General Enquires can be fowarded to WATER UNLIMITED.
* Postal: PO Box 695
West Perth WA 6872
* Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
* Telephone: +61 8 9381 2177
* Fax +61 8 9486 4944
Introducing the Max Water
Water UN Limited was incorporated to acquire the technology
and intellectual property associated with water from ambient
air technology, also known as ‘the Max Water', from world
renowned Perth based inventor Dr Max Whisson.
This breakthrough technology has the potential to produce
water from air using a turbine containing refrigerants. If
successful, this technology will be capable of supplying
commercial quantities of water for a wide variety of uses
powered by wind energy alone.
If successful the technology developed by Dr Max Whisson may
represent the most important breakthrough in water production
in recent years. The commercialisation of Max Water may be by
license, direct sales, distributor networks or a combination
of these. Under any marketing strategy a percentage of units
produced will be donated via appropriate charitable
organizations to supply water to areas of extreme poverty in
Our company mission is to now build the first complete
prototype and hopefully prove the concept.
Video : http://www.waterunlimited.com.au/video.html
Learn more about the Max Water : This short
presentation outlines how the Max Water may use only wind
power to cool the air and achieve condensation of the
contained water. It contains drawings, research and other
relevant statistical information. DOWNLOAD PDF (2.8 MB):
QuickTime Movie :
ABC Science Online
( Friday, 2 March 2007 )
Making Water Out of Thin Air
Could a wind turbine that sucks water out of the air supply
enough water for the whole world?
A wind-driven device could provide an unlimited water supply
by harvesting water from the air, says its Australian
But critics are asking if it's too good to be true.
Dr Max Whisson, a retired medical specialist turned inventor,
says he has designed a highly efficient wind turbine that can
run a refrigeration system to cool air and condense moisture
"The wind carries in the water and [provides] the power
required to separate that water from the wind," says Whisson,
who is based in Perth.
He says there is a huge amount of water in the atmosphere
that is replaced every few hours. This means the whole world
could just use water from the air without disrupting the
Whisson says the system would even harvest significant
amounts of water in areas with low humidity.
He says a 4 metre square device could extract an average 7500
litres of water a day.
In his design, moisture-laden air enters the system and is
cooled by a drop in pressure behind the wind turbine blades,
The air then flows into a chamber containing refrigerated
metal plates covered by a non-wettable surface that causes
water droplets to run off immediately into a collection point.
Could it work?
Full technical details of the design are not available but at
least one mechanical engineer is sceptical.
"I have found in general that inventors tend to enormously
overstate the capacities of their devices. They just have a
very rosy outlook on what their devices will do," says
mechanical engineer Professor John Reizes, an adjunct
professor at the University of New South Wales.
"It's not until you've made one that you discover all the
Reizes, who specialises in heat transfer, says he is
sceptical because of the huge amount of energy that is needed
to condense water.
Whisson says he is well aware that a large amount of energy
is required to do the job.
"It's like boiling a kettle in reverse," he says.
But he is confident his wind turbine, still subject to patent
applications and yet to be independently tested, is efficient
"The wind turbine is a surprisingly good development. I'm
surprised because it performs so well," says Whisson.
And he says the power generating part of the wind turbine can
simply be increased to collect the wind power required for the
"We've got unlimited power," he says.
But Reizes says wind turbines are so far only about 30%
efficient at best and the energy arriving at them is very
diffuse, requiring large devices to collect the energy.
"It may be a fantastic idea on paper and it looks as if it
could work," he says.
"However, the thing may have to be so big to drive this
device that it becomes impractical."
Drawing moisture from air
One thing seems more certain. If the system does work, it is
unlikely to backfire on the environment, says Dr Michael
Coughlan, of Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.
He says the amount of water that humans would use is trivial
compared with the amount available in the atmosphere.
"If you can tap into it, then go for it, because you would do
little to upset the hydrological cycle," says Coughlan.
The Whisson Windmill - Water From Air,
...Dr Whisson himself describes his Whisson Windmill as
follows: "The essential principle is that more wind is used
for power than for water supply. In other words, the area of
power turbines is greater than the area of turbines leading to
water harvest. This is all made much easier by the invention
of a new kind of wind turbine or 'windmill'. The amount of
water available in the air is for all forseeable practical
purposes unlimited. The bottom 1 kilometre (in the atmosphere)
alone contains about 1.000,000,000,000,000 litres of water and
that is turned over every few hours. The "Whisson Windmill" or
Max Water From Air device will make it possible to get
adequate water anywhere at any time, drought or no drought."
