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Stanislav & Konstantin AVRAMENKO

Single Wire Electrical Transmission








Stanislav Avramenko

Contents

(1)   Strebkov, Nekrasov, & Avramenko: Quasi-Superconductive Electric Power Transmission
(2)   Aura-Z Article
(3)   Jean L. Naudin: Replication
(4)   US Patent # 6,104,107


Quasi-Superconductive Technology for Electric Power Transmission

Prof. Dmitry S. Strebkov (The All-Russian Research Institute for Electrification of Agriculture  ~ ARIEA)
Dr. Aleksey Nekrasov (Moscow, Russia)
Stanislav Avramenko (Moscow, Russia)

Contact Person: Prof.  Dmitry S. Strebkov, Director, The All-Russian Research.Institute for Electrification of Agriculture (ARIEA); 109456, Russia, Moscow, 1-st Veshnyakovsky, 2, VIESH.
Phone: 7 095 1711920 ~ Fax: 7 095 1705101 ~ E-mail: viesh@dol.ru

Other Participants: Dr. Aleksey Nekrasov (Moscow, Russia), Stanislav Avramenko (Moscow, Russia)

Summary ~

Low cost and low losses single-wire electric power system (SWEPS) has been developed.  The new technology of electric power transmission uses idle operation mode of the transmission line and reactive capacitive current for transmission of active electric power.  Three different SWEPS has been constructed and tested: 230V, 10kV and 100kV, each is of one kilowatt capacity.  Resonance mode of oscillation at the frequency from 3 kHz to 30 kHz was used to provide the most efficient power transmission.  Frequency converter and modified Tesla transformer were applied at the generator site to generate high frequency reactive capacitive current.  Reversal Tesla transformer and standard rectifier and inverter were used at the consumer end to convert the reactive high frequency electric power to standard 50-60Hz electricity.  It has been experimentally proved that SWEPS has quasi-superconductivity properties for reactive capacitive current flow along the line even at high operation temperature of the electric conductor.  SWEPS has no resistance losses for following tested conductor materials of the line: copper, aluminium, steel, tungsten, carbon, water, damp soil.  Analysis of theoretical calculations and experimental study shows that SWEPS can be applied both for energy transmission from renewable powerful generation site to a large energy system and for transmission lines connecting different parts of renewable energy system.

Description ~

Renewable-based electric grids are increasingly being viewed as an attractive alternative for providing power to rural communities.  Technology options include small hydropower, biomasspowered generators, small geothermal, PV, solar-thermal, wind turbines and hybrid systems with back-up diesel generator, which may be connected to the local utility.  Implementation of renewable-based technologies for rural electrification would contribute to the social and economic growth of the rural communities and would serve sustainable progress of the remote regions.

Electric grids face specific problems of non-efficient operations, including transmission losses and the high cost of grid extension in remote sparsely populated areas.  For example off-shore wind turbine, micro-hydro or geothermal generator are often located far from consumers and requires costly installation of a long distance transmission line which usually has from 6% to 10% of electric losses.

Hybrid system, comprising jointly operating small power generators of equal capacity, faces the EMC problem resulting in pure operation stability due to renewable energy potential or electric load variations.

We propose and investigate single-wire power transmission line systems instead of three-phase lines and apply steel conductor or even non-metal conductive media instead of traditionally used aluminium or copper conductor.

The Objective of this project is to implement the original low cost and low-loss single-wire electric power system for renewable-based electric grids.  Project program covers design and manufacture of 50 kW single-wire power transmission line.

The block diagram of the single-wire power transmission line is shown in the Appendix.  The complete set of equipment contains: audio-frequency converter, resonance generator - monostable multivibrator, rectifier and inverter.  Transmitted electromagnetic energy has a voltage of 5 kV to 20 kV and a frequency of 1 kHz to 20 kHz.

