The Scientific Notebooks of Thomas Townsend Brown
[ Volume 2 ] // [ Volume 4 ]
Copyright 2006 Townsend Brown Estate
Used by Permission
Please visit these T.T. Brown Websites:
www.soteria.com // www.ttbrown.com
Commentary from ttbrown.com :
"Back in the 1970s and 1980s a researcher
and author named Willam Moore --- best known
as the co-author of such folk-lore as "The Roswell
Incident" and "The Philadelphia Experiment" (there, I
said it...), wrote a couple of articles about Townsend
Brown. Moore was also the last journalist to
interview and photograph Brown shortly before his
death in 1985.
"Somehow, during that period, Moore
obtained access to Brown's personal laboratory
notebooks, and, presumably, obtained permission to
"publish" three volumes of those journals.
Photo-copies of those journals have been in circulation
1. A Review of
the Situation regarding Gravitational Isotopes
2. Nascent Gravitational
3. Increase in Weight and
Density of Certain Rocks
4. Effects of Electrical
Potential upon Gravitational Isotopes --- Controlled
5. Shift of Capacitance
6. Nascent Gravitational
Isotopes --- Sec. 2 --- Excitation by Photons.
7. Fatigue on Metals and the
Creation of Light Gravitational Isotopes
8. Creation of Gravitational
Isotopes. Sec. I.
9. The Postulation of an
Anti-Gravitational Particle. Definition and
10. An Experiment to Show
Lofting Effects of an Irradiated Dust.
11. Quantitative Weighing of
Photo-Isotopes in a Precision Balance.
12. The Photo-Isotope
13. Increase of Inertial Mass
in the Photo-Isotopic Cell, along with decrease in
14. Centrifugal Inertial
Effects on Electrically Modulated Photoisotopic Cells.
15. Beneficiation by Ion
16. Beneficiation by
Differential Centrifugal Action
17. Regarding a Measure of
Centrifugal Force as Distinguished from Gravity.
18. The g / i (gee-eye) Ratio
19. Centrifugal Differential
20. Energy Changes and Excited
States in the Creation and Determination of
21. Certain Complex Silicates
(natural clays, etc.) as Heat Reservoirs Following
Irradiation by Sunlight.
22. Beneficiation of Light
Gravitational Isotopes (by irradiation and selective
lofting and falling) as it may occur on the Moon.
23. The value of "g" is not
constant for all materials
24. Contact Excitation of
Photoisotopes by Highly Energized Isotopes.
25. Preservation of the
Rotation of the Earth by the Gravitational Differential
of the Field of the Sun --- Due to Solar Irradiation of
26. Factors which may cause
the Rotation of the Earth.
27. Counter-Rotational Torque
Tending to Limit the Rate of Rotation of the Earth.
28. The Equilibrium Condition
Between the Amount of Irradiation and the Orbital and
Axial Motion of the Earth.
29. Conservation of Momentum
and the Change of Velocity with Change in Inertial Mass
30. Detection of Absolute
Motion by Means of Modulated Inertial Mass
31. Electrogravitic Radio
Using Photoisotopic Cells.
32. A Rotating Electrogravitic
Motor or Generator Using a "Velocity" Field.
33. A Rotating
Electro-Gravitic Motor or Generator Using an "Inertial"
34. A Rotating Electrogravitic
Motor or Generator Using a Gravitational Field
35. Rotating Electrogravitic
Motor or Generator Using a Velocity" Field.
36. Use of Electrogravitic
Generators as Measuring Instruments for g, i, and V
37. The Earth as the Rotor of
an Electrogravitic Generator.
38. Change of angular velocity
with change in mi in order to conserve
39. Inertial Differential
40. The Loss of Weight of
Quartz Capsules Containing a Photosensitive Isotope when
Irradiated by UV Light
41. The Results of a Change of
Inertial Mass Following Modulated Beneficiation (with
42. The Impulse Effect in the
Force Developed by a Simple Capacitor in Vacuum.
43. The Nature of the Vacuum
Spark, as related to the initiation of an
44. Scale of Beneficiation
45. Possible Excitation of
Gravitational Isotopes by Friction (Triboisotopes)
46. Excitation of
gravitational isotopes by friction irradiation and
distribution and accumulation of the effects by
47. Loss of Weight by Grinding
48. Spontaneous Evolution of
Heat (Thermoactivity) of recently pulverized silicates
49. Discussion of Loss of
Weight by Friction as present in Nature.
50. The Possibilities of a New
Type of Time-Space Data Preservation. A Method of
Recording or "Memory".
51. Shift of Capacitance
52. Excitation by Impact of
53. Dipole Motion Due to
Excitation from Positive Rays.
54. Static Counterbalance
Produced by Positive Ray Excitation.
55. Excitation by Annihilation
of Positive Holes.
56. On the Meaning of "Field
57. Units in Multiple for
58. An Analysis of the Adamski
Photograph in the Light of Recent Laboratory Findings.
59. The Concept of the
Gravitic Dipole as an Energy Storage Means.
60. Luminescence from
highly-excited Materials; Gravito-Luminescence.
61. The Use of the Toroid in
62. Possible Magnetic
Components in the Venusian Scout Ship --- Continued from
Par. 3, Sec. 58
63. Rotation of the
Cathode-Toroid vs the Control Grid, as a
64. Field Shaping in Positive
65. High Gravitic Potential
Difference and the Phenomenon of Dielectricity.
66. The Push-Pull Effect of
the Control Grid.
67. The Cylindrical Design of
a Unit to Produce the Push-Pull Effect.
68. Cylindrical Units in
69. Self-Adjusting (Ionic)
Oscillator and the Use of High Voltage RF in the
Propulsion of Space Craft.
70. Dielectromotance (The
Generation of Dielectricity)
71. The Flow of Dielectricity
72. Generation of
Dielectricity by the Use of Alternating Current.
73. The Coiled Strip Capacitor
as a Generator of Dielectricity.
74. High Flux, Closed Circuit
Transducer for Dielectricty
75. Motion of Dielectric Media
Produced by Dielectric Flux. Dielectric Wind.
76. A Method of Ship
Propulsion using Dielectric Flux.
Notes & Ideas
This is to be the first of a series of record
books of notes and ideas, of greater or lesser importance,
just as they occur to me. The pages are numbered and the
subject reference will be given in an index. Where it
appears of importance at the moment, the entries will be
All of my life, it seems, I have jotted down
notes on paper napkins and the like, which have ultimately
been lost or destroyed. In many cases, these original notes
and the dates of conception have turned out to be important
and the loss of the record has been a serious handicap.
In the main, the ideas recorded herein and the
hypotheses developed from these ideas will relate to the
subject of gravitation and the relationships between
gravitation and electrodynamics. They may present from time
to time certain seemingly practical applications which may
be patentable. All entries therefore are dated.
Thomas Townsend Brown
Leesburg, VA; October 1, 1955
Page 2 [blank]
1. A Review of the Situation regarding
Leesburg VA, Oct. 7, 1955
(a) An announcement has been made both in the
newspapers and on the radio (within the last few days) that
the contract for the launching gear of the proposed space
satellite has been awarded the Glenn S. Martin Co and the
contract for the rocket motor to General Electric.
This brings to mind the statement of M. K.
Jessup in "The Case for the UFO" --- "If the money, thought,
time and energy now being poured uselessly into the
development of rocket propulsion were invested in a basic
study of gravitation, it is altogether likely that we could
have effective and economical space travel, at a small
fraction of the ultimate cost which we are now incurring,
within one decade".
As to a study of gravitation, there are two
phases --- (a) the dynamic and (b) the static. In dynamic
considerations, electrical energy causes a local distortion
in the gravitational field which results in the generation
of a ponderomotive force and motion results. In the static
considerations, an electric situation exists which causes
matter to be lighter (or heavier) than it normally should
In nature, matter has gravitational
susceptibility, that is --- it is acted upon and responds to
a gravitational field. This is expressed as gravitational
mass, and bears no direct relationship to the inertial mass
or reluctance to acceleration. The measure of gravitational
mass is specific gravity.
A study of the specific gravity of the
elements reveals that, in many instances, a wide range of
values are observed for the same element. Even where the
chemical purity of the element is uniform a change or range
of specific gravity values appears commonplace.
It is my hypothesis that all elements are
composed of lighter and heavier isotopes (values of specific
gravity) which differ from the mean value of the composition
as a whole. Where the lighter fractions predominate, the
mean value of specific gravity is less than normal. It may
be said to have a predominance of negative gravitational
isotopes. Where the mean values are greater than normal, the
composition may be said to have a predominance of positive
gravitational isotopes. No element appears to be completely
"normal" or free from this effect.
For any given element, there probably exists
(and this remains to be shown) a reciprocal relationship
between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass.
Heavier gravitational isotopes of the element
possess less inertial mass --- and vice versa. The product
of the two forms of mass probably equal a constant.
mg mi = E.
The energy relationships probably are
unstable, the tendency being to reach an equilibrium
condition of equality.
mg = mi
The spontaneous evolution of heat as observed
by Brush and Harrington appears to be associated with light
gravitational isotopes. This means excessive inertial mass,
the energy of which is radiated and lost, and this in turn
is the cause of decay of the anomalous gravitational effect.
For example, the rare earth group of elements
appears to have strong negative anomalies --- that is, they
are lighter than they should be. That they should also
exhibit relatively high evolution of heat (spontaneously)
follows. (This heating effect by rare earth elements remains
to be discovered). Assuming that such is the case, the
heating effect is present only where equilibrium has not
been reached, and the temperature differential is
quantitatively related to the abnormal lightness.
Since energy (thermal) is released until
equilibrium between Mg and Mi is
realized, it is obvious that the effect is subject to the
usual rate of decay, reaching zero asymptotically.
In the case of positive isotopes --- an
absorption of that would be expected. Such absorption would
cause the sample to be colder than its environment.
If the effect noted above is not actually
present (and there is as yet no evidence of heat
absorption), it is possible that positive isotopes as such
do not exist and that the present indicated mean specific
gravity is actually negative and that the true "normal" or
base is at least as high as the heaviest value indicated.
Methods of beneficiation are the subject of
current patent applications. Methods involve successive
steps of settling and centrifuging. The separation is of the
isotopes in the mixture, (a) the lighter weight and more
massive fraction and (b) the heavier and less massive
No information has come to light regarding the
modus operand of the creation of the light gravitational
isotopes in the first place. It has been assumed, as in the
case of mass isotopes that they have been present since the
creation of the physical world.
2. Nascent Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg VA, Oct. 7, 1955.
The creation of light gravitational isotopes
requires energy. Thermal energy is evolved during the decay
of these isotopes, but it is probable that a greater source
of energy than that available from heat is necessary for the
creation of these lighter fractions. An exception may be
taken, of course, to the high thermal energies present for
example in the sun or during nuclear reactions.
Atomic piles provide energy through the
fissioning of nuclei of the radioactive group to form nuclei
of the rare earth group. These nascent isotopes may turn out
to be a rich source --- produced in the same fashion as the
rare earth elements were produced in the original creation
(a primordial explosion).
One may speculate on other ways of creating
gravitational isotopes, such as ---
(a) In targets receiving positive charges.
1. Hydrogen nuclei --- from cyclotrons or accelerators.
2. Hydrogen ions --- in electrolytic solutions.
3. Complex positive ions --- separation in semi-permeable
4. [ illegible, blurred photocopy ]
5. Cosmic ray showers.
It is to be recorded here that C.F. Brush once
performed some experiments producing what he termed
super-light hydrogen. It is said that this was done by some
sort of preferred selection of ions in or during the
electrolysis of water.
3. Increase in Weight and Density of
Leesburg, VA, October 7, 1955.
There appears to be evidence, however tenuous
and perhaps controversial, that a civilization existed on
the earth 70,000 to 200,000 years ago. It may be said that
this civilization had simple and effective ways of moving
stone --- based on today’s standards.
In the high Andes of Peru --- the Sachahuaman
Fortress --- stones weighing 200 tons each were fitted
together so closely that a knife blade cannot be inserted
Enormous stones --- 14’ x 17’ x 70’, weighing
upwards to 1200 tons, were moved and placed in position in
various parts of the world. Baalbek, Easter Island, as well
as in Peru. (See "Case for the UFO" by Jessup). It has been
suggested that some form of levitation employed by the
ancients made possible the moving of these enormous stones.
I submit that the weight of these stones may
have changed since they were quarried, that the change may
have been rapid at first and then slowed down as the years
To develop this hypothesis, the following is
At some time between 70,000 and 200,000 years
ago, a worldwide change occurred which created or recreated
light gravitational isotopes. This could have been a sudden
increase in the intensity of cosmic radiation or it could
have been a close approach or contact with a comet.
The result nevertheless was a rapid and
effective increase in the content of light gravitational
isotopes in certain susceptible materials. This increase
presumably was limited to certain clays and rocks. The
resulting loss of weight caused tectonic forces and started
mountain building processes.
The continent of Atlantis may have risen from
the ocean during this period. During the height of this
gravitational revolution, many materials were phenomenally
light and could be transported with ease. Certain substances
may have had negative gravitational mass and escaped from
the earth. Structures to fly in the air may have been
constructed from common materials by beneficiating from
entrapping or loading materials.
Men turned with ease toward the quarrying of
huge masses of stone simply because they were able to lift
and move them. It is my hypothesis that the largest stones
cold be carried by a relatively few men. They literally
floated through the air, like huge logs floating on water.
Their inertial mass, however, must have been enormous. When
motionless they must have required great force to start them
moving and, when in motion, they must have required equally
great effort to stop them!
This period of "lightness" must have lasted
many centuries, because during that time a flourishing,
highly developed human society evolved.
Decay of the light gravitational isotopes
began when the factor causing their synthesis ceased to be
operative. This decay, similar to radioactive decay, was
very rapid at the start, diminishing in rate as the
It is presumed that unless synthesis is now
operating or has been more or less regularly operating
during the intervening time, decay of this original effect
is still proceeding. The result then would be a continuing
increase in the weight of these rocks.
