Daily News ( 6 December 1973 )
Inventor claims engine can end energy
Mattoon, IL -- Ken Wiseley, high school dropout, one-time
journeyman auto machnaic and now an inventor with 96 patents [ ?
], claims to have produced a prototype electromagnetic engine that
could end the energy crisis.
But Gerald Saletta, an assistant professor of electrical
engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago,
said Wiseley's engine is nothing but a new version of fabled
perpetual motion machine that "violates all the principles of
Wiseley, 43, who works out of a tiny one-room wooden building in
Mattoon, said his engine "is the end result of 30 years of
His 10-pound prototype engine "turns out 20 to 25 horsepower", he
says. A 200-pounder could produce enough electricity to light the
entire city of Mattoon, whose population is 19,800, he says.
In design, Wiseley says, the engine is very like an internal
combustion engine. It contains steel pistons inside aluminum
At the top of each cylinder is an electromagnet. The magnetic
poles of the electromagnet are constantly reversed from positive
to negative, and thus cause the pistons to go up and down.
Once it gets going -- you start it with a 12-volt battery -- the
engine is self-generating", Wiseley said. "It can be used in
autos, in homes to run everything electrical, including heating
them. The cost would be about $2000."
Saletta said if Wiseley's machine actually does what he claims,
"then he's really got a whiz-bang -- he's got something better
than Commonwealth Edison."
Wiseley apparently contemplates turning off the battery after he
gets the engine started, Saletta said, and that would leave him
with nothing to power his electromagnets, the heart of the system.
"It's a basic law of physics that you can't get energy out without
putting something in", Saletta said. "He may well have gotten a
machine started that seems to work. But he won't get any more out
of it than he puts in."
Electro-magnetic reciprocating motor
A magnetic motor wherein a piston mounted magnet is reciprocated
through a predetermined stroke in timed relation to polarity
reversal of a pair of electro-magnetic assemblies at opposite
axial ends of the piston cylinder. Polarity reversal and the
intensity of the magnetic field is varied as a function of piston
movement through a distributor to control the output of the motor.
Hysteresis and flux leakage is reduced by an arrangement of
permanent magnets and magnetic spheroids associated with one of
the electro-magnetic assemblies.
This invention relates to the conversion of electrical energy into
mechanical energy and more particularly to a magnetic motor of the
Reciprocating types of magnetic motors wherein a magnetic piston
is reciprocated relative to a varying magnetic field, is well
known. Such magnetic motors have not performed efficiently and
have not therefore been generally adopted for commercial or
industrial purposes. One of the main drawbacks of such magnetic
motors, has been the energy losses resulting from hysteresis and
flux leakage. It is therefore an important object of the present
invention to provide a more efficient magnetic motor of the
reciprocating type which overcomes the aforementioned drawbacks of
prior art arrangements.
The prior art of which applicant is aware, includes the
disclosures in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,394,295, 3,444,402, 3,534,203,
3,539,845 and 3,686,521.
In accordance with the present invention, a permanent magnet
secured to a reciprocating piston, is reciprocated through a
predetermined stroke within a cylinder on which a pair of
electro-magnetic devices are mounted adjacent opposite axial ends.
The current conducted through the magnetic field producing
windings associated with the electro-magnetic devices, is
controlled through a distributor to both produce a reversal in
polarity of the magnetic fields and to vary the magnitude of the
magnetic fields between polarity reversals in order to maintain
reciprocating movement of the piston by magnetic attraction and
repulsion. In order to reduce hysteresis, and the energy losses
incident thereto, a plurality of magnetic spheroids are immersed
in a body of damping fluid enclosed within a cavity disposed in
axial alignment with the flux emitting face associated with one of
the electro-magnetic devices. Sector shaped permanent magnets
angularly spaced in enclosing relation to the magnetic field
producing winding together with axially spaced permanent bar
magnets of opposite polarity, are mounted on the core associated
with the aforementioned electro-magnetic device in order to
concentrate magnetic flux through the reciprocating piston magnet
to thereby reduce flux leakage.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become
subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and
operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed,
reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part
hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout.
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of one embodiment of a
magnetic reciprocating motor constructed in accordance with the
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the magnetic motor shown in
FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially
through a plane indicated by section line 3--3 in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially
through a plane indicated by section line 4--4 in FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially
through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG. 3, with
parts broken away.
