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Richard AHO

Impact Steam Generator







See also : Karl SCHAEFFER : Steam Generator -- Simpler, & tested by Batelle @ 128% efficient ( Aho does not seem to be aware of this, or does not acknowledge it ).



http://www.mistenergysystems.com

Richard E. Aho

4170 N.W.42 St.
Lauderdale Lakes, FL 33319

Phone: 954.771.0435
Cell: 954.496.3838
Fax: 954.771.1875
E-Mail:  reaho@comcast.net

OVERVIEW

A Scientific Explanation

"...Secondly, our steam is not generated directly from an external heat source; rather it is produced by hyper-sonic high impact molecular collisions which take place in our impact chambers which are located at the point of energy need.  This method of producing super-heated dry steam eliminates both the energy needed for the boiling of the water and the energy lost during the transportation of the steam.
WHERE DOES THE ENERGY COME FROM?...

"Our water jet pump was originally designed to cut aluminum or other metals at up to 40,000 psi. To avoid destruction of our Impact Chamber, we limited our operation to no more than 30,000 psi. Next we use 4 Ford Diesel Piezo Injectors with our choice of Ford Atomizers, in this example they all have 6 orifices.

"In our display, all 4 Piezo Injectors have an identical cycle, each opens for 3 mil seconds 15 times a second as scheduled.  This will convert 2 lbs of water a minute to super-heated steam as needed.

"Our test pump uses a 10 H.P. motor, and at 30,000 psi, is limited to 120 lbs. of water an hour, using 7.5 KW hr.  In south Florida this costs $0.82 an hour which gives us a cost of super-heated steam at $0.00683 per pound of water.

"Each injection in this test is 0.285 ml x 4 injectors x 15 times per second, resulting in a total of 60 injections per second which is 3600 injections per minute creating 2 lbs of super-heated steam.

"The simple physics behind our new Technology is that we convert liquid water into super-heated steam mechanically. WE DONíT BOIL THE WATER.

"Using U.S. Government charts that measure the Specific Kinetic energy (J/kg):    We have performed hundreds of tests with many different size atomizers and as many different velocities. We quickly learned it was a waste of time using lower pressure injections (under 10,000 psi). At first, using lower pressure injections, at 7,000 psi we measured 810 meters/second velocity, and our impact had only 320,000 J/kg, and our molecules just bounced about with no intermolecular separation upon Impact.

"Next using another atomizer and double the pressure (15,000 psi) we reached a super-sonic speed of 1,700 meters per second. You will note that our mechanical advantage DID NOT DOUBLE to 640,000J/kg.  Instead, it increased 4 fold, to 1,400,000 J/kg.

"This mechanical advantage comes from the fact that the energy needed to increase the velocity is linear and to double the velocity you double the energy. However, the specific kinetic energy derived from the Impact of the water clusters is increased exponentially. One needs only to look at the projectile speed charts to understand the effect of speed upon the specific energy upon impact.

"With 30,000 psi our velocity exceeds 3,000 meters per second, or 3.7 times our original test at 810 meters/second. The Impact heat at 810 meters/second is 320,000 J/Kg. The result at 3,000 meters/second is 4,500,000 (J/kg).  The Mechanical Advantage is simple math.   You would expect the result to be 3.7 times or 1,185,185 (J/kg) if the increase was linear.   However, exponentially, our Impact heat increased 14 times. 320,000 x 14 = 4,480,000   Speed to impact energy ratios are available in most physics books.

"In conclusion, at an incredibly low cost of $0.00683 for converting each pound of water into steam, our MIST system is far less expensive that natural gas or nuclear power, and is the least expensive and environmental friendly energy creating system in history.

"The energy we must apply in order for our 10 HP pump to produce the required pressure to process 120 lbs. of water per hour is  7.46 Kw which is 124.3 watts per minute to pump 2 lbs. 0f water at 30,000 psi and a velocity of 3,000 m/s.  This gives us and output of 1139 watts using only 124.3 watts of energy.  The rest of the energy comes from the energy contained within the bonding of the molecules of water..."





http://theenergycollective.com/markecaine/201826/new-energy-sources-unlock-energy-innovation-technology
May 28, 2013

Richard Aho says:

"I agree, but nobody cares. It is well known from tests around the planet, that you have two ways to liberate the hydrogen bond energy, discharged in the form of water kinetic energy. After the discovery of hydrogen bond energy liberation in water turbines in 1923 by American chemist Gilbert Lewis, the chemistry establishment simply failed to explore the effects it has on chemistry experiments.

