quality of its
ideals through its well functioning just more than forty years.
The people working here are almost without exception members of
Not even the prospering development that took place over the
following decades could impair or even suppress the global
idealistic aims. On the contrary, everybody works in his own
interest with diligence and great joy towards the erection and
the support of their new homeland and according to the
One for all and all for one!
With this word one can conquer anything. Also the ancient
truths appear again and attain respect.
The people living here feel themselves as members of a family,
like a group sitting in the same boat and proud, but also
grateful proprietors of their own beautiful homeland, which they
may shape exactly as they wish to. Evidently, this form of human
social life can function only on the base of idealistic
The question arises, how the realisation of a sincere religious
philosophy of life may be brought in harmony with a successful
economic management. It is not obvious at all, that this is
Nowadays there are many amongst us that are caught in the
world-wide and dense network of social and economic dependencies
and obligations and many also feel the confrontation with its
One member of the economic directory has recently phrased
this in the following way:
"The fact that all essential functions of Methernitha are
fulfilled without any external force, driven solely through
inner conviction, which causes everybody to help and take care
of the other, this is for me the most astonishing effect which
is produced by this form of living together. It seems to be a
Another miracle within Methernitha is the Thestatica,
which is the result of more than 20 years of research.
This wonder machine is lurked from nature, nothing else.
Nature is the greatest source of power as well as knowledge
which man has, and it still conceals many secrets, which are
only revealed to those, who approach and tie in with them with
highest respect and responsibility.
To understand nature and to perceive its voice, man is obliged
to experience silence and solitude, and it was there, where the
knowledge about this technology was obtained.
For these reasons it was always a great concern of Methernitha
to acquire properties, untouched by man as far as possible, be
it in valleys or forests, in the mountains or ashore of lakes,
where one could study nature, ones own being and the creator of
all this universe in silence and concentration and without being
The public never understood this properly, rather interpreted
it wrongly as an act of seclusion, assuming we had to hide
something unclean. We actually had --- and still have --- to
take great troubles to realise undisturbed all the things we
intended to accomplish.
Such undertaking in research and development necessitate
considerable financial expenditures. Therefore we are quite
often obliged to construct things with most primitive means and
materials. What was thrown away by our affluent society, we
collect and possibly set up with it a cornerstone in the
discovery of new forces and truth.
We are fortunate in gaining the experience that paradoxically
the most beautiful and useful results can be achieved by just
using the most simple means. Never did we use any borrowed
capital because we want to stay free Swiss citizens and do not
want to be hindered or even bound in any way in the pursuance of
The two conterrotating discs generate an electrostatic charge.
One disc represents the earth, the other the cloud. Using grid
electrodes the charges are bound. After that they are collected
by non-contacting so-called antenna keys and then sorted.
After being initially turned on by hand, the discs rotate by
themselves according to the electrostatic laws about attraction
and repulsion. A rectifying diode keeps the cycles in steady
state. Otherwise the impulses of attraction and repulsion would
accumulate and cause the discs to run faster and faster. The
correct speed is of great importance and for optimal power
generation the discs have to run quite steady and slow.
By means of grid condensers the energy is stored and then
uniformly discharged, at the same time reducing the high voltage
and building up power with additional devices. Finally the
machine supplies a uniform direct current, which varies
according to the size of the model. The machine furnishes about
3-4kW permanent output, depending on humidity, whereby the
electric potential ranges from 270 to 320Volt. High humidity of
the atmosphere prevents the build-up of electric potential. The
drier the air, the better.
No doubt, through the so far achieved results one main
objective has been reached, namely to prove that it is possible
to use Free Energy. Nevertheless the research work is not yet
To the educated physicist many a thing of this machine may seem
impossible, maybe even crazy. Maybe he is also offended by the
conceptions used to explain the whole. Only partly we could use
the concepts of conventional physical terminology to explain and
define only approximately the functions and properties of the
various parts of the machine.
After all it will be necessary to create some more new concepts
like the one we have already used before, when we termed the
non-contacting collectors of electric charges as antenna keys.
This machine puts experts, which are just trained in
conventional physics to a very hard test, because its mode of
action is not explainable with the state of the art of
officially accepted physical knowledge, or at the most only
partially explainable. However also a trained specialist should
remain free and independent in his thinking, and should avoid to
be limited by the temporal framework of publicly admitted
knowledge in any science.
It has to be remembered that the established science was
already many times forced to change or give up some of its very
fundamental concepts. Think about Galilee, to name only one
example. Our human society almost condemned this man as a
sorcerer and magician, just because he investigated and
discovered a truth that seemed unacceptable by the established
science of the days.
