Electrostatic Amplifier

New Sources of Energy
Alexander FROLOV ( 2021 )

Chapter 5
At the origins of Russian electrical engineering

Considering the history of Russian electrical engineering, let's remember the great Russian scientist Pavel Nikolaevich Yablochkov.

Pavel Nikolaevich was born on September 14, 1847 in the Saratov province. He was trained as a military engineer and served as an officer from 1866 to 1872. In 1875 Yablochkov went to the World's Fair of Inventors in Philadelphia to show the world his new unusually powerful electromagnet. However, he stayed to work in the famous Breguet watch workshop in Paris. In France, Yablochkov patented his inventions and became one of the founders of the French Electrotechnical Society.

Yablochkov's first patent No. 110479, dated November 29, 1875, was issued by the French government for an "electromagnet". A distinctive feature of the Yablochkov electromagnet was that its winding consisted of a flat copper tape wound on one edge so that the plane of the tape was perpendicular to the core. Such an electromagnet was unusually strong compared to other electromagnets of the time.

The fact is that winding flat copper tape "edge on core" allows for a large number of ampere-turns per unit length of core, which provides a high magnetic field strength. To get more ampere turns, the electromagnetic coil is usually wound with a small diameter round wire, but this increases the ohmic resistance and heat loss of the winding. The Yablochkov transformer provides a small electric resistance (low ohmic losses) and a large number of ampere-turns per unit length of the core in the winding.

Note that flat wires increase the efficiency of transformers and can be used in designs with asymmetrical mutual induction. A flat conductor can be wind as the secondary winding of a transformer. In Fig. 36 shows how the field of a flat turn of the secondary winding B2 interacts with the field B1 of the primary coil of the transformer. In this transformer, conditions are created for the asymmetry of magnetic fields. The secondary field has no effect on the primary source, so the load in this transformer has no effect on the primary source. In fact, we can put more power into the load but the consumption power from the primary source will be much less. Fig. 36. Asymmetry of fields in flat coils

Yablochkov's second patent No. 111535, dated February 17, 1876, also mentions the use of a flat tape winding. Note that Tesla and other inventors later also used flat wires in the windings of transformers and electric motors, including the Mobius scheme.

On March 23, 1876, Yablochkov received a patent for a lighting lamp, the so-called "Yablochkov candle".

In 1877 he received a French patent for a magnetic dynamo-electric alternating current machine in which the coils of wires are stationary. The rotation of the toothed iron disk caused changes in the magnetic flux. In fact, it is one of the first high performance generator designs (today we name it as alternators). This device generates the electromotive force but it does not decelerate the rotor. So, it can be high efficient and overunity. After 1877, Yablochkov's scheme was repeated by many inventors in their designs of free energy generators. Today we call such devices "generators without back EMF". In such generators, a low power motor can drive a much higher power generator. So, this motor-generator system can be autonomous and work without an external power source.

We also have to mention his priorities in the invention of the world's first electromagnetic energy transformer for industrial use, French patent No. 115793 dated November 30, 1876. In addition to the French patent, Yablochkov received Russian and German patents on April 6, 1878 for the world's first electromagnetic energy transformer. In the German history of transformers, Uppenborn writes: “In 1878 we encounter the first industrial use of induction coils for lighting; that year Yablochkov accepted the German patent No. 1630, which he used to power his lamps. "

It is important for developers of free energy generators to know that Yablochkov found a way to use air (ionization of the environment) as a "source of free electrons" to increase the power in the circuit of lighting lamps.

On September 13, 1877, Professor Egorov published a report in the Russian Physicochemical Society on Yablochkov's inventions, including the question of "introducing large capacitors in the generator circuit to increase the power of the lamps".Fig. 37 shows a diagram of the distribution of alternating current with capacitors according to the French patent No. 120684 of October 11, 1877 for "A system for distributing and amplifying currents by atmospheric electricity coming from one power source for the simultaneous supply of several Lamps ".

Fig. 37. Amplifying currents by atmospheric electricity

In the book "Electric Lighting" published in 1883, De Monsel writes: "In order to increase the light output of electric candles, Yablochkov came up with the idea of using capacitors with a large surface area."

Note that in addition to flat plates, Yablochkov used special "needle capacitors", so to speak "hedgehogs", similar to brushes with metal needles. It is known that the tip of the electrode improves air ionization conditions. The ionization of air is necessary to introduce additional free electrons into the circuit in order to increase the strength of the current.