" The Anomalous Fragmentation of Water Clusters at UltraFast Impacts" This paper shows that at very high velocity impacts the cluster will fragment completely into neutral molecules and one hydronium ion. This happens at 1,500 ms. Quite easy to do using modfified Ford diesel Injectors. However nobody believes this liberated engery is related to the latent heat of water. Nobody understands how I can mechanically change liquid water into super-heated steam by impact heating. With out boiling the water, upon contact we experience a water arc explosion, termed the clusterelectric effect (CEE) during the short time of surface contact which is on the order of a few picoseconds.

"History of Water Arc Explosions.  First noticed at Harvard in 1907 by Trowbridge, second World War Frungel (1948) published his results, freely admited that he was unable to explain the phenomenon. In 1969 US Bureau of mines noticed the output energy was 156% of the input. But was treated as an error. In the mid-1980's at MIT It was shown the discharge of 3.6 KJ of stored capacitor energy would create pressures in excess of 20,000 atm ( 286,000 psi) in 7ml of water.

"Water Arc Explosions have been harnessed for energy, by Mist ( Molecular Impact Energy) But this is not acceptable because it violates energy conversation, the American chemistry establishment refuses to accept, that Impact heating at 1.7 Km second can discharge energy from hydrogen bonds.

"We are running a 113 cubic engine by liberating the energy in water arc explosions, other tests we generate super-heated steam using about 500 btu a lb, but nobody accepts our results, because using current education we violate energy conversation. Nobody cares enough, to see if an unknown energy source comes into play.



WO2013089858
GENERATION OF STEAM BY IMPACT HEATING  


Also published as:     US2013145997

Abstract

Apparatus for generating steam, the apparatus including a source of liquid water, an injector in flow communication with the source of water for injecting liquid water from the source of water at a pressure of at least about 10,000 psia, and an impact chamber having a contact surface onto which the injected water is contacted. Upon impact of the injected water with the contact surface of the impact chamber, the injected water undergoes a virtually instantaneous phase transition from the liquid state to a gaseous state following the contact of the water with the contact surface, thereby generating steam.

FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates to steam generation. More particularly, the disclosure relates to methods and apparatus for generating steam by injecting small amounts of water at high speed into an impact chamber.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Conventional attempts to heat water to provide steam require substantial heat and energy requirements, especially for the production of superheated steam. For example, superheated steam boilers typically further heat steam that has already been vaporized from water. High temperature steam is essential for use in modern power generation and other steam driven applications. The process of heating steam in superheat boilers is an energy intensive thermodynamic process heavily dependent on fossil fuel. Given the background scenario of diminishing energy supplies and environmental air quality considerations, more energy efficient steam generation processes are desired.

[0003] In accordance with the present disclosure, steam, including superheated steam, may be produced in a process by which liquid water is substantially instantaneously converted to a gas state using apparatus configured to transform multiple, sequential injections of water into gas. It has been discovered that steam and superheated steam can be generated using the apparatus, with much lower heat and energy requirements as compared to conventional methods and apparatus.

SUMMARY

[0004] The above and other needs are met by an apparatus for generating steam. In one aspect, the apparatus includes a source of liquid water, an injector in flow communication with the source of water for injecting liquid water from the source of water at a pressure of at least about 10,000 psia, and an impact chamber having a contact surface onto which the injected water is contacted.

[0005] Upon impact of the injected water with the contact surface of the impact chamber, the injected water undergoes a virtually instantaneous phase transition from the liquid state to a gaseous state following the contact of the water with the contact surface, thereby generating steam. In an alternative embodiment, superheated steam is produced.

[0006] In yet another aspect of the disclosure, there is provide a method for generating steam. The method includes the steps of providing a source of liquid water; providing an injector in flow communication with the source of water; providing an impact chamber having a contact surface; and using the injector to inject liquid water from the source of water at a pressure of at least about 10,000 psia into the impact chamber for contact with the contact surface.

