The Scientific Notebooks of Thomas Townsend Brown
[ Volume 1 ] // [ Volume 4 ]
Copyright 2006 Townsend Brown Estate
Used by Permission
Please visit these T.T. Brown Websites: www.ttbrown.com //
Commentary from ttbrown.com :
"Back in the 1970s and 1980s a researcher and author
named Willam Moore --- best known as the co-author of such
folk-lore as "The Roswell Incident" and "The Philadelphia
Experiment" (there, I said it...), wrote a couple of articles
about Townsend Brown. Moore was also the last journalist
to interview and photograph Brown shortly before his death
"Somehow, during that period, Moore obtained access to Brown's
personal laboratory notebooks, and, presumably, obtained
permission to "publish" three volumes of those journals.
Photo-copies of those journals have been in circulation ever
77. Hydrostatic Pressure resulting from
Shaped Electric Fields
78. Some Specific Structures for the
Development of Hydrostatic Pressure.
79. A Specific Design of Electric
Flying Saucer Utilizing Transverse Propulsion and Positive Ion
80. Possibility of a Critical Radius
in the Witmer-Jeans Expression of the Attraction of
Hemispheres with Guard Rings.
81. Theory of Pressure Confinement.
82. The Use of High-Resistance
Electrodes in Electro-Aerodynamic Devices
83. The Asymmetrical "H" Electrode
84. High-K Dielectric Slabs for Use
in Loudspeaker Structures.
85. Problem of Vibrating Wires in EK
86. Ferex 7 Treated with an
87. The Use of Capacitors for the
Detection of Gravitational Waves.
88. Consideration is now being given
to rewiring the systems as follows
89. A Tribo-Electric High Voltage
90. Tribo-Excitation of Sands and
91. Triboexcitation of Sorrento (FL)
92. The Plan for Further Testing of
Triboexcitation of Various Materials
93. Beneficiation of Super-Light
Hydrogen by Positive Ray Excitation in the Electrolysis of
94. Excitation by Sparking
95. Antigravitational Materials in
96. Gravitic Excitation by Positive
97. Lunar Type Sidereal Electrometer
98. Explanation for the Thrust of the
Sidereal Radiation Electrometer
99. Torque and Resistance Change in
the Brown Sidereal Radiation Recorder.
100. Resistance of a Copper Wire
101. Theory of a Resistance Cross
for Extraterrestrial Factors. Theory and Development.
102. Set-up of Resistance Cross.
103. Model A Differential Resistor.
104. Alternate Form of Model A
105. Ion Momentum Transfer as an
Explanation for the Cause of Thrust (Torque) of the Sidereal
106. A Combined
Resistance-Dielectric Constant Bridge.
107. Change of Resistance with
Electrostatic Potential (of the Earth as a whole).
108. Another Form of Resistance
109. The Structure of Space and the
Significance of K-mu Waves.
110. Model A Differential Resistor
111. Model B Differential Resistor
112. Circuit of Model B Differential
113. Some Thoughts about
Gravitational Permeability (m).
114. A Semiconducting Rod as a
Sensor for Earth Movement thru Space.
115. Velocity-Sensing Differential
116. Improvement in Velocity Sensor
117. Variations in Resistance Bridge
117-1. A Velocity-Vector Sensor.
118. Results of Tests of Models
A-14, 15 and 16.
119. Conductor Density and
120. Affecting the Reading of Model
A Sensors by Altering the Electrostatic Potential.
121. Electron Mobility and the Role
122. Momentary Losses of Electrical
77. Hydrostatic Pressure resulting from Shaped Electric
Walkertown, NC; Aug 23, 1958
Referring to Jean’s Mathematical Theory of Electricity and
Magnetism, p. 177, an electric field consists of the
following stresses in the dielectric medium:
(1) a tension KR2 / 8 pi per unit area in the
direction of the lines of force;
(2) a pressure KR2 / 8 pi per nit area perpendicular
to the lines of force;
(3) a hydrostatic pressure
in all directions
If is negative,
an expansion of the dielectric will both increase the volume
occupied by the dielectric and will also increase the value of K
inside the dielectric. The hydrostatic pressure will be outward.
Page 2 [blank]
78. Some Specific Structures for the Development of
Walkertown, NC; Aug. 30, 1958
A general theorem for the development of hydrostatic pressure
from electric fields requires the use of electrodes which
provide a conical tube of force. The direction of the force is
outward from the apex of the cone.
(i) Point and cylinder.
(ii) Cylinders of different diameter
Page 4 [Blank]
79. A Specific Design of Electric Flying Saucer Utilizing
Transverse Propulsion and Positive Ion Field.
Walkertown, NC; Sept 17, 1958
It is not generally recognized that repulsion of like electric
charges cannot take place unless these charges are within or
near a different charge. For example:
In case 1, the charges are both grounded and both are within a
grounded container. The entire system, however, is at the
potentiality of the Earth. In case 2, the charges are alike and
within a container, all of which is elevated in potential above
that of the Earth. Still there is no repulsion.
For better configuration, it may be drawn as follows:
Here two bodies are negatively charged within a container of
like sign. A positive charge is within the container also. Lines
of force connecting the positive charge to the two negatives are
roughly parallel. Hence a repulsion exists between these lines.
The points of anchorage A and B are forced apart, thus
transmitting the repulsion to the two negatively charged bodies.
It is the repulsion of the lines of force anchored to the
bodies --- not the repulsion of the bodies themselves.
Briefly, the action is as follows:
There is also a force tending to elongate the positive charge.
Other representations of this action are as follows:
With the positive charge as a fixed anchor, the negative
charges are forced as shown, with the longer arm "throwing" the
charge at a proportionately greater velocity but less force.
It is this principle which is suggested as supplying in the
case of the "flying saucer" to be described.
The anode: "A-frame" --- must be shaped to satisfy the
field-shaping requirement and provide maximum backing for the
Hydrostatic pressure profiles have revealed the tri-arcuate
form as best for most purposes --- stability, control and
horizontal thrust, especially when a positive ion source is
provided at the side of the dome.
Ions generated and released at this point are repelled downward
and outward by the electrons and negative ions released near the
crest of the dome.
The positive ions then stream outward until caught by the lines
of force from the cathode.
Upward air stream in center assists lift when ship is operating
Or when approaching the earth, there is increased hydrostatic
pressure under the ship.
Confinement and increase of positive pressure as ship
approaches a landing.
Exterior lines of force:
Electrostatic lifting forces all over the top of the anode. The
lower side of the cathode has a few lines which pull downward by
mainly are horizontal with a slight downward component.
Repulsion exists between the two systems as shown.
An interesting situation exists when one charge is greater than
This is similar to the following:
Canting of the cathode to provide horizontal thrust and/or
Anode angle follows cathode angle acting as a mechanical
Long cathodes may eliminate downward force by cutting out the
80. Possibility of a Critical Radius in the Witmer-Jeans
Expression of the Attraction of Hemispheres with Guard
Walkertown, NC; Sept 25, 1958
In Fig 1, the radius of the center sphere is super-critical,
that is, it is above the value required to produce an inward
force on the outer sphere, i.e., a contraction.
In Fig 2, the radius of the point charge is sub-critical, i.e.,
it produces an outward force on the outer sphere or an
If this is true, the force on the outer sphere inwardly is not
strictly related to the inverse square of the radius.
Conceivably there would be a critical value at which there would
be no force present. This probably will be at some ratio of the
If the outer radius is constant, the force of the outer sphere
acting inwardly would diminish as the radius of the inner sphere
is reduced and would reach zero at the critical ratio of radii
or at a certain radius of the inner sphere or both. Further
reduction of the radius of the inner sphere would cause a
reversal of the force acting on the outer sphere thus producing
expansion or outward force notwithstanding the existence of
tension lines radially disposed.
Experiments are suggested to test his hypothesis:
Exp. No. 1. Split tube:
Exp. No. 2. Tube with cap. Tube fixed. Cap is repelled.