During the first few centuries of weight
"increase", great tectonic forces similar but opposite to
those which originally created "Atlantis", now served to
destroy it. Great loading due to the increase in weight of
these specific rocks, together with isostatic flow, would
have caused the sinking of the mythical continent.
In brief, therefore, the disappearance of
Atlantis may be related to and concurrent with the
termination of quarrying operations of the huge stones. The
same increase of weight, caused by the decay of light
isotopes, caused by the decay of light isotopes, is the
reason, so it seems.
As the weight of the monoliths, such as the
Easter Island images, increased, their supporting
foundations gave way and caused them to fall. Most of these
images have fallen backward.
It is proposed that samples of these monoliths
(and others) be accurately weighed each year for several
years, to determine if weight is still increasing. If so,
and if rate has been undisturbed, curve may be extrapolated
to indicate approximate date of vertical weightlessness (See
Typical half-life curve --- similar to decay
of radioactive materials.
4. Effects of Electrical Potential upon
Gravitational Isotopes --- Controlled Lifting.
Leesburg, VA, October 7, 1955.
Two possibilities are foreseen:
(1) A static condition in which sustained
electrical potential causes the effect, or
(2) A dynamic condition in which rate of change of potential
causes the effect.
Increase of negativity causes exogravitic field, increase of
grav. mass (weight). Decrease of inertial mass and
Increase of positivity causes endogravitic
field, Decrease of grav. mass (weight). Increase of inertial
mass, and gravitational attraction
Tests: No. 1
A shielded analytical precision balance
charged + or – , 50KV or more.
Weight (brass) on one pan
Sample of rock on other pan
In the foregoing test, advantage is made of
the differential effect between brass and the sample
susceptible to grav. change.
Test No. 2 --- Sustained effects of sudden
increase of + potential source 100 KV or more.
Sample insulated from ground.
Test No. 3 --- Same as above, but sample
arranged to be struck by lightning!
In this connection, it is interesting to
speculate upon the reasons for the levitation or lofting of
certain terrestrial materials, such as pebbles, sand, etc.,
which subsequently fell back to earth.
Could it be that certain materials in the
"target regions struck by lightning (from positively charged
clouds) acquire lofting properties temporarily? Certainly it
would escape notice.
Subsequently, as the lofting properties decay,
the material will fall back to earth. One of the steps
toward testing such a hypothesis would be to measure over a
period of successive weeks the weight of a stone or pebble
known to have recently fallen. Evidence of increase in weigh
would be sought.
5. Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point
Leesburg VA, October 10, 1955
This is a review and restatement of principles
underlying the differential electrometer. The basic tests
which are proposed are for the purpose of clarifying the
operation of the long wave electrogravitic receiver, and to
reduce its functions to simplest possible terms.
Audio transformer coupling to amplifier.
Potentiometer automatically seeking null position, with
6. Nascent Gravitational Isotopes ---
Sec. 2 --- Excitation by Photons.
Leesburg VA, Dec. 25, 1955
An exact definition of a gravitational
isotope, particularly one which sets forth physical forms,
is urgently needed. It is almost impossible to make progress
in any direction until this is done.
In searching various possibilities, the
following interesting facts present themselves:
(1) In transistor theory, conductivity s
attributed to the migration of "holes", as well as to
electrons. The holes appear to possess (or at least exhibit
the equivalence of unit positive charges, equal to the unit
negative charges carried by electrons. As a matter of
mathematical convenience, the holes may be treated as having
the same mass as an electron.
(2) The definition of a hole is as elusive as
that of a negative gravitational isotope. It is interesting
to speculate for the time being on the possibility that
there may be a relationship.
To begin with, they are holes in what?
Apparently, valence positions in the crystal lattice where
valence electrons are missing. But the mechanisms by which a
vacancy can be passed on progressively, with the physical
property of a mass in motion, is not clear.
The revisions in the theory of conductivity,
which have resulted of necessity from the study of
semi-conductors, have provided evidence of "positive
carriers" hitherto unknown or unrecognized.
It is significant that these positive carriers
are influenced by electric and/or magnetic fields in a way
which is equivalent in every respect to the behavior of
positive charges. They are indistinguishable, therefore,
That they may exist in paired, dipole or
neutralized relation with charges of opposite sign
Just as in other examples of pair creation, a
photon may supply the energy. It is not clear, for example,
whether the photon actually "creates" the positive-negative
pair( with a mass of 2m), representing the equivalent mass
energy value of the photon, or whether the total mass (2m)
remains the same, with the photon merely supplying the
energy to dissociate the pair.
Furthermore, if a valence hole is filled by an
electron of the same but opposite charge, both are
annihilated, and an extra electron is necessary to produce
any net effect.
The energy of annihilation is radiated as a
If valence holes are representative of a class
of positive charges found occasionally in the electronic
shells of atoms, one may speculate upon similar charges in
the nucleus. In most cases, such charges would be
neutralized by electrons, and not enter into the electric
balance of the atom.
Now, therefore, if one takes the bold step of
postulating that holes (either as found in crystal lattice,
complex electronic shells or nuclei) are holes in the
negative effluvium, what is their gravitational mass
(weight)? Let us postulate the existence of an entity which
is merely a rarefaction of the negative effluvium, as
contrasted with a local compression of effluvium which may
be an electron.
If then, gravitational potential is
synchronous with the potential of the negative effluvium,
gravitational gradients exist as follows:
Outward from electron and inward toward hole.
Or as a concentric pair of zero net charge
In other terms, the ether is the negative
effluvium, the "elastic" compression of which represents
potential energy. In the vicinity of large masses, the ether
is less compressed, the potential energy of space is lower,
but the potential energy of the mass is considerable (as
represented by E + mc2), so that the total
potential energy resident in the region is roughly constant
In "free" intergalactic space --- let us say,
in a mass free region (midway between the galaxies),
negativity, and the compression of the ether is maximum.
Space potential (gravitationally) is maximum. The potential
difference exiting within an electron would be minimum.
Electrons, as such, would be virtually indistinguishable
from the ambient. "Holes", perhaps also positrons) would
have maximum potential difference to their "interiors".
At first impression, and this may be
ultimately borne out, the electrons would possess weight
(gravitational mass in the positive sense) whereas the
"holes" may be lofting (negative gravitational mass). Both
would possess inertial mass. A pair would be gravitationally
and electrically neutral but would possess 2m initially.
When struck by a photon, a latent pair would
be split, the energy of the binding supplied by the photon,
with any excess providing recoil momentum to the pieces or
parts so split.
Upon recombination, energy would be radiated
In summary, certain photo-emissive substances
(perhaps complex silicates, lavas, and many other materials
found in nature), when irradiated, may be found to lose
weight. These materials would acquire a positive charge if
insulated, but usually, in the process of weighing, the
charge is lost. Similarly, the inertial mass (or the inertia
with respect to the weight) will increase.
Upon standing, where recombination is
permitted, heat (photons) is slowly evolved, causing the
specimen to be continually warmer than its environment.
7. Fatigue on Metals and the Creation of
Light Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg, VA, Jan. 7, 1956
In the Brush experiment relating to
heat-treated metals, certain case-hardened steels indicated
an actual loss of weight following the heat treatment. In
measurements of the specific gravity (or density) of various
metal wires (platinum, tungsten, etc.), the values observed
seem to vary in an unpredictable way with the amount of
drawing or working which has preceded the measurement. In
most cases, working decreases the specific gravity.
In the measurement of specific gravity, it is
desirable always to use the specimen which is most
representative of the physical state of the material tested.
In the main, the specimen should be free of porosity.
Compression usually reduces this porosity and increases
After a certain point, further compression,
hammering and/or working does not increase the apparent
density of the specimen but actually decreases. The result
appears to be an actual decrease in the weight of the
specimen due to the working.
One may summarize, therefore, that if the
effects of porosity are not considered, continued working of
certain metals reduces their specific gravity.
One may speculate, as a further step, that
there may be a concurrent reduction of tensile strength with
specific gravity, ad further, that the entire problem of
fatigue in metals may be related to this phenomenon.
In pursuance of such a hypothesis, the
following ideas emerge:
(a) Because of continuing flexing, a strip of
metal becomes heated presumably due to inter-molecular
friction. If course, the question as to whether the
molecules in the crystal lattice actually rub together in
the mechanical sense gives one misgivings. It is more
accurate probably to say that the coulomb damping in and
between the electric shells of the component atoms, carried
in part by the valence electrons, causes the release of
these electrons and the creation of "holes". Or, similarly,
from an energy standpoint, the available heat (as photons)
causes "electron-hole" pair creation, with a possible
increase in the electrical conductivity in the flexed
Based on the assumption that flexing increases
the population of holes, it is reasonable to look for a
decrease in weight. If the holes represent loss of valence
electrons (binding energy or cohesive force), it is
reasonable to look for a gradual or progressive weakening of
the metal or fatigue.
(c) In and specific region, saturation of
holes is reached when fracture occurs, or vice versa. This
is also the point at which specific gravity is minimum,
i.e., the sample is gravitationally lightest.
(d) A critical experiment suggests itself: A
thin specimen of susceptible metals (aluminum, tantalum,
tungsten, platinum) is carefully weighed. It is then
continually stressed (or simply bent back and forth) until
it fractures, care being taken to lose no pieces. The broken
parts (in toto) are then weighed and the loss of weight (if
any) is noted immediately.
(e) Due to the decay of the holes by
recombination with electrons, the weighing of the broken
specimen (pieces) must be performed as quickly after
fracture as possible.
(f) If such an experiment gives positive
results, the following possibilities are of great interest:
(1). The production of light gravitational
isotopes by mechanical manipulation.
(2) Large scale changes in weight due to
tectonic forces and movement in the crust of the Earth.
(3) Nascent gravitational isotopes in recent
lava "coolings" that have moved until cool.
(4) Loss of weight of recently forged
specimens, hammered, hot or cold rolled, especially after
excessive mechanical working.
(5) Loss of weight of recently crushed rock,
pulverized sand or clays.
(6) Extension of knowledge as to the cause of
fatigue (crystallization) in mtals.
(7) Change in properties due to cold flow as
distinguished from elasticity.
(8) Spontaneous generation of heat as
gravitational isotopes decay through annihilation of
electron-hole pairs and emission of photons.
(9) Decay of heating effect according to
(10) Warmth of recently crushed rock or sand
and the decay of the warmth with time.
(11) Altering the rate of decay, i.e.,
speeding up decay by negativity (elec.), slowing up decay by
(12) Effects of elastic field rate-of-change.
8. Creation of Gravitational Isotopes.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 7, 1956.
The Possibility of creating (or energizing
materials lighter than normal has interesting implications.
It simply means that certain normal materials (in the sense
that the ratio of mg to mi = 1 ) may
be energized or activated so hat the ratio is less than 1.
Energy is stored in electron-hole pair
creation which is returned to the environment only upon
annihilation of the pair. Photons are absorbed and photons
The following possibilities are inherent in
(a) Irradiation of loess by light (visible),
ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays, producing lofting
particles which decay and return to Earth.
(b) Sparked loess (positive sparks. Irradiate
both by UV light and electric discharge).
(c) Pulverizing (additional grinding.
Mechanical irradiation. See Sec. 7).
(d) In or near atomic piles or sites of
9. The Postulation of an
Anti-Gravitational Particle. Definition and
Leesburg, VA. Jan, 9, 1956.
In the foregoing hypotheses, the existence of
lighter (than normal) gravitational fractions is proposed.
It is reasoned that certain presently unexplained behavior
of matter (such as the Brush Effects and the anomalous
densities of many elements and compounds) may be adequately
accounted for if one postulates the existence in nature of
lighter and/or heavier fractions in the gravitational sense.
Development of this view introduces the
necessity to define "mass" and to distinguish two kinds of
(1) Gravitational Mass (mg) as
being the quality of matter susceptible to or reacting upon
the (any) gravitational field, and
(2) Inertial Mass ( mi ) as being
the quality of matter susceptible to or reacting with
acceleration or centrifuging force.
A tentative relationship would be:
me mi = , constant,
where e is an unknown exponent.
The constant represents the total potential
energy E of the mass in the equation E = mc2.
Therefore, for any given mass, since E = mge
mi C2 ; therefore, mge
|| 1 / mi.
For any given mass, the alteration of weight
must accompany an alteration of inertial mass in an inverse
In the first concept of gravitational
isotopes, the accepted value for the density (gr/cc) of an
element or compound represented merely a mean value, with
both lighter and heavier fractions in varying proportions
If, for example, the mean value is less than
the theoretically normal value (see chart of gravity
anomalies of the elements), it is reasoned that the element,
or at least that particular sample of the element, contains
gravitationally lighter components.
Let us consider the nature of these lighter
It would appear that inasmuch as all elements
exhibits the presence of those components, the active agent
is probably common to all and may take the form of a
fundamental particle --- of anti-gravitational properties.
Such a particle may be said to have negative
gravitational permeability and exhibit negative g. In free
state, it would accelerate "upward" or loft. Its potential
energy would be greatest, for example, at the surface of the
earth and it would diminish as the particle "falls away"
from the earth --- converting this gravitational potential
energy into kinetic energy.
It will be seen that this property is the
converse of that of ordinary mater. In this sense, such a
lofting particle may be described as "contra-terrene". While
the gravitational mass of such a particle may be said to be
negative (for the reason that it is repelled in a
gravitational field), the inertial mass is positive.
Hence, as the particle accelerates in
escaping, it acquires momentum. This positive mass is
revealed during acceleration and in any centrifugal
Now, as to the nature of the
anti-gravitational particle, considerable uncertainty exists
in my mind. I shall try to resolve some of this, but the
final answers can be given only after definitive experiments
have provided the answers.
In the foregoing entries in this book wherein
gravitational isotopes were mentioned, the concept seemed to
revolve around the possibilities of holes in the effluvium
wherein a kind of gravitational buoyancy existed.
The holes of a semi-conductor appear as
possibilities in this respect. If so, the anti-gravitational
particle must be associated with electrical positivity. This
would be particularly true if the effluvium itself is
negative --- as an indefinitely extended diffuse electron
ocean, but with a potential gradient to provide the
direction of force.