SWEPS operation principle is the following: In no load operation mode the active current and the magnetic field of the line are equal to zero, while the electric field intensity has its maximum value owing to reactive displacement current that charges the capacitance of the line. It is well known, that the Ohm's law and Joule's law are not applicable to displacement current, and Joule (resistive) losses are equal to zero.

Activities ~

Resonance mode of oscillation at the frequency from 3 kHz to 30 kHz was used to provide the most efficient power transmission.  Frequency converter and modified Tesla transformer were applied at the generator site to generate high frequency reactive capacitive -current.  Reversal Tesla transformer and standard rectifier and inverter were used at the consumer end to convert the reactive high frequency electric power to standard 50-60Hz electricity.  Three different SWEPSs have been developed and tested: 230V, 10kV and 100kV, each of them having capacity of 1 kBA, see Appendix. 5 to 100 mm diameter wires of copper, aluminium, steel and tungsten (as well as 100 mm carbon wire, 10 mm plastic tube and 0.3mm thick ITO film on glass substrate) were used as electric power transmission media.

Level of Implementation ~

Theoretical and experimental study of parameters of the single-wire transmission power system has been carried out demonstrating its ability of efficient operation.  Different kinds of electrical apparatus and application possibilities has been investigated. Analysis of theoretical calculations and experimental study shows that SWEPS can be applied both for energy transmission from renewable powerful generation site to a large energy system and for transmission lines connecting different parts of renewable energy system.  The transmission method and the device has been protected by patents [1-7].  The two next implementation stages are:

Stage 1 (12 months): 20 kW to 50 kW 50 km single-wire electric power system for renewable based electric grid ($350 000) and

Stage 2 (24 months): 1 MW quasi-superconductive line for wind-offshore and island application ($3.5M).

Results ~

Single-wire electric power system for electric grid can be applied instead of three-phase network.  SWEPS uses one pole single-wire open-tuned circuit, capacitive and displacement current for transmission of active power.  Modified step-up Tesla transformer was applied at the generator site to generate high frequency reactive capacitive current.  Reversal step-down Tesla transformer or diode-capacitor block was used at the user's end to convert high frequency reactive power to standard ac 50 Hz or dc electricity.

Substantial reduction of distribution network construction cost is expected owing to reduced consumption of wires and accessories and application of light type poles and structures.  Energy losses in distribution networks are much lower compared with conventional power distribution lines.  It has been experimentally proved that SWEPS has no resistance losses with conductor media like: steel, tungsten and carbon wires having diameter from 5 mm to 100 mm, water, ITO film on glass substrate, damp soil etc.  It makes it possible to construct electric power transmission lines using steel conductors and even non-conductive materials.

Computer simulation of distributed solar power system, consisting of several solar power plants installed in Spain, in European part of Russia and Far East of Russia, connected by low loss transmission line, showed that this power system generates electricity 24 hours a day 6 months a year and does not require electric accumulator or back-up generator during the night.

References ~

(1) S. Avramenko.  The Method for Electric Power Transmission and Device for its Realization.  Russian Patent No. 210649 dated 11.04.1995 Published in "Russian Patent Bulletin", 10.04.98.

(2) S. Avramenko et al.  Apparatus and method for single line electrical transmission. European Patent No. 0639301.  Priority claimed 08.05.92 (Russia).  Published in European Patent Bulletin 97/36, 03.09.97.

(3) S. Avramenko, K. Avramenko.  Apparatus and Method for Single Line Electrical Transmission.  Canadian Patent No. 2 135 299, issued: 2000/01/18, application: 1993/05/1 0, date of application availability for public inspection: 1993/11/25.