Yablochkov explained: “I force the dynamic electricity supplied by the energy source to undergo a double conversion - first into static electricity and then back into dynamic electricity. The wire coming from the alternating current machines must be connected to the inner electrode of the Leiden capacitor or the capacitor of a special device and the second wire to be connected to the lamp. The addition of the capacitors not only allows energy to be distributed in different directions, but also has the goal of creating atmospheric electricity that accumulates in the capacitors... Therefore, the sum of the amount of electricity sent to the light sources is greater than the current drawn by the original energy source is generated. "

A similar solution can be found in modern designs of high voltage free energy generators. During their operation, air ionization is detected (Swiss generator "Testatika" in Methernitha) or the authors use the ground connection as a source of free electrons (Kapanadze generators). The perforated metal elements of the TESTATIKA generator arean analogy of the Yablochkov needle "hedgehogs" capacitors.

Russian academician Nikolai Dmitrievich Papaleksi, dating back to the 50s of the last century. He wrote about the possibility of achieving the parametric generator efficiency "much more than 99%".

The greatest French physicists of the time, for example Mascard and Warren-Delarue, were present at Yablochkov's experiments and found that the sum of the currents from the capacitor plates into the ground was twice that of the primary generator. Notice that they write of "currents coming from the ground". A large number of free electrons, which are set in motion by a change in electrical potential in a single-core electrical line, can only be provided if the circuit is grounded and a "large-area capacitor" is present which "stores atmospheric electricity".

Grounding is a source of free electrons and a condition for generating high currents in the payload circuit. This principle is used in many free energy generators, for example by Kapanadze. This principle also applies to single-wire power lines developed by scientists from the Institute for Electrofication of Agriculture in Moscow (authors Avramenko, Strebkov, etc.).

It is interesting to note that the electrical lighting systems of Yablochkov times were single-wire, meaning they only had one wire and the other end of the wire was connected to ground. Later we will look at a similar modern power line that uses only one wire. In the days of Yablochkov there was no electricity power meter, payment was made at a fixed price (subscription fee).

The second factor to consider for Yablochkov’s inventions is resonance. The presence of inductances and capacitors in the circuits can increase voltage in resonance mode. In fact, Yablochkov was the first to use resonance transformers in Russia as a combination of inductors and powerful capacitors.

Yablochkov was the founder of the French Society of Electrical Engineers, but he sold all of his shares and bought his inventions from the French Society for one million francs to get rights for development of these technologies in Russia. Yablochkov came to St. Petersburg and founded a company there called “Yablochkov-Inventor and Company. Association for electrical lighting and the manufacture of electrical appliances and machines in Russia”. Yablochkov built a factory in St. Petersburg that manufactured transformers and lighting systems. The Russian Navy actively took advantage of Yablochkov's inventions. The English press wrote that the success of the Russians in the naval wars was largely determined by the use of electrical lighting and electrical machines on Russian warships.

In 1887, Yablochkov received a patent for a galvanic cell that uses hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity. It was one of the first fuel cells in the World to be widely used now in 21st century.

It is known that Yablochkov was interested in aviation and methods of creating a driving force (traction) for cars. He was granted a patent for an electric car, which modern engineers are currently working on to produce.

Yablochkov's patents are extremely important for developers of high-efficiency power generators. His idea that the current intensity in the lamp circuit can be increased by "atmospheric electricity" is implemented in many modern projects of energy sources with an efficiency of more than 100%.

New Energy Technology, Vol. 1, p. 68

Power Output can be More than Power Input

by Alexander V. Frolov

    Pavel N. Yablotchkov was born in 1847 near Saratov, Russia. He graduated as a Military Engineer in 1866 and spent several years in the Russian Army. In 1872 he came to Moscow and started his activities in the electrotechnical field. From 1875 he worked in Paris with well-known Louis Breget and his first patent in France # 110479 (29 November 1875) was about an electromagnetic transformer. Then he patented and developed a lighting system (the famous Yablotchkov’s electrical candle). In 1887 he patented a new electromagnetic transformer for industrial applications, France # 115793 (30 November 1876).

    The most interesting patent claim for over-unity by Pavel Yablotchkov is known as France patent # 120684 (11 October 1877), The System of Distribution and Amplification of Electrical Currents by Means of Atmospheric Electricity. The patent describes special capacitors connected in series with the load, to increase output current by means of ionization. Experiments were produced together with well-known physicists (such as Dr Maskar, Dr Varren-Delaru and others) and they confirmed 200% efficiency of the circuit. Let’s try to explain the method. Figure 1 is a schematic drawing from Yablotchkov’s patent. The Leyden jar is not a symmetrical capacitor, i.e., it is different in principle from a two-plate flat capacitor. The inner electrode of the jar should be connected to a high voltage source and in this case the changes of  [ … missing text in original… ].

