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Transmutation Patents

[ Not including Transmutation Doping of Silicon ]

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US Patent # 6,442,226

Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements
Venneri, et al.
Abstract -- An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing inventories of plutonium and higher actinides. Uranium, presently the largest volume constituent in nuclear waste, is fully utilized and not discharged as waste. Since no plutonium, higher actinides or fission products are present in the reconstituted fuel elements, the present processes can be used repeatedly. Since the performance of the existing reactors is not changed, full utilization of both thorium and uranium resources is achieved.



US Patent # 6,233,299
Assembly for transmutation of a long-lived radioactive material
Wakabayashi
Abstract -- A new transmutation assembly permits an efficient transmutation of a long-lived radioactive material (long-lived FP nuclides such as technetium-99 or iodine-129) which was produced in the nuclear reactor. Wire-type members of a long-lived radioactive material comprised of metals, alloys or compounds including long-lived FP nuclides are surrounded by a moderator material and installed in cladding tubes to form FP pins. The FP pins, and nothing else, are housed in a wrapper tube to form a transmutation assembly. The wire-type members can be replaced by thin ring-type members. The transmutation assemblies can be selectively and at least partly loaded into a core region, a blanket region or a shield region of a reactor core in a fast reactor. From a viewpoint of reducing the influence on the reactor core characteristics, it is optimal to load the transmutation assemblies into the blanket region.



US Patent # 6,233,298
Apparatus for transmutation of nuclear reactor waste
Bowman
Abstract -- A subcritical reactor-like apparatus for treating nuclear wastes, the apparatus comprising a vessel having a shell and an internal volume, the internal volume housing graphite. The apparatus having means for introducing a fluid medium comprising molten salts and plutonium and minor actinide waste and/or fission products. The apparatus also having means for introducing neutrons into the internal volume wherein absorption of the neutrons after thermalization forms a processed fluid medium through fission chain events averaging approximately 10 fission events to approximately 100 fission events. The apparatus having additional means for removing the processed fluid medium from the internal volume. The processed fluid medium typically has no usefulness for production of nuclear weapons.



US Patent # 5,848,110
Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei
Maenchen, et al.     
Abstract -- The present invention addresses the problems outlined above. An accelerator based on a combination of a high repetition rate high energy pulsed power supply (RHEPP) and a magnetically-injected anode plasma (MAP) source diode is used to provide pulsed particle beams having intermediate energy (0.2-20 MeV) and average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts. This will increase the rate of isotopic production by 2-3 orders of magnitude over processes based on conventional accelerators. Any gaseous ion can be accelerated with this technology (proton, deuteron, and helium beams are of special interest). This capability can be applied to transmute target nuclei selectively into desired isotopes. RHEPP/MAP accelerators are also extremely power efficient and relatively small in size, making application of small units practical in, for example, major local or regional medical facilities. Finally, the use of relatively low beam particle energies reduces or eliminates the problem of undesired products and the subsequent generation of radioactive waste. Although the invention is being discussed in terms of embodiment via the RHEPP/MAP system, any pulsed ion beam generator having sufficient ion kinetic energy and total average beam current can be used in the same manner.



US Patent # 5,764,715
Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei
Maenchen, et al.
Abstract -- Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.



US Patent # 5,160,696
Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux
Bowman
Abstract -- Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.



US Patent # 6,738,446
System and method for radioactive waste destruction
Venneri, et al.
Abstract -- A method for transmuting spent fuel from a nuclear reactor includes the step of separating the waste into components including a driver fuel component and a transmutation fuel component. The driver fuel, which includes fissile materials such as Plutonium.sup.239, is used to initiate a critical, fission reaction in a reactor. The transmutation fuel, which includes non-fissile transuranic isotopes, is transmuted by thermal neutrons generated during fission of the driver fuel. The system is designed to promote fission of the driver fuel and reduce neutron capture by the driver fuel. Reacted driver fuel is separated into transuranics and fission products using a dry cleanup process and the resulting transuranics are mixed with transmutation fuel and re-introduced into the reactor. Transmutation fuel from the reactor is introduced into a second reactor for further transmutation by neutrons generated using a proton beam and spallation target.