[0007] Upon impact of the injected water with the contact surface of the impact chamber, the injected water undergoes a virtually instantaneous phase transition from the liquid state to a gaseous state following the contact of the water with the contact surface, thereby generating steam.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] Further advantages of the disclosure are apparent by reference to the detailed description when considered in conjunction with the figures, which are not to scale so as to more clearly show the details, wherein like reference numbers indicate like elements throughout the several views, and wherein:

[0009] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of apparatus for generating steam according to one embodiment of the disclosure.



[0010] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of apparatus for generating steam according to another embodiment of the disclosure.



[0011] FIG. 3 is a graph showing pressure as a function of time for operation of the apparatus of FIG. 1 to generate steam.



DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] With initial reference to FIG. 1, the disclosure relates in one aspect to a steam generation apparatus 10 configured to act upon introduced water so that the water undergoes a virtually instantaneous phase transition from the liquid state to the gaseous state following the collision of an atomized water jet with a hard surface, thereby generating steam. The gas is thereafter expanded and maintained at a temperature of at least about 299[deg.] F., and may be routed thereafter for use. For example, the steam may be used for cleaning purposes, to run a turbine for generating electricity, and for various uses for which steam is typically used.

[0013] It has been discovered that the apparatus is able to generate steam, as well as superheated steam, using substantially less energy than is conventionally required to generate steam and superheated steam.

[0014] The apparatus 10 includes, as major components, an injector 12 having an atomizer 14, an impact chamber 16, and an expansion chamber 18.

[0015] The injector 12 is configured to introduce discrete pulses of water, each pulse having a volume of from about 0.1 to about 0.5 ml, at a pressure of from about 10,000 psia to about 29,000 psia, to inject the water at a speed in the hypersonic speed range, of between about 1,710 m/s and 3,415 m/s. The injector 12 is computer controlled to continuously inject the discrete injections of water to continuously generate steam.

[0016] The water is introduced via a supply line 20 and the water can be at any temperature that the water is in the liquid state at the introduced pressure. For example, the injector 12 may be a hydraulic pressure fuel injector, having a pump 22 for pressuring oil within a conduit 24. The atomizer 14 is configured to provide the desired volume pulses of water at the desired pressure, to yield the desired velocity. The atomizer 14 may have multiple orifices, with the diameter of each orifice ranging from about 0.005 inches to about 0.010 inches. For example, the atomizer 14 may have seven orifices, with each orifice having a diameter of 0.007 inches. By injecting the desired volume of water at a desired hypersonic speed, it has been discovered that steam and superheated steam may be generated with low energy input. In this regard, higher injection velocities result in higher temperatures within the impact chamber 16.

[0017] The impact chamber 16 is located to receive water ejected from the injector 12 via the atomizer 14 and is configured to expand in dimension away from the atomizer 14, and is preferably configured as an inverted funnel. The impact chamber 16 preferably has a volume of from about 2 ml to about 10 ml. The chamber 16 includes an impact surface 26 onto which the atomized water jet from the atomizer 14 collides. It has been discovered that by injecting pulses of water as described, the water undergoes a virtually instantaneous phase transition from the liquid state to the gaseous state following the collision of the atomized water jet with the surface 26. The impact chamber 16 is made of stainless steel, with the impact surface 26 preferably being polished. The perimeter of the impact surface 26 is advantageously insulated. However, it has been observed that it is not necessary to provide auxiliary heating to the impact chamber 16, as the continuous generation of steam results in maintenance of the impact chamber 16 at high temperatures associated with steam.

[0018] The expansion chamber 18 is positioned to receive the steam generated within the impact chamber 16, and to route it for subsequent use. The steam is routed to the expansion chamber 18 as by one or more conduits or ports 28 that extend between the impact chamber 16 and the expansion chamber 18. The expansion chamber 18 includes one or more heaters 30, such as electric heaters, to maintain the expansion chamber 18 at a temperature of from about 299[deg.] F. to about 1200[deg.] F. so as to maintain the steam therein at the desired state, with the expansion chamber 18 also preferably being insulated to reduce heat losses. The steam may be routed from the expansion chamber 18 for use as by use of a conduit 32. The expansion chamber 18 has a volume larger than the impact chamber 16, preferably from about 20 to about 40 ml.