Windmills of Your Mind
PROGRAM TRANSCRIPT: Monday, 21 May , 2007
JAMES O'LOUGHLIN: Hello, I'm James O'Loughlin from "The New
Australia has a long tradition of innovation, from the Hills
Hoist to the black box flight recorder, and our home grown
ideas have often found international markets.
Well, Perth inventor Max Whisson believes he may have come
up with a solution to the world's water problems and he has
some influential supporters. This is Max Whisson's story.
MAX WHISSON: The state of the world at the moment is, I
think, the most dangerous in the evolution of Homo sapiens,
for two main reasons. Power is almost entirely in the hands
of those who gained power by exercising commercial
advantage, and at the same time the ability of modern
technology to destroy the world is unprecedented. The
destruction of vast ecosystems is happening as we speak:
forests being destroyed, catchment areas being destroyed,
rivers being destroyed. We are a highly developed species,
can fly to the moon and do all sorts of clever things, and
we destroy the rivers all over the planet. I think it’s
utterly absurd, outrageous. Grassroots action is the only
hope to get a healthy world community.
PROFESSOR ROGER DAWKINS, SCIENCE CENTRE DIRECTOR: I know
that some people think that Max is a crackpot but he’s a
very engaging one and he’s certainly a very productive one.
MARCUS WHISSON, SON: He can be a bit of a handful, he’s an
eccentric old bugger, he’d probably say that himself.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: I think Max is a reincarnation of an
ancient Roman, the Romans were wonderful at water.
MAX WHISSON: It took me a little while to realise that the
expanding population of the world cannot rely on surface
water which accumulates from rain. We have to find unlimited
sources of water and the sea seemed to me to be the obvious
source of vast quantities of water. Seventy-one per cent of
the Earth’s surface at an average depth of four or five
kilometres, and I thought, how can you purify that water
without fossil fuels or big machines or high technology? And
sunlight seemed to be the obvious way. I came up with the
idea of the Water Road in about 2002 in a sort of Eureka
moment. Most places in need of water are far inland and it
would seem so logical to just run the sea water inland over
a long distance, producing pure water as it goes. The Water
Road is a very simple design. It’s just a series of parallel
black pipes, preferably to a width of about 10 metres,
covered in a transparent cover such as perspex or
polycarbonate, and maybe a thousand kilometres long. The sea
water heats to 70 or 80 degrees, by my calculation, in about
three to four days, heated by the sun, and at intervals the
sea water is run into big swimming pools that I call
evaporation ponds. The hot, wet air in the evaporation ponds
is ducted up to a hilltop where it just condenses in a
special condensation shed. So you’ve got pure water produced
at a high point and that greatly assists the distribution to
irrigation or to households along the way. A pipeline of
that size would produce about 200,000 litres per kilometre
per day. The salt from the returning sea water goes back to
the sea where it’s diluted within minutes to normal sea
water. But it could be sent to a salt manufacturer.
COLIN BARBOUTIS, BUSINESS PARTNER: When Max first mentioned
the Water Road to me, I thought, this could be an answer for
the water problem that we’re going to have in Perth in the
very near future. Max’s mind works very differently to most
people. And Max told me this himself, he said, “Colin all my
life, I’ve seen things differently to most people.” He said,
“You see a glass of water on the table, I see a mathematical
calculation for a vessel that holds liquid.”
ANNEMARIE WHISSON, WIFE: When he comes to invention he’s
very, very obsessive and quite stubborn, but in a good way.
MAX WHISSON: I graduated as a doctor in '55. I met
Annemarie whilst I was working on cancer research in London.
ANNEMARIE WHISSON: I trained as a medical technologist in
Switzerland and I was his research assistant. Oh goodness
me, after two weeks, I just fell in love with this man and,
and after a while, you know, I could see, he said he liked
me too and so we had a little bit lunch together or coffee
and, you know from then on it started, you know, I was just
completely besotted with him.
MAX WHISSON: Annemarie and I have two sons and there are
four sons from my first marriage.
ALEX WHISSON, SON: I think in many ways my mum’s sacrificed
her own life to support my dad’s inventions and his
scientific research work. If it wasn’t for my mum, my dad
would be a disorganised brain in the ether somewhere. I mean
she actually roots him in the earth, she actually grounds
him in reality and he’d be completely lost without her.
MARCUS WHISSON, SON: He is an eccentric, the quintessential
nutty professor. For a long time I know in the 1980s he had
a fairly healthy obsession with solar power from cooling
someone’s head with a solar-powered hat to allowing a
bicycle to be used not by pedal power but by solar power.