WO 02103709 // AU2001297883
Method and apparatus for the transmutation of nuclear waste with tandem production of tritium
Inventor:  EL-SHARAWY EL-BADAWY A
Abstract -- The transmutation of radioactive material using a hybrid transmutation reactor is disclosed wherein a kinetic proton source is used to collisionally induce the transmutation of radioactive material with the generation of thermal neutrons as a byproduct. Additionally, a system and method for the production of Tritium utilizing the thermal neutrons generated in the transmutation process is further described. The present invention offers advantages and improvements over existing nuclear reactor technologies in that nuclear waste may be rendered inert, or otherwise at least partially deactivated and/or made less dangerous, with the substantially simultaneous production of energy and/or Tritium as a byproduct of the transmutation process.



JP2009128300
ELEMENT TRANSMUTATION METHOD AND ENERGY GENERATION METHOD
Inventor:  YABUUCHI NORIO       
Abstract --  PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To achieve a reliable method to output energy using nucleus condensation. ; SOLUTION: Deuterium nuclei are coordinated at vertical angle positions of each face constituting a regular hexahedron, inside a metallic crystal. Electrons are coordinated to the other vertical angle positions. By Coulomb attraction acting between four protons and four electrons, four deuterium nuclei are fused to transmute into two helium atoms.



JP2009128052
NUCLEAR BATTERY       
Inventor:  ITO TAKEHIKO ; IWAMURA YASUHIRO
Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a nuclear battery using charged particles generated through the nuclear reaction of an aggregation system. ; SOLUTION: The nuclear battery includes a container, a reaction film consisting of a structure with palladium, palladium alloy, hydrogen-absorbing metals, other than palladium or palladium alloy and a substance whose work function is lower than those of them and a transmutation substance layer containing a substance to be transmuted which is put into contact with the surface of the structure; a high-concentration deuterium section and a low-concentration deuterium section formed by dividing the container with the reaction film to form a closed space which can be sealed by the container and the reaction film; an electrode plate, set opposite to the reaction film in the high-concentration deuterium section; a deuterium supply means for supplying deuterium gas to the high-concentration deuterium section; and an evacuation means for evacuating the low-concentration deuterium section.



RU2343575
METHOD OF LONG-LIVING RADIONUCLIDES FIXATION FOR STORAGE AND TRANSMUTATION 
Inventor:  TIKHONOV VALERIJ IVANOVICH [RU] ; KAPUSTIN VALERIAN KONSTANTINOVICH
Abstract -- Invention relates to field of liquid radioactive wastes recycling. Long-living radionuclides are isolated from nitric acid solution of used nuclear fuel (UNF) into solid phase in form of acetates, oxides and other compounds, which do not contain elements strongly activated with neutrons. Radionuclides are imbedded and fixed in carbon matrix. Carbon matrix is obtained in process of carrying out reaction of metal acetates with excess of phthalonitryl and their further pyrolysis. For radionuclides isolated from UNF in form of oxides or other compounds, carbon matrix is obtained by their mixing with yttrium acetate, then synthesis and pyrolysis of yttrium diphthalocyanine are carried out. Operation of synthesis and pyrolysis of yttrium diphthalocyanine is carried out in inert atmosphere, pyrolysis is carried out at T=850-1100 DEG C. Obtained carbon matrix does not contain elements strongly activated with neutrons, which allows using it both for long-term storage and for transmutation of long-living radionuclides without any chemical processing and additional operations. ^ EFFECT: obtaining carbon matrix which can be used both for long-term storage and for transmutation of long-living radionuclides without any chemical processing and additional operations.



US2008232532
Apparatus and Method for Generation of Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons
Inventor:  LARSEN LEWIS G [US] ; WIDOM ALAN
Abstract -- Method and apparatus for generating ultra low momentum neutrons (ULMNs) using surface plasmon polariton electrons, hydrogen isotopes, surfaces of metallic substrates, collective many-body effects, and weak interactions in a controlled manner. The ULMNs can be used to trigger nuclear transmutation reactions and produce heat. One aspect of the present invention effectively provides a "transducer" mechanism that permits controllable two-way transfers of energy back-and-forth between chemical and nuclear realms in a small-scale, low-energy, scalable condensed matter system at comparatively modest temperatures and pressures.