[0019] In this regard, it has been observed that the temperature generated from impacting water in the impact chamber 16 as described yields a temperature within the impact chamber 16 of at least about 800[deg.] F., such that superheated steam is generated. In this regards, temperatures of about 2,000[deg.] F. have been observed in the impact chamber 16. However, if non-superheated steam is the desired end product to be provided from the expansion chamber 18, then it is only necessary to maintain the expansion chamber 18 at a temperature of about 299[deg.] F. However, if superheated steam is desired to be obtained from the expansion chamber 18, then the expansion chamber 18 should be maintained at higher temperatures, such as above about 800[deg.] F.

[0020] In accordance with another embodiment, and with reference to FIG. 2, there is shown an apparatus 40 for generating superheated steam. The apparatus 40 has multiple injectors 42, each of the injectors 42 having an associated atomizer 44, an impact chamber 46, and an expansion chamber 48. The injectors 42 are preferably piezoelectric injectors. The atomizers 44, impact chambers 46, and the expansion chambers 48 preferably substantially correspond to the previously described atomizer 14, impact chamber 46, and expansion chamber 18. Water is introduced to the injectors 42 as by a supply conduit 50. A stabilizer mount 52 may be provided to position the injectors 42. Also, as piezoelectric injectors may be disadvantageously affected by the heat of the superheated steam generated by the apparatus 40, the atomizers 44 and the associated impact chambers 46 are preferably spaced from the injectors 42 as by conduits 54. The steam is routed to the expansion chambers 48 as by conduits or ports 58 that extend between the impact chambers 46 and the expansion chambers 48. The expansion chambers 48 include heaters 60, such as electric heaters, to maintain the expansion chambers 48 at a temperature of about 299[deg.] F. to about 1200[deg.] F. so as to maintain the steam therein at the desired state. The expansion chambers 48 may be interconnected as by conduits 62, it being understood that one or more flow paths, such as conduit 64, may be provided to route the steam from the expansion chambers 48 for use.

[0021] With reference to FIG. 3, there is shown a graph of pressure as a function of time for a test operation of the apparatus of FIG. 1 to generate steam. The atomizer 14 had seven orifices, with each orifice having a diameter of 0.007 inches. The injector 12 was operated to supply 10 pulses of 0.3 ml of water each, one after the other into the impact chamber 16, at a pressure of 15,000 psia. Each pulse required 8 milliseconds. The expansion chamber 18 was equipped with a strain gauge operational to 425[deg.] F., with 1 my on the gauge equal to 4 psia of pressure.

[0022] In conducting the test operation, the water introduced into the injector 12 was maintained at a temperature of from about 190[deg.] F. to about 210[deg.] F. However, it has been subsequently discovered that the water does not need to be heated and may be provided at lower temperatures. In addition, in conducting the test operation, the impact chamber 16 was initially heated to a temperature of 405[deg.] F., however, it has been subsequently discovered that it is not necessary to supply any initial heating to the impact chamber 16, but that it is advantageous to provide heating to the expansion chamber 18 to maintain the steam routed thereto at the desired state.

[0023] With reference to the graph of FIG. 3, it will be seen that after the injections the strain gauge had a reading of 225 millivolts, which corresponds to approximately 900 psia, it being understood that water in an environment of 900 psia corresponds to steam at a temperature of 531.98[deg.] F. Accordingly, it has been discovered that steam can be very quickly produced. Furthermore, such steam may be maintained at the desired temperature, provided it is contained in an adiabatic vessel.

[0024] The foregoing description of preferred embodiments for this disclosure has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosure to the precise form disclosed. Obvious modifications or variations are possible in light of the above teachings. The embodiments are chosen and described in an effort to provide the best illustrations of the principles of the disclosure and its practical application, and to thereby enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize the disclosure in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. All such modifications and variations are within the scope of the disclosure as determined by the appended claims when interpreted in accordance with the breadth to which they are fairly, legally, and equitably entitled.




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