MAX WHISSON: I worked for many years as a haematologist at
the Red Cross Blood Bank in Western Australia.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: By the late '80s the magnitude of
the AIDS epidemic was becoming well known and I was
concerned about my daughter, the doctor, getting needle
stick injuries where she was working in an ER hospital in
New York. And I was expressing these concerns to Max, who
miraculously was working on a retractable needle.
To any project he examines Max brings a very fresh
intelligence and so he looked at the needle again and again
and he then came up with a Mark II, a completely different
way of solving the issue involving a sleeve rather than a
PROFESSOR ROGER DAWKINS, SCIENCE CENTRE DIRECTOR: It was
1982 in the early days of HIV that I really got to know Max
Whisson. He does have some weird and wonderful ideas,
there’s no doubt about it.
The Needlesleeve seems to be a very good idea and it seems
to work very well. I’d like to see it in use.
Max has always been very limited by funds. The country
really needs to support people like Max without pressing
them to early commercialisation because there are hazards in
early commercialisation and many a good project has really
been destroyed by the commercial partners.
ALEX WHISSON, SON: There was a very nasty and prolonged
court case involving my dad’s Needlesleeve invention which
basically involved some of his former business associates
laying claim to his inventions. And even though he won that
case actually on three separate occasions, it has left him a
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: The saddest thing for Max is that
his needle, his wonderful hypodermic that prevents
needlestick injury, isn’t being manufactured to this day
because of the problems he’s had in an out of courts. Great
ANNEMARIE WHISSON, WIFE: I think Max is actually a
renaissance man. He’s so interested in so many things. He’s
interested in physics, biology, cancer, politics nature,
birds. He loves reading poetry and he writes poetry himself
and short stories. He plays the violin in the Fremantle
Symphony Orchestra. He enjoys it immensely. Even when he’s
very, very tired he always goes to rehearsal.
MAX WHISSON: For the last nine years Annemarie and I have
lived in separate places. I think at a certain stage of life
there is some sense in having a wife down the road. There
were quite a lot of conflicts.
ALEX WHISSON, SON: My dad was always a workaholic and he’d
often go on extended trips to haematology conferences,
medical conferences, and never invite my mother on those
trips. She felt excluded, I think, from more and more
aspects of his life. And as well, truth be told, he had a
wandering eye for other women. My dad’s inventions have cost
a fortune in patents and that’s led to financial
difficulties for the family, which has been tough,
especially on my mum.
MARCUS WHISSON, SON: It has taken enormous emotional toll
and it can be up and down with my parents’ relationship, but
at the end of the day they’re most in love and really
support one another.
ANNEMARIE WHISSON, WIFE: We see each other every day. He
actually has got less difficult now. I think it makes all
sense now in hindsight. ’94, ’95 he started to get sometimes
quite aggressive, verbally, and short-tempered and then it
developed even in a kind of paranoia as well. I was really
very puzzled about it and I thought, what is going on? And
sometimes you know he accused us of things which was
completely irrational which he never had done before. And
Marcus just said, “I think dad is going senile.”
ALEX WHISSON, SON: Strange things started happening with my
dad’s brain. He’d be able to read the start of a paragraph
but not the end of it. He couldn’t distinguish left from
right, he’d get lost driving from Subiaco to Nedlands on a
route that he’d travelled a thousand times before.
ANNEMARIE WHISSON, WIFE: And then again we said, “Please go
to the doctor. We can’t do anything.” And he said very
aggressively, “I don’t need your advice.”
MARCUS WHISSON, SON: It was August the 17th 2000, the day
after my mother’s birthday. It was a blessing in disguise
for him. My father was involved in an accident where he hit
a parked ute and he was given a scan and they found a tumour
the size of my fist, a huge tumour in the back of his head,
pressing against his visual cortex.
ALEX WHISSON, SON: And suddenly it was like a revelation
for all of us because we all realised sort of what had been
happening with his brain over these past few years.
MARCUS WHISSON, SON: It was a benign tumour but they
realised that they had to operate immediately because there
was every chance that it would break through his skull.
MAX WHISSON: An incredibly, I tell you, extraordinarily
skilful set of surgeons, got this whole thing out intact.
And my whole brain kind of went, "Ah, now I can work again."
It was quite amazing.
ALEX WHISSON, SON: The amount of energy my dad has is
phenomenal. He’s 76 now, he still works probably 12, 14
hours a day. I have tremendous admiration for my dad’s
inventions. It’s never just something trivial. It's the fact
that they’re inventions that are all geared towards actually
improving human welfare, improving the standards of life,
the conditions of life. It’s never something like, I don’t
know, a faster car or something that is just economically
MAX WHISSON: I suppose it’s occurred to me a little bit
that I haven’t got much time to do all the things that I
really want to do. Do I feel like an old man in a hurry?