Exp. No. 3. In vacuum
Two related experiments may be as follows:
Further development may take the form useful in circular
Or in the so-called cigar shape:
81. Theory of Pressure Confinement.
Walkertown, NC; Sept 29, 1958.
In plotting the lines of force in various electrode
configurations, it becomes apparent that some rather surprising
results could be produced which, at first glance, would seem to
be in direct violation of the basic electrostatic laws. For
When outer electrode is uncharged, the two oppositely charged
electrodes are attracted. When it is charged as shown, repulsion
Repulsion of oppositely charged hemispheres.
In the case of a simple saucer, it is advantageous to ground
the cathode, allowing the anode canopy to carry a high charge
relative to ground.
The situation would then be as follows:
Pressure system around saucer.
And in vacuum, the following structure is suggested:
Downward force on transducer
This is based on the following effect:
Or, similar to case 6:
All tension lines would ac to pull canopy downward. However,
pressure confinement under canopy would tend to lift it.
During the period from October 1958 to October 1967 (9 years)
no notes were made.
82. The Use of High-Resistance Electrodes in
Santa Monica, CA; Oct 23, 1967.
Strips of partially conducting material, forming electrodes for
fan or loudspeaker.
83. The Asymmetrical "H" Electrode Arrangement.
Useful for eliminating current thru modulation transformer and
for increasing discharge.
84. High-K Dielectric Slabs for Use in Loudspeaker
Santa Monica, CA; Oct 23, 1967.
Fig. 2 has the advantage of increased electric gradient near
the modulating electrode (fine wire) at the center.
85. Problem of Vibrating Wires in EK Devices
March 8, 1968
Where the fine wires are placed midway between plates, an
oscillation (probably relaxation type) takes place and the wires
have a tendency to vibrate sideways.
Solution 1: Place 2 wires 1/8" apart in line with the midpoint
between the plates.
Solution 2: Same as above, but laterally.
It appears that the second solution is to be preferred.
Wires have tendency to spread apart.
Discharge pattern goes to the leading edge of each plate
86. Ferex 7 Treated with an Ion-Conducting Salt
Plate material of Ferex 7 is highly sensitive to humidity
changes --- ranging in resistivity form 107 to 109
ohms/cc3.It is suggested that a hygroscopic agent
such as lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium silicate in
dilute solution might serve to increase and, at the same time,
smooth out the effects of humidity.
87. The Use of Capacitors for the Detection of
Stanford Univ. Hospital, Palo Alto, CA; May 31, 1970.
During April of this year, four 1 ufd 25 KV capacitors were
installed in the small test lab in Atherton, CA and connected in
a bridge circuit with 2 power supplies (15 KV each) and
indicating a recording equipment.
The circuit for each of the two systems is as follows.
Operated at full voltage --- approx 17 KV (+) and (-).
Results: Loud pops in the loud speakers, seem to have origin in
the 500 uuf ceramic capacitor. Several times, a slightly
variable (approx 10 Kc) whistle was heard which lasted sometimes
several minutes, ending abruptly.
88. Consideration is now being given to rewiring the
systems as follows:
The above system may be useful, especially when the capacitors
are widely separated ---say above 100 ft --- vertically or
horizontally, to indicate the direction of the incoming
An alternate scheme might be:
Or an audio transformer, together with amplifiers and
loudspeaker may be substituted for the Brush recorder if audio
frequencies are present.
89. A Tribo-Electric High Voltage Generator.
Catalina Island, CA; March 26, 1973.
If it is true that tribo-electric generation results from
contact potential differences in dielectrics of differing
dielectric constant and if it is true that the sliding motion or
friction merely extends the effective surface of the dielectrics
in contact and if it is true that the dielectric with greater K
is always positive and the potential difference is related to
the difference in dielectric constant, then it follows that a
new type of generator is feasible.
Using barium titanate (> 10,000 K) rubbing a dielectric in
the range less than 10, at high speed, would give the BaTiO3
a positive charge relative to the other dielectric with which it
is in sliding (frictional) contact.
The possibility of using liquid or gaseous (negative)
dielectric should be considered. Such as CCl4,
benzene, toluene or transformer oil. A liquid with low elec.
resistivity should be considered in order not to limit the
current output of the generator.
Both the BaTiO3 and the liquid should have as high
electrical conductivity as possible in order to conduct away the
Rotating discs or rods of barium titanate in electrically leaky
oil might be a starting place.
The setup would be as follows:
The action is simply oscillating the barium titanate rod at
high speed under oil. The rod should become positively charged
and the oil negative.
If the electrical conductivity of the rod and the oil is high
enough, useful current may be generated.
This form of electric generator may be especially useful in
directly generating high voltages. Where discs are employed in
place of rods, the units may be stacked in series for high
Basic patent claims would read:
(1) Method of generating electricity consisting of rapidly
moving a high-K dielectric solid with respect to a low-K
dielectric fluid (including gases), utilizing the difference in
electrical potential between said solid and said fluid and
conducting said potentials away.
(2) A frictional electric generator comprising one or more
rotating high-K electrodes immersed in a low-K fluid.
T.T. Brown (3-26-73)
Witnessed: J. Patrick Quillin (3-26-73)
90. Tribo-Excitation of Sands and Clays
In reviewing Record Book No. 1, I am impressed with the amount
of thought I gave during the years 1955 and 1956 to the
hypothesis of gravitationally anomalous materials and the
methods by which these materials were (in nature) produced.
Considerable thought was given to methods for artificially
producing lighter-than-normal materials.
In those days, such thoughts were rank heresy in respectable
scientific circles and this is still the case today, although
there are some researchers who tend to question some of the
long-established postulates. One of these, of course, is the
postulate of equivalence, accepted by Einstein and other leading
theorists. Now there seems to be some question. The original
Oetvos experiments equating gravitational mass to inertial mass
have been repeated by Dicke to an accuracy of 1 x 10-11,
seeming to confirm the equivalence.
I firmly believe, however, that equivalence exists only when
weak fields are present or utilized in the experiment. Strong
fields would, I believe, show non-equivalence. Hence, the
experiment described on page 40 of Record Book No. 1, entitled
Centrifugal Differential Hydrometry might produce materials
whose gravitational mass differed greatly from their inertial
This experiment certainly should be performed without further
delay (it has already been 17 years! --- Inexcusable neglect)
But what is of immediate concern --- to get the ball rolling
again --- is the creation of gravitationally light materials by
friction (Coulomb friction). This may be termed Triboexcitation.
On page 80 of Record Book No. 1, (Aug 26, 1956), the matter of
triboexcitation s set forth. It merely calls for the use of a
susceptible material such as aluminum silicate (clay) or some of
the rare earth sands such as monazite. This material is placed
in a glass (or quartz) container and shaken vigorously for a
length of time.
In short, the method merely calls for vibrating, in a paint
shaker or the like, a glass bottle of certain clays or sands.
This experiment, in crudest form, was performed today. A pint
Mason jar partly filled with Sorrento (red) sand-clay from
Sorrento, FL was weighed at the Avalon Post Office --- 1
lb-14-1/2 oz. It was then vibrated for 20 minutes at Chet’s
Hardware store on a paint shaker, then weighed (immediately)
again. This time the scales did not balance in the same position
but definitely balanced at 1 lb-14-1/4 oz; apparently a loss of
Of course, the scales could be in error or there was a human
error in weighing. These possibilities I certainly recognize.
But further tests will tell us.
If the 1/4 oz loss of weight was real, this experiment may be
history-making. It may have represented a loss in weight of 1
part in 122 or 0.819%. This would mean an excitation of 8.19
millghos (see p. 79, Record Book No. 1)
If excited to this amount, the g of this material
(immediately after shaking) would be approx 972 cm/sec2
rather than 980 cm/sec2!
I intend to repeat this experiment, using the paint shaker, on
the Sorrento sand and a more accurate balance than that at the
Post Office. I have also ordered today, 1 lb samples of various
monazite sands to be tested in a similar way, possibly also
increasing the shaking time to 30 minutes or perhaps 1 hour.