NL1033078
Energy generating process, by applying voltage between cathode comprising transmutation elements and anode in reactor vessel containing plasma       
Inventor:  GEUS ARIE MELIS DE [US]       
Abstract --  The process comprises the following steps: (A) adding hydrogen to a reactor vessel (6) containing a cathode (8), anode (9) and optionally an ionization element; the cathode comprises a primary and secondary transmutation element, the cores of which contain more neutrons than protons; the primary element contains a neutron with a preferable orientation; (B) ionizing at least some of the hydrogen to form a plasma; (C) applying a voltage difference with a given time character between the cathode and anode, causing a flow of protons towards the cathode, to which they become temporarily bonded; the transmutation elements next to the cathode surface and in the resulting plasma vortex fuse to form an element with a higher mass number and a second element or molecule with a lower mass number; and (D) collecting the radiation, which can be converted directly into electricity or heat.



US2008123793
Thermal power production device utilizing nanoscale confinement       
Inventor:  LOAN JAMES F [US] ; COOPER WILLIAM
Abstract -- Disclosed herein is a device for generating thermal energy through a nuclear transmutation reaction when a hydrogen containing fuel comes into contact with a nanotube containing element in a reaction vessel for containing the nuclear transmutation reaction. The device further includes an energy absorption vessel containing an energy absorption fluid that absorbs energetic particles resulting from the transmutation reaction and a heat transfer system for transferring thermal energy of the energy absorption fluid to a working fluid, such as water. A method of generating power using such a device is also disclosed.



NL1031962
Energy generating process for producing electricity, comprises electron discharge in flow of nitrogen or air in order to cause nuclear transmutation of nitrogen into carbon monoxide   Inventor:  GEUS ARIE MELIS DE
Abstract -- A flow of nitrogen or air, or a plasma thereof, through a reactor (1) is exposed to an electron discharge, resulting in the nuclear transmutation of gaseous nitrogen into carbon monoxide, followed by oxidation of the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. A method for generating energy comprises passing a continuous flow of nitrogen or air, or a plasma thereof, through an optionally enclosed reactor in which electron discharge takes place, resulting in the nuclear transmutation of gaseous nitrogen into carbon monoxide, followed by oxidation of the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. An INDEPENDENT CLAIM is also included for the process apparatus, comprising a reactor with a pressure reducing means (6) and an inlet (7) for providing an intermittent supply of nitrogen or air; at least one cathode and at least one anode on the inner side of the reactor space ends; a means connected to the cathode (4) and anode (5), used for generating high voltage pulses with a predetermined waveform and frequency between the cathode and anode; a casing around the reactor, through which air flows in order to be heated by the process heat from the reactor; and optional conduits for recirculating the heat-laden air back to the casing.



US2007297554
Method And System For Production Of Radioisotopes, And Radioisotopes Produced Thereby       
Inventor:  LAVIE EFRAIM [IL] ; SILVERMAN IDO
Abstract -- A system and method for the production of radioisotopes by the transmutation of target isotopic material bombarded by a continuous wave particle beam. An ion source generates a continuous wave ion beam, irradiating an isotope target, which is cooled by transferring heat away from the target at heat fluxes of at least about 1 kW/cm.



CN101061552
System and method for radioactive waste destruction       
Inventor:  MIKE VENNERI FRANCESCO BAXTER
Abstract -- A method for transmuting spent fuel from a nuclear reactor includes the step of separating the waste into components including a driver fuel component and a transmutation fuel component. The driver fuel, which includes fissile materials such as Plutonium<239>, is used to initiate a critical, fission reaction in a reactor. The transmutation fuel, which includes non-fissile transuranic isotopes, is transmuted by thermal neutrons generated during fission of the driver fuel. The system is designed to promote fission of the driver fuel and reduce neutron capture by the driver fuel. Reacted driver fuel is separated into transuranics and fission products using a dry cleanup process and the resulting transuranics are mixed with transmutation fuel and re-introduced into the reactor. Transmutation fuel from the reactor is introduced into a second reactor for further transmutation by neutrons generated using a proton beam and spallation target.