Yeah. My grandfather was an irrigation controller in the
little town of Dingee, just not far from Bendigo in
Victoria. So that I suppose gave me an interest in water.
(Outdoors, standing near a dried up lake)
This was quite a lovely lake, a little lake, and I used to
visit it quite a lot, lots of birds came here, walk around
and see these beautiful things. It’s really tragic to see it
like this. You can’t look at this without being dreadfully
upset, especially knowing that it’s not just a one off and
it’s not really accidental. It’s because we’ve not taken
care of these things. The water table has gone down so that
the lake is worse because of that because everyone’s sucking
up water to keep their lawns healthy. The bores have gone
down deeper in Perth as in almost every city in the world.
I don’t really know where I get my ideas but I do read
widely in scientific books and in things like "New
Scientist". I do look very carefully at what has gone
before. I’m not an expert on anything, but I throw things
around and I sometimes kind of turn ideas upside down and
you suddenly find you’ve got a really interesting answer
that’s been staring people in the face for centuries, you
know? After working on the Water Road for some time, I did
some calculations which showed that there’s heaps of water
in the air. And so I began to think, why bother with the sea
water? So why not just collect water from the air and you
can collect the water anywhere, in any small community or
out in the desert or on the coast, wherever you want.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: The water that’s in the air goes up
for about a hundred miles, constantly replenished by
evaporation from the ocean. Water is constantly extracted
from the air in the form of dew. The technology of
extracting it is known. The American army, for example, uses
great thundering diesel machines to pull it out of the air,
but that’s not very appropriate technology for a world
suffering climate change. Max thinks, no, no, no, I can use
the air to produce the power to produce the water.
MAX WHISSON: The key to the process is to refrigerate the
air as quickly as possible so that water separates from the
air and condenses as drops which will run down into a
The best place to remove heat quickly is as the air hits a
windmill. Now existing windmills did not work out at all
well so I invented a new one and I’ve arranged to have it
refrigerated so that as soon as the wind hits that windmill
it gets cooled.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: The astonishing thing is if you even
breathe near one of Max’s windmills, the windmill starts
spinning furiously. And the theory is, the more air you can
pass through that windmill, the more air is available for
cooling and for dispensing the water within it. So it’s a
very elegant, very simple but tricky idea.
MAX WHISSON: There was a point where I had a bit of a
hitch. I could achieve fairly rapid condensation of water on
a cold plate but it would just stick as little droplets and
not run off the plate quickly so that water could be
collected. And then I came across this little chap, the
little beetle called Stenocara. It’s quite amazing how
creatures over millions of years evolve clever techniques
which are ahead of us.
COLIN BARBOUTIS, BUSINESS PARTNER: I was at Max’s house one
day, and Max said, "Well, if I tell you, you’re going to
think I’m completely mad." And we had the discussion about
the little African beetle that pops out of the sand in the
early morning, does a headstand, faces his tummy into the
breeze, sits there most of the day and a little droplet of
water collects on the fibres on his tummy, runs down his
nose and into his mouth and he’s back into his burrow. So,
he’s self sufficient in water. And he said, “See, I told you
you’d think I was mad.” And I said, “Well I actually don’t
know that you’re mad, tell me a little bit more.” And he
went into more detail about how he’d been thinking about
this for a little while and that it was do-able. He said,
"Often the simplest things in this world are the hardest to
MAX WHISSON: Observing nature has taught me a lot. Now I
have a surface on the plates which is very like the surface
on this little beetle, the water touches the plates and just
runs quickly off. And so the little beetle has helped a
great deal and I’d like to thank him.
COLIN BARBOUTIS, BUSINESS PARTNER: I believe it will take
us another 12 months to fully develop this unit, to test it,
to see if the working prototypes do work. I guess Max is a
bit of a crackpot but then again, you'd have to be to come
up with some of these wonderful inventions. I’ve put my
money on that one out there. I think this water project is
something that's very unique. I absolutely believe in Max’s
abilities and have blind faith that he can do this and he'll
get it right. I may be wrong but that’s my thought.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: I’m a great enthusiast for the
theory of the windmill, and I write a newspaper column about
my old friend’s bright new idea. And in all my born days in
over 50 years of writing columns, rarely seen a response
like it - a couple of thousand, a couple of thousand
rapturous emails, some sceptical, but mostly thrilled to the
back teeth, from every nook and cranny on the planet. From
the Middle East, from Venezuela, from Russia, from India,
everyone thinks this is it.
SEAN BLOCKSIDGE, WINE COMPANY MANAGER: Sustainable
farming’s something that we’re looking at more and more.
It’s an imperative, particularly as a wine business.