Later, if these effects persist, more refined, highly accurate
quantitative tests are envisioned, possibly at USC or Stanford
T.T. Brown (3-28-73)
Witnessed: J. Patrick Quillin (3-28-73)
91. Triboexcitation of Sorrento (FL) Red Sand.
Catalina Island; March 30, 1973.
Test No. 90 has been repeated today, making sure that the
weighing was accurately done at the Avalon Post Office (It is
now confirmed by the Postmaster, Pete G. Salamunovich).
The sample of red sand which was tested was contained (as in
Sec. 90) in a glass Mason jar. In two day since the last
excitation test on March 28, the weight had returned to normal;
i.e., 1 lb-14-1/2 oz. It was then shaken for 30 minutes and then
immediately (within 3 minutes) weighed. It then weighed less
than 1 lb-4-1/4 oz, having lost at least 1/2 oz, possibly 0.3
This loss of weight (if 0.3 oz is considered) represents a
greater degree of excitation than that recorded in Test 90. This
may have been expected, as the duration of shaking was increased
10 minutes. This represents a loss of weight of 1 part in 101.6
or 0.984%. This represents an excitation of 9.84 millighos or a
value of g approx 970.6 cm/sec2 !
This apparent confirmation is intriguing, to say the least!
T.T. Brown (3-30-73)
Witnessed: J.P. Quillin (3-30-73)
92. The Plan for Further Testing of Triboexcitation of
Catalina Island, CA; March 30, 1973
Orders were placed on March 28 for 4 1-lb samples of Monazite
sand from various places --- Australia, Florida, etc.) with
Ward’s Natural Science Establishment (recommended by USC) and
also 1 lb of loess (from Kansas). This material should be
received within the next two weeks.
An order was placed today with Fisher Scientific Co. for a
balance which should be received within the next two weeks.
This should permit, even crudely, the extension of this
research. If continuing positive results are obtained, it is
planned to take the project to Stanford Research Lab at Menlo
Park or at Pasadena for further confirmation, using more refined
methods and equipment.
T.T. Brown (3-30-73)
Witnessed: J.P. Quillin (3-30-73)
93. Beneficiation of Super-Light Hydrogen by Positive Ray
Excitation in the Electrolysis of Water.
Catalina Island, CA; March 31, 1973.
On page 8 of Record Book No. 1, it is noted that C.F. Brush
once performed some experiments producing what he termed
super-light hydrogen. It was stated that this was done by some
sort of preferential selection of ions in or during the
electrolysis of water. No details are available at this writing.
The question is asked --- what sort of preferential selection
of ions. How can ions differ?
Electrolysis of water to produce H2 and O, normally
is carried on within and under the body of water. The positive
(H) ions and negative (O) ions migrate to the negative and
positive electrodes respectively, and (following electrical
neutralization) rise to the surface as atoms of gas. The ions
are the ions of the respective elements H and O.
Where can there be preferential selection of ions?
Let us change to a situation where electrolysis takes place at
the surface of the water, rather than underneath. Then by using
positive rays impinging on the water surface, induce
The apparatus may be something like the following:
The thinking behind this experiment is that the high velocity
positive rays (possibly H ions) generated in the vicinity of the
positive electrode strike the surface of the water with
considerable additional energy gained from the high voltage
electrical field. Dissociation taking place at the surface,
together with possible gravitic excitation may produce
It is not known whether Dr Brush used high-energy ion rays in
his electrolysis, but it appears in any event, to have
This method might be used to produce other
gravitationally-anomalous gases as well.
T.T. Brown (3-31-73)
Witnessed: J.P. Quillin (3-31-73)
94. Excitation by Sparking
Catalina, CA; April 24, 1973.
When a high voltage DC spark, traverses a space (let us say) of
an inch or more the velocity of the component ions is
considerable. Negative ions and electrons leave the cathode and
accelerate toward the anode --- ionizing the gas molecules and
atoms en route --- a conducting path is created by this "leader"
permitting a high current positive ion cascade from the anode
toward the cathode (usually the earth). The impact of these
charges on the cathodic target could excite the material of the
It is possible that lightning striking sand and/or clay could
excite this material. This was proposed in Record Book No. 1,
page 14. A development of this thought is recorded in pp. 92-96
Material susceptible to gravitic excitation, when struck by
high velocity positive ions (or particles) could become excited
so as to lose weight. Hence, exitation may be accomplished by
In the literature relating to the germination of seeds, it is
recorded that germination of certain seeds has been speeded up
by sparking. One wonders if then the seeds were gravitically
excited and if gravitic excitation might affect life processes!
Another natural phenomenon, which appears during lightning
strokes, in the so-called "ball of fire". It is recorded that
balls of fire, ranging in size from that of a golf ball to that
of a basket ball, have been observed to come down chimneys,
float around the room (like a toy balloon) and vanish. It has
been considered by some scientists that the energy of the
lightning stroke could have created (or released) antimatter,
and that a timy nucleus of antimatter was being annihilated ---
forming a reddish ball of luminescence. I am wondering, actually
if the ball of fire could be gravitically excited nitrogen or
oxygen caused by positive changes which were present in the
lightning stroke. The visible (red) radiation from the ball of
fire could be the energy being released by gravitic decay.
In any event, the whole area of gravitic excitation by positive
bombardment is intriguing.
95. Antigravitational Materials in Nature.
Catalina Island; April 24, 1973.
There are several synonyms for antigravitational materials,
such as contra-terrene materials (CTM), antigravitic matter or
antimatter. All are supposed to act oppositely in the (normal)
All such materials in the pure state are believed to loft in
the Earth’s field, being repelled by the Earth and, if free,
will accelerate (fall) into space and be lost.
Hence, it would appear to be unlikely that antigravitic
materials would ever be formed on Earth unless they were rigidly
associated with and weighted down by terne materials.
Such antigravitic matter in the presence of ordinary matter
would likewise tend to decay. Even anti-matter, in the present
accepted hypotheses, would react (violently) with matter,
undergoing complete annihilation, accompanied by tremendous
release of energy. It is presently believed that a
matter-antimatter reaction would release far more energy than
It is conceivable, however, that matter and antimatter would
"live together" if suitably insulated from one another. The
"Liedenfrost" theory may provide such an answer. But even this
requires the gradual radiation of energy. Hence, if antimatter
were ever found trapped in ordinary matter, it would be revealed
by its thermoactivity, being constantly warmer than the
The decay of excited terrestrial materials emitting heat, is
similar (possibly related) to antimatter in the presence of
In searching for anti-gravitational material in nature, one
would look for two things:
(1) The spontaneous evolution of heat, and
(2) Retardation in gravitational acceleration (value of g).
Charles Thomas Brush, in various articles in the Physical
Review, found such materials in the complex silicates, lavas and
clays. His experiments, performed at the Case Institute of
Technology indicated retardation of g. Confirming tests
performed at the National Bureau of Standards revealed a real
and readily measurable evolution of heat.
The scientific community has never recognized Dr Brush’s
important discoveries in this field. No adequate theory to
explain his results has ever been worked out.
Nevertheless, Dr Brush led the way, and someday his work will
There are several interesting materials which apparently are
faintly antigravitic in nature. These are:
(1) Sandusky clay (near Sandusky, Ohio)
(3) Monazite (rare earth elements)
(4) Certain lavas, and volcanic glases.
Either these materials an infinitesimal fraction of antimatter
(insulated by Leidenfrost effect) or they are excited
terrestrial material --- excited by cosmic radiation, sunlight
or nuclear radiation or by a prehistoric event such as meteoric
One would look. For example, to the ejecta from meteorite
craters, such as the Barringer Crater in Arizona, for residual
or vestigial material, excited by the impact (white sand, south
Or, in lava flows, were material has emerged from deep within
the possibly radioactive interior of the Earth.