Such holes are observed as the absence of
electrons and hence behave as positrons. They are,
therefore, of the same general magnitude as electrons. Holes
and electrons are created n pairs by the action of a photon
of the proper energy. It would tentatively appear that a low
energy photon (heat) causes a slight separation of hole and
electron, as in a dipole creation, whereas a high energy
photon causes a further separation to the point where
binding is lost and the separated particles take up
independent lives. Here the energy of the photon equals or
exceeds the binding energy of the pair.
On a much smaller scale, but perhaps equally
significant, is the creation of the neutrino and the
anti-neutrino. Energy is required to create such a pair and
that energy is released upon recombination or annihilation
of the pair.
For the moment, let us consider only the
possibilities of the larger scale effect; that is, those
effects which can be operative in the shells of atoms rather
than in the nucleus. Holes and electrons (as pairs),
electrically neutral, can certainly be trapped in shells.
Complex structures, such as are obviously present, for
example, in the rare earth atoms, may contain such dipole
structures or concentric structures formed of electron-hole
combinations. Photons (energy) could cause and maintain such
dipole or concentric structures. Heat energy could therefore
cause expansion by the effects of increasing the physical
separation of these pairs and the resulting chasing action
(primary Brownian movement) of such dipoles.
Chasing action of an electron-hole dipole.
10. An Experiment to Show Lofting
Effects of an Irradiated Dust.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 29, 1956.
A pulverized material, or a natural clay or
loess, is placed on an electrode within a chamber capable of
being evacuated. It is irradiated by a source of ultraviolet
and/or visible radiation. The dust is observed through a
The pan maintaining the dust is charged
electro-positively and the lighter particles are observed to
"take off" and migrate under the action of the field toward
the negative electrode.
However, the impressed electrostatic field is
for purposes of control only. If true change of weight of a
particle is observed, the electric field may be reduced,
eliminated or reversed.
It is conceivable, however, that the lofting
particles may bear electropositive charges naturally, hence
will be more affected by the field and tend to separate from
the unelectrified (normal) particles.
11. Quantitative Weighing of
Photo-Isotopes in a Precision Balance.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 29, 1956.
If it is found possible to create negative
gravitational isotopes by irradiation, a measurement may be
possible simply by weighing a shallow sample on a precision
(1) under conditions of darkness
(2) " intense visible illumination.
(3) " " ultraviolet.
(4) " x-rays.
12. The Photo-Isotope
A metal can (a) is filled with loess (or equivalent). A
fine ionizing wire is placed at the center, very highly
Coronal glow irradiates the region immediately
adjacent to the ionizing wire and the effects tend to spread
to the inside walls of the cell, irradiating all of the
material in the cell.
Active photoisotopic material in disc.
13. Increase of Inertial Mass in the
Photo-Isotopic Cell, along with decrease in weight.
Leesburg, VA , Jan 27, 1956.
Proposed method of testing:
Arranged as a pendulum. Leads --- coaxial polyethylene
cable. 50 KV +.
Observations of period.
(1) Tests to be made with no charge.
(2) ""”"” (+) " applied.
(3) ""”"” (–) "".
According to theory, the observed period with
+ charge applied should be longest, indicating:
(a) increase of inertial mass, or
(b) decrease of weight, or
To separate these effects, an inertial device
such as an anniversary clock or centrifugal (rotor) device
may be used. (See Inertial Differential Electrogravitic
Motor., Sec. 39).
14. Centrifugal Inertial Effects on
Electrically Modulated Photoisotopic Cells.
Leesburg VA, Jan. 29, 1956.
In the position as shown PC, is
electropositive, hence gravitationally lighter but
inertially more massive. The opposite is true of PC2
in the position shown.
A net force should therefore result as
indicated, acting in the direction toward the positive
Rapid rotation should increase the force
(This system, used as a motor, is described
further in Sec. 39.)
15. Beneficiation by Ion Separation
Leesburg VA, Feb 3, 1956
When irradiated, susceptible dust which bears
a positive charge is attracted electrostatically to the
negative electrode and falls to the right of center.
Heat and radiation is applied at positive
electrode (which may be mechanically agitated). Sensitive
dust which had become excited rises in electrostatic field
to the negative electrode where it is neutralized and falls
Separation of suspended clay particles on the cathode.
(1) Heavy conductivity (water) fluid
(2) Non-conductivity (oil) fluid
Separation by lofting property of dust, upon
16. Beneficiation by Differential
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 4, 1956.
As described in the project submitted to
DuPont, one method of beneficiating light gravitational
isotopes is the centrifugal action upon materials floating
in heavy liquids. To go into detail, the following may be
To beneficiate kaolinite (aluminum silicate,
density 2.5), the finely ground material is floated upon an
aqueous solution of thallium malonate-thallium formate
adjusted to approx. 3.0 density (sp. gr.).
In a gravitational field, the material floats
on the surface of the liquid, but in a strong centrifugal
"field", the aluminum silicate particles having a low g/i
ratio will sink. If the settlings are fixed, either by
freezing or compaction, they may be removed en masse after
the centrifuge has stopped.
17. Regarding a Measure of Centrifugal
Force as Distinguished from Gravity.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 5, 1956.
To rate a centrifuge as so many "g’s" is
obviously incorrect and basically unsound, if one is to
distinguish between the effects of acceleration and
One "g" is defined as that force (due to
gravity) which will impact an acceleration to a mass
equivalent to that experienced at the surface of the earth,
i.e., approx. 980 cm/sec2.
Centrifugal force, on the other hand, depends
upon inertial mass only and is in no way equivalent to the
force of gravitation.
Three factors affect the rate of fall, or,
more accurately, the acceleration of a free-falling body,
(1) The intensity of the gravitational field or gradient,
(2) the susceptibility of the material being acted upon by
that field, and (3) the inertial mass of that material.
Obviously, and contrary to the currently
accepted postulate of Relativity, all materials in nature do
no react to the same extent to gravitation and, further, the
weight-inertial mass ratio is not the same with all
In a gravitational gradient or field fg,
accel. = mg fg / mi where
mg = gravitational (susceptibility)
mi = inertial mass
Where mg = mi, the
accel. is only dependent upon fg. A field fg
which will cause the acceleration of 980 cm/sec2
under these circumstances is considered to be 1 "g".
Hence, we may refer to the ratio mg/mi,
or simply the ratio g/i, as the "g-i" ratio. Under average
conditions, when the ratio equals unity, there is said to be
equivalence between weight and mass, as postulated by
Einstein. However, when the "g-i" ratio is less than unity,
the acceleration due to gravity is less and the acceleration
in an inertial field is greater. When the ratio is greater
than unity, the opposite appears to be true.
g / i = 1 (normal, mass-weight equivalence).
g / i > 1 (heavy gravitational isotopes
g / i < 1 (light gravitational isotopes
18. The g / i (gee-eye) Ratio
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
The g-i ratio represents the gravity-inertial
property of a material. It differs with different materials
and with the same materials at different times or under
different states of excitation.
When the g-i ratio is unity, there is an exact
equivalence of weight and inertial mass. This may be
described as average or mean condition.
Certain materials in nature apparently have
less or greater inertial mass for a given weight (under
similar circumstances) and such materials therefore have a
g-i ratio differing from unity.
A g-i ratio is said to be high, normal or low
depending upon whether it is above unity, at unity or below
unity, respectively. Light gravitational isotopes present
predominantly in a mass tends to lower the g-i ratio.
Material A. Given a g-i ratio of 0.901, weight
(gravitationally) 10 grams, Centrifuge rating 10,000 g’s;
What is actual centrifugal equivalent?
10,000 / 0.901 = 11,090+ g’s equiv.
19. Centrifugal Differential Hydrometry
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
Principles set forth in Sec. 16 and touched
upon further in Sec. 18, are basically described as follows:
In gravity field of any value of g, scale set
to zero hydrometer reading.
Then: When in centrifuge.
If material in hydrometer bulbs has a g-i
ratio of 1, no other reading will be indicated whatever the
speed of rotation.
If, however, material in bulb has a g-i ratio
less than 1, hydrometer will sink lower in liquid as
centrifugal force increases, the change in reading being
proportional to the rate of rotation.
If, however, material in bulb has a g-i ratio
less than 1, hydometer will sink lower in liquid, as
centrifugal force increases, the change in reading being
proportional to the rate of rotation (of the centrifuge).
If the material in the bulb has a g-i ratio
greater than 1, the hydrometer bulb will rise in the liquid
as the centrifugal force increases.
The reading of a floating hydrometer during
centrifuging may be accomplished by using an indicator
coating on the stem of the hydrometer, the color or shading
of which changes when in contact with the liquid. Such an
arrangement will permit reading the position (maximum) after
the centrifuge has stopped and the hydrometer returned to
The method is useful in determining the g-i
ratio of any unknown material, simply by placing a known
amount in the bulb of a standardized form of hydrometer,
using a liquid the g-i ratio of which is 1, and centrifuging
at a known rate. These materials may be in liquid as well as
solid sate. The sensitivity increases in proportion to the
speed of the centrifuge.
The advantages of the hydrometer method of
determining the g-i ratio of a material is that it is
self-balancing and independent of the compaction of material
during centrifuging. The hydrometer bulbs, since they are
made of glass (a silicate), must be carefully checked and
isotopically balanced to prevent a contribution to the
reading. Change in geometry due to compression of the bulb
must also be taken into account, but this may be balanced
out and disregarded when liquids or semi-fluids are tested.
Witnessed this 5th day of February 1956.
T. Townsend Brown
Witnessed Feb. 5, 1956 at Leesburg, VA,
Joesphine B. Brown
20. Energy Changes and Excited States in
the Creation and Determination of Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
Energy is required to create negative
gravitational isotopes. This energy may be supplied in the
form of protons (from infrared to gamma radiation) and
conceivably also from high speed particles.
When applied to susceptible materials, this
energy causes a temporary excited state, and this state
accompanies a change in the g-i ratio to a lower value.
This excited state gradually deteriorates
(probably according to a half-life curve) at different rates
according to the material irradiated. The g-i ratio
increases accordingly and approaches a value of 1
asymptotically. During this decay, energy is released,
mainly in the form of heat, and to a small extant, possibly
also as visible light.
This evolution of energy at a high rate may
not necessarily indicate a low gi ratio but more probably a
high rate of decay, i.e., a short half-life, and to some
extent also, a recent irradiation. The evolution of light
(if it does occur) would immediately follow cessation of
irradiation --- and, as a matter of fact, may be present
during irradiation, for decay would be proceeding at the
same time as irradiation.
The effect may be similar to photoexcitation
of phosphors, the persistence of the radiation determined by
the rate of decay of the excited state.
Immediately following removal of the exciting
radiation, the luminescence and heating effect is greatest.
The radiation diminishes as the excited state decays.
This suggests a beneficiated clay or other
material which may be periodically excited and then
(following irradiation) gives off heat slowly during the
decay of the excited state. Thus such a material would serve
as a heat reservoir with the energy stored as an
electrogravitic excited state.
21. Certain Complex Silicates (natural
clays, etc.) as Heat Reservoirs Following Irradiation by
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 11, 1956.
It is interesting speculation at this point to
consider the possibility that certain desert sands and clays
may thus become irradiated during the intense illumination
of the day, and thus retain an ability to evolve heat
through the night which exceeds the basic thermal capacity
of the material.
Concurrent with the irradiation, the material
may become gravitationally lighter and, at the same time,
inertially more massive.
If there is a fraction of the irradiated
desert sand or clay which is sufficiently susceptible, to
the extent that the g-i ratio decreases to zero or goes
negative, the particles comprising that fraction may
actually rise (loft) until nightfall stops the irradiation.
At which time, the particles may start to return to earth
--- falling perhaps like micro-meteorites.
Needless to say, a collection of this material
--- beneficiated in this way by nature --- would be
susceptible again to the same radiation. If the natural
radiation could be intensified by a quartz lens or metallic
parabolic mirror and focused upon a small sample of highly
susceptible material, the probability is that the material
would quickly loft. This would provide a simple and
Along this line, it has always been a mystery
to me why magnetite is found frequently on top of sand at
the waterline on beaches both in rivers and at the ocean. If
it were merely that the sand had washed away, leaving the
magnetite on top, an explanation might be provided. But, in
many cases, the sand has been recently deposited and it is
not clear how the magnetite can be carried along with the
sand in the initial process of beach formation unless the
densities were of the same order and/or unless the magnetite
fell as micrometeorites during or subsequent to the
formation of the beach. The density of average beach sand is
2.5 gr/cm3 while that of normal magnetite is 5.5
gr/cm3, more than twice as heavy.
Magnetite found in beach sands may therefore
be a susceptible material. It should be investigated.
The same may be said for loess. The beach sand
deposits of monazite at Jacksonville Beach, FL are also
interesting in this connection.
22. Beneficiation of Light Gravitational
Isotopes (by irradiation and selective lofting and
falling) as it may occur on the Moon.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 11, 1956.
Another purely speculative matter of interest
at this point is the possibility of natural beneficiation
occurring on the surface of the moon.
Due to the slow rate of rotation of the moon,
the moon’s daylight is approx. 14 days in length and night
is also 14 days in length.
During the long lunar day, temperatures rise
well above 200-300° F in the surface materials. The
radiation of the sun (due to the absence of atmosphere) is
strong also in the ultraviolet. Conditions are sustained for
14 days which are especially favorable for the excitation of
photoisotopes. Lofting of susceptible fractions of surface
dust is indicated. This material rises to great height and
part of it may escape into space. If a positive space charge
is created by the first waves of lofting material,
electrostatic repulsive forces may slow up further lofting.
Assuming then, a continuing lofting and
falling process, the moon’s surface may become covered with
a fine dust which engages every lunar day in a
The surface then becomes covered with an
especially deep layer at the end of the lunar night. This
may be a rich deposit of photoisotopic material actually
beneficiated by Nature.
The question, of course, may be asked if
similar conditions exist or may be made to exist, upon the
earth. One may search expectantly, it would seem, at the
edge of deserts --- especially on the downwind side.
23. The value of "g" is not constant for
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 10, 1956.