FIG. 6 is a partial sectional view taken substantially
through a plane indicated by section line 6--6 in FIG. 2.
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of one of the sector shaped
permanent magnets associated with one of the electro-magnetic
assemblies on the magnetic motor shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 8 is a simplified electrical circuit diagram of
typical controls associated with the magnetic motor.
FIG. 9 is a simplified block diagram illustrating the
energy conversion system associated with the present invention.
One form of a magnetic reciprocating motor constructed in
accordance with the present invention, is shown in FIG. 1 and is
generally denoted by reference numeral 10. The motor includes a
base 12 to which a vertical, tubular housing or cylinder 14 is
bolted by means of fasteners 16 extending through a flange 18
formed at the lower end of the cylinder. A pair of electromagnetic
assemblies 20 and 22 are mounted on the cylinder adjacent opposite
axial ends. A rotating mechanical output is obtained from the
motor through a power shaft extending horizontally from the base
to which an output pulley wheel 24 may be connected. The pulley
wheel may be drivingly connected to any desired mechanical load or
to an electrical generator.
As diagrammatically shown in FIG. 9, energy may be supplied to the
motor 10 from an electrical source 26 through a speed control
device 28 and a distributor 30. A driving connection 32 is
provided between the output of the motor and the distributor 30 in
order to control the supply of electrical energy to the motor as a
function of the mechanical movement produced by the motor.
Referring now to FIG. 3 in particular, the base 12 and cylinder 14
are preferably made of a non-ferrous metal such as aluminum. The
cylinder is internally provided with guide rails 34 to guide
slidable reciprocating movement of a piston member 36 to which an
elongated cylindrical shaped permanent magnet 38 of smaller
diameter is threadedly connected by means of the threaded
connector 40. Keyway slots 35 are formed in the piston member 36
for slidably receiving the guide rails 34. The radial clearance
between the cylinder 14 and the magnet 38 will form a cooling
passage for air circulation during reciprocation of the magnet to
help maintain the proper temperature, as more clearly seen in FIG.
5. The piston member 36 is connected by means of a wrist pin 42 to
a connecting rod 44 which extends into the base 12 from the
cylinder. The connecting rod is connected by means of a crankpin
46 to a crank 48 to which the output shaft of the motor is
connected. The piston member 36, and the connecting rod 44 are
made of non-magnetic materials such as stainless steel. Thus, the
flux path for the magnetic field generated by the electro-magnetic
devices 20 and 22 is mostly confined to paths extending axially
through the reciprocating permanent magnet 38 connected to the
The electro-magnetic assembly 20 includes a core made of aluminum
and generally referred to by reference numeral 50. The core 50
includes a cylindrical portion 52 which extends from a flux
emitting face 53 closing the upper end of the cylinder 14 and an
annular spool portion 54 to which the upper flange 56 of the
cylinder is connected by fasteners 58. A magnetic field producing
winding 60 is mounted within the spool portion 54 of the core 50
and is electrically connected to the source of electrical energy
26 as aforementioned through the distributor 30 as will be
explained in detail hereafter. The other electromagnetic assembly
22 also includes a core 62 made of aluminum and secured to the
cylinder 14 adjacent the lower end. The core 62 also includes a
spool portion 64 on which a magnetic field producing winding 66 is
mounted, the winding 66 also being connected to the source of
electrical energy through the distributor 30. A protective flange
68 extends from the core 62 in parallel spaced relationship to the
spool portion 64.
The direction of current and the magnitude of current is
controlled through the distributor in order to maintain a smooth
and continuous reciprocating movement of the magnet 38 by magnetic
attraction and repulsion. Toward that end, the electrical source
26 such as a battery as illustrated in FIG. 8, is connected
through a rheostat type of speed control 28 to the rotating wiper
arms associated with variable resistors 70, 72, 74 and 76. The
resistors or distributor coils 70 and 72 are interconnected in
series with the electromagnetic winding 60 so as to vary the
resistance connected in series therewith as an inverse function of
wiper arm movement. The rheostat winding 70 is therefore wound so
that its coil spacing increases in the direction of wiper arm
movement during a phase somewhat less than 180 DEG during which
current, decreasing at a rate proportional to movement of magnet
38 is conducted through winding 60 to generate a magnetically
attractive force between magnet 38 and magnetic assembly 20.