Or, in loess from deserts such as Sahara or Gobi, where
susceptible excitation has lofted, decayed and returned to
The rare earth elements --- most of the lanthanides are
interesting possibilities. In the gravitational periodic table
(prepared by the Townsend Brown Foundation) the rare earth
elements have strangely low specific gravities, indicating
gravitic excitation. These materials should be studied
intensively for retardation of g and spontaneous evolution of
It is interesting to point out in this connection that the
lanthanide series of elements is homologous with the actinide
series of radioactive elements.
Is it possible that the actinides are "radioactive" and
(similarly) the lanthanides are "thermoactive", (?) both giving
The element tantalum (atomic No. 73) is also anomalously light
(sp gr 16.6) and may likewise be interesting to investigate. It
is 15% lighter than (I believe) it should be.
Aluminum is 30% lighter and silicon is 31% lighter. The
compounds such as aluminum silicate (clay) and silicon dioxide
(sand) are the materials Brush studied.
Phosphorus is 21% lighter, Sulfur 14% lighter, and Chlorine
Ytterbium has the greatest anomaly of all, 59% lighter than
normal, according to the table.
If, in the course of biological evolution, the Creator has
utilized anomalously light materials to advantage --- such as in
the flight of birds or insects --- should we no look in this
direction for clues?
Suppose we consider the chemical composition of bird bones or
that of the bodies of insects. Or certain air-borne pollens and
Calcium, however, is only 5% lighter than normal, according to
the table. However, calcium may be combined with other elements
(in the case of bird bones). Strontium, the homologue of calcium
is 16% light. Maybe bird bones have more strontium?
Monazite sand is interesting, consisting of small rounded
grains, vari-colored, it has many of the rare earth elements.
Centrifugal hydrometry could beneficiate this kind of material
easily. (See p. 40, Record Bk 2).
Tektites, believed to be of extraterrestrial origin (possibly
from the moon) may be strewn on the Earth from lunar impact
craters could be highly susceptible material (to gravitic
excitation). Although extremely rare and expensive, tektites
should be studied for information on gravitic excitation.
96. Gravitic Excitation by Positive Ion Bombardment.
Catalina Island, July 13, 1973.
It is proposed that rather simple experiments might be helpful
in proving or disproving the idea that a loss of weight might
accompany positive ray bombardment.
A laboratory setup could take two forms, as follows:
Excitation cells are weighed before, during and following the
application of high voltage. Results would be considered
positive if the weight followed this type of curve:
In Fig. 1, excitation may take place at atmospheric pressure.
The positive corona around the fine wire in the interstices
between sand grains may excite the grains immediately adjacent.
That excitation may then spread by gravitic conduction from
grain to grain, hence to the entire volume eventually.
In Fig. 2, the susceptible material is placed in a partially
evacuated glass tube and bombarded by positive ions. Loss of
weight may follow.
T.T. Brown (July 13, 1973
Witnessed: Linda Ann Leach (7-13-73)
97. Lunar Type Sidereal Electrometer
Catalina Island; July 13, 1973.
Except for very first experiments performed at Janesville, Ohio
during the period from 1923 to 1930, all experiments wherein
force is developed by massive high-K dielectrics the rotary form
has been used. The sidereal radiation electrometer used in 1937
and 1939, and all years since, was a rotor of differential high
For some time, it has seemed possible to make a linear unit,
one which may have surprising directional characteristics.
The directional ability of the rotary electrometer (if any) is
limited undoubtedly to the plane of the rotor. A linear
electrometer should have a pronounced maximum in its
longitudinal direction, and this would be a great assistance in
determining the direction of origin of the (cosmic) radiation.
In essence, the differential dielectrics and reactor elements
would simply be straightened out into a line --- so that linear
thrust would occur rather than torque.
On the following page, such a linear electrometer is
illustrated. In this particular form, the force causes the
insulating fluid (transformer oil) to flow, and sensing depends
upon the pressure differential of the oil at the two ends of the
Alternate Sensor (electrical) may be possible with the above
design, instead of the manometer.
(1) Measure current to reactor rod and/or
(2) " " " dielectric sections
A recording galvanometer would be required since current is in
the low microampere range.
T.T. Brown (July 13, 1973)
Witnessed: Linda Leach (7-13-73)
Earth’s orbital velocity: 30 km/sec
Earth’s axial velocity: 0.4 km/sec
Toward 16h R.A.: 19 km/sec (by observation of star field)
Toward 5h R.A., 70 degrees S. Dec.: 208 km/sec (Miller ether
Star field toward 70 degrees S., 5h RA: 227/km sec (toward Great
According to Maris, Physical Review 54(6): 478, Sept
15, 1938, atmospheric (barometric) pressure is:
highest at 17h ST at 80 N
highest at 5h ST at 50 S
lowest at 17h ST at 50 S…
appears to indicate an incoming thrust on the barosphere ---
possibly the entire earth --- from a direction in space 5h RA in
the southern hemisphere.
Gravitational waves that bathe the Earth (Press, p. 344) ---
ELF (Extremely Low Freq.): 107 to 104 sec
--- ~ 0.1 pc to 20 AU wavelength
VLF (Very Low Freq.): 104 to 10 sec --- 20 AU to 3 x
LF (Low Freq.): 0.10 Hz to 100 Hz --- 3 x 106
km to 3000 km
MF (Medium Freq.): 100 Hz to 100 KHz --- 3000 km to 3 km
HF (High Freq.): 100 KHz to 100 MHz --- 3 km to 3 m
VHF (Very High Freq.): 100 MHz to 100 GHz --- 3 m to 3 mm
Beneficiation of gravitationally anomalous fractions by
centrifugal (differential) hydrometry.
Heavy solutions: Thallium formate, Acetylene tetrabromide,
98. Explanation for the Thrust of the Sidereal Radiation
Catalina Island; Aug 19, 1973.
Reasons for the thrust and for the variation in thrust are the
two dominant questions. One cannot be fully answered without the
In computing and analyzing the sidereal radiation records, it
must be borne in mind that the instrument scale (with 50 as
center) is inverted, so far as torque or thrust is concerned.
For example, in the 1937 and 1939 records, a reading of 40
represents twice the thrust (or torque) as 20. In future
instruments the method of reading should be revised. This would
mean, then, that the 16h ST peak would actually be a thrust
minimum. In the case of lunar hour angle --- the passage of the
meridian (transit) of the moon actually causes a lessening of
In this connection, it is interesting to note that the Dayton
C. Miller observations with the interferometer, both in
Cleveland and on Mt Wilson, show minima at 16h ST. And this
brings to my mind the statement made by Dr Miller in Cleveland,
when he looked at our electrometer records, that they are
The physical connection between our "thrust" and the presence
of the moon is certainly far from being readily explained. The
first thought, naturally enough, was that it was tidal and
related to the gravitational field or gravitational potential.
This still may, or may not, be the case.
The relation between our thrust and Miler’s residual "ether
drift" is even more difficult to explain. I have no doubt that
Miller’s very laborious electrometer readings are accurate and
scientifically valid --- whether there is an ether or not.
Miller’s work is monumental, certainly one of the classics of
physics. His determination that the Earth (and the entire solar
system) is moving away from the galactic center toward 5h RA 70
S decl. at 227 km/sec is worthy of more consideration from
scientists today than it is receiving.
I have taken the time recently to study carefully Miler’s
Report and have come to the conclusion that the interferometer
arms change in length as the system is rotated with respect to
the Earth’s movement thru space. Miler believed that the
velocity (total time) of light was changing. He did acknowledge
the possibility of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, and I
believe Miller came to the conclusion that his observations
showed only a fraction of the expected fringe-shift because of
the almost complete cancellation resulting from the Lorentz
contraction. The operation of this contraction was not (as
stated) 100% but left a residual of 5% which appears to be what
Whether an ether does or does not exist is hardly the important
point. What is important is that Miller observed something. The
result was not entirely negative, as contemporary relativists
would have us believe.