The acceleration due to gravity "g", normally
about 980 cm/cm2, is the result of a force acting
upon a mass.
a = f / m.
If the f does no increase in
proportion to m, a lower acceleration results: But
this is inertia mass mi --- the reluctance to acceleration.
The f is the force resulting from the action of the
gravitational field upon the specific material. That action
may be expressed as:
mg x fg.
a = mg / mi x fg.
mg / mi = g / i (ratio)
a = ( g-i ratio ) x fg
when (g-i ratio) is a characteristic of the
material under (or at) a certain state of excitation where
g-i ratio = 1, no excitation exists.
fg is a function of the inertial
mass of the attracting body.
24. Contact Excitation of Photoisotopes
by Highly Energized Isotopes.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 10, 1956.
A question presents itself as to the
possibility that a highly energized body may transfer energy
to a less energized body, either by conduction thru direct
contact or by induction thru merely being in proximity.
Can, for example, a highly excited sand or
clay energize rock? Can an excited gas (as in a positively
charged fireball of nitrogen) excite the sand, gravel or
other material by which it has been grounded and
annihilated? Can the mere presence of contra-terrene
material induce an effect of similar nature in a susceptible
Probably only experiment will reveal the
answers. It is worth considering, however, for there are
similar effects observable in other manifestations of energy
--- such as heat, electrostatics, etc.
One immediately ponders the question as to
energy excitation capacity, such as specific heat. Does a
material of low specific (excitation) capacity transfer its
energy to a material of higher excitation capacity, where
there is only a slight difference in potential.
This would raise the question that materials
may differ in excitation energy) capacity. Hence, more
energy would be required to excite certain atoms (or
materials generally) than others. More energy would be
released, and hence the rate of evolution would be greater,
or the rate of decay would be greater --- or possibly both.
A measure of potential must then be foreseen.
Raising the potential from one value to another, multiplied
by the specific capacity, would consume energy, as
E = Pdif x capacity.
If then, a material of high capacity were to
come into contact with a material of low capacity and would
discharge thereinto, would the P reach a higher value in the
second material? Based on analogous heat or electric
situations, the answer would seem to be that the potential
governs the flow, not the capacity.
Therefore, if a transfer of energy takes
place, it is because a difference in potential exists.
Energy will flow until the potential is equalized.
In energizing a material of high capacity, a
flow similar to the electric charging of a storage battery
takes place, with the potential rising as the charging
If the g-i ratio is a measure of excitation
potential, then I must be in reciprocal relation. As an
arbitrary zero, the g-i ratio of 1 can be taken. The
excitation potential increases as the ratio decreases to
zero. It continues to increase as the ratio goes negative.
Let us divide the scale so that the distance from 1 to zero
is 100 units. The distance from zero to –1 is then also 100
units, As: ---
Excitation Potential // g-i ratio
200 units // -1
100 " // 0
0 " // +1
Therefore, in summary, a material will have
mass-weight equivalence at zero potential, weightlessness
and double mass (or some larger exponent) at 100 units and
lofting at 1g and some still larger inertial mass at 200
units of excitation.
To excite a material, the energy (photon)
equivalent of the excitation potential required must be
supplied. In effect, this is electromagnetic excitation.
This excitation must be continued for a length of time
determined by the excitation capacity of the material.
Just as in charging a storage battery, a
longer time is required or a greater flow to charge a
material of higher capacity.
Once charged, a material of higher capacity
will continue in the excited state until discharged, and
will last longer or discharge at a higher rate, or both.
If there is a difference in capacity of
materials, it is logical to assume, at least to start with,
that the capacity may be a direct function of the inertial
mass at zero potential or grav. mass at any potential.
Hence, to irradiate a rare earth metal or
tantalum would require more energy than aluminum or silicon,
but the radiated energy during decay would likewise be
greater. When once energized to a given potential, tantalum
would give off more energy during decay to zero potential
and would do so at a greater rate or for a longer time, or
Aluminum silicate could be excited to a given
potential with less energy because its excitation capacity
Now therefore, on the basis that the specific
excitation is less than that of tantalum, it is clear that
the decay radiation total will be different to the same
Tantalum will absorb more energy and give off
more energy in reaching the same excitation potential. The
rate of charging will depend (1) upon the potential of the
charging source and (2) upon the rate of charging (or flow).
Therefore, to return to the subject of this
reaction, the rate of flow (conductivity) may depend upon
the proximity and/or contact with the charging source.
If, for example, two pieces of tantalum having
been differently excited (that is at presently different
potentials) were brought into contact, energy would most
certainly flow from one to the other. The flow would cease
when their potentials balanced. This would constitute
contact excitation of one by the other.
If highly excited aluminum silicate were
placed in an envelope or container made of tantalum, contact
would tend to cause the excitation of the tantalum, but the
difference in the specific capacity would be so great as to
virtually discharge the aluminum silicate without
effectively draining the potential of the tantalum, unless,
of course, the volume of aluminum silicate makes up for the
difference in specific capacity.
On the other hand, highly excited tantalum
could energize a large quantity of aluminum silicate without
an appreciable drop in potential of the tantalum.
One may speculate then that excitation in this
respect is contagious from one element to the other, that
there may be a variation from element to element, (1) in
capacity, (2) in rates of spontaneous decay.
The more interesting elements, therefore, are
those which have reasonably high capacity and very slow
rates of decay.
Possible method for exciting rock through
continuing contact excitation by irradiated sand.
Loess may be used in place of irradiated sand,
and would be especially effective if beneficiated.
Beneficiating by contact excitation by
dragging rock over desert sand.
More modern method for doing same thing.
Tantalum lofting by excitation from corona
The use of irradiated clay as a method to
energize rock. In this respect, clay serves as an impedance
matching device --- between the high potential of the
exciting photons and the low potential of the rock or other
The ancients may have known that if they
rubbed (Nile) mud, irradiated by the desert sun, on large
rocks that the rocks lost weight until they could be easily
25. Preservation of the Rotation of the
Earth by the Gravitational Differential of the Field of
the Sun --- Due to Solar Irradiation of Photoisotopes.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 15, 1956.
If the g-i ratio of the materials
comprising the surface of the earth (including the
atmosphere) is decreased by the action of sunlight, the
following effect may account for sustaining the rotation:
The atmosphere, being free to slip, would move
in the direction from W to E because of the differential
Correction: Perhaps it should not be called a
differential field. What I intend to say is that it is a
differential effect caused by two values of g large value on
the west limb and small value on the east limb (of the
Earth) in the gravitational field of the Sun.
26. Factors which may cause the Rotation
of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Neglecting all velocity components except the
basic orbital velocity of the Earth, a situation with
respect to the irradiation of the Earth by the Sun, and the
inertial mass differential developed therefrom, may possibly
account for a torque upon the Earth, as:--
Orbital motion of Earth.
Daylight side --- due to irradiation, mg/mi
decreasing, mi increasing
Assuming conservation of momentum, then since
mi is increasing V1 must decrease. On
the night side, since mi is decreasing V2 must
increase. Hence, a torque is present tending to revolve
Earth in the direction indicated.
This torque would be continuously applied and
would increase the rate of rotation of the Earth without the
present (low) limit were it not for the factors mentioned in
27. Counter-Rotational Torque Tending to
Limit the Rate of Rotation of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Considering now the rotation of the Earth as
given, and neglecting all other velocity components, the
following situation may exist:
On the daylight side, irradiation causes
increase in mi, and a force tending to decrease V1
as shown as F1.
On the night side, decay causes decrease in mi
and a force tending to increase V2, as shown as F2.
Since both of these forces are in the same
direction, the result is a contribution to the orbital
motion. It is this force which ma account for the basic
orbital velocity (given in Sec. 26).
However, since the actual velocity of the
Earth surface is the result of both orbital and axial
rotation, the forces actually acting are as follows:
V2 > V1
Irradiation causes increase in mi, hence F1.
Decay causes decrease in mi, hence F2.
Since F1 and F2
contribute to the axial rotation, the result is similar to
that indicated in Sec. 26, and we must look elsewhere for
the counter-rotational torque.
It would appear at the moment that we must
look elsewhere for this effect, and probably the most
fruitful place to look would be in the solar-tidal friction
produced upon and within the body of the Earth (including
the oceans) as it revolves.
Such friction would increase quite rapidly as
the rate of rotation increases, hence would soon reach an
equilibrium revolution at a certain rate.
We can assume, I believe, that this
equilibrium (in the case of the Earth) has been reached.
28. The Equilibrium Condition Between
the Amount of Irradiation and the Orbital and Axial
Motion of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
In Sec. 26, orbital motion plus irradiation
causes axial rotation.
In Sec. 27, axial rotation plus irradiation
caused orbital motion.
Obviously, there is an interaction between all
three factors, so that an equilibrium condition exists for
all values of irradiation.
It is apparent that, in the foregoing, orbital
motion per se is not required. What is required is that the
relative position of the source of irradiation shall not
change with respect to the body being irradiated. Hence to
maintain a fixed relative position, orbital motion satisfies
At any instant, therefore, orbital motion is
equivalent to linear motion.
A summary of the situation, therefore, points
to a possible interaction between linear motion, irradiation
and particle rotation.
This inter-relationship may be observed in the
29. Conservation of Momentum and the
Change of Velocity with Change in Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956
As mi increases, V must decrease,
and vice versa.
If V is given, Rotation results is irradiation
is maintained on one side of a photo-sensitive material.
If rotation is given, V results under same
And the three factors are related in an equilibrium
depending upon al three.
Torque such that mi increasing resists V, and
30. Detection of Absolute Motion by
Means of Modulated Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
A force vector becomes apparent (1) in the
direction of absolute motion whenever mi is decreased, and
(2) away from the direction of motion whenever mi
The tendency is to conserve momentum.
When an alternating emf is employed (at a
frequency synchronous with period of pendulum), the system
will swing in an alignment with direction of absolute
Witnessed this 18th of Feb 1956.
Josephine B. Brown
31. Electrogravitic Radio Using
Leesburg, VA, Feb 18, 1956
An improvement over the use of highly
conducting metals as antennae (see pat. Appl. On subject)
appears to present itself in the photoisotopic cell (See
In Sec. 29 and 30, the effect of changing
inertial mass was set forth. This is in accord with the law
of conservation of momentum. This calls for a change in
velocity according to the equation for kinetic energy E = ˝
Hence, for a given momentum
m || V2 or mi || V2
m being inertial mass as distinguished
from gravitational mass (mg).
Any modulating inertial mass (mi) must exert a
force during the time of change tending to increase or
decrease its absolute velocity. As stated in Sec. 30, the
direction of this force must be toward or away from the
exact direction of its absolute motion (in space).
Hence, if an antenna (of an electro-gravitic
radio transmitter) is electrically or photo-isotopically
modulated, it will tend to vibrate mechanically in the
alignment of its absolute motion.
Conversely, one may look for the generation of
an alternating potential if such a mass is vibrated in the
alignment of its absolute motion (in space).
Since the velocity enters the equation with
/as an experiment, it is possible that the voltage may turn
out to be a function of the absolute velocity, but this will
be discussed in a later chapter.
In any case, the use of photoisotope cells in
electrogravitic radio transmitters is indicated. A
fundamental circuit is as follows:
Transmitter >> gravitational radiation
A transmitting antenna using a multiplicity of
photoisotopic cells for modulating mi.
32. A Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or
Generator Using a "Velocity" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 19, 1956
In the foregoing chapters, it was pointed out
that the rapid modulation of inertial mass would cause
mechanical forces resulting in vibration. The direction of
the principal vibration would be parallel to the absolute
motion of the mass.
Therefore, if a rotating system were
synchronously excited (phased in with the rotation),
In this case, rotation would be impeded.
If turning clockwise, rotation would be
assisted, and system would operate as a motor.
Case No. 2
Stable position. Same as Sec. 29, Fig. 5.
Case No. 3
Given --- absolute V
" --- rotation as shown
" --- unmodulated mass
Then a potential would be generated.
When a given inertial mass is at position 1,
its absolute velocity is maximum. When the rate of velocity
change is greatest (slowing), this corresponds to greatest
positive excitation, etc., etc.
Any whirling dipole (uncharged initially) will
acquire an alternating emf due to the "velocity" field,
synchronized with the rotation. Or,
A revolving disc or sphere will do the same,
The increased V is equivalent to a negative
charge or high g-i ratio.
The decreased V is equivalent to a positive
charge or low g-i ratio.
This generator effect may account for the
day-night difference in potential in the surface of the
33. A Rotating Electro-Gravitic Motor or
Generator Using an "Inertial" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 19, 1956.
The inertial field differs from the velocity
field in this respect:
An inertial field is due to an acceleration or
a change in velocity. It is measured as the rate of change
The inertial field affects mi
directly and produces a mechanical force proportional to mi,
whereas the velocity field produces a mechanical force only
when there is a change in mi and to an amount
proportional to the rate of change of mi.
When excited as shown, (+) causes increase in
mi, (-) causes decreases in mi, hence
The inertial field can be created either by
acceleration or centrifugal action. But in either case,
force must be in direction as indicated to produce rotation
When operated as a generator, polarity is
opposite to that shown.
34. A Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or
Generator Using a Gravitational Field
Leesburg, VA, Feb, 19, 1956.
The gravitational field has a similar but
opposite effect from the inertial field as set forth in Sec.
When excited as shown, (+) causes decreases in
mg, (-) causes increase in mg, hence rotation is
When used as a generator, polarity is opposite
to that shown.
It will be seen that when wired in the same
way, rotation is opposite to that of the inertial field
Used in a detecting device, such a motor being
identical to the inertial field motor, would rotate in
clockwise direction of the inertial field predominated and
in a counter-clockwise direction of the gravitational field
In this respect, this device would operate
When turned as a generator, the electric
current generated would also act differentially, reading
zero upon balance.
35. Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or
Generator Using a Velocity" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 19, 1956.