The book knowledge of any times is not wrong, but it is
incomplete, and therefore allows to draw wrong conclusions.
We are part of a new area which brings to light many new facts
and new knowledge. The clothes of nowadays science have become
too tight and should be stripped off, just as the larva of an
insect does with its skin. Only this will allow a true
metamorphosis to take its course, and finally, at the limits and
at the destination of all worldly knowledge, an universal and
unlimited spiritual science, radiating and beautiful, just as
the completed imago of an insect, may give its blessings and
benediction to a renovated humanity.
To ever reach there, a universal development of man has to take
place. This however is only possible when man becomes aware of
his true role within the whole creation, and again learns to
recognise his true tasks, because the whole universe functions
within a strict and precisely structured order according to the
will and word of the creator. Therefore also man should
recognise and realise these universal laws that are valid within
the whole and within every part of this creation.
The hard facts rather show how far man has left the divine
order through his self willed and authoritarian way of action
and that he has become the actual cause of all discord and evil
on this planet.
Unfortunately the ruling bodies that should be responsible for
the well-being of the people work too often with the target to
make life more and more difficult and to render impossible every
free spiritual development.
Instead of utilising the achievements of science and technology
for the benefit and preservation of all form of life, they are
abused carelessly and irresponsibly to destroy and to
kill, and thus turn them into a curse upon mankind.
To change all this, the evolution of a new technology is not
enough, even if it were the most ecological and ingenious. To
change this present status one has to go much deeper down, to
the root-cause of all this evil, and this is mans way of
thinking, his state of mind.
The ancient divine commandments are still valid today and also
show today the way and direction humanity should go, as clearly
spoken by the prophet Mica:
God has told you what is good. And what is it that the Lord
asks of you? Only to act justly, to love loyalty, to walk wisely
before your God.
(Transcribed from the Methernitha Testatika video by Paul E
"... The efficient utilization of wind energy was one of the
first objectives of Methernitha’s research program.
At the beginning generators with special excitation were
developed which allowed to load the cells of accumulators even
at low rpm, at times when there are only moderate movements.
Utilizing the kinetic energy of water currents was another
field of interest of the development team, but it was pursued
more as hobby. The key problem was here to transfer the slow
revolutions of the water-wheel to an extent that the excitation
threshold of the generator could be surpassed by a minimal loss
of energy. Also solar cells and solar heat collectors attracted
the attention of our researchers since a long time. But since in
these fields other institutions have obtained outstanding
results Methernitha started, and this was already more than 20
years ago [since 1960], to concentrate its efforts on
lesser-known and even generally unknown sources of energy, the
result of this scientific work is the Testatika machine of which
most of you may have heard already.
The two counter-rotating discs generate an electrostatic
charge. One disc represents the earth, the other the cloud.
Using grid-electrodes* the charges are bound. After that they
are collected by non-contacted, so-called, antennae keys** and
then sorted [shorted ?].
After being initially turned on by hand the discs rotate by
themselves according to the electrostatic laws about attraction
A rectifying-diode keeps the cycles in steady state, otherwise
the impulses of attraction and repulsion would accumulate and
cause the disc to run faster and faster. The correct speed is of
great importance, and for optimum power generation the discs
have to run quite steady and slow.
By means of grid-condensers* the energy is stored and it is
then uniformly discharged, at the same time reducing the
high-voltage and building up power with additional devices.
Finally, the machine supplies a uniform direct current which
varies according to size of the model.
The machine furnishes about 3 to 4 Kilo-Watt permanent output,
depending on humidity, whereby the electrical potential ranges
from 270 to 320 volt. High humidity of the atmosphere prevents
the build up of electric potential. The dryer the air the
No doubt, through the so-far achieved results, one main
objective has been reached, namely, to prove that it is possible
to use free energy. Nevertheless, the research work is not yet
completed: To finish a model which can be handed out more or
less to anybody and without any haphazards, also to
non-specialists, much work and also time will still be needed.
Only partly we could use the concepts of conventional physical
terminology in order to explain and define only approximately
the functions and properties of the various parts of the
machine. After all, it will be necessary to create some more new
concepts, like the one we have already used before, when we
termed the non-contacting collectors of electric charge as
antennae keys**. This machine puts experts who are just trained
in conventional physics to a very hard test..."
* The German original has gitter-condensers, with gitter
defined as wire lattice, grille, grate.
** the original word used is tasten or taster, which means
antenna, probe, key.
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