JP2007322202
METHOD, DEVICE AND PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING NUCLEAR REACTION IN FLOCCULATION SYSTEM, AND METHOD FOR DETECTING SUBSTANCE AFTER NUCLIDE TRANSMUTATION       
Inventor:  ITO TAKEHIKO ; IWAMURA YASUHIRO
Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for predicting nuclear reaction in a flocculation system which enables high-accuracy prediction of the nuclear reaction. ; SOLUTION: In the method for predicting the nuclear reaction in the flocculation system, where a substance which is subjected to nuclide transmutation is placed in contact with a structure in the flocculation system and deuterium is made to flow into it to induce nuclear reaction in the substance which is subjected to nuclide transmutation; a substance where 2n (n is a natural number) is added to both the atomic number and the mass number, respectively of the substance to which nuclide transmutation is given is predicted as being the substance to be generated after the nuclide transmutation.



US2005082469
Neutron-driven element transmuter
Inventor:  CARLO RUBBIA
Abstract -- A material is exposed to a neutron flux by distributing it in a neutron-diffusing medium surrounding a neutron source. The diffusing medium is transparent to neutrons and so arranged that neutron scattering substantially enhances the neutron flux to which the material is exposed. Such enhanced neutron exposure may be used to produce useful radioisotopes, in particular for medical applications, from the transmutation of readily-available isotopes included in the exposed material. It may also be used to efficiently transmute long-lived radioactive wastes, such as those recovered from spent nuclear fuel. The use of heavy elements, such as lead and/or bismuth, as the diffusing medium is particularly of interest, since it results in a slowly decreasing scan through the neutron energy spectrum, thereby permitting very efficient resonant neutron capture in the exposed material.



JP2005062025
METHOD FOR INCREASING NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION QUANTITY FROM NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION DEVICE AND NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION DEVICE
Inventor:  SAKANO MITSURU ; ITO TAKEHIKO
Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for increasing a nuclide quantity which enables transmutation from a nuclear transmutation device in the first nuclear transmutation process, and a nuclear transmutation device. ; SOLUTION: With this method, a nuclear transmutation quantity from a nuclear transmutation device is increased by a process for applying electrolysis process or plasma treatment to a surface of a structure including a hydrogen occlusion metal, and adding a material causing nuclear transmutation to the surface.



US2004047443
Electron capture by magnetic resonance
Inventor(s):     BONDOC EDWIN L [PH]
Also published as:    WO03019219  (A1)     
Abstract -- The process of capturing electron by subjecting proton to magnetic resonance until its magnetic moment is in opposite direction relative to the electron's magnetic moment. As soon as the particles' magnetic moments are opposite in direction, spinlocking technique is applied for a period of time to induce transmutation of the particles and the consequent reactions of the product with an adjacent particle or a group of particles and the release of energy.



WO03098640
PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS WITH HYDROGEN ISOTOPE NUCLEI       
Inventor:  DASH JOHN
Abstract
-- A method for processing radioactive materials is disclosed. The method employs hydrogen isotope nuclei for the treatment of radioactive materials, such as uranium, and effectively increases the observed decay rate of such materials. Therefore, the disclosed method allows remediation of dangerous radioactive materials, such as uranium, without requiring long term, geologically-stable storage sites or costly, accelerator -based transmutation equipment.



US2003210759
Nuclide transmutation device and nuclide transmutation method             
Inventor:  IWAMURA YASUHIRO [JP] ; ITOH TAKEHIKO
Abstract  -- The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device 10 that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body 11 that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material 14 that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface 11A among the two surfaces of this structure body 11. The one surface 11A side of the structure body 11, for example, is made a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface 11B side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body 11 is produced, and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material 14 that undergoes nuclide transmutation.