Certainly we do have some fairly good, consistent rainfall
but we’re certainly seeing decreases. We’ve looked at the
more traditional sources of water in the past. One thing
Margaret River doesn’t have a shortage of is wind and
certainly Max Whisson’s invention is something worth
investigating. We’re also regenerating large tracts of land
around the estate and we don’t necessarily have the capacity
to irrigate re-vegetation projects, so to be able to put one
of these windmills out there and have it producing water
would be fantastic.
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: I’ve got a feeling there are many
Max Whissons around. At the moment of course he’s tilting at
his windmills, a bit like Don Quixote, because governments
are remarkably uninterested, but everyone else is.
MAX WHISSON: The question whether the Water Road idea is
now redundant because of the Water Windmill is one that
several people have asked. I see the Water Road as a much
more practical national or large-scale water producing
PHILLIP ADAMS, FRIEND: And provided Max can live another 10
years and work out a few little minor details, it’s going to
be fantastic. A freeway, not just a Water Road, a freeway of
fresh water - wouldn’t that be fantastic? And Max wouldn’t
even want to charge toll, so it would be a freeway not a
ANNEMARIE WHISSON, WIFE: I think I would quite like to live
with Max again and I think he probably would like to live
with me. I still love him. It’s just, it’s a different love,
after, my goodness, forty years. You know, we were
incredibly passionately in love but it’s, it has become a
very comfortable love.
MAX WHISSON: Certainly I feel bad that I haven’t provided a
secure life. I suppose, yeah, I probably haven’t been a
perfect husband or father. But I think it’s important to
follow your geist, your spirit, what you think you’re good
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR COOLING OF AIR
AU2005274673 // CN101014817 // BRPI0515188
Abstract -- A wind turbine apparatus for cooling of
air having a wind turbine axially connected to a refrigeration
compressor arranged to compress refrigerant, at least one tube
for conducting compressed refrigerant centrifugally outwards,
a construction for causing the compressed refrigerant to lose
pressure so as to cool fades of the wind turbine, and a
conduit for returning spent refrigerant centripetally to the
Correspondence Name and Address: BACHMAN & LAPOINTE,
P.C.-- 900 CHAPEL STREET -- SUITE 1201, NEW
HAVEN CT 06510 US
U.S. Current Class: 62/93; 62/401; 62/404; 62/426;
U.S. Class at Publication: 062/093; 062/404; 062/426;
Intern'l Class: F25D 17/06 20060101 F25D017/06; F25D
9/00 20060101 F25D009/00;
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to an apparatus and
method for cooling air.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 In accordance with one aspect of the present invention
there is provided a wind turbine apparatus for cooling of air
characterised by comprising a wind turbine axially connected
to a refrigeration compressor arranged to compress
refrigerant, means for conducting compressed refrigerant
centrifugally outwards, means for causing the compressed
refrigerant to lose pressure so as to cool blades of the wind
turbine, and means for returning spent refrigerant
centripetally to the compressor.
 In accordance with a further aspect of the present
invention there is provided a method of condensing water from
ambient air, which comprises driving, by means of ambient
wind, a wind turbine apparatus in accordance with the present
invention mounted in a duct by ambient wind so as to cause
blades of the wind turbine to be cooled and to thereby cool
ambient wind air passing through the duct and the wind
turbine, and causing water vapour in the ambient wind air to
condense to form liquid water, and collecting the liquid
 In accordance with a yet further aspect of the present
invention there is provided a wind turbine having at least one
blade mounted to a compressor housing mounted on a shaft for
axial rotation relative to the shaft, and means for conducting
compressed refrigerant outward centrifugally and means for
returning the refrigerant centripetally through the or each
blade with loss of pressure and change of phase from liquid to
gas so as to cool the or each blade.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The present invention will now be described, by way of
example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in
 FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of a wind
turbine of the present invention showing a single turbine
 FIG. 2 is a further schematic plan view
similar to FIG. 1 showing a plurality of turbine blades;
 FIG. 3 is a schematic side elevation of a
first embodiment of an apparatus to convey air in accordance
with the present invention;
 FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing a
second embodiment of an apparatus of the present invention;
 FIG. 5 is a side elevation of a third
embodiment of an apparatus of the present invention;
 FIG. 6 is a plan view of a further embodiment
of a wind turbine of the present invention as used in the
third embodiment of apparatus illustrated in FIG. 5;
 FIG. 7 is a side elevation of a fourth
embodiment of an apparatus of the present invention;
 FIG. 8 is a plan view of a yet further
embodiment of a wind turbine of the present invention used in
the fourth embodiment of apparatus illustrated in FIG. 7;
 FIG. 9 is a schematic side elevation of a
compressor used in the air cooling apparatus of the present
 FIG. 10 is a schematic side-elevation of a
further embodiment of a compressor used in the air cooling
apparatus of the present invention;
 FIGS. 11a, b, c and d are various views of the
compressor of FIG. 10;
 FIG. 12 is a schematic side elevation of a yet
further embodiment of a compressor used in the air cooling
apparatus of the present invention;
 FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing a
fifth embodiment of an apparatus of the present invention;
 FIGS. 14A, 14B and 14C show schematically a
scroll refrigerant compressor useful in the present invention
in various positions;
 FIG. 15A is a plan view of an alternative form
of scroll compressor useful in the present invention; and
 FIG. 15B is a side view of the scroll
compressor of FIG. 15A.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 In FIG. 1 of the accompanying drawings, there is shown
a wind turbine apparatus 10 comprising a central shaft 12
having a compressor 13 comprising a housing 14 mounted
thereabout. The compressor housing 14 is arranged to rotate
axially relative to the shaft 12. Further, a plurality of
turbine blades 16 (only one of which is shown) are mounted to
the compressor housing 14. As shown, a tube 18 extends
outwardly from the housing 14 to a peripheral cooling coil 20.