In order to describe it in a comparable way,
the material set forth in Sec. 32 is redrafted as follows:
If mi in moving from A to B to C
increases, absolute motion should be decreased, hence a
force as indicated. In moving from C to D to A, mi
decreases, hence V should tend to increase as also
The additional torque will cause the device to
continue in operation after once started in the direction of
When not excited and when used as a generator,
the polarity is opposite to that shown. The reason is as
When a mass is at point D, the V is greatest.
When it moves to A, its rate of decrease of velocity is
maximum. During this decrease of V, a positive charge
appears, being a function of the rate. Similarly during the
increase of V a negative charge appears, equal in magnitude
to the rate at which the equivalent mass mi is
36. Use of Electrogravitic Generators as
Measuring Instruments for g, i, and V ‘Fields".
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19, 1956.
When driven, the following rotors may develop
an emf which depends upon the strength of gravity, inertial
and (fixed velocity) "fields".
Rotation clockwise as shown, Polarity as
indicated. Susceptible materials (unexcited).
Rotation same as above. Polarity is now
opposite to that above.
To measure absolute velocity, an emf is
developed as indicated.
This is a summary of the information set forth
in Sec. 33, 34, and 35.
It is readily apparent that various
combinations of the above may be used in balancing circuits
to obtain special information as to relative "field"
37. The Earth as the Rotor of an
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 19, 1956.
It now appears that the polarities developed
by both the g and i fields are in the same
direction, but that the polarity developed by the velocity
This situation is not clearly understood at
the present writing. It will be reviewed at a later time.
38. Change of angular velocity with
change in mi in order to conserve Angular Momentum.
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19, 1956.
Initial rotation given, when photoisotope
cells on periphery of rotor are:
(1) negatively charged --- mi is
decreased and rotor speeds up.
(2) positively charged --- mi is increased and
The above is based on the conservation of angular momentum.
39. Inertial Differential
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19 1956.
In Sec. 13 and 14, attention was called to the
possibility that the change in inertial mass mi, when
modulated, could give rise to an unbalanced centrifugal
force which could move the rotating system persistently in
This possibility is further explored:
When rotated at high speed and when using
photosensitive material of very short persistence.
On the (+) side, g / i < 1 , or at least i
(+) <> i (-), hence a force due to the unbalance of
the opposing centrifugal forces is created.
This force (f) tends to move the system
as a whole in the direction indicated.
It is clear that, at high rotational speeds,
even a small inertial mass difference on the two sides could
cause a substantial force upon the system as a whole. Even
with crude materials the effect may be found to be easily
40. The Loss of Weight of Quartz
Capsules Containing a Photosensitive Isotope when
Irradiated by UV Light
Leesburg, VA ; Feb 19, 1956.
A quick and yet convincing test (of Sec. 11)
is possible by sealing a given amount of photoisotope in a
capsule of fused quartz and weighing.
Weight should be taken of the capsule (1) in
total darkness, (2) in normal light of the laboratory, (3)
under UV light and (4) intense sunlight (without intervening
The use of the quartz capsule prevents escape
(evolution) of moisture during the irradiation, without
filtering out the uv by absorption.
A standardized size of capsule may be adopted
containing say 10 cc of material for comparison tests for
loss of weight.
A laboratory precision balance, preferably
"chainomatic" or equivalent is suggested due to the need for
rapid determination of weight which is continually changing.
A curve showing loss of weight during
excitation and gain of weight during decay will be required
for a variety of materials.
41. The Results of a Change of Inertial
Mass Following Modulated Beneficiation (with Low
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 26, 1956.
Part I. Change of Angular Velocity to
Conserve Angular Momentum.
In Sec. 13, the possibility of a change
in inertia mass of the photoisotope cell was considered. A
laboratory experiment was described I which the period of a
pendulum containing a photoisotope cell could be measured.
The observations, however, would be non-specific as to the
change in inertial mass per se, except when performed in an
anniversary clock or centrifugal (rotor) device. It is the
purpose of the present section to develop this idea.
Using several photoisotope cells (of low
persistence) arranged on the periphery of a wheel-like
support and connected so as to be charged in unison, as:
Given initial velocity --- when positively
charged, mass mi increases, hence V decreases, or, When
negatively charged, mass mi decreases, and V increases.
AC would cause periodic change in V.
Another form of this experiment may be a disc
which is energized (photoisotopically) from the center, as:
When unexcited and spinning at a known rate,
then excited positively as shown, the inertial mass mi is
increased, causing the rate of rotation to decrease.
When used as an anniversary clock, the period
is lengthened by the application of a positive charge.
Part II. The Disc-Type Inertial
Differential Electrogravitic Motor.
A development of the form of motor described
in Sec. 39 is as follows:
In the "forward" part of the disc, sectors are
being electropositively charged. Hence mi is increased.
The opposite is arranged for the trailing
sectors, so as to produce a decreased mi.
Rotation of these sectors having a mass (inertial)
differential may cause the forward-acting thrust as
42. The Impulse Effect in the Force
Developed by a Simple Capacitor in Vacuum.
Leesburg, VA; April 7, 1956.
In the dynamic phase of the electrogravitic
interaction, the force developed by a system of electric
dipoles is believed to vary with the rate-of-change of the
voltage between the dipoles.
This force, independent of the movement of
ions or any mechanical reaction therefrom, operates in the
direction of negative-to-positive as the voltage is
increasing, and, presumably, in the opposite direction as
the voltage is decreasing.
In vacuum (10-6 mm Hg or less), an
interesting effect is observed.
Any simple vacuum capacitor will appear to
flash as the voltage increases, and, concurrent with the
vacuum spark, an impulse force is noted in the direction of
the negative to positive. It is noted that the wave shape is
According to theory, the impulse is associated
with the recovery of potential and not with the rapid
decrease brought on by the vacuum spark.
Two possibilities present themselves in
explanation: (1) the decrease in potential is too rapid to
produce an observable force mechanically, or (2) a balancing
effect serving to prevent the force from being created may
be present in the k-mu (ether) medium.
Therefore, since the downward voltage produces
no force, the upward voltage is responsible for the observed
There is evidence to support the belief that a
local balancing effect actually exists in the k-mu medium or
field between or surrounding the electrodes, in that the
effect is primarily observed when the voltage change is
caused by a vacuum spark or flash between the electrodes and
not when wholly due to a chopper in the external circuit.
The principal movement of the dipoles is
therefore always associated with (and probably caused by)
the vacuum spark or flash.
43. The Nature of the Vacuum Spark, as
related to the initiation of an electrogravitic impulse.
The vacuum spark is apparently not due to a
flow of electrons, although a flow of electrons may
accompany the discharge.
Initiation of the "flash", as it is called
from observations in the dark, appear to be related to anode
conditions such as shape (field intensity) and the metal
comprising the anode. In a recently evacuated system,
flashing starts at a comparatively low voltage, 30-40 KV. It
becomes less frequent at this low range and then ceases
altogether. A higher voltage is then required --- 50 to 60
KV, which causes a succession of flashes which, in turn,
cease. At 80-90 KV, flashing is intense for a time, but
finally ceases. At 130-140 KV, the flashing is quite intense
and cease only after a considerable time. It is believed
that a threshold may be reached between 150-200 KV where
flashing will be sustained and continuous.
The electrogravitic forces developed by the
rapid succession of impulses which accompany the flashing in
the higher voltage ranges is indeed a first order effect,
measurable in thousands of dynes, even with small scale
While the nature of the flash (or its cause)
is not wholly understood, it is reasonable a this stage to
suspect positive conduction, at least as the initiator.
Emission from the anode, bombarding the cathode, may (and
probably does) release electrons which contribute to the
electrical conduction. Since the effect takes place in very
high vacuum, it is unlikely that atmospheric ions or the
like are involved. Occluded atoms or molecules are probably
pulled from the anode material, and these, of course, may be
oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, or any of the atmospheric gases.
Metallic ions of the anode material may be involved, or
perhaps even microscopic pieces of metal.
One of the spectacular features of the flash
is the colored luminescence which appears on or immediately
adjacent to the anode and/or the shifting areas of light and
color across the face of the anode. The color is reddish ---
like hot metal, although in reality the surface is not hot:
Cadmium is especially active in this respect although other
metals reveal the same red coloration. White star-like spots
of considerable brilliance appear on the cathode.
44. Scale of Beneficiation
Leesburg, VA; April 7, 1956.
The above scale indicates a rough
approximation based upon the hypothesis that normal g of 980
cm/sec2 represents an equal amount of inertia, so
that the g/i ratio is unity. As the ratio decreases, the
potential equivalent increases.
Energy is required to reduce weight, this
energy increases exponentially as g is decreased linearly.
The inertial mass (mi) increases exponentially to the same
extent as the potential. Excitation is represented as
potential and expressed in ghos. Decay of gravitational
isotopes results from the evolution of this energy and the
resulting decrease of potential.
45. Possible Excitation of Gravitational
Isotopes by Friction (Triboisotopes)
Leesburg, VA; Aug 26, 1956.
The possibility that loss of weight may be
produced by friction should not be overlooked.
If a state of excitation, similar to that
induced by uv light, can be induced by inter-molecular
friction or by constant friction, the loss of weight may be
In Sec. 7, p. 21, the possibility that fatigue
in metals, resulting from inter-molecular friction, may
cause a reduction in weight was discussed at length. It was
pointed out that coulomb damping may be accompanied by loss
of weight in powdered susceptible materials.
A simple test may be as follows:
Quartz tube filled with sand, clay or other
susceptible material. Weighed before and after shaking, the
entire quartz tube with contents may show a loss of weight
due to inter-particle friction.
It may be found desirable to irradiate the
tube and contents with strong sunlight or uv light while
shaking is in progress. [N.B. – Ultrasonic resonance plus
Beside the use of artificial light, sunlight
may be intensified by quartz lenses or by a large parabolic
reflector as follows;
Concentrated irradiation by sunlight plus
Using a large 60-inch Sperry Anti-aircraft
searchlight mirror (without glass door), the radiation of
the sun is focused upon the quartz tube filled with sand or
clay or other susceptible material while being violently
shaken by a motor device (not shown).
If effects are observed, quantitative
measurements of the effects of the following may be
Shaking only --- various speeds, etc.
IR radiation only.
IR " with visible.
And all combinations of these.
46. Excitation of gravitational isotopes
by friction irradiation and distribution and
accumulation of the effects by conduction.
Leesburg, VA; Sept 9, 1956.
In Sec. 24, P. 48, it was proposed that rock
ma be caused to lose weight by being dragged over desert
sand which has been irradiated for some time by sunlight.
In Sec. 45, P. 80, it was proposed that
friction alone may cause a loss of weight.
It is now proposed that a large effect may be
caused by both.
Method which may have been used by the
ancients to cause a loss of weight in very large and heavy
The effect would decay, causing the return of
original weight, according to a half-life curve dependent
upon the nature of the rock contents.
47. Loss of Weight by Grinding or
Leesburg, VA Sept 9, 1956
In the foregoing, it is suggested that
fraction may be effective in bringing about a loss of
weight, and that the loss of weight is temporary (after
friction has ceased), so that the original weight will
This may mean that a given weight of rock (of
certain composition) may actually lose weight when
pulverized and that the weight of the freshly pulverized
material will be least and therefore increase according to
the following type of curve.
During this decay period heat is evolved
Conversely, by observing accurately the
increase in weight of certain pulverized materials
(aluminates, silicates, etc.) the curve may be constructed
and the approximate date of grinding may be determined.
48. Spontaneous Evolution of Heat
(Thermoactivity) of recently pulverized silicates or
Leesburg VA; Sept 9, 1956.
Following the grinding of certain materials, a
state of excitation is maintained for some time. This
excitation gradually diminishes according to the same
half-life curve which represents its return to normal
weight. See Sec. 47., P. 83.
It is proposed that the foregoing be tested as
Freshly ground material is placed in an ice
calorimeter with a sensitive thermocouple in the center of
the mass of material. Readings taken at frequent intervals
for a period of at least 3 months.
It is believed that the energy represented in
thermoactivity is that of an excited state in the electronic
shells of the atoms or in the relations (valency electrons
or holes) within certain molecular configurations. This
energy is supplied initially by the mechanical action of
friction (and/or irradiation) during the process of
grinding. This energy is gradually dissipated as heat and
the rate of evolution falls off with time.
49. Discussion of Loss of Weight by
Friction as present in Nature.
Leesburg, VA; Sept 9, 1956.
The mechanism of dust storms, where wind
causes fine particles of sand or clay to rub over one
another for a considerable distance may be responsible for a
temporary loss of weight. The same effect may be present
under water where the current causes sand to flow to and fro
(as in wave actions) or straightway (as in rivers).
Due to the presence of sunlight irradiation,
the phenomena of "rising" sand wind long noticed in the
Sahara may be evidence of the above effect. Sand grains
rubbing over other sand grains, by saltation, by the action
of the wind, may cause the more susceptible grains to rise
en masse and actually to loft to a considerable height,
higher than they would normally go under the action of wind
Aircraft flying at great altitudes over the
Sahara often encounter these sand winds which are difficult
to account for merely on the basis of wind-blown dust.
50. The Possibilities of a New Type of
Time-Space Data Preservation. A Method of Recording or
Leesburg, VA; Jan 30, 1957.
All methods of recording music, sounds or
time-series data, up to the present, have required the use
of elements which are electrically or mechanically moving at
a constant rate.
The phonograph is a classic example. Here,
sounds are translated into mechanical vibrations which are
recorded in a wax plate or equivalent which is moving at a
constant rate. The magnetic tape or wire recorder is
similar, except that magnetic variations are impresses upon
the moving element.
In computing machines so-called electronic
brains, memory devices are employed for the storage of data.
These may be in the form of magnetic wire or tape records
or, if greater speeds are required, mercury (transducer)
memory tubes or television-like sustained images. Memory
tubes require a recirculating sonic or ultrasonic path
wherein the data is stored, and the cathode ray systems
require continuous rescanning systems. Such recirculating or
rescanning systems require a continuing source of energy in
order to preserve the data indefinitely.
It is suggested that a kind of memory may be
inherent in the dielectric materials under certain
conditions, so that, in effect, they may remember the manner
of recharging. It appears possible that such memory may
persist as long as the charge is retained.