US2003138068
Method for transmutation of long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable isotopes       
Inventor:  BUTTSEV VLADIMIR STEPANOVICH [RU] ; BUTTSEVA GALINA LECNIDOVNA
Abstract
-- The invention relates to nuclear physics and can be used for neutralizing long-lived radioactive isotopes contained, for example, in radioactive waste (RW) of the nuclear engineering. A radioactive isotope undergoes exposure to electromagnetic radiation and a deep ionization of the isotope atoms is performed. Deep ionization of the atoms results in an energy-permitted expedient B-decay thereof prohibited in a neutral state. Measures are taken in order to prevent ionized atoms from recombination with short-lived nucleus. The retention time must be long enough to transmit at least a part of the parent nucleus into the short-lived and stable daughter nucleus. For ensuring a factor k of an operating time of said daughter nucleus, the retention is performed at least during a time Ki, i is a life time of the parent nucleus at the expedient B-decay. A charge-particle beam (electrons, protons or ions) is used for electromagnetic irradiation. The charge-particle beam irradiation can be combined with the photon flux irradiation. The intentive method makes it possible to speed up the transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes without using nuclear collisional reactions accompanied by the production of radioactive co-products.



JP2004117106
STRUCTURE FOR NUCLIDE TRANSMUTATION AND METHOD FOR FORMING IT       
Inventor:  ITO TAKEHIKO ; SAKANO MITSURU
Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a structure for transmuting nuclides with a relatively small-scale device and a means for manufacturing the structure. ; SOLUTION: A mixed layer consisting of lamination layers of a Pd layer and a layer of a substance which has a smaller work function than Pd is placed on a substrate made of Pd, a Pd alloy, other metals occluding hydrogen or alloys of these metals, the structure shaped like an approximate plate where an additional Pd layer is placed on the mixed layer is formed and a substance which is given nuclide transmutation is supplied to the Pd layer of the structure. The substance which is supplied to the Pd layer and is given nuclide transmutation is acceptable if it has become metallic, and salt may adhere to the surface of it. Electrodeposition and ion implantation can be used as a means for supplying the substance which is given nuclide transmutation.



RU2210630
FACILITY FOR GENERATION OF GAS MIXTURE AND TRANSMUTATION OF NUCLEI OF ATOMS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
Inventor:  KANAREV F M ; PODOBEDOV V    

Abstract -- Facility for generation of gas mixture and transmutation of nuclei of atoms of chemical elements has body made of dielectric material with though hole, interelectrode chamber, cooling chamber for vapor condensation, vessel for working solution, branch pipes to feed and drain working solution, anode connected to positive pole of power supply source and cathode connected to negative pole of power supply source. Body has upper boss with internal cavity. Cathode is brought into cathode space from above through axial hole of upper boss. Internal space of boss communicates with cooling chamber which space is connected to vessel for working solution. EFFECT: simultaneous generation of gas mixture and transmutation of nuclei of atoms of chemical elements.



US2003226401
Atomic structure recognition and modification method and apparatus Inventor:  LETOVSKY HOWARD
Also published as: US2005145031 // US2005155340  (A1)     
Abstract -- The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining the precise makeup of atomic and molecular structures, as well as providing the capability of modifying said structures. The invention uses induced resonant frequency wave effects to define and modify the electromagnetic, electrical, radioactive, atomic weight, and co-valent bonding characteristics of matter. One embodiment of the present invention may produce directionally controllable magnetic fields in gaseous media that interact with magnetically polarized vehicle surfaces to allow high-speed, highly energy efficient inter-planetary space travel. Another embodiment of the invention may neutralize waste products remaining from nuclear fission power production. The invention utilizes controlled multi-spectrum frequency induction to catalyze changes in atomic structures that may include: focused and dramatically amplified release of energy relative to natural states of matter; production of new alloys; transmutation of dangerous organic compounds into non-toxic media; and controlled polarization of matter. The benefits of the invention may include highly efficient interstellar spacecraft propulsion systems, hazardous waste elimination systems, efficient electricity production, and health enhancement of biological organisms.



EP1202290
Nuclide transmutation device and nuclide transmutation method             
Inventor:  IWAMURA YASUHIRO [JP] ; ITOH TAKEHIKO
Abstract -- The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device (10) that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body (11) that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material (14) that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface (11A) among the two surfaces of this structure body (11).; The one surface (11A) side of the structure body (11), for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface (11B) side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body (11) is produced, and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material (14) that undergoes nuclide transmutation.