(4) Strebkov D. S., Avramenko S.V., Nekrasov A. 1. (1 999).  The method and apparatus for electric power transmission.  Russian Patent No. 2143775.  Priority claimed 25.03.1999. Published in Russian Patent Bulletin No. 36 of 27.12.1999

(5) Strebkov D.S., Avramenko S.V., Nekrasov A.I. (1999).  The method of power supply of electric transport and apparatus for its realization.  Russian Patent No. 2136515.  Priority claimed 26.08.1998. Published in Russian Patent Bulletin No. 25 of 10.09.1999

(6) Avramenko S.V. (1998).  The method for electric power supply and device for its realizations.  Russian Patent No. 210649.  Priority claimed 11.04.1995. Published in Russian Patent Bulletin No.4 10.04.1998

(7) Avramenko S.V., Stupin I.V. (1 997).  The apparatus for tissue coagulation.  Russian Patent No. 210013.  Priority claimed 11.04.1995. Published in Russian Patent Bulletin No. 36 of 27.12.1997


"Discovery! The One-Wire Electric Circuit"
(AURA-Z Magaazine, Russia; Date unknown, probably ~ 1988)

This device has been discovered by the PhD. Stanislav Avramenko in May 10th,1993 and a patent application has been filed. He has found a mean for transmitting electrical energy via a single-wire transmission line with a minimal of losses.

Experiment #1: Two wires is connected to a small box. " This is a simple monovibrator, you may notice that there is only one wire which comes out the box, only one wire " says the inventor, Stanilav Avramenko. This single wire is linked to two wires connected to a small light bulb. When Avramenko switch on the generator, the light bulb come on, then he replaces the light bulb by a small fan and the fan begin to turn.

Experiment #2: The output of the Avramenko's generator is connected to an accommodation circuit in the form of a diode circuit such that the output of the oscillator is connected to both the common point of the anode of the first diode and the cathode of the second diode. The other diodes extremities left opened are connected to a simple capacitor. A small spark gap is set accros the capacitor output. When Avramenko switches on his generator, there are sparks in the gap during the capacitor charge and discharge sequence.


Jean L. Naudin

The SWEPS has been replicated by J.L. Naudin and Stefan Hartmann:

http://jnaudin.free.fr/avramenko/avramenk.htm
http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/afep01.htm


US Patent  6,104,107
Method & Apparatus for Single Line Electrical Transmission
Stanislav & Konstantin Avramenko
(August 15, 2000)

Abstract ~

This invention relates to the field of electrical technology, and relates particularly to a method for the continuous transformation of electrical energy with its subsequent transmission from an initial source (transformer) to a consuming device, and also to an apparatus for the implementation of this method of transformation and the supplying of power to electrical devices through a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit, i.e., consists of a single conducting wire. This invention therefore provides a method and associated apparatus for supplying power to an electrical device(s), including generation and subsequent transmission thereof to a receiving device via a transmission line, the method being characterised by the transformation of the electrical energy which is generated into the energy of oscillation of a field of free electrical charges such as the displacement current or longitudinal wave of an electrical field, the density of which charges varies in time, and the transmission of the energy via a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit comprising a single-wire transmission line and, where necessary, its transformation into the electromagnetic energy of conduction currents.

Inventors:  Avramenko; Stanislav (Moscow, RU); Avramenko; Konstantin (Moscow, RU)
Assignee:  Uniline Limited (St. Holier, GB)
Appl. No.:  331658 ~ Filed:  January 11, 1995
PCT Filed:  May 10, 1993 ~  PCT NO:  PCT/GB93/00960
371 Date:  January 11, 1995
Current U.S. Class: 307/149; 331/36C; 331/67 ~ Intern'l Class:  H02J 001/20
Field of Search:  307/149,17 333/99 331/36 C,67,71,86,87,88,89,90,91,187

References Cited  ~

U.S. Patent Documents:
454,622 (Jun., 1891), Tesla.
568,176 (Sep., 1896), Tesla.
593,138 (Nov., 1897), Tesla.