My interest is --- what relation exists between Miller’s
interferometer and our electrometer. One relates to the
transmission of light and/or physical dimensions. The other
relates to electric fields or electrical conductivity.
It is possibly true that there are other related parameters
such as gravitational potential, electrostatic potential of the
Earth (as an "isolated" sphere in space), the dielectric
constant and/or magnetic susceptibility of ambient space (k-mu
density) and these possibilities may eventually come into this
complex picture. Random or cyclic disturbances from
gravitational waves could further add to the confusion.
It appears certain that the Miller interferometer is related to
the Brown electrometer. See chart (Fig 1):
Comparison of sidereal curves ---
--- Miller’s interferometer on Mt Wilson (1926)
--- Brown’s electrometer at Philadelphia (1939)
If there is truly a physical relation between the two
phenomena, what is it?
(1) The interferometer arms could be changing length. The
cohesive forces in matter (steel in this case) are largely
electric. Electrostatic attraction (valence bonds and
interatomic cohesiveness) could be affected by:
(a) Dielectric permeability of medium
(b) Magnetic " " "
(c) Velocity (contraction)
(d) Gravitational flux density
(e) Unknown factors
(2) The electrometer thrust could be affected by:
(a) Conductivity differential (resistance)
(b) Dielectric permeability (susceptibility
(c) Unknown factors
(3) The relationship must be (it would seem) due to the
electrical factors the two instrumentalities have in common.
Let us look at the structure of the electrometer in detail.
Realizing that the thrust requires electrical energy, current is
the dominant factor. Variations in thrust must be accompanied by
(or result from) changes in current.
As a causative factor, electrical conductivity would be a
likely candidate. It could be affected by:
(a) ionization from penetrating radiation
(b) electron migration
(d) physical contraction (velocity)
(e) " " (gravitational waves)
(f) gravitational potential
(h) unknown factors
Electrical resistance is not a simple thing. As a reciprocal of
conductivity, resistance of ordinary substances, metal wire,
etc., is not just a function of temperature but a host of other
factors as outlined above.
Let us look now at the structure of the electrometer with this
much in view.
It will be seen from Figs 1 and 2 that the voltage profiles of
dielectric blocks of different resistivity act upon ambient
regions of charged oil (ions) to move the body of oil with
respect to the dielectric blocks.
Hence, the thrust upon the dielectric blocks, and the oil in
the opposite direction, arises from the electrostatic migration
of positively-charged oil regions (we may even refer to them as
The magnitude of the thrust (torque of the rotor) depends upon
(1) resistance difference between high and low conductivity
(2) ion density (conductivity) of the leaky transformer oil.
In the foregoing, the torque of the electrometer is a direct
function of the total current., There is no other energy source.
High voltage is used to provide the electrostatic attraction for
ion migration and ion-momentum transfer to the ambient body of
transformer oil. The oil must be slightly conductive (leaky) to
The oil moves in one direction, the dielectric blocks in the
The question which now comes to mind is why does the thrust
change. Why does the differential resistance change with
There could be a resistance change in any one, two, or all
three of the resistance bodies:
(a) Low resistance block (marble)
(b) High " " (oiled pine wood)
(c) Transformer oil
Only further critical testing will reveal the answer.
All could be affected by penetrating radiation, nuclear or
cosmic rays. Magnetic fields would not. I mean, of course, such
magnetic fields as normally surround the instrument (terrestrial
A test performed in 1939 by Pomerantz (Bartol Res. Fdn.)
indicated no observable change in torque resulting from placing
a piece of radioactive copper (isotope) on the lid of the
electrometer. This test was performed while the instrument was
in its constant temperature vault in the basement of the Randal
Morgan Lab of Physics, Univ. of Penn., Phila. No other test with
radioactive material has been made.
In any event, the sidereal and lunar characteristics of the
torque are not correlated with penetrating radiation of any
Other non-ionizing radiation such as neutrino flux (from the
sun) and gravitons from space can certainly penetrate the
electrometer shielding but it is difficult to see how they could
One factor may be of immediate interest, and that is the
electrostatic potential of the Earth (as an invisible, insulated
sphere in space). All planets obviously receive charged
particles from the sun. The solar wind consists of highly
charged particles and presumably also electrons. The Earth
intercepts and captures particles in constantly varying amounts.
Hence, the net charge could be varying greatly, possibly to the
extent of several million volts.
The moon likewise may be charged, probably differently from the
Earth. An electrostatic field could exist between the two. This
could explain the effects of the moon upon the electrometer.
Inductive effects of the Moon upon the Earth could readily alter
the electrostatic charge on the Earth side facing the Moon.
Instrument records indicate substantial changes with lunar
phases and lesser changes with lunar right ascension,
declination and lunar distance (apogee and perigee).
Only two explanations come to my mind: (1) electrostatic
potential and (2) gravitational potential.
To my knowledge, there is no accepted method for measuring the
electrostatic potential of the Earth. There is no reference
potential. It would be like a mono-polar voltmeter.
In the literature, the work of Prof. Fernando Sanford (Prof.
Emeritus of Physics, Stanford Univ.) comes to mind. Shortly
after 1900, Prof Sanford published "Terrestrial Electricity" (Univ.
Series Math. And Astron., Vol. II, No. 1, L.C. QC 806.S3
AS 36L56, Vol. 2, No. 1).
In this volume, as I remember, Prof Sanford conducted
investigations with a quadrant electrometer and obtained some
striking evidence of lunar electrostatic effects. I am trying to
locate this reference at the present time. Sanford reports that
it is out of print. L.A. Public Library has misplaced its copy.
My program for the immediate future is to concentrate on the
possibility that the electrometer is indicating resistance
changes. I will be looking for other research and other evidence
that include resistance changes which are not accounted for.
This is especially important if these changes accompany any of
the lunar cycles or are correlated with sidereal time.
99. Torque and Resistance Change in the Brown Sidereal
Catalina Island; Aug 19, 1973.
Since the instrument scale is inverted, and since an increase
in torque requires an increase in total current, it necessarily
follows that an increase in instrument reading (instrument
units) means an increase in resistance.
Considering the 1937 (Ganesville) records:
(1) Resistance is maximum 2 hr after moon crosses upper
(2) Resistance is minimum at noon, Solar time.
(3) Resistance is maximum at 16 h ST
(4) In all annual charts, "instrument units" parallel
"resistance" in direct relationship.
If the resistance if a conductor is related to absolute
electrical potential and if the potential of the Earth changes,
100. Resistance of a Copper Wire
Catalina Island; Aug 19, 1973.
In 1892, Prof Sanford prepared a report of experiments
performed at Leland Stanford Univ. on the resistance of a
section of copper wire 1 mm diameter, 120 cm long. The report
subtitled "Some Observations upon the Conductivity of a Copper
Wire", published by the University. LA Public Library R 537.22.4
His copper wire, reported at 1 mm, therefore was 0.039"
diameter or No. 18. According to resistance tables of pure
copper (99.5%), the resistance of No. 18 is approx. 0.00635
ohms/ft. Sanford reports approx. 0.03400 ohms at 22° C for the
length of 120 cm.
Sanford: 0.0280 ohms/cm; Tables: 0.02508 ohms/cm.
In the Sanford experiments, the resistance changed with
temperature according to the equation:
Rtemp = 11 T + 3159
Sanford attempted to observe any (theoretically possible)
increase in resistance due to the immersion of the conductor in
liquids and/or gases of high specific inductive capacity (K).
His results, while indicating to him at least, a systematic
positive result was s irregular and confusing, that he concluded
hoping "to pursue these investigations much farther during the
coming year (1893), and to accumulate data from which it may be
legitimate to make comparisons".
101. Theory of a Resistance Cross for Extraterrestrial
Factors. Theory and Development.
Catalina Island; August 19, 1973
In the preceding section, reference was made to the work of
Fernando Sanford. A copper wire 1 mm diameter, 120 cm long was
tested repeatedly and an anomalous change in resistance was
Statistics from the Sanford data indicate that Sanford was
confused by the irregularity. On page 10 of his report, he
states, "The cause of this irregularity is unknown to me".