WO0231833
NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATIONAL PROCESSES
Inventor:  DE GEUS ARIE MELIs
Abstract -- The invention relates to a method of generating energy, comprising the steps of: a. introducing hydrogen in a reactor vessel, the vessel comprising a cathode, an anode and an ionization element, the cathode comprising a primary and a secondary transmutational element, the transmutational elements having in their nucleus a number of neutrons which is larger than the number of protons, and wherein at least one neutron has a preferred orientation; b. Ionizing at least a part of the hydrogen with the ionization element to form a plasma, c. Applying a voltage differential across the cathode and the anode, causing protons to travel to the cathode and to induce a transmutation of the transmutational elements which combine to form an element of higher mass number than the mass number of said transmutational elements under the release of energy; and d. collecting heat and/or on other energy formed in step c. In a preferred embodiment the primary transmutational element comprises formula (i) or any combination thereof, whereas the secondary transmutational element comprises formula (ii) or any combination thereof.



WO 03025951 // HU0103762
MULTI-STEP, TIME PROGRAMMED PROCEDURE FOR THE TRANSMUTATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES...
Inventor:  CSOM GYULA DR [HU] ; ASZODI ATTILA DR
Abstract -- A radiocactive waste containing medium is circulated within two or more systems (1,2,3) separated from each other flowtechnically; and the circulated radioactive waste is exposed to neutron radiations of different energy spectrum in each system by operating a reactor physically united entirety of irradiated sections of the said systems as a nuclear reactor or an accelerator driven subcritical system. Each system (1,2,3) has a heat exchanger (9,10) and, in given cases, a circulating pump (10,21) and an expansion tank (5,16,27). The disclosed apparatus has two or more reactor regions (1,2,3) separated from each other by partitions (37,38) and, preferably, arranged coaxially within a reactor space encircled by a common shell structure (39). A particle beam (45) produced by a particle accelerator is preferably directed into the innermost reactor region

US2002169351
Remediation of radioactive waste by stimulated radioactive decay       
Inventor:  BROWN PAUL
Abstract -- Disclosed is a radioactive waste treatment process for transmuting long-lived radioisotopes into short-lived radioisotopes through applied nuclear physics. Nuclear reactions, specifically of the (gamma, n) type, also known as photodisintegration, are utilized to accomplish this transmutation from troublesome, long-lived radioactive waste isotope(s) of given atomic mass to shorter-lived or stable materials of lower atomic mass, by exposing the troublesome isotopes to a high energy photon flux for a sustained time. Generally speaking, the target nucleus of the radioisotope(s) to be treated is irradiated by gamma photons of an energy greater than the binding energy of the neutron in the target nucleus. This causes the irradiated nucleus to absorb the gamma rays, thereby placing the nucleus in an excited state. Upon relaxation, the nucleus ejects a neutron through the (gamma, n) reaction, thereby transmuting the element to an isotope of lower atomic mass and shorter half-life.



RU2212072
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR TRANSMUTATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES
Inventor:  LEVADNYJ VALENTIN ALEKSANDROVI [BY] ; RUTKOVSKAJA KRISTINA KONSTANTI
Abstract -- Proposed method and device are intended for power generation, transmutation of radioactive wastes, burnout of weapon plutonium and actinides. Interaction of neutron beam coming from neutron generator is effected on lead matrix wherein nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes are distributed; then they are decelerated and bred in subcritical thermal core. Device implementing this method has its central target made in the form of lead matrix with nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes distributed therein. EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of transmutation process.



RU2156001
RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING TECHNIQUE
Inventor:  TARATORIN B I ; IVANOV S D
Abstract -- Radioactive wastes are placed in nuclear explosion zone of weapon plutonium wherein intensive neutron flux is allowed to pass through them to convert them to steam that condenses into particles measuring about 10-6 cm. Neutron flux and heat energy released due to explosion of weapon plutonium cause transmutation of nuclides in desired quantities and their separation into long- and short-living ones in condensed state from steam by centrifuging. Proposed technique provides for using products of explosion to produce electrical energy and transuranium elements. EFFECT: provision for peaceful use of weapon plutonium.