A convoluted pipe 22 extends from the cooling coil 20 back to
the housing 14. There is a constriction 23 at a part in the
pipe 22 adjacent the cooling coil 20.
 In use, the turbine blade 16 is caused to rotate
axially about the shaft 12 by the kinetic energy of ambient
wind air. Rotation of the blade 16 causes rotation of the
compressor housing 14 and refrigerant in the compressor
housing 14 to be compressed so as to undergo a phase change
from gas to liquid. The compressed liquid refrigerant flows
outwardly driven by the compressor and assisted by centrifugal
force along the tube 18 to the cooling coil 20 which acts as a
 As shown, the refrigerant has to travel almost in a
complete circle to reach the pipe 22. This enables the
compressed refrigerant to be cooled during its residence in
the cooling coil 20.
 The refrigerant leaves the cooling coil 20 through the
constriction 23 which leads into the pipe 22. At this point
the refrigerant undergoes a rapid loss of pressure and thus
evaporates back to the gaseous phase and causes the blade 16
to be cooled. The spent refrigerant then passes centripetally
back to the housing 14 on a low pressure line of the
 The cooling of the blade 16 causes ambient wind air to
be cooled which has useful effects as will be described.
 In FIG. 2, there is shown an apparatus 30 similar to
that in FIG. 1. In FIG. 2 there can be seen a plurality of
turbine blades 16, a plurality of tubes 18, a cooling coil 20
and a plurality of pipes 22. In this embodiment, the
compressed refrigerant passes along the tubes 18 to the
cooling coil 20. From the cooling coil 20 the compressed
refrigerant passes through a plurality of short tubes 28 to an
inner manifold 26. From the inner manifold 26 the compressed
refrigerant passes through the constrictions 23 into the tubes
22 as described hereinabove. Thus the compressed refrigerant
does not enter the tubes 22 directly and therefore is cooled
by its residence in the cooling coil 20 and the tubes 28 and
the inner manifold 26.
 In FIG. 3, there is shown an apparatus 40 which
comprises a wind turbine 10. There is also shown a respective
inner manifold 26 adjacent an outer end of each blade 16. The
compressed liquid refrigerant passes initially from the
cooling coil 20 to each inner manifold 26 through short tubes
28. The refrigerant then passes through constrictions 23 into
the pipes 22 as described hereinabove.
 Further, there is shown in FIG. 3, a wind collecting
duct 42 and an outlet condensation chamber 44. The duct 42
includes an outer wide portion 46 and an inner relatively
narrow portion 48. The combination of the wide portion 46 and
the narrow portion 48 increases air velocity in the duct 42.
 Ambient wind air blowing in the direction of an arrow
50 flows through the wind turbine 10 so as to cause the latter
to rotate such that the blades 16 are cooled. This causes the
air temperature to fall below the condensation point or dew
point and water vapour to condense from the ambient air to
form liquid water. This is enhanced by the presence of baffles
52 which impede the flow of air and induce liquid water to
collect thereon. The liquid water flows from the baffles 52
onto a sloping floor portion 54 from which the liquid water
flows into a collection trough 56. The cooled air from which
water has been removed is exhausted through an upper outlet
58. As can be seen in FIG. 3, the coil 20 is located
externally of the duct 42 so that heat lost from the
compressed refrigerant is dispersed into the ambient air
rather than inside the duct 42.