During the next 180 DEG phase, current is directed in the opposite
direction through winding 60 by wiper contact with rheostat
winding 72 to generate a repelling force between magnet 38 and the
assembly 20. The rheostat windings 74 and 76 operate in a similar
fashion but are synchronized so that current is conducted through
winding 66 to generate a magnetic force opposite to the force
generated by current in winding 60. The resistor wiper arms are
drivingly connected in any suitable fashion to the mechanical
output of the motor in order to synchronize the reciprocating
movement of the piston with the change in the resistances
connected in series with the electro-magnetic windings 60 and 66.
The energizing circuit through the windings 60 and 66 in series
with the resistances is completed through polarity reversing
switch devices 78 and 80 which are also rotated by the driving
connection 32. By means of the foregoing arrangement, the
variation in the intensity of the magnetic field and the polarity
of the magnetic field established by the electro-magnetic
assemblies 20 and 22 will be varied in proper relation to the
reciprocating motion of the piston to yield a smooth, continuous
power output without undue jarring of the piston magnet 38. The
speed of the motor output and the associated torque, may be varied
by controlling the magnitude of the current conducted through the
electro-magnetic coils and toward that end, the speed controlling
rheostat 28 is adjusted.
In order to concentrate the energy associated with the magnetic
fields produced by the electro-magnetic assemblies, each of the
electro-magnetic assemblies is provided with a plurality of
sector-shaped, permanent magnets 82. As more clearly seen in FIG.
7, each of the magnets 82 includes parallel spaced plate portions
84 interconnected by a radially outer arcuate connector portion 86
that converge outwardly to an edge 88. The magnets 82 have pole
faces along the radially inner edges 90. The permanent magnets 82
are positioned on the spool portions 54 and 64 of the
electro-magnetic cores in angularly spaced relationship to each
other as more clearly seen in FIGS. 2 and 4 to thereby embrace the
electro-magnetic windings 60 and 66 mounted within the spool
portions of the cores. The sector-shaped magnets 82 are retained
in position by pairs of annular retainer rings 92 engaging the
arcuate portions 86 of the magnets above and below the edges 88,
each pair of retainer rings 92 being interconnected by fastener
assemblies 94 as more clearly seen in FIG. 3. Furthermore, the
permanent magnets 82 are of opposite polarity adjacent to each
other as indicated in FIGS. 2 and 4. According to one theory, the
permanent magnets 82 confine the energy of the electro-magnetic
fields produced by current in the windings to smaller orbits about
the coils of the windings. Further, the alternate polarity of the
permanent magnets 82 will augment the energy confining effect of
the magnets by virtue of their physical relationship to the
In order to prevent escape of magnetic energy or flux leakage,
radially positioned bar magnets 96 are positioned in axially
spaced relationship to each other within cylindrical bores 98
formed in the core 50 as more clearly seen in FIGS. 4 and 6. The
bar magnets 96 are retained in the bores 98 by threaded caps 100.
The axially spaced bar magnets are of opposite polarity in order
to form closed magnetic flux paths that will entrap any magnetic
flux energy attempting to escape from the upper axial end of the
electro-magnetic assembly 20.
In order to reduce the energy losses that otherwise occur from
magnetic hysteresis, a cavity 102 is formed in the core 50
associated with the electro-magnetic device 20 as more clearly
seen in FIGS. 3 and 6, the cavity being closed by a threaded end
cap 104. The cavity is filled with a damping fluid 106 in which a
plurality of magnetic spheroids 108 are immersed. These magnetic
spheroids are soft iron spherical balls that are nickel or
chromium plated. Upon collapsing of the electro-magnetic field
produced by the electro-magnetic assemblies, the spheroids will
have a tendency to rotate 90 DEG and align their weak poles with
each other. Upon reversal of polarity, the poles will swing on
additional 90 DEG to align themselves with the prevailing polarity
of the magnetic field in order to concentrate flux lines from the
flux emitting face 53. Over travel of the balls as a result of the
polarity reversals, is prevented by the damping fluid 106.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles
of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and
changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not
desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and
operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable
modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within
the scope of the invention.
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