The same characteristic may be present in
certain magnetic materials and in a fashion which may be
Now therefore, it would appear to be desirable
to explore these possibilities.
In general, it is suggested that two new forms
of memory may be possible:
(1) Dielectric or capacitor memory.
(2) Magnetic or ferrite memory.
A simple form of capacitor memory, for
purposes of illustration is as follows:
By charging the capacitor at a variable rate
Domain progression. The electric orientation
of dipoles proceeds at an irregular rate according to
pattern prescribed by data feed. Upon reducing the electric
field during subsequent discharge of capacitor, dipoles
return to random (discharged) alignment progressively,
according same or reversed pattern.
By introducing a leakage path, other and
further paths may be produced.
Capacitor Bridge for Exploratory Measurements
Charge A2 to –20KV steadily and
Charge A to +20 KV irregularly and with
During charging, B-B is grounded by switch S,
then switch is closed to meter M for duration of discharge.
Any irregularity in rate of discharge of A
will show as a temporary imbalance of the bridge and a
voltage indicated at M. (Brush recording galvanometer).
Rapid transient imbalances will be most pronounced.
51. Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 1, 1957.
This is a continuation of discussion set forth
in the Sec. 5, p. 15 of this record book. It relates to
experiments conducted at Pearl Harbor Navy Yard in 1950-51.
These preliminary experiments gave positive results,
indicating a real shift of the mid-points with respect to
each other with time.
Successive tests over an extended period of
time and under conditions usually called equivalent revealed
continuing (sometimes gradual and sometimes abrupt) circuit
changes causing the indicated shift of (relative) mid-point.
It is thought that this phenomena relates to
the action of the so-called sidereal radiation electrometer
and that the variations or shift of the mid-point may have
lunar, solar and sidereal cycles as recorded by the
With automatic charging and discharging of the
capacitors and means for continuous recording, it is
believed that a pattern similar to the electrometer readings
may be revealed.
The following circuit is suggested:
Switch 1 closes for 30 sec each 3 minutes.
Variac is so adjusted as to zero galvanometer 4 but at
mid-point of 3, when 2 is closed. When 2 is opened, a
voltage will be recorded at 5. If, in the preliminary
adjustments this voltage is too high to be conveniently
recorded, the recorder may be zeroed by adjusting the
variac. This should then be followed by zeroing galvanometer
4 by changing position of slider 3. At this point, both the
recorder and the galvanometer would be zeroed. Continuing
operations will reveal a systematic shift of capacitor
mid-point as shown by te record of voltage.
52. Excitation by Impact of
Nov 16, 1957
In Sec. 15, it was suggested that
beneficiation might be achieved through ion separation. A
development of this idea is as follows:
When the charge of a mass (according to
electrogravitic theory) is made more negative, the mass
becomes exogravitic during the interval of change. The
exogravitic rate is a function of the rate of change of the
Similarly, when the charge changes in he
positive direction, the mass becomes endogravitic during the
Representation is as follows:
Hence, if a body is positively charged and
loses that charge while in contact with a grounded (or
negatively charged) mass, it is possible that the sudden and
intense exogravitic radiation will be transmitted to and
absorbed by the grounded mass.
This suggests the use of an electrified sand
Since the positively charged sand is forcibly
thrown against the susceptible material and loses its charge
while in contact with it, the exogravitic radiation level is
picked up by the material and diffuses through it in much of
the same manner as heat. The susceptible material becomes
progressively warmer (in terms of gravitational potential)
until it potential balances the incoming potential
(expressed in millighos). The electrogravitic capacity or
retentiveness then determines the persistence of the effect.
During excitation, the higher millighos value
should accompany the loss of weight. The interesting feature
seems to be that the excited state acts like a heated state
thermally and that it may represent another kind of "heat",
engaging in conduction, radiation, and temperature
Conductivity of gravitic excitation through a
material may differ markedly from one material to another.
It is suggested that certain basalts, lavas and clays,
perhaps also gravitic materials, silicas and some of the
rare earth metals and tantalum may be found susceptible and
useful in this connection.
High voltages (discharges in air) may produce
the effect, especially where the voltages and momentary
currents are very high as in a lightning bolt. A solid or
gas which is near ground potential is suddenly struck by
positive ions and rapidly moving dust particles. The result
could be gravitic excitation of the solid or gas. It is
conceivable that atmospheric nitrogen should be so excited
--- producing the so-called ball-of-fire which has been
observed to glow and to drift around like a toy balloon. See
Sec. 4, Test No.2.
It is interesting to speculate also that the
""Brown Mountain Lights" may be caused by intense
atmospheric electric gradients, with the ground negatively
The light of the aurora may, in part at least,
be due to the bombardment of crystal nitrogen by positive
particles from the sun. An investigation of the luminosity
of crystal nitrogen under positive rays may be in order.
53. Dipole Motion Due to Excitation from
Nov 16, 1957.
In Sec. 52, the idea that gravitic potential
could be affected by the impact (stoppage) of positive rays
Such a material would lose weight in direct
relation to the gravitic potential, that is, the mass would
tend to become an antimass. Potential as expressed in
millighos would increase until a balance is reached between
the potential of the target and the potential of the
individual positive rays upon contact with the target. The
target, upon being excited, would be exogravitic, that is,
it would have a higher gravitic potential than the ambient.
The "g" gradient would be outward.
A dipole would look like:
with a g-force pushing the popsitive pole
54. Static Counterbalance Produced by
Positive Ray Excitation.
Nov 17, 1957.
Mass A suspended by a spring for observation
of weight. Placed in vacuum chamber B, evacuated to 2.5 x 10-5
mm Hg, ionizing wire C serving as a source of canal rays
which strike mass A at high velocity.
Upon stoppage of the canal rays, the high
excitation potential is conducted to Mass A and distributes
through it (in much the same effect as heating. Mass A gains
gravitic potential to a value equaling the potential of the
canal rays (during discharge).
Mass A then loses weight as it gains
excitation potential, and rises within the vacuum chamber as
the spring becomes less extended.
55. Excitation by Annihilation of
Nov. 18, 1957
In the foregoing sections, reference has been
made to the possible excitation effects brought on by
contact with charged masses or ions which initially possess
a positive charge and are subsequently grounded, that is,
grounded during contact with material susceptible to
Reference is to matter or ions. In the present
section, it is suggested that so-called (valence) holes ---
(See Sec. 9) might, upon annihilation, represent the source
of a strong exogravitic radiation. Such radiation could be
picked up by a susceptible electrode material which, in
turn, would become excited --- gaining in potential Pg.
Ordinary transistor materials and methods may
be employed, essential as follows:
56. On the Meaning of "Field Shaping".
Dec. 27, 1957.
In nearly every experiment involving
dielectrics and high voltage gradients, the shape of the
field is a factor which must be considered.
A classical example is the force exhibited by
a dielectric mass tending to draw it into a field (electric)
if greater flux density. The force so developed is a
function of the dielectric constant of the material. As:
Such a condition is present where electrodes
are arranged as follows:
Such a condition may be brought about by the
shaping of a dielectric section as:
In these cases, the voltage gradients (both
capacitance and resistance) are non-linear and look
something like this:
Shape of field in dielectric sections.
The curve of potential is practically the
same. Hence, in the small end, the flux density is greatest
due to the requirements of capacitance distribution (upon
charging), and then changes somewhat to meet the resistance
distribution as steady-state current conditions take over.
The experiments to date have indicated that
dielectric sections so shaped appear to move or possess a
force (as a whole) as follows:
Motion of dielectric section away from end
containing greatest electric flux density.
This suggests that, if a dielectric fluid is
present (perhaps ether), it is moved in the opposite
direction thru the solid dielectric material. Perhaps a kind
of "ether pump", as:
In the case of experiments on dynamic
counterbary, the forces are similar probably.
Upper dome electrode (usually +; lower dome
electrode (usually -)
In the case of units in multiple, where
polarity is reversed in alternative units, field shaping may
prevail over the usual neg-to-pos polarity arrangement, as
dynamic counterbary sections in multiple connection:
Dynamic counterbary sections in multiple
In the foregoing, it would appear that ether,
as a fluid dielectric with a K of unity, permeating the
solid dielectric which is shaping the field, will move in
the direction of the greater flux density as required by the
classical experiment (p. 98).
The solid or physical elements of the system
(which so shape the field) are moved in the opposite
direction. These reactive forces and the motion resulting
therefrom may be up or down (or in any direction) and
conceivably can be used for propulsion.
In general, it appears that field shaping is
of utmost importance in placing a region of high flux near
an electrode or mass offering high reluctance to the flow of
ether induced by the creation of the high flux.
The high flux creates a center of attraction
for the ether which continues to flow so long as the flux
exists. At the starting and stopping of the flow, inertial
effects may conceivably be noted which are related to K and
In the gyron in vacuum, the following
arrangement is proposed:
If plate B is less permeable to ether than the
grid or plate A, the flow being thru B into the high flux
may cause the observed motion.
57. Units in Multiple for Dynamic
Winston-Salem, NC,; Jan 1, 1958.
In the foregoing section, the use of field
shaping was considered in multiple arrangement. The
advantage of multiple connections is, of course, that lower
voltages may be employed as the answer to larger sizes.
Dynamic counterbary units then begin to look like this:
Regions of high flux density immediately about
electrodes cause electrodes to be lifted. Airflow (plus
ether flow?) may be in the opposite direction.
Shaped dielectric sections:
58. An Analysis of the Adamski
Photograph in the Light of Recent Laboratory Findings.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 5, 1958.
This may be a bit of fantasy or it could be
significant. It is a fact, nevertheless, that the behavior
of laboratory models is quite similar to that alleged for
the "Venusian" scout ship, and, what is even more
provocative, the construction appears similar in many of the
more important details. On examination of the photograph
(reconstructed photographs and orthographic projections) is
Note: Apex of cathode (shaped high
flux) may be the focus of the parabolic anode (canopy), if
indeed it proves to be parabolic. It could be te focus of a
* Inside the Space Ships --- Adamski --- p.
In the laboratory, the following shape gives a
lifting force when charged as indicated:
In this diagram, the central (power storage)
pylon is conceived as a gravitic dipole --- charged ends at
a high potential (gravitic excitation) differential.
Electric differential, it would appear, may accompany the
59. The Concept of the Gravitic Dipole
as an Energy Storage Means.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 5, 1958.
In the foregoing study of the Adamski Venusian
scout ship and in the descriptive material pertaining to it
found in the Adamski publication, the central pylon is
referred to as place where energy is stored for the
propulsion of the ship. It is stated that this central
column must be recharged (by the mother ship), presumably as
a storage battery is recharged.
The implication is that te central pylon is a
kind of storage capacitor for electrostatic energy or
perhaps even a pile of high capacity electret wafers serving
the same purpose --- the stored energy being in the electric
form (simple electrostatic nature).
To retain sufficient energy, if such a storage
column is simply electrical, very high K materials and very
high voltages would be required. Such high electrical fields
would be difficult to contain without adequate insulation,
especially thru the cabin compartment. Even with the very
highest K materials available now (say 10,000 to 30,000 K),
it is unbelievable that enough electrical energy would be
stored to provide the propulsion and dynamic counterbary
It appears necessary therefore, to look
further into the nature of the energy storage means. The
following system appears worthy of study:
If a column 16’ long by 2’ diameter, made of a
suitably susceptible, highly retentive. High capacity
material for gravitic excitation were used, the
energy-storage requirements might easily be met. The column
would constitute a gravitic dipole. It could be initially
energized by a method such as described in Secs. 52-55
Spraying continued until Pg of the
lower end of the column increases to described value (2000
millighos or more). This is equivalent to a lofting moment
of 2 g’s. At this Pg, the electrical potential
may be formed to remain at some high value positive as a
permanent state --- at least until the gravitic dipole is
discharged or decays to zero. In this respect, the column is
an electric (as well as gravitic) dipole when it is charged
and the energy resides both as electric storage and gravitic
excitation. Most of the energy in storage, however, would be
represented as the gravitic excitation of the lower end. The
electric field would merely accompany the gravitic
difference of potential.
60. Luminescence from highly-excited
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 5, 1958.
In connection with the gravitic excitation of
materials, luminescence of the material itself as well as
the surrounding materials (or gases) seems reasonable
indeed. This is the type of thing one would expect if he
were to attempt to account for the glow around soaucers
hovering or in flight, as reported by so many observers.
Nothing, of course, of this nature has as yet
been observed in the laboratory, and it is pure speculation
as to its color and general behavior or even its existence.
However, one may be able to foretell some of the properties.
In general, the radiation may be similar to
tribo-luminescence, may actually be associated with
tribo-luminescence, since friction also produces
counterbary. Where gravitic excitation is carried to higher
values, say 1 gho or above, considerable energy is in
storage. Such energy undoubtedly would be found to have some
have some radiant manifestation, since there would exist a
steep gradient in the surrounding field. This gradient would
dominate with the square of the distance. It would be
greatest, therefore, immediately adjacent to the excited
body, and especially around sharp points or edges where the
field is steep. The effect may be similar, therefore, to
electrical discharge (corona), may be present along with
electrical corona and may, in some respects, be
indistinguishable form it. Hence, saucers may glow from
gravitic corona or electric corona or both.
In atmospheric air, electric corona is of
purple color. A breakdown spark is blue. These spectral
characteristics have been studied in great detail in the
laboratory, along with the spectra of other gases (and
solids) under electric bombardment or excitation.
Gravitic luminescence may come directly from
the emitting surface or from the surrounding gas as gravitic
corona. The spectra may be entirely different from electric
corona, and more than likely it is quite different.
For example, on the basis of electric corona,
it is difficult to account for the oft-reported flame-red
color noted in saucers in flight. It is equally difficult to
explain the shift in color from blue-white to flame-red, as
the saucer maneuvers. These colors are not found in simple
electric corona in air, and a change in voltage would not
cause a change in color.
The flame-red color, therefore, is a stranger
insofar as electric corona discharge is concerned. It is
possible that this color is typical of gravitic corona
In atmospheric air, at higher gravitic
excitations or field strengths, the red color may become
orange, orange-white, white or blue. This suggests the
possibility of a continuous spectrum type of radiation
similar to heat (thermo-luminescence).