 In FIG. 4, there is shown an apparatus 60 similar to
that in FIG. 3, except that an inlet 62 is lowermost and is
provided with flaps 64. In this case, the flaps 64 are only
opened, as shown, on the windward side of the apparatus 60.
Wind air flows upwardly through the turbine 10 and then
through a condensation chamber 66 to exhaust through a top
vent 68. Once again liquid water collects on baffles 52 and
then flows along a sloping floor 54 to collect in a trough 56.
 In FIG. 5, there is shown an apparatus 70 similar to
that in FIG. 4, except that the exhaust vent 68 is provided
with an additional wind turbine 72 to reduce pressure in the
exhaust vent 68 and enhance removal of exhaust air. Power
obtained from the wind turbine is available for any useful
 In FIG. 6, there is shown a wind turbine 10 having
wind guides 62 with flaps 64 between adjacent pairs of wind
guides 62. The flaps 64 are arranged to be opened as shown by
the wider oblong shape when the flaps face in the direction of
the ambient wind.
 In FIG. 7, there is shown an alternative form of the
apparatus of the present invention
 In this Figure there is shown an apparatus 80 having a
funnel 82 at an intermediate level and a downwardly directed
deviation device 84. The device 84 is arranged to pivot about
a substantially vertical axis so as to orientate itself, in
use, into a position which is most effective in directing the
ambient wind air through a wind turbine 10. Cooled air can
then enter a condensation chamber 86 below the wind turbine 10
and deposit moisture on baffles 88. The deposited moisture can
then flow into a collection trough 90. The cooled air depleted
of moisture can then pass upwardly to an upper vent 92.
 In FIG. 8, there is shown a wind turbine 10 similar to
that shown in FIG. 7. As shown, the device 84 faces the
incoming ambient wind. The wind air is directed into the wind
 In FIG. 9, there is shown a preferred form of
compressor 90 of the present invention. The compressor 90 has
a central rotating cylindrical hub or housing 92 on which is
mounted the blades 16 and refrigerant carrying tubes of the
wind turbine 10 as described herein. The compressor 90
includes compressor blades 94 mounted on a drive shaft 96. The
blades 94 are arranged to be driven at high speed by a gear
train 98 fitted to an inner wall of the hub 92. Used
refrigerant returning centripetally to the compressor 90 as
described above is recompressed and sent out centrifugally as
 In FIG. 10 there is shown an alternative form of
compressor 100 mounted within a cylindrical hub or housing
102. In this embodiment refrigerant is displaced by a roller
104 mounted eccentrically on a shaft 106 relative to a main
shaft 108 of the compressor 100.
 As shown in FIGS. 11a, 11b, 11c and 11d, the
compressor 100 operates as follows. The compressor 100
comprises a central shaft 101 having an eccentric 102 mounted
thereon. A rotatable housing 103 is mounted about the
eccentric 102. A tube 104 leads away from the housing 103 and
a pipe 105 leads into the housing 103. A spring biased vane
106 extends through a wall of the housing 103 and contacts an
outer surface of the eccentric 102. Rotation of the housing
103 causes refrigerant contained therein to be compressed and
exited through the tube 104. Similarly, used refrigerant
returns to the housing 103 through the pipe 105. This is
facilitated by the vane 106 which is spring biased into
engagement with the outer surface of the eccentric 102.
 In FIG. 12 there is shown a further alternative form
of compressor 120 mounted within a cylindrical hub 122. In
this embodiment refrigerant is contained in an elastic chamber
124. The chamber 124 is alternately contracted and expanded.
This is done by eccentric discs 126 fixedly mounted on a
central shaft 128. Each disc 126 has a circular channel 130
formed on an inner side thereof A slidable bearing 132 is
mounted in each channel 130. A respective rod 134 extends from
each bearing 132 to a respective end plate 136 of the chamber
124. Each rod 134 is constrained by a circular guide member
 In use, a hub 122 rotates axially about the shaft 128
and the chamber 124 rotates with the hub 122. This movement
causes the bearings 132 to slide in the channels 130 and the
rods 134 to reciprocate correspondingly in the guide member
138. In this way the chamber 124 is expanded and retracted so
alternately compressing and driving out compressed refrigerant
through a one way valve 140 and allowing ingress of used
refrigerant through a one way valve 142.
 In FIG. 13, there is shown a wind turbine apparatus
130 which is similar to that shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. In this
embodiment, wind funnels 132 are arranged to direct ambient
wind air over a water surface 134. The water may be brackish
or fresh water. The wind air then passes upwardly through an
upright tube 136 (or a sloping duct on a hillside) to pass
through a wind turbine 10 and thence a condensation chamber
138 having baffles 52 and a sloping floor 54 from which water
flows into a collection trough 56. Exhaust air is vented
through an outlet 58. Absolute humidity of air entering the
apparatus 130 increases and the density of the air is
therefore lowered. Thus, flow of air due to the wind is
augmented by convection as the wet air rises to the wind
 It is also envisaged that the refrigeration compressor
used in the apparatus of the present inventions could be in
the form of a scroll compressor.