In working over his statistics, correcting his results for
temperature variations, I have come to the conclusion that the
resistance changed radically from day to day and even from hour
to hour. Such a change in secular or cyclic fashion, Sanford
apparently did not recognize. There is no report in the
literature to my knowledge at this time that Sanford continued
these observations in subsequent years (as he wrote he intended
Resistance anomalies, computed from Sanford data (corrected for
temperature variations) show both secular and cyclic changes.
These are 3 peaks which are evident between Feb 22 and May 19,
1892, on March 7, April 6 and May 5 which appear to be related
to the position of the moon.
1892. Daily Average Resistance of Cu Wire (1 mm diam/120 cm
long) in air and Various Dielectrics. Peaks at March 7, April 6,
and May 5. 29 day period.
Phoned Mt Wilson Observatory to get Ephemeris for 1892. Mrs
Henderson reported on 8-21-73 the lunar phases as indicated
above. The peaks occur 6 days before full moon in each case.
These peaks seem to coincide with instrument minima. In this
case, then, the instrument increases torque as resistance (of
copper) increases. This is exactly opposite to what might be
expected if torque is a function of current.
A critical examination of the variations in resistance observed
in the Sanford data brings one squarely face to face with the
possibility that electrical resistance of copper, and possibly
all substances, does vary in a secular and possibly cyclic
To my knowledge this phenomenon has never been observed before.
If it has, it may have been attributed to experimental error or
below the limits of reliable observation. If found to be
verified by repeated experiment it could represent one of the
most significant discoveries in physics.
Any possible correlation with extra-terrestrial causative
factors could be equally significant.
In view of Weber’s experiments, supposedly involving the effect
of gravitational waves upon large metal cylinders and the like,
one naturally wants to consider the possibility that such
cylinders undergo electrical resistance changes longitudinally
and transversely. What effect, if any, could resistance changes
have upon the physical dimensions or shape of such cylinders?
Going back to the change in resistance of the Sanford 120 cm
copper wire, could the resistance change cause a corresponding
change in length? Or, did a change in length cause the
resistance change? Could Weber have observed changes in the
lengthwise/crosswise shape of his detectors by simple resistance
measurement of the metal itself?
Two possibilities become apparent:
(1) If extraterrestrial factors cause a change in resistance
directly, then does a change in dimension follow? If so, the
physical movement follows the resistivity "signal". There would
be a lag or so-called inertial distortion. Further, resistance
changes would not be limited by or reflect the mechanical
"follow-up". If the metal "detector" is resonant (as any metal
object is), the driving signal may be independent and
non-resonant. Hence, by observing resistance changes in
gravitational wave receivers one may avoid the serious
limitation of resonance or "ringing" of the metal mass.
(2) If the extraterrestrial factors cause a change in dimension
(as gravitational waves are alleged to do) then the change in
resistance follows the change in dimension. If, in Weber’s
detectors, the resistance "rings" also, then it is pretty clear
proof that the resistivity of the metal follows the change in
The following experimental set-up is suggested as a means by
which this mater may be resolved. It is essentially a sensitive
resistance bridge with long East-West/North-South arms. It will
be referred to as a Resistance Cross.
102. Set-up of Resistance Cross.
Catalina Island; August 20, 1973.
It is proposed that a "resistive cross" be defined as a
resistance bridge with extended linear arms. The cross may be
fixed in the N-S/E-W direction or it may be made to rotate like
Coiled resistors are not used, only linear lengths of wire.
In terms of the Sanford experiment, one arm may be similar to
the single length of wire coaxial within a copper tube.
This is the experimental setup Sanford used. Resistance varied
over a range of 6-4 ohms 1.76% (temp. compensated)
during the period from Feb 17-May 19, 1892.
A basic resistance cross would consist of four such arms in a
bridge circuit with null voltage output when balanced. Any
imbalance would cause a voltage.
Several sizes of resistance cross may be foreseen; the smaller
ones may be rotatable, whereas the larger ones may be fixed ---
say in the N-S/E-W direction.
The rotatable cross:
The rotatable cross may b as large, let us say, as the
interferometer used by Miller on Mt Wilson in 1926. Its use may
be similar in many respects and so may the results. After all,
if Miller’s interferometer arms were contracting (in the
alignment of the earths motion through space), then too, the
resistance arms of the cross would contract for the same reason.
The resistance would change in concert with the change in
One would expect to obtain in the resistance data possible the
same results as Miller obtained in his fringe shifts. It is
intriguing to believe the observations of electrical resistance
might provide information as to the velocity and direction of
the earth’s movement thru space.
The field cross:
The largest fixed cross may have arms several thousand feet in
length. Preferably, these arms would be in shielded conduit at
least 2 ft under the surface of earth for reasons of temperature
stability. The same bridge circuit would be used.
Such a cross would rotate because of the Earth’s rotation and
this arrangement might be comparable to Weber’s large cylinder.
Again, the resistance data may indicate a sidereal effect just
as Weber’s is doing --- toward the center of the galaxy!
In this connection, Weber’s results may be related to Miller’s
results may be related to Miller’s results, both see maxima at
16h ST. So, too, the electrometer records of 1937 and 1939 show
maxima at 16h ST. I am sure there must be a common denominator
somewhere that would tie all these phenomena together.
Going further into the construction of a large fixed resistance
cross, the following suggestions may be made:
(1) Multiple linear conductors in each arm.
(2) Use of wire with low temperature coefficient of resistance,
such as Stableohm 1040 (+/- 5 ppm).
(3) Use wires in pairs only, both Stableohm going and coming.
(4) AC excitation to avoid earth current effects.
(5) Use a rapid response recording galvanometer arranged for AC
(6) Constant voltage AC supply.
It is proposed that the fixed cross be constructed in several
sizes, starting with the smallest, as a pair:
Step 1 --- Arms 10 ft long. No. 26 Stableohm 1040. 10 pairs (20
lengths) per arm. 200’ per arm. R = [ ] per arm.
Step 2 --- Arms 2 ft long. No. 26 Stableohm 1040. 50 pairs (100
lengths) per arm. 200’ per arm. R = [ ] per arm.
Using a 2-point recorder, compare the simultaneous readings of
Purpose: To determine the effect of increasing the arm length.
Resistance remaining constant.
If results are positive and funds become available arms lengths
up to several thousand feet may be considered. In such cases an
installation in the desert in long trenches 2 ft deep may be
worthwhile. Conduits with adequate internal insulation would be
required. In long arms, leakage may be a problem and these
details would have to be carefully worked out.
In this connection, the thought has occurred to me that
lead-covered multi-pair telephone cable might be used. This
would offer adequate insulation and protection against moisture
and could be buried in a trench. But the conductors are of
copper and the temperature coefficient is 3900 ppm, whereas
Stableohm 1040 is +/- 5 ppm.
Whether the temperature stability of the lead-covered cable in
a trench 2 ft deep (or more if possible) would make the
difference remains to be worked out.
The best possible combination, of course, would be to use
Stableohm conductors in a lead-covered cable, also buried to a
depth where the temperature is relatively constant.
Vertical arms: Another variation which should be considered is
the use of a vertical arm in relation to a horizontal arm.
Then, of course, many different installations are foreseen, in
many locations on the Earth’s surface. Such installations should
be telemetrically interconnected so that coincidences may be
103. Model A Differential Resistor.
Catalina Island Island; Aug 27, 1973.
The most satisfactory explanation of the torque of the
electrometer, at least to me at this writing, is related to the
difference in the resistivity of the marble and wood sectors of
the rotor. The electrostatic field adjacent to the sectors
(facing the reactor plate) is asymmetrical in its effect upon
(+) charged oil domains (all these positively charged oil ions
if you will), so that the ions are pulled (predominantly) in one
direction by the sectors, and this causes a net torque on the
In other words, the oil moves around in one direction and the
rotor turns in the opposite direction. Difference in torque with
time of day, etc., is merely a reflection of the resistivity
difference at that moment.