This would mean, then, that the lower end of
the dipole (column) shown on Page 106 would glow visibly
when sufficiently excited by the spray of positive ions.
Starting from a dull red, the luminescence might increase
both in intensity and frequency (from red to blue) as the
gravitic excitation continues. In this way, the nature
(intensity and color) of the luminescence might be a
convenient indicator of the degree of gravitic excitation.
In other words, the color would reveal the amount of static
counterbary as well as the gravitic excitation or total
A gravitic dipole (as shown in p. 106) would
appear luminous at the lower end but not a the upper end. At
max. excitation, the color gradation would range from blue
(at the lower end) thru white, orange-violet, orange, red
and dull red to black (no radiation at the top).
The flame-red radiation would not necessarily
be hot (thermally) in itself or represent a thermally hot
surface. It would, however, represent a source of high
energy or the storage of that energy (as gravitic potential)
61. The Use of the Toroid in Field
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 12, 1958.
It is a basic requirement in shaping the
electric field (p. 98) that the electric lines converge upon
the cathode (as in Case No. 1). This normally requires a
small cathode for high flux fields. Where a central pylon is
used (as in p. 104 and 106), the high flux must be
concentrated at the lower (cathode) end. A type of electrode
is therefore suggested which accomplishes such field
shaping. It is the toroid.
Such a curve of flux density fulfills the
requirement described on p. 99. The center of the toroid
could then be the focus of the parabola. The center hole
would be just large enough to receive the dielectric pylon,
with lower electrode at that center.
62. Possible Magnetic Components in the
Venusian Scout Ship --- Continued from Par. 3, Sec. 58
The main power coil, focused inside the
cathode toroid, creates a field which saturates the lower
(cathode) end of the pylon. The upper coil may be used to
completely degauss the upper end o the pylon, or, working in
conjunction with the lower coil, to distribute the field
more evenly thru the pylon. Between these extremes, it could
easily serve as as a central device for dynamic counterbary.
By adding the magnetic component, total
counterbary may be greatly increased.
This effect would add to the force obtained
63. Rotation of the Cathode-Toroid vs
the Control Grid, as a Gyro-Stabilizer.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 12, 1958
It is apparent that some form of
gyro-stabilization would assist the Venusian scout ship in
maintaining course, and preventing wobble, both while
hovering and while in flight. Such stabilization may be
accomplished by rotating the cathode-toroid in one direction
and the control grid in the opposite direction. The main
body of the ship would then not be subject to rotational
It is assumed that the 3-ball system for
horizontal stability control (canting) would not rotate and
would be used to set the basic direction of flight and
counter any precession caused by the rotating system.
Rotation of the toroid (containing the power
coil) and the control grid can be achieved by the
electromagnetic coupling between the magnetic and electric
fields. Forces applied and hence the angular moments would
be equal and opposite between the two oppositely rotating
members. Speed of rotation would be a function of the
current and the magnetic field. If the current for the
dynamic counterbary passes also through the toroidal coil.
The rotation would be controlled entirely by the current, as
created by the voltage on the control grid.
64. Field Shaping in Positive Ray
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 13, 1958.
In Sec. 54, the use of positive rays for
purposes of excitation in static counterbary was discussed.
This represented what seemed to be a development of the
ideas set forth in Sec. 52 wherein excitation was produced
by the impact of highly-charged (material) particles.
The present section is concerned with the
excitation possibilities of focused positive rays from a
spherically-shaped anode of wire grid construction. Such a
device would be especially useful in preliminary tests of
susceptible materials in small quantities. Such tests would
be conducted in vacuum and could be carried on with the
material placed upon a small dish or pan atop a spring
balance, capable of indicating the loss of weight as
excitation proceeds. The arrangement would be as follows:
Sample would be in full view during excitation
for studying color changes in gravito-luminescence.
65. High Gravitic Potential Difference
and the Phenomenon of Dielectricity.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 13, 198.
There appears to be good reason to speculate
at this time upon the effects attending high differences of
gravitational (gravitic) potential If the potential gradient
is exceedingly high (high flux density), the large energy
difference would, it seems, attempt to energize itself.
Thus, a kind of energy flow would be created from the high
potential region o the low potential region. If the distance
were small, this flow would be intense and undoubtedly would
manifest itself in many curious ways.
Such a flow of energy we shall hereafter call
Dielectricity would, therefore, be present
more or less in every situation where there is a
gravitational gradient. Its vector of flow would always be
from the higher to the lower gravitational potential.
The situation is analogous to the flow of
electricity (in the classical sense) from the positive to
the negative potential or from the higher to the lower
Undoubtedly, such a flow of dielectricity
would possess many interesting parallels to a flow of
electricity. Both would represent a flow of energy from a
higher to a lower potential.
It is interesting to speculate upon the nature
of the materials capable of conducting dielectricity and
what materials might serve as insulators. One finds not only
an analogy to electricity but also to heat, but the analogy
with heat may be close in some respects (as in the
conductivity or temperature distribution along a wire) and
not in other respects as in phenomena arising from
resistance to the flow. Resistance to the passage of current
(flow) in electricity transforms the potential difference
into heat. What happens when there is resistance to he flow
of dielectricity, we can only guess.
Suppose, after we find a material capable of
conducting dielectricity, we form it into a coil. What do we
have generated in the place of a magnetic field? --- or is
it a magnetic field?
What takes place when two plates of high
gravitational potential are close together? Is there
repulsion, as in static electricity?
And what if the plates have a high difference
in gravitational (gravitic) potential? Is there attraction?
And is there, in this case, a high flux density and a
storage of energy in the space between the plates, acting
like a capacitor? Is the energy stored in such a capacitor,
and resident in the space between the plates, gravitational
or something one step further.
One may define a gravitational potential as a
"pressure". The gradient between a high potential (high
pressure) region in space and a low potential (low pressure)
region is manifested as a gravity field (or just "g"). The
vectors of this g-field are identical to the dielectric
field vectors and both represent forces.
Hence, one would be led to believe that a flow
of dielectricity, if resisted, would cause a force upon the
body of the conductor --- much like the resistance to the
flow of water against the walls of a tube through which it
In the case of a gravitic (or dielectric)
conductor, the factor creating resistance is gravitational
reluctance (opposite to gravitational permeance or
permeability). Such gravitational reluctance in the
conductor of dielectricity would cause a force in the
direction of the flow. In space, this force is simply
gravity. Hence, it would appear that gravitational
reluctance is created by (or equivalent to) gravitational
mass Mg (as distinguished from inertial mass Mi.
The quality of conductivity of dielectricity
is the opposite of gravitational reluctance, hence it is
lack of Mg. Theoretically, a vacuum (complete absence of
ponderable mater) is the best conductor.
Conversely, ponderable matter of highest Mg
represents a conductor of the greatest gravitational
reluctance (resistance) and is therefore the best insulator
This is virtually the opposite of the
situation regarding the conductor of electricity --- hence
the designation, "di-electricity".
Electricity --- conducted by metals, insulated
Dielectricity --- conducted by vacuum, insulated by metals.
Curiously, and this does indeed seem strange,
the best insulator for the prevention of flow (loss in the
central pylon (p. 106) is its weight (Mg). As a gravitic
dipole with high potential at its lower end (cathode), the
highest resistance would be provided by large values of Mg;
this resistance causing an upward or lifting force in the
transformation of the stored energy to motion and finally to
heat resulting from resistance to that motion.
Such a pylon may be provided with lead (wafer)
insulators dividing the pylon into sections of increasing
gravitic potential in the direction of the lower or cathode
* any material of high Mg.
66. The Push-Pull Effect of the Control
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 19, 1958.
In Sec. 56, the effects of high and low flux
density were discussed, particularly as an explanation for
the observed force or motion imparted to arcuate electrodes.
The effect is determined by the direction of the flux
If, in the above figure, the anode is a grid
of fine wires and the cathode is a ball, the force (as
indicated) is especially pronounced. Reversal of polarity
does not reverse the direction of the force. Due to
increased current flow resulting from emission of neg ions
and/or electrons from the grid, the reversed polarity does
not appear to be efficient.
If the wind (specifically positive) is placed
between two cathodes, as indicated in Figure 2,
The force (as indicated) is virtually doubled.
It appears that the screen grid anode then
attracts the ball cathode and repels the canopy cathode, so
that the entire assembly moves in response to the force as
shown (f). Thus we have named the push-pull effect.
This effect may be obtained in units such as
where the direction of the arculate surfaces
create flux gradients to produce the force as indicated, or
as a succession of units in parallel where the
elements of each unit are concentrically arranged with the
ball cathodes at the centers. The force of each (and every)
unit is additive and directed as indicated.
67. The Cylindrical Design of a Unit to
Produce the Push-Pull Effect.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 19, 1958
In the Vega Aircraft notebook, beginning Dec.
1, 1942 and ending sometime after May 2, 1944, and
specifically described on Feb 4, 1943, a cylindrical system
employing a shaped dielectric is described. Such a system is
as follows (Figure 1):
Dielectric B has greater K and mass than
dielectric sector A. Direction of force is as indicated.
This arrangement is the equivalent of that
shown in the preceding Sec. 66 (Fig. 1), with the addition
of 2 dielectroics, it being understood that Fig. 1 (p. 118)
could represent the sectional view of a sphere or a
cylinder. In either case, the requirement of field shaping
and the resultant field gradient would be met. The force
would be (as indicated) in the direction of flux gradient.
In Fig. 1 (p. 120) the greater force is in the direction of
the dielectric having the greater K or m (or both).
The use of the wire grid augments this effect
so as to add the push-pull feature.
Such an arrangement then looks like (Figure
Or, without the Km differential,
simply as follows (Fig. 3):
May be filled with fluid or solid dielectric
material, or separated in vacuum. Grid occupies about 120
In Fig 3, the location of the grid will
determine the direction of the force, rather, the position
of the dielectrics. Rotation of the grid 180 degrees will
reverse the direction of he resulting force acting upon the
unit as a whole.
High K, high m dielectric material,
either as a fluid filling all of the inside of the can or as
a solid encapsulating material will, it appears, increase
the force. That material which is not in the active sector
comprising approx 120 degrees where the grid is located will
not add to the force, nor will it detract.
The force for a given voltage should be a
function of both K and m. In vacuum, with a K of
unity and m = 0, the force should be minimum. It
should increase with the use of a fluid dielectric such as
oil, pyranol or carbon tetrachloride and even further with
solid dielectrics which, at the same time, may serve to
encapsulate the elements in the can.
In this connection, it may be pointed out that
the solid dielectrics may take the form of tubes arranged as
follows (Fig 4):
Drawing expanded radially for sake of
Force is always in the direction from the
center (inner) cathode toward the center of the control
grid. The control grid may be turned into other quadrants or
the entire unit (encapsulated) may be turned in order to
change direction of the force.
68. Cylindrical Units in Parallel
Winston-Salem, NC; an 19, 1958.
It is readily apparent that the units
described in Sec. 67 may be of commercial value in
propulsion of ships, railroad or other land vehicles. In
such practical application, units would be arranged in
Control of the direction of force would be
accomplished merely by rotating the entire can if the
elements are rigidly encapsulated ore by rotating the
control grid with respect to the can if the elements are oil
(or heavy fluid) insulated.
Units in parallel would look like:
In the above illustration, the cans are
stationary and the grid is movable about the control axis.
Thrust is determined by the voltage applied
(the current being determined by the resistance of the
dielectric and the transformation requirements to kinetic
69. Self-Adjusting (Ionic) Oscillator
and the Use of High Voltage RF in the Propulsion of
Winston-Salem, NC; Mar. 25, 1958.
Using the push-pull system of three electrodes
(p. 118), it is possible that a resonant circuit can be
established when the voltage between the outer two
electrodes (and presumably also the lift) could be
enormously increased. Such a system could use the three
electrodes as a self-adjusting (ionic)oscillator.
In the above system, the DC exciter voltage
need only be sufficient to establish oscillation in the
resonant circuit. The high voltage for the principal lift
would come from the delta (or equivalent) inductor.
70. Dielectromotance (The Generation of
Winston-Salem, NC; march 31, 1958.
In Sec 65, I speculated upon the existence of
high-gravitic potential differences and upon a flow
resulting from such potential differences. In many respects
such a flow would be analogous to the flow of electricity
(or current). The flow arising from a difference in gravitic
potential might be termed "dielectric current", in that it
would presumably be conducted by dielectrics.
If one subscribed to the idea of an ether,
such a flow could be viewed as a movement of the ether. The
flow, of necessity, would be circulatory, creating one or
It was pointed out that materials may offer
varying amounts of resistance to such a flow, thus giving
rise to a force of ponderomotive nature acting upon the
interposed material. Such a force may conceivably be similar
to, or perhaps indistinguishable from, the force of gravity.
The flow of dielectricity, whether or not it
is responsible for gravity, results from a field in which
there is a difference in potential --- not electric, but
attending and usually created by an electric field.
In Fig 2, the flow again is from the region of
highest to lowest flux density, hence from the point
electrode in the center to the toroidal electrode around it,
and returning axially, as indicated.
Assuming the arcuate surface (in Fig 1) or the
toroidal surface (in Fig 2) to have a gravitic (or
dielectric) potential at or near the ambient, I is the
center electrode which has the high gravitic potential ---
at least, insofar as the generation of dielectricity is
The situation is similar to that of a battery
and closed loop of an electric circuit, where the one side
of the battery is grounded, as:
Another method of generating dielectricity (in
greater volume) is the series or cascade arrangement, as
Generator of dielectricity as a 3-element
dielectric ring with highly charged electrode (+) midwday
between the center electrode (-) and the outer ring
electrode (-_showing radial flow in the ring or disc from
the center outward and returning through the environment
(outer field) to the axis.
It is understood that while, in this drawing,
the electric field is (-) to (+) to (-), the generator is
equally operative in the (+) to (-) to (+) polarity.
Reversal of polarity does not affect the direction of flow
of the generated dielectricity.