 This embodiment of the present invention is
illustrated in FIGS. 14A, 14B and 14C of the accompanying
 In FIG. 14 there is shown a scroll compressor 150
having a housing 151 having mounted therein a circular plate
152. Further, an internal ring gear 154 mounted on a wind
turbine axial shaft (not shown) extends around the internal
periphery of the housing 151. Turbine blades 16 are mounted to
the housing 151 and cause wind to effect axial rotation of the
housing 151 on a fixed shaft (not shown).
 The housing 151 is rotated, in use, by rotation of
blades of a wind turbine as described hereinabove.
 As indicated above, the scroll compressor 150 is
mounted on a bearing on the fixed axial shaft (not shown). One
scroll 156 is attached to the housing 151 whilst another 158
is driven by three planetary gears 160 mounted on the housing
151 disposed at the apex of an equilateral triangle. The gears
160 are driven by the ring gear 154. The scroll 158 maybe
described as a wobbling scroll.
 The gears 160 are asymmetrically connected to the
plate 152 by means of respective pivotal connections 162. In
use the housing 151 is axially rotated by the wind turbine.
This causes the planetary gears to be turned by engagement
with the fixed ring gear 154. This causes the ring gear 154 to
rotate and thereby cause rotation of the planetary gears 160.
Rotation of the planetary gears 160 causes the plate 152 to
move in a wobbling motion which causes the scroll 158 to move
 As shown in FIGS. 14A to 14C this causes gaps between
the two scrolls 156 and 158 to be alternately opened up and
closed in a progressive manner. This action leads to
compression of refrigerant vapour contained between the
scrolls such that the vapour is subjected to increased
pressure and is converted-to liquid form.
 As described hereinabove, the compressed liquid
refrigerant is thus urged outwardly of the compressor housing
151 through a tube (not shown) by centrifugal-force. Further,
as described hereinabove, the spent refrigerant returns
through pipes (not shown) to the interior of housing 151 where
it enters the gap between the scrolls 156 and 158.
 In FIGS. 15A and 15B there is shown an alternative
arrangement of scroll compressor 180 useful in the present
invention compared to the scroll compressor of FIG. 14. Like
reference numerals denote like parts. It should be noted in
FIG. 15A that only the scroll 158 is shown.
 In this embodiment there is a central shaft 182 having
mounted thereon a housing 184. The housing is mounted on a
bearing on the shaft 182. The shaft 182 may or may not be
continuous. A central gear wheel 186 is fixedly mounted about
the shaft 182. The gear wheel 186 is connected to three
planetary gears 188.
 Further, as can be seen in FIG. 15B one scroll 156 is
fixed to the housing 184 by any suitable means such as an end
plate (not shown). The other scroll 158 is mounted on an end
plate 190 and is connected to the planetary gears 188 through
eccentric pins 192.
 The shaft 182 and the gear wheel 186 are fixed in
position. The housing 184 is arranged to rotate about the
shaft 182 as described hereinabove. The planetary gears 188
engage with the gear wheel 186 and are thereby caused to
rotate as the housing 184 rotates. This rotation of the
planetary gears 188 causes the scroll 158 to move on the
plates 190 by means of the pins 192 such that the scroll 158
undergoes a wobbly motion as described hereinabove.
 Modifications and variations as would be apparent to a
skilled addressee are deemed to be within the scope of the
GUST WATER TRAP APPARATUS
Also published as: WO2007009184 (A1) // EP1907637 (A0)
APPARATUS FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER
Apparatus for purification or water having an evaporation
chamber (3), a roof (5) and a condensation chamber (8) and
wind air inlet means (14, 15). The evaporation chamber (3)
contains a body of impure water (2) and the roof (5) can
transmit solar radiation. The solar radiation heats the impure
water, increases evaporation and wind air from the wind air
inlet (14, 15) moves the water laden air into the condensation
chamber (8) where water condenses.
CROSS-AXIS WIND TURBINE ENERGY CONVERTER
The invention relates to a wind energy converter apparatus
(10) which comprises an incoming wind guide (12), a cross-axis
wind turbine (18), a wind containing region (16) and a wind
outlet (24). Preferably, means is provided for cooling the
wind air to enhance precipitation of moisture from the wind
air in the apparatus.
Apparatus and method for cooling of air