Other References ~

Grotz, "Wireless Transmission of Power, An Attempt To Verify Nikola Tesla's 1899 Colorado Springs Expriments, Results Of Research And Experimentation," Proceedings of the 26th IECEC Conference, vol. 4 (1991) pp. 404-409.
"Fachlexikon ABC Physik," VEB Edition Leipzig (1974) p. 1548.
G. Trinkaus, "Tesla--The Lost Inventions," Vantage Press (1988) pp. 13-14.
V.N. Dulin and M.S. Zhuk (editors), Manual of Radio and Electronic Equipment Components (Moscow 1977), pp. 69-70.
I. V. Alyamovsky, Electron Beams and Electron Guns (Moscow 1966), pp. 13-13-15, 59, and 108.
N. Tesla, "The True Wireless," Electrical Experimenter (May 1919).
Y. A. Khramov, "Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book" (Nauka 1983), pp. 8-9, 20-23, 26-27, 80-81, 84-85, 86-95, 102-103, 106-131, 136-139, 142-143, 178-179, 240-241.
M. Faraday, "Experimental Researches in Electricity" (Dover Publications, Inc. 1839), pp. 24-29.
"The Large Soviet Encyclopedia," vol. 26 (Moscow Publishing House 1977).
C. Gillispie, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography," vol. IV, pp. 532-535 (Charles Scribner's Sons 1971).
C. Gillispie, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography," vol. V, pp. 515-517 (Charles Scribner's Sons 1972).
C. Gillispie, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography," vol. IX, pp. 209-213 (Charles Scribner's Sons 1974).
G. Polvani, "Allessandro Volta" (Domus Galil.ae butted.ana 1942), pp. 340-353, 485.
M.I. Radovski, "Galvani and Volta," (1941), pp. 30-31, 58-59.
K.E. Swartz, "The Uncommon Physics of Common Phenomena," vol. 2 (1987), p. 148.
B.N. Rzhonsnitsky, "Nikola Tesla" (Molodaya Gvardiya 1959) pp. 6-7, 116-120.
G.K. Tsverava, "Nikola Tesla" (Nauka 1974) pp. 160-161, 176-177.
J.K. Maxwell, "Selected Works on Electromagnetic Field Theory" (Gosizdat 1952) pp. 252-255, 320-321.
J.J. O'Neill, "Prodical Genius, The life of Nikola Tesla" (Neville Spearman 1968) pp. 70-73, 128-133.
John O'Neill, "Electrical Prometheus" (History of Technology ("Molodaya Gvardiya") 1959).

Primary Examiner: Shoop, Jr.; William M.
Assistant Examiner: Lockett; Kim
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Reid & Priest L.L.P.

Description ~

Field of Technology:

This invention relates to the field of electrical technology, and relates particularly to a method for the continuous transformation of electrical energy with fits subsequent transmission from an initial source (transformer) to a consuming device, and also to an apparatus for the implementation of this method of transformation and the supplying of power to electrical devices through a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit, ie consists of a single conducting wire.

Background Art:

There exists a means for the transmission of electrical energy along a conducting wire which does not form a closed circuit ie, a single conducting wire. It is based on the discovery in 1729 by the English physicist Stephen Grey of the phenomenon of electrical conductivity. The essence of this phenomenon consists in the fact that electricity may be transmitted from one body to another along a metal conductor or a length of yarn, and that the electrical charge is distributed over the surface of the conductor.

See Yu. A. Khramov, Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book (Moscow, "Nauka" 1983, in Russian); and Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York, Charles Scribener's Sons 1970-1978).

As to closed circuits, a well known means for the supplying of power to electrical devices has existed since the creation in 1799 by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta of the first source of prolonged electrical current (Volta's column). This means is based on the transmission of electrical energy generated in the initial source to the consuming device directly through a transmission line consisting of two conducting wires which together with the source and the load form a closed circuit.

See Yu. A. Khramov, Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book, M. I. Radovsky, Galvani and Volta (Moscow-Leningrad 1941, in Russian); and G. Polvani, Alessandro Volta (Pisa 1942).

There exists another important type of closed circuit that represents a means for the supply of power to electrical devices based on the discovery made by M. Faraday and J. Henry of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction (published by M. Faraday in 1831), and on the invention by P. N. Yablochkov in 1876 of the electrical transformer. The essence of this means consists in the transformation of the current or the voltage of electrical energy generated in the initial source and the transmission line to the consuming device.