US6233298
Apparatus for transmutation of nuclear reactor waste             
Inventor:  BOWMAN CHARLES
Abstract -- A subcritical reactor-like apparatus for treating nuclear wastes, the apparatus comprising a vessel having a shell and an internal volume, the internal volume housing graphite. The apparatus having means for introducing a fluid medium comprising molten salts and plutonium and minor actinide waste and/or fission products. The apparatus also having means for introducing neutrons into the internal volume wherein absorption of the neutrons after thermalization forms a processed fluid medium through fission chain events averaging approximately 10 fission events to approximately 100 fission events. The apparatus having additional means for removing the processed fluid medium from the internal volume. The processed fluid medium typically has no usefulness for production of nuclear weapons.



US6233299
Assembly for transmutation of a long-lived radioactive material             
Inventor:  WAKABAYASHI TOSHIO
Abstract
-- A new transmutation assembly permits an efficient transmutation of a long-lived radioactive material (long-lived FP nuclides such as technetium-99 or iodine-129) which was produced in the nuclear reactor. Wire-type members of a long-lived radioactive material comprised of metals, alloys or compounds including long-lived FP nuclides are surrounded by a moderator material and installed in cladding tubes to form FP pins. The FP pins, and nothing else, are housed in a wrapper tube to form a transmutation assembly. The wire-type members can be replaced by thin ring-type members. The transmutation assemblies can be selectively and at least partly loaded into a core region, a blanket region or a shield region of a reactor core in a fast reactor. From a viewpoint of reducing the influence on the reactor core characteristics, it is optimal to load the transmutation assemblies into the blanket region.



DE19803629
Transmutation of isotopes with long half life       
Inventor:  HORA HEINRICH
Abstract -- For the transmutation of long half-life isotopes, their surfaces are exposed to an electrolyte or a gas or plasma atmosphere to form intermediate layers or vol. zones of a number of structure layers. The threshold zones are placed against a carrier material or close to vol. zones of metals or metal layers, composed of metals capable of absorbing \-1 atom% of hydrogen or its isotope.



US5848110
Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei       
Inventor:  MAENCHEN JOHN ERIC [US] ; RUIZ CARLOS LEON
Abstract -- Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.



WO9919881
LOW TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTIC NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION      
Inventor:  PATTERSON JAMES A [US] ; MILEY GEORGE

Abstract -- A method for producing low temperature nuclear transmutations by electrolysis in an aqueous media. New elements produced by transmutation are identified as having discrete peaks in occurrence by atomic number (Z) and by atomic mass (A). New complex nuclei produced by transmutation are idendified as having existed based upon the nature and occurrences of fission transmutation elements produced. The electrolytic cell (12) includes a non-conductive housing (14) having an inlet (54) and an outlet (56) and spaced apart first and second conductive grids (38 & 44) positioned therein. A plurality of cross-linked polymer non-metallic cores each having a uniform conductive exterior metallic surface formed of a high hydrogen absorbing material form a bed (35) of conductive beads (36) closely packed within the housing (14) in electrical contact with the first grid (38) adjacent the inlet (54). An electric power source (15, 16) in the system (10) is operably connected across the first and second grids



WO9803699
NUCLEAR TRANSMUTED ELEMENTS HAVING UNNATURAL ISOTOPIC DISTRIBUTIONS BY ELECTROLYSIS AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION   
Inventor:  PATTERSON JAMES A [US] ; MILEY GEORGE

Abstract -- A method for producing low temperature nuclear transmutations which occur during electrolysis in an aqueous medium within a cell (12). New elements produced by transmutation during operation of the cell are both higher and lower in atomic mass than the original element undergoing transmutation. Many of the new elements also exhibit isotopic shifts from natural isotope abundance. The electrolytic cell (12) includes a non-conductive housing (14) having an inlet (54) and an outlet (56) and spaced apart first and second conductive grids (38 and 44) positioned within the housing (14).; A plurality of preferably cross-linked polymer non-metallic cores each having a uniform conductive exterior metallic surface formed of a high hydrogen absorbing material, such as a metallic hydride forming material, form a bed (35) of conductive beads (36) closely packed within the housing (14) in electrical contact with the first grid (38) adjacent the inlet (54). An electric power source (15, 16) in the system (10) is operably connected across the first and second grid (38 and 44) whereby electrical current flows between the grids (38 and 44) and within the aqueous medium (59) flowing through the cell (12) during cell operation.