    In the opposite case it does not work and if you connect a high voltage source to the external cathode no potential changes will be detected on the inner electrode. Connection to ground or to a special plate (that is covered by many needles to increase air ionization) is necessary to collect the maximum electrons on the plate surface or to return the maximum electrons from the plate surface when changes of potential in the external electrode are produced by means of electrical induction in the Leyden jar.

    As a conclusion I should note that one more supposition about the secrets of the well-known Swiss M-L converter (Methernitha). The main elements of the design are Leyden jar capacitors, which have the external surface made of perforated metal.

    The other known fact is that great ionization of air is observed when the converter is in operation. So, the electrostatics machine can produce pulses of very high voltage (potential difference) but it can’t be used as a source of powerful current. We should use some method to increase the current in the circuit and Yablotchkov’s technology is quite a good idea for this. A large surface of external electrode of the Leyden jar can solve the problem. Maximum strong ionization allows us to get output current several times stronger than the weak current from the electrostatic machine.

"M. Jablotchoff has proposed to use for the divisibility of light sources, the AC of the magneto-electric machine of the more intercalated light sources not directly between the poles, but by the capacitors or Leyden jars.

"In Figure 36-1 we see the assumption of interspersed light sources through the earth and in Figure 2 is taken as pole weary land and sources of light are intercalated between the outer frame of the Layden jarsand earth, or between the branch of the armatures of the bottle (Figure 3).

"In the latter two cases M. Jabochkoff intended to use atmospheric electricity to increase the action of the machine."


A New System of Distributing and Increasing with Atmospheric Electricity Currents proceeding from a Single Source of Electricity for the purpose of Supplying several Lighting Centres

December 1877

My Invention has for its object the distribution of electric currents proceeding from a single source of electricity for the purpose of supplying at the same time a number of illuminating apparatus, and at the same time to strengthen such currents by means of atmospheric electricity.

In order to obtain useful results from a current proceeding from a source of dynamic electricity instead of operating directly with the said currents as heretofore, I, according to my present Invention, cause the same to undergo a double transformation by firstly converting the dynamic electricity into statical  electricity, and then reconverting this into dynamic electricity, and it is by means of the latter current that I obtain useful results. For the above purpose, instead of closing the circuit of a source of electricity by means of a continuous conductor as heretofore, I unite the conductor coming from one of the poles of the electrical source with one of the armatures of a condenser, composed of one or more Leyden jars of large surface, or constructed as will be presently described.

The other conductor is connected in various ways, of which the principal ones are shown in the accompanying Drawings.

At Figure 1, the one conductor a, proceeding from a magneto-electric machine A ( giving alternating currents ) is connected with the interior surfaces of several Leyden jars B, B, or of the condenser C, which is of a particular construction. The outer armatures of these condensers are connected to one of the charcoal points D of my electric candle, or with one of the ends of the slab of kaolin E ( operating as described in the Specification of my former Patent, No. 1996 of 1877 ). The other charcoal point, or the other end of the kaolin slab is connected to the second conductor a1 of the electric machine.

At Figure 2, the two conductors, a, a1, proceeding from a magneto-electric machine, with alternating currents, are connected to the inner surfaces of the condensers B,B,C,C. The outer armatures of these conductors are connected with the apparatus for producing light, of which the second charcoal point D. or the other end of the kaolin slab E, is connected with earth.

At Figure 3 the two conductors proceeding from the said machine are connected with the interior armatures of the condensers. The outer armatures at the left hand of the machine A are connected with earth, while at the right hand they are connected to pointed prongs p, p, which allow more readily the escape of the electricity into the air. In this case the illuminating apparatus is placed between the inner and outer armatures.

The interposition of the condensers not only allows the current to be distributed in several directions as I have described it, it also has the object of developing atmospheric electricity and of accumulating it in the condensers from which it is directed in the form of currents to the illuminating apparatus. The total quantity of electricity supplied to the apparatus is therefore greater than that supplied by the primitive current, and subsequently produces a stronger light that that which the latter would give if led directly to the illuminating apparatus.

It will be evident that this electricity can, according as may be required, be supplied either in quantity or in tension.

Instead of Leyden jars it is more convenient to use as condensers those of the construction shown at Figures 4 and 5. That shown at Figure 4 consists of plates or layers of metal f, f, separated by insulating slabs l,l, the metal plates, Nos. 1, 3, 5, &c., and  Nos. 2, 4, 6, &c., being respectively connected with each other. Each set of plates acts as one of the armatures of the Leyden jars.

For obtaining greater tension the insulating layers are constructed of a number of alternate insulating and conducting leaves or plates which are not in contact with one another, as shown at Figure 5.

The form of the condensers may be varied, and several may be connected in quantity or in tension...

patent 4