See M. Faraday, Experimental Research in Electricity (Moscow-Leningrad, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 1947-1959, in Russian); Yu. A. Khramov, Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book; The Large Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Ed. (Bol 26 Moscow, "Soviet Encyclopedia" 1977, in Russian).

As to wireless means, there exists a means for the supplying of power to electrical and radio devices by using an electromagnetic field. This means is based an G. Herz's experimental proof in 1888 of the existence of electromagnetic waves, the discovery of which was forecast by J. Maxwell in 1865. The means essentially consists in the transformation of electrical energy from the initial source into an electromagnetic field which is radiated into space and received by the consuming device.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970-1978). Yu A Khramov, Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book (Moscow, "Nauka", 1983, in Russian); J. Maxwell, Selected Works on Electromagnetic Field Theory (Moscow "Gosizdat", 1954, in Russian).

There also exists an electrical device for the transmission of the energy of free electrical charges from the initial source by means of a non-conducting ribbon. This is the so-called high voltage electrostatic generator, which was designed and constructed by the American physicist Van de Graaf between 1929 and 1933. In this device electrical charges are sprayed from needles under high voltage on to a moving ribbon and transferred to an insulated metal dome, where they accumulate. The charges may be sprayed on to the ribbon and collected from it; the ribbon and the dome may be negatively or positively charged.

See K. E. Swarts, The Uncommon Physics of Common Phenomena, Vol. 2, translated from the English by E. I. Butikov and A. S. Kondratiev (Moscow 1987) (in Russian); Biography; and Yu. A. Khramov, Physicists: A Biographical Reference Book.

It is believed to have been proposed to provide a means for the supply of power to electrical devices via a single-wire transmission line, demonstrated by N Tesla in the late nineteenth century.

See John O'Neill, Electrical Prometheus, (Moscow "History of Technology" 1944) (in Russian); B. N. Rzhonsnitsky, Nikola Tesla (Moscow "Molodaya Gvardiya" 1959) (in Russian); and G. K. Tsverava, Nikola Tesla (Leningrad "Nauka" 1974) (in Russian).

It is believed there is a trace mentioned by John O'Neill of one more distinctive means for electrical transmission but description of this trade did not have details and was not confirmed by any original document.

Objects of the Invention:

An object of the present invention is to provide an increase of the coefficient of efficiency to transmission from an initial source to a consuming device in electrical technology, and also a simultaneous reduction in the metal content of the transmission line.

Summary of the Invention:

According to a first aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of supplying power to one or more electrical devices, including generation and transformation of electrical energy and subsequent transmission thereof to a receiving device via a transmission line, the method being chracterised by the transformation of the electrical energy which is generated into the energy of oscillation of a field of free electrical charges such as a displacement current or longitudinal wave of an electrical field, the density of which charges varies in time, and the transmission of the energy via a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit comprising a single-wire transmission line and, where necessary, its transformation into the electromagnetic energy of conduction currents.

Thus, the invention provides transformation of electrical energy generated in an initial source into energy of oscillation of a field of free electrical charges (the displacement current or longitudinal wave of the electrical field), which energy is transmitted to the consuming device via a conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit and, where necessary, transformed into the electromagnetic energy of closed circuit conductive currents.

The oscillations of the field of free electrical particles occur either by means of the reciprocating (cyclical) displacement of a concentrated electrical charge in space, or by means of a periodical change in density (and/or polarity) of the free electrical charges on a particular surface (in a particular volume).

According to a second aspect of the present invention there is provided an apparatus for the implementation of the above method of supplying power to one or more electrical devices, the apparatus providing an initial source of electrical energy, a transforming device, a transmission line and a receiving device, the apparatus being characterised by the provision of a variable density generator of free electrical charges as the displacement current or longitudinal wave of an electrical field, an output of which is connected by means of: a conductor of a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit to a receiving device, either directly or via a blocking capacitor, and further to any conductive body possessing an equivalent (natural) capacity adequate to ensure the normal functioning of the receiving device.