US6442226 // WO9747015
Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements
Inventor:  VENNERI FRANCESCO [US] ; WILLIAMSON MARK
Abstract -- An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing inventories of plutonium and higher actinides. Uranium, presently the largest volume constituent in nuclear waste, is fully utilized and not discharged as waste. Since no plutonium, higher actinides or fission products are present in the reconstituted fuel elements, the present processes can be used repeatedly. Since the performance of the existing reactors is not changed, full utilization of both thorium and uranium resources is achieved.



WO9740211
SYSTEM, ELECTROLYTIC CELL AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING EXCESS HEAT AND FOR TRANSMUTATION BY ELECTROLYSIS       
Inventor:  PATTERSON JAMES A [US] ; MILEY GEORGE
Abstract -- An electrolytic cell (12), system (10) and method for producing excess quantities of heat as a result of low temperature nuclear transmutations which occur during electrolysis in an aqueous media within the cell (12). The electrolytic cell (12) includes a non-conductive housing (14) having an inlet (54) and an outlet (56) and spaced apart first and second conductive grids (38 & 44) positioned within the housing (14). A plurality of preferably cross linked polymer non-metallic cores each having a uniform conductive exterior metallic surface formed of a high hydrogen absorbing material, such as metallic hybride forming material, form a bed (35) of conductive beads (36) closely packed within the housing (14) in electrical contact with the first grid (38) adjacent the inlet (54).; An electric power source (15, 16) in the system (10) is operably connected across the first and second grid (38 & 44) whereby electrical current flows between the grids (38 & 44) and within the aqueous media (59) flowing through the cell (12).



RU2052223
METHOD FOR PRODUCING STABLE ISOTOPES DUE TO NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION...
Inventor:  VYSOTSKIJ VLADIMIR I [RU] ; KORNILOVA ALLA



RU2034414
ACCELERATING COMPLEX FOR TRANSMUTATION OF NUCLEAR PRODUCTION WASTE             
Inventor:  DANILOV MIKHAIL M [RU] ; KATARZHNOV YURIJ



GB2246467
Transmutation treatment of radioactive wastes             

Inventor:  KONASHI KENJI ; SASAO NOBUYUKI       
Abstract -- A method for the transmutation treatment of radioactive wastes comprises: accelerating radioactive nuclides contained in the radioactive wastes to be treated to an energy level corresponding to a compound nucleus resonance level; and bombarding the accelerated nuclides into a thermal neutron field, which is under a magnetic field, to cause the compound nucleus resonance reaction to occur; thereby transforming the radioactive nuclides into those which are more stable or have shorter life. The nuclides are accelerated in accelerator 9 then passed into an annular-cylindrical chamber 3 positioned about a reactor 1 where they are treated with neutrons.


US4721596 // EP0030404
Method for net decrease of hazardous radioactive nuclear waste materials            
Inventor:  MARRIOTT RICHARD [US] ; HENYEY FRANK

Abstract -- A method for decreasing the amount of hazardous radioactive reactor waste materials by separating from the waste of materials having long-term risk potential and exposing these materials to a thermal neutron flux. The utilization of thermal neutrons enhances the natural decay rates of the hazardous materials while the separation for recycling of the hazardous materials prevents further transmutation of stable and short-lived nuclides.



GB970091
Transmutation of elements             
Inventor: NOEL IGNATIUS RAFFERTY
Abstract -- A process for the synthesis of helium and the simultaneous generation of energy comprises admixing in a steel pressure-tight vessel in presence of air following reactants in the following order: aluminium in a physical form presenting a large volume/surface ratio, solid sodium hydroxide, and water in the ratio of 4 : 8 : 8. The reaction is stated to be thermonuclear involving the carbon cycle proposed by Bethe, the effect of which is to transmute hydrogen into helium.



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