Hence, it is readily understood that such a
device will operate on AC, and at any frequency, always
causing a flow of dielectricity from the center outward to
the ring, thence returning through the exterior field to the
The flow pattern is essentially two toroids
with one side joined --- hence, interlocked and inseparable.
Sectional view of interlocked toroidal
71. The Flow of Dielectricity
Walkertown, NC; April 7, 1958.
In the foregoing section, the generator of
so-called dielectricity was discussed. It was pointed out
that a flow could be created by a non-linear electric
gradient and that the direction of that flow would be from
the region of highest electric flux density to the region of
lowest flux density.
In other words, a difference of potential is
created which is not expressible in terms of electricity but
which flows if a return circuit is provided. The flow does
not necessarily follow a path o electrical conductivity
(such as a wire) but arches through the environment in the
manner of a magnetic field.
Preliminary experiments have indicated that
the flow prefers glass or plastics as a path, hence,
exhibits the characteristics of a flow capable of
conduction. Since the materials revealing such conductivity
are generally dielectrics, the entity comprising the flow
has been named "dielectricity".
In summary, therefore, "dielectricity" may be
defined as "an entity capable of flowing" which is "placed
in motion" by a non-linear electric gradient and which flows
from the region of high electric flux density (by the
shortest route) to the region of lowest flux density, thence
returning by an exterior circuit formed by materials which
do not necessarily conduct electricity.
If the behavior of such a flow is similar to
that of magnetism or electricity, it is to be expected that
an increase in conductivity of the circuit elements (or
conversely, a decrease in resistance) will result in an
increase in the flow itself. For example, in a magnetic
circuit the more of the circuit which contains iron, the
greater is the magnetic flux density. This is usually
expressed as a decrease in the air gap. The factor
introduced is the integrated mu for all sections of the
In the present instance, where we may be
talking about a dielectric phenomenon and a flow of
dielectricity, the integrated K may be the factor which is
significant. On the other hand, if the characteristics of
the flow of dielecticity or the results of a difference in
potential of dielectricity are gravitational, then the
significant factor may be mg or the gravitational
mass of the circuit sections. If both are involved, as
perhaps an electromagnetic phenomenon, then both K and Mg
are important factors in the circuit. The final answer to
this question cannot be given until precise tests of various
materials can be completed.
One characteristic of the flow of dieletricity
appears to be its ability to create a force on the material
through which it is slowing. It may be said that it was
largely through the indications of its forceful effects that
its presence was initially detected. In practically every
experiment where a flow of dielectricity is established, an
air flow results in the direction of the flux. In the
beginning, the air flow was so pronounced that it was
difficult to purify the results so as to eliminate what
appeared to be the effects of an "electric wind".
It is to be noted that the classical concept
of electric wind is perhaps inseparably confused and
inter-related to the effects of a flow of dielectricity. Any
electrified point, according to classical concepts, produces
ions of the same sign as the point and hence are repelled by
the point, producing a motion of the medium when their
momentum is transferred to that medium. It is assumed that
the reaction, resulting from the repulsion of the ions from
the point, will drive the point in the opposite direction
and that this reaction will be exactly equal and opposite to
the forward momentum of the wind.
A simple experiment will reveal that this is
not necessarily true:
Net force on system of two electrodes is as
shown. Measured only on the two electrodes.
In the above experiment, only by considering
the forces acting on the medium to the side of the alignment
of electrodes (which are in a direction from right-to-left)
will the net force (as indicated) be eliminated.
It is obvious that the classical concept of
the electric wind does not explain a movement of the medium
from right to left (in the above explanation).
On the other hand, the classical concept
explains the left-to-right momentum but cannot explain the
lack of balance which causes the net force as indicated.
In Sec 70. it was shown that a flow of
dielectricity probably results from any situation in which
there is a no-linear electric flux density.
In the illustration on the previous page,
there is a strong non-linear gradient on the electric field
between the sharp point and the large arcuate electrode. The
greatest density exists around the end of the point and
falls of to a minimum at the arcuate electrode.
Hence, according to the principles set forth
in Sec. 70, a flow of dielectricity is created by such a
configuration as follows:
Flow of dielectricity causes movement of
Such a diagram, however, neglects the flow of
dielectricity which is conducted through the leads of the
power supply, as:
Flow of dielectricity through electric source
in same direction as classical electric current.
In general, however, where the wiring of the
electrical supply is long and/or involved, a consideration
of dielectric flow parallel with the electric flow is
unnecessary. Even so, it may be completely and finally
eliminated by the following system:
Where high impedance elements are placed in
feed lines, flow of dielectricity assumes a shorter closed
circuit path through the immediate environment.
Now, excluding the electrical feed lines, the
path becomes simply a closed toroidal vortex, as:
If the above vortex is acting within a
dielectric fluid (such as oil or air) the fluid assumes a
toroidal vortex as the structure (geometry) of the
electrodes permits. The resistance of the fluid to the flow
of dielectricity results in a movement of the fluid. That
part of the flow which impinges upon the electrodes tends to
move the electrode system. Hence, the electrodes (in the
illustration) tend to move upward while fluid, particularly
near the periphery of the electrodes, tends to move
If such a system is placed in a metal (almost
infinitely high K) enclosure, the following field
distribution takes place:
The conductivity is so great that virtually no
flow appears externally.
Due to the partial closing of the air gap by
high conducting material, the flux density is greatly
increased. This increase in flow of dielectricity will cause
an increase in the lift of the electrode system within the
enclosure. The downward flow through the walls of the
enclosure will, however, be sufficient to virtually balance
the lift if the electrode system is mechanically attached to
the metal enclosure.
In other words, placing the electrode system
within the can greatly increases the lift of the electrode
system by itself. But, a force virtually of the same
magnitude and opposite in sense is created within the walls
of the can, by reason of the resistance to the flow offered
by these surfaces or (perhaps more correctly) these volumes
of upper high-K materials.
No secondary flow patterns are established
outside of the can due to the ability of the metal walls to
conduct all of the flow of electricity.
The effect is similar to the ability of iron
cores (of high magnetic permeability) to convey all the
magnetic flux, allowing the establishment of no flux
outside. This will, of course, be true up to the point of
saturation, where a further increase in flux cannot be
carried and leaks out into the surrounding space.
When saturation to the flow of dielectricity
has been reached, the flux which leaks out causes secondary
flows or "reversed" vortices, as:
3-Element dielectricity generator in thin
The friction of the moving air both inside and
outside the container (upon the walls of the container) then
causes the can to move downward, while the air farther away
In this way, an electrode system encased in an
enclosure where the flux density is beyond saturation (as
with a Saran sheet enclosure), the force acting upon the
system appears to be reversed.
Increasing the thickness of the Saran or by
using dielectrics of greater conductivity of dielectricity,
this effect of reversal may be reduced or eliminated
Penetration of a saturated sheet of thin
Using Saran as an example of material which
may be saturated when in thin sections, the following
experiment is suggested:
Showing balance or possible null between
primary and secondary flow.
In the foregoing experiment, the electrode
system is suspended for lift measurement within a Saran bag.
Complete reversal of force, due to saturation, is observed,
and the entire rig possesses a force downward.
If then, the rig is placed in a metal can, a
complete reversal to lift may be observed for small diameter
metal cans. The force downward will persist in larger
diameter metal cans. A size of metal can, between these two
extremes, may be found where no force exists. This null will
represent the balance between the primary flow which
penetrates the Saran bag and the secondary flow created by
the saturated bag.
Another experiment which is suggested to test
the saturation theory is the use of multiple layers of
Saran, each layer contributing to the flux conductivity,
whereby the addition of each layer reduces the reversed
force a given amount, finally increasing the conductivity to
the point below saturation (for that particular voltage)
where the force is zero. At that voltage, the flux (being
fully conducted) produces no force. At a slightly higher
voltage, the flux being greater, is not fully conducted by
the now saturated Saran sheets, and hence gives rise to a
reversed force due to the secondary or exterior vortex.
72. Generation of Dielectricity by the
Use of Alternating Current.
Walkertown, NC; APR. 7, 1958.
In Sec 69, the use of high voltage RF for the
generation of dielectricity was proposed. The circuitry
included a self-regulating oscillator fed by a DC exciter.
It must be borne in mind that the generation
of dielectricity is a kind of rectification process,
producing unidirectional flow of dielectricity from either
electrical polarity. Hence, AC at any frequency will
Where the dielectricity generator possesses a
natural capacitance, the circuitry may include an inductance
for operation as a tank circuit at any desired frequency.
Such a circuit is as follows:
Concentric type dielectricity generator using
The flow connectors must (electrically)
connect every other ring as indicated. The flow of
dielectricity is outward from the center.
73. The Coiled Strip Capacitor as a
Generator of Dielectricity.
Walkertown, NC; April 8, 1958.
It is proposed that the spiral or coiled-strip
capacitor may make a very convenient and cheaply constructed
generator of high potential dielectricity.
Using the spiral generator in the propulsion
of a space craft, the following may be suggested:
The advantages are that the electrical
circuits be limited to the spiral and the inductor. The
dielectric circuits would include the A frame and the rubber
(as the center of the spiral). Hence, there would be no
electrically charged elements under the craft. The voltage
used in the RF drive for the spiral capacitor would be
No electric potential would exist between the
high potential dielectricity terminals, nor in the external
circuit. All luminous phenomena would arise from the high
potentials of dielectricity present in the force field.
74. High Flux, Closed Circuit Transducer
Walkertown, NC; April 29, 1958.
In the foregoing sections, the pattern of
circulation of dielectricity was indicated in a number of
instances. The flow invariably is from a region of high
electric gradient to low electric gradient, such as:
(1) Outward from a highly charged point into
(2) Outward from an inner electrode to an
outer electrode. May be arcuate and may be concentric.
(3) From the small end toward the large end of
a dielectric under electric strain --- may be wedge-shaped
or cone or pyramid frustrums.
(4) From the high-gradient end to the
low-gradient end where the non-linear electric gradient is
established through external circuit resistance such as
(5) From the low density end (or low K or mu)
toward the high density end (or high K or mu) where an
electric field exists in a non-homogeneous dielectric.
In (3), the flow of dielectricity is created
initially by the wedge-shaped or truncated cone shaped
dielectric. Such a member is a "dielectromotance". The
return circuit for the dielectric flux is through the medium
immediately surrounding the member, as:
Where two members are related in series, the
flux density is increased and the air gap (free path through
the medium) is shortened, as:
Circulation pattern of dielectric flux between
two dielectromotances in series.
In the above circuit, the (total)
dielectromotance is doubled and the flux density greatly
increased by reducing the air gap.
In the transducer, which is the subject o this
section, the arrangement is as follows:
These forces may be of a high magnitude when
high K material is used in the conical (armature and stator)
sections. Rubber or plastic diaphragms may be used to hold
the armature in position yet permit limited vertical (axial)
movement. The device may be studied at high voltages either
in vacuum or under oil.
Such a device is a transducer, between
electrical and mechanical energy.
When electrical energy is supplied to either
or both members, motion results.
If one or the other member is energized, and
mechanical motion is supplied, an electric current in the
second member will be generated. Such current will vary in
accordance with the motion. Hence, the device will operate
as a vibration pickup or microphone as well as an
oscillating force generator or loudspeaker element.
Also, where all electrical conditions are
rigorously constant, the force will vary according to the
flux density. If such flux density within a closed system
such as this varies with a linear, solar or sidereal diurnal
pattern, such pattern will show upon a suitable force
recorder operating for time-series observation.
As an actuating mechanism for such a recording
device, the apparatus appears to have great promise.
75. Motion of Dielectric Media Produced
by Dielectric Flux. Dielectric Wind.
Winston-Salem, NC; May 1, 1958.
In all of the experimental work to date, the
results which have led to the concept of dielectricity and
dielectric flux have carried one characteristic in common
--- i.e, force or motion exerted upon dielectric solids or
In general, the source of the dielectricity or
dielectromotance possesses a force in one direction whereas
the balance of the circuit exhibits a force in the opposite
If the return circuit is in air, oil or other
dielectric fluid, the force results in movement of the
fluid. In many cases where the electrodes are charged with
respect to the medium, the flow may be mistaken for electric
wind. It is usually quite difficult to separate these
Any highly electrified point produces ions
which are repelled from the point, giving rise to a motion
in the medium known as electric wind.
In the same structure, the non-linear electric
gradient outward from the point constitutes a
dielectromotance and gives rise to a flow of the medium
outward from the point ad in the direction of the decreasing
flux density. Hence, the so-called electric wind may in fact
be a total of the two effects. See p. 142 (1).
Only by creating a dielectric potential
difference where there is no electric potential difference,
can the pure dielectric wind be separated from the electric
wind. This is possible, it would appear, in the following
In these circuits, two dielectromoances are
connected in series, and the dielectric potential difference
is doubled. The flow is in the closed circuit as indicated.
Another way for detecting the force acting
upon dielectric media is the hydrostatic pressure developed
by oil within an insulating tube.
(1) Increase in height of oil column due to
pressure as indicated.
(2) Same as above but with three turns of
tubing, increasing the pressure 3 times.
(3) Using a series of arcuate or conic
(4) Motion of dielectric rod.
If dielectric flux creates a potential
difference which is additive with each turn, such as the
hydrostatic pressure would be in Fig 2, then the following
may produce interesting results:
If the flow if dielectricity is conceived to
be from a higher to a lower potential, then the end of the
conductor at point A will have the higher potential. The
flow will be toward B in the external circuit.
If AC is used, frequency of the dielectricity
is double the frequency of the supply electricity.
Inductive force effects created by a coil
Figure 1. Causing rotation of adjacent disc.
Figure 2. Causing rotation of core (axis)
High potential dielectromotance with a large
number of turns of dielectric conductor. Shown in Fig 7. p.
76. A Method of Ship Propulsion using
Walkertown, NC; July 7, 1958.
If the dielectric return circuit passes thru
the water surrounding a ship, it would seem entirely
possible that the ship would be propelled.
Such a requirement would be satisfied by the
Applied to a ship, the design might take the
Entire water body is the cathode envelope and
is driven astern. Ship (dielectric) is driven forward.