Thus, the invention provides a variable (alternating) density generator of free electrical charges, which flow under the influence of coulomb forces along a conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit to the site of a device which consumes electrical energy.

A possible variant of the generator is a generator at the outlet of which not only the density of the free electrical charges, but also their polarity, may be varied.

The outlet of the generator is connected to a conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit line either directly or via a blocking capacitor.

In addition, the generator of oscillations of the electrical field of free charges may be constructed in a similar fashion to a generator of displacement current (travelling longitudinal waves of an electrical field), by using a sequential resonance circuit in the form of two interconnected inductors such that the equivalent inductivity of the resonance circuit is provided by their resultant inductivity, and the equivalent capacity of the resonance circuit is provided by the equivalent (natural) capacity of the interconnected inductors.

To supply power to electrical devices which consume alternating current, the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit may be connected:

a) to one of the input terminals of the receiving devices, while the device's other input terminal is either grounded or connected to any conductor possessing a natural (equivalent) capacity adequate to provide for the normal working of the receiving (consuming) device.

b) to an accommodating device employing a conversion circuit consisting of two interconnected inductors, such that the receiving device (load) is connected to the two ends of the first inductor, the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit is connected to one end of the second inductor, and the other end of the second inductor connected to any conductor with an equivalent (natural) capacity and inductance selected in order to provide for the nominal power consumption of the receiving device (load).

To supply power to devices consuming direct current, the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit may be connected to an adjustment circuit in the form of:

c) a diode system, such that the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not fort a closed circuit is connected to the common point of the anode of the first diode and the cathode of the second diode, while the cathode of the first diode and the anode of the second diode are the output points for connection to the receiving device, either directly or with a capacitor connected in parallel.

d) a transformer circuit consisting of two interconnected inductors such as to rectify alternating current (voltage) directed to the receiving device from the first inductor.

Brief Description of the Drawings:

In order to provide a better understanding of the invention, there follow specific examples of its construction with references to the drawings attached, in which:

Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a first embodiment of an apparatus according to the present invention;

Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of a second embodiment of an apparatus according to the present invention, employing a sequential resonance circuit;

Figure 3 shows a power supply diagram for receiving devices operating on alternating current;

Figure 4 shows a power supply diagram for receiving devices operating on direct current.

Description of First Embodiment:

The first embodiment of the invention provides apparatus adapted for use in a method of supplying power to electrical devices, including the generation and transformation of electrical energy with its subsequent transmission to a receiving device via a transmission line, the method being distinguished by the fact that the electrical energy generated is transformed into the energy of oscillation of a field of free electrical charges (the displacement current or longitudinal wave of an electrical field), the density of which charges varies in time, and this energy is transmitted via a conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit and, where necessary, transformed into the electromagnetic energy of conductive currents.

Referring to Figure 1, there is illustrated an apparatus for initial source of electrical energy 1, a transformer (of current, voltage or frequency) 2, an alternating density generator of free electrical charges 3, which charges flow under the influence of coulomb forces along a transmission line or conductor 4, through a consuming device 5, to any conductive body 6, which has an equivalent (natural) capacity sufficient to provide for the normal working of the consuming device 5.

Description of Second Embodiment:

Referring to Figure 2, in addition, the apparatus may be constructed on the basis of a generator of displacement current (longitudinal wave of an electrical field), using a sequential resonance circuit (Figure. 2) in the form of two interconnected inductors L1 and L2 such that an equivalent inductivity Leg of the resonance circuit is provided, in the simplest case of idle running, by the resultant inductivity L1 and L2, and the equivalent capacity is provided by the resultant (natural) capacity of the resonance circuit.