Although this arrangement, in the form of a torsion
electrometer, is convenient and reliable in many respects, it is
fundamentally indirect. A more direct approach would be to
measure (and record) the resistance differential electrically
and hence, not be subject to inertial lag such as that
introduced by a rotor mechanically.
Several forms of differential resistor bridges are possible but
all of them operate by reason of the same principle: i.e., that
electrical conductivity of all materials is no a constant --- as
has been supposed --- with time of day (lunar, solar and
sidereal time) and perhaps even the motion of the Earth in
Fernando Sanford (p. 62) observed these variations during the
period of his experiments in 1892 but obviously was confused by
his own measurements and did not attribute the variations to
The sidereal radiation electrometer as described on p. 50, has
made possible at least 5 years of observations which show most
convincingly these cosmic factors. It is quite logical then that
these same factors could (and probably do) influence the
electrical conductivity of (at least) marble and pine wood.
Sanford’s work shows that copper too is affected.
It follows that other materials, conductors and
semi-conductors, must also be subject to the same phenomenon. It
is the purpose of this investigation to examine this anomalous
change in resistivity as it occurs in (1) metal wires, (2)
semi-conductors, (3) insulating materials.
As stated on p. 68, one of the first experiments proposed is
that of utilizing the resistance bridge with (1) arms of wire of
different metals, or (2) arms of the same wire in different
orientation, such as a cross.
A resistance cross utilizing Stableohm 1040 was diagrammed on
p. 70. Such a detecting device may be vector sensing, and may
provide some evidence of the direction in space from which this
anomalous cosmic effect comes.
Another form of resistance bridge uses aluminum wire versus
platinum wire. Platinum as a higher specific resistivity (10.6)
than aluminum (2.65). But platinum has a density of 21.4 while
aluminum is 2.7, approx. 8 times heavier. If mass is a factor
this difference should be significant, gravitationally speaking.
If dielectric constant is a factor, assuming a relation to
atomic number and/or mass, again a significant difference should
On the matter of dielectric constant, metals theoretically
should possess extremely high dielectric constants (specific
inductive capacity or electric permitivity), but the great
electrical conductivity prevents its determination in the usual
In any event, a bridge made of aluminum versus platinum wire is
suggested. Such an experimental setup is as follows:
At 6 V DC --- steady current diam., 12 ma.
At 2 VDC --- " " ", 4 ma.
Measuring instrument may be a micrometer 100-0-100 ua, or
preferably Brush galvanometer with amplifier for recording rapid
fluctuations <100 cps.
For simplicity, the wire may be strung lengthwise between two
supports 1 ft apart, then cabled within shrink tubing. There
would be 8 terminals as follows:
The foregoing structure would be about 1/2 inch diameter, 1 ft
long. A wood rod may form the center support for rigidity. Leads
would be cabled and in identifying colors. Power may be supplied
by a 6V storage battery or even a 2V dry cell.
Protection against temperature changes would have to be
provided. First observations will reveal how serious this
It is entirely possible that this linear wire structure may be
vector-sensing. If it is founded to be directional, alignment
with the source of fluctuation may be possible. This is an
Certainly, this structure is readily portable. The recording
instruments may also be portable and battery-operated, so that
installations in various geographic spots are possible.
Several units of this type must be ready and operating for the
advent of the passage of the Earth through the tail residue of
the Kohoutek comet. Mt Wilson should be one of these locations.
104. Alternate Form of Model A Differential Resistor.
Catalina Island; Aug. 30, 1973.
In reviewing the foregoing entry (p. 74), the thought occurs
that the same results may be obtained by using readily available
resistor components rather than to go to the trouble and expense
of winding special forms.
The disadvantage would be that mass or density differential
would not be as great. No commercial resistors, for example, are
made with aluminum and tungsten (or platinum) wires. However, a
considerable mass differential may be obtained by using carbon
and wire-wound resistors which are cheap and readily obtainable.
Non-inductive wire-wound resistors are suggested. Standard
carbon resistors are probably adequate, at least to start with.
Variable wire-wound resistors in the 10 kiloohm range may permit
adjustment to zero null.
The bridge would simply be:
Each resistance = 10,000 ohms. Total current drain at 10 V = 1
Certainly, the foregoing setup is the easiest and cheapest to
Positive results would be startling and very significant. I
wonder if such a bridge has ever been constructed with the
express purpose of attempting to detect secular or cyclic
105. Ion Momentum Transfer as an Explanation for the
Cause of Thrust (Torque) of the Sidereal Radiation
Aug. 31, 1973.
Referring to p. 55 of this notebook, it is noted that the most
immediate probable explanation for the torque of the
electrometer lies in the movement of the charged domains (ions)
in the oil bath.
It has long been observed that torque occurs only when the
transformer oil is leaky, that is, slightly conductive as a
result of a small moisture content. Perfectly dry transformer
oil produces no torque.
Proof of this conductivity appears in the readings of the panel
meters --- representing current to ground (+). This current
depends upon the distance (inversely) between the rotor and the
reactor plates. Normally it is 2 ua for the upper reactor and 7
ua for the lower reactor. The lower reactor was nearer the rotor
and this would account for the higher current.
Recognizing that this current represented ion flow, it is
obvious that the ions would flow in the direction of the field
gradient. The velocity or kinetic energy would depend also upon
the intensity of the electric field at that point.
In general then, the net ion flow would depend upon the shape
and intensity of the electric field at the sides of the
dielectric sectors facing the reactor plates.
Three situations are illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3.
In Fig. 1, the adjacent sectors of the dielectric rotor have
equal (high) conductivity so that the electric gradient between
the electrodes is virtually linear.
In Fig. 1, the 2 adjacent sectors of the dielectric rotor have
equal (high) conductivity so that the electric gradient between
the electrodes is virtually linear.
Note: It must be remembered that where there is
transverse leakage the electric gradient thru the dielectric can
never be strictly linear. In Fig 1, for sake of explanation,
this is overlooked.
Again, in Fig. 1, positive ions migrating from the region of
the positive reactor move in the direction and extent indicated
by the vectors. In this instance, the vectors balance and there
is no net flow.
In Fig. 2, dielectric B has lower has lower conductivity
(higher resistance) and the gradient is shifted downward because
of the transverse current drain. The field is distorted as
indicated by the vectors so that imbalance exists. This
imbalance causes a net flow of oil (ion momentum transfer) in
the direction indicated. Reaction to this force causes the
dielectric pair to move in the opposite direction.
In Fig. 3, dielectric B has still higher resistance (with
respect to A) and the thrust is increased.
The foregoing is probably an oversimplification of an
exceedingly complex situation. Here we actually have to consider
the resistivity of A and B but also that of the oil and the
relative interaction of all three.
If varying resistance is the cause, the reasons for such
varying resistance are still obscure. Ionizing radiation could
affect the ion population in the oil. It could also conceivably
affect the resistance of the dielectric sectors. But it seems
inconceivable that the relatively small changes in, let us say,
cosmic radiation could produce such relatively great changes in
torque as have been observed since 1937.
And again, of course, the correlation with sidereal time and
certain lunar factors seems to rule out ionization changes as a
cause for the variations in torque. Some other as yet
unidentified cosmic factor must be affecting "simple electrical
In terms of the "dogma" of electrical engineering, this thought
is rank heresy. The resistance of conductors, of all materials
actually, is not known to vary except with temperature. I am not
forgetting the photoconductivity, ionizing radiation, ad other
related phenomena, but these do not appear to be factors here.
In brief, what we seem to be observing is a basic change in
resistivity of metals, and probably all other materials as well,
which is related to extraterrestrial factors. It appears,
further, that the change in resistivity is not the same for all
metals (or all substances) but varies with some other factor
such as mass (density) or dielectric constant.