To supply power to electrical devices operating on alternating (variable) current, the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit 4 is connected either:

to one of the input terminals Bx1 of the receiving device 5 (Figure 3), and the other input terminal Bx3 of the receiving device is either earthed or connected to any conductive body 6 possessing an equivalent (natural) capacity adequate to ensure the normal working of the receiving device 5; or

to an accommodating device, employing a transformer circuit (Figure 3) consisting of two interconnected inductors L3 and L4, such that the two ends Bx3 and Bx4 of the inductor L3 are connected to the receiving device 5, while one end of the ends Bx5 of the second inductor L4 is connected to the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit 4, and the other end Bx6 of the inductor L4 is connected to any conductive body 6, with an equivalent (natural) capacity selected in order to provide the nominal power consumption of the receiving device 5.

To supply power to electrical devices operating on direct current, the output of the conductor of the transmission line which does not form a closed circuit 4 is connected to an accommodation circuit in the form of either:

a diode circuit (Figure 4) such that output or the conductor 4 is connected to the common point of the anode of the first diode VD1 and the cathode of the second diode VD2, while the cathode of the first diode VD1 and the anode of the second diode VD2 are the outlets 01 and 02 to be connected to the receiving device 5, either directly or with a capacitor connected in parallel;

a transformer circuit (Figure 4) employing two interconnected inductors L5, L6, such that the receiving device 5 is connected to the inductor L5 via the rectifying circuit.

The method for supply of power to electrical devices and the apparatus for the implementation of this method, according to the invention, possess a high degree of reliability due to the absence of complex electronic or mechanical assemblies. They permit the use of inexpensive mass-produced radio-electronic components and their working cycle is automatically regulated to a high degree.

Use of the invention will make possible a sharp reduction in the costs involved in transmitting electrical energy over long distances, and a sharp reduction in the losses of Joulean heat from transmission lines.

The invention is intended for the creation of a highly efficient means for the transformation and transmission of electrical energy, and also for the creation of both permanent and mobile devices for the transmission of electrical energy from an initial source to a consuming device via a transmission line which does not form a closed circuit, ie a single-wire transmission line.

The invention may be used conjointly with various power-engineering and technological processes which involve the use of super-high voltage electrical and electromagnetic fields, electron beams and super-long wave radio communications, when it will make possible a sharp reduction in the dimensions and weight of equipment as compared with the means traditionally employed.

The proposed apparatus, which may be termed a "monovibrator", may consist of two inductively connected much layered coils in accordance with the scheme of a consecutive resonance circuit. As a rule, the secondary coil consists of up to some tens of thousands of turns of thin isolated wire with the turns wound one to another in many layers on a dialectic core. Disposition of the primary coil in respect to the secondary one doesn't matter much. What does matter is an inductive link which determines potential transmitted from the primary to the secondary coil. The monovibrator may or may not have a ferromagnetic core. The ferromagnetic core influences the width of the working frequency bandwidth -- it broadens it.

High working outcoming voltage is the result of a high coefficient of transformation, as the primary coil usually contains a couple of dozens of winds for working frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to a couple of hundred kHz. A preferred working frequency is 5 kHz.

With a sequential resonance circuit including two interconnected inductors having inductance L1 and L2, and an equivalent inductance of the resonance circuit being provided by the resultant inductivity L1+L2, the load of the monovibrator when running idle acquires capacitance character that means which it is reactive. The magnitude of an active constituent of a monoconductive line with the consecutive resonance is rather low and its incoming resistance is approaching zero. That is why with rather a powerful primary source the consecutive resonance makes it possible to transmit more power through the monoconductive line in case there is an outtake of this power at the other line terminal, which is opposite to the primary source of power.

Reaction of the monoconductive line of any length can always be compensated by regulating the frequency of the primary source (generator, converting devices), thus providing consecutive resonance in the line itself with all the magnitudes of incoming and outgoing characteristics arising therefrom.

Currently there are different schemes of automatic frequency regulation of generators of alternating electromotive power depending on changing inductive-capacitant parameters of conductive lines.

The method and apparatus of the present invention does not have the drawbacks of previously known single line systems.





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