To observe this phenomenon, we must use (preferably) a
resistance bridge with arms of dissimilar metal. This means
resistors of aluminum wire versus tungsten (which is less
expensive) or even commercially available resistors such as
carbon b\versus wire wound. This is based upon the assumption
(for the time being at least) that a mass differential is the
The resistive bridge concept is a significant improvement over
the complicated sidereal radiation electrometer, (1) because it
is simple electrically, (2) because it is simple electrically,
(3) no inertial lag, (4) more accurate and (5) far better
frequency sensitivity especially in the higher range.
An in-line resistance bridge, also the resistance cross (p. 71)
may also have the advantage of being directionally sensitive, so
that it may actually "point" to the source in space.
106. A Combined Resistance-Dielectric Constant Bridge.
Catalina Island, Sept 2, 1973.
When the sidereal radiation electrometer was designed in 1931
at the Naval Research Lab, the prevailing thought which I
expressed at that time to Drs Hulbert, Maris, Gunn and Dawson
was that I was looking for a mass and dielectric constant
effect. I referred to the adjacent sectors of the electrometer
rotor as high Km and low Km, the former
being marble and the latter pine wood.
In the analysis on p. 80 and 81, Dielectric A relates to marble
and Dielectric B relates to pine wood. See also p. 55, also p.
In the previous sections of this notebook, the emphasis has
shifted from the original idea to a consideration of electrical
resistance. To completely abandon the idea of dielectric
constant (electrical susceptance) at this point may be a
mistake. Mass differential has not been abandoned It appears in
the considerations of the "mass" of the resistance wires in the
vaporizing arms of the resistance bridge. (p. 79).
Now, it may be helpful to include high- and low-K capacitors
with the high- and low-mass wires of the resistance bridge, as:
In the above figure, a wire-wound resistor with a high-K
capacitor in parallel is balanced against a carbon resistor with
a low-K capacitor in parallel.
Therefore, if the cosmic effect "gets in" through any one or
two or all three, i.e., dielectric constant, (electric
permitivity), electrical resistance or mass (density), it will
show up in the balance.
In pursuit of this thought, Hi-Cap, ceramic capacitors (with
value of K upward from 3000) are indicated. They may be balanced
against low-K paper paper dielectric capacitors.
107. Change of Resistance with Electrostatic Potential
(of the Earth as a whole).
Catalina Island; Sept 4, 1973.
The question arises, "why does (if it does) basic resistance of
metal wires and other materials change with cosmic variables?"
One thought I have retained for a long time is that the
electrical potential of the Earth (as an isolated sphere in
space) may change to a surprisingly great extent, possibly
millions of volts. Fernando Sanford believed this too and based
many of the ideas presented in his book "Terrestrial
Electricity" upon such a possibility. He believed that the Earth
was negatively charged by electron emission from the Sun. He
conceived of a solar wind but believed that the "wind" was
composed largely of electron emitted by the "hot" sun. His
thought was that the Earth could acquire a charge of "several
million volts". So could the moon. And inductive effects could
arise between the Moon and earth when the relative potentials
varied. (See p. 58).
Sanford postulated that if the Moon, because of its rotation
around the Earth, possessed a different and variable charge with
respect to the earth, then the Moon-side of the earth would be
Certainly, the lunar effects such as hour angle, phase, etc.,
as indicated by the sidereal radiation electrometer could be
caused by the electrostatic potential of the Earth in just this
In this respect, the electrometer could be operating as a
monopolar voltmeter, a concept not easily today. It must be
recalled, however, that Sanford’s "Quadrant Electrometer" which
he described in his "Terrestrial Electricity" did appear to be
doing just that.
If electrical resistance does change with absolute
electrostatic potential --- why does it? Is it a matter of
electron density --- call it, carrier abundance? Does increased
negativity cause increased conductivity? Or looking at it in
terms of resistivity, is resistance a direct function of
The 1937 and 1939 readings of the electrometer reveal strong
lunar and solar effects which could be attributed, in terms of
the above, to resistance changes caused by earth potential
A problem arises when one tries to explain the sidereal (16h)
peak in this way. Is there an inductive effect toward the
Or, is there hitherto unknown particulate radiation from the
And also what was causing the (residual) fringe shifts in the
Miller interferometer? Was this due to a change in the velocity
of light or the length of the interferometer arms? I suspect it
is the latter.
I suspect that electrostatic potential can change physical
dimensions too, but I am puzzled as to why this effect is
directional. If electrostatic potential is scalar, why did
Miller’s interferometer arms contract differentially? And how
was it that he was able to deduce a net movement of the Earth
thru space? Actually, his computations indicated movement
opposite to that expected by astronomers, i.e., toward 5h RA at
208 k/sec rather than toward 16-17h RA at 19 m/sec.
Is there a relation between net charge and velocity? Is there a
relation between net charge and the Lorentz-Fitzgerald
contraction? Or, putting it another way, how does this
relativistic contraction affect conductivity and/or electron
density. Does "absolute motion" create a conductivity (or
resistivity) vector? If electron density is altered in the
direction of absolute motion and conductivity is affected, then
I can see where the velocity vector enters the resistance
This, then, in summarizing, may mean that resistance decreases
in the alignment of absolute motion, and to an amount dependent
upon the rate of motion.
This hypothesis provides a reason for the operativeness of the
resistance cross (p. 71). The arms of the cross in the
alignment of absolute motion would decrease in electrical
resistance. The arms normal to that motion would not change in
One wonders now if Weber’s results could be explained not on
the basis of gravitational waves but upon the basis of
resistivity changes. If the large aluminum cylinder suffers
resistance changes, longitudinally versus transversely, and
these changes affect its shape, strain gauges might pick it up.
Velocity vectors would give it preference for alignment with the
center of the galaxy and correlate with Miller’s observations
that the velocity is actually in the direction away from the
galactic center (5h ST).
Weber concluded that gravitational waves are coming
predominately from the galactic center. Resistance measurements
may indicate instead merely absolute motion toward 4h RA (See Science
News, Aug. 18 and 25, 1973, Vol. 104, No. 7 and 8,
97-128), p. 108.
In the above reference, it is also noted that the recessional
velocity of galaxies, calculated from their red-shifts, is not
isotropic. It is clumped and the clumping may indicate a
velocity of the solar system in the direction of 5h RA. Again,
this may confirm Miller’s findings. See p. 114 of the foregoing
Science News reference.
Now then, if these resistance changes do occur, there must be a
reason for sudden changes such as might shock-excite Weber’s
cylinders. Gradual changes, such as the lunar effects, could not
be picked up by Weber.
The electrometer reveals not only slow long-term cycles,
sidereal and secular variations but also rapid changes which tax
(and may largely escape) detection by the massive rotor’s
A resistance cross and bridge could easily pick up such rapid
changes. For this reason it is recommended that a Brush
recording galvanometer be used in connection. This will indicate
changes up to 100 Hz. For higher frequencies it is recommended
that the sensing system include sonic amplifiers and loud
I can well imagine that sounds will be heard and this is
intriguing. Perhaps frequencies of 1580 Hz and 1661 Hz (Weber’s
resonant frequencies) will appear from time to time, such as may
possibly be exciting his cylinders.
If electrostatic potential (of the Earth) causes these
resistance changes exclusively, the capacitance of the Earth as
a whole will probably limit the frequency --- let us say, the
upper frequency. The capacitance of the Earth (as a conducting
sphere in space) is said to approximately one Farad. This is an
enormous capacitance and, unless the driving potential is of
equal magnitude, could well smooth out most of the higher
Another source of "apparent" resistance variations might be the
voltage contributions from changing K of space --- so-called "K
waves". Space may be defined as K-mu. The velocity of light is
dependent upon both the electrical permitivity and magnetic
permeability of the medium thru which it passes.
C = 1 / sq. root k mu
If k waves exist, they probably are not limited to the velocity
of light (C) since K is more basic. K waves may be instantaneous
(infinite velocity) and be truly "action at a distance" as
envisioned by Newton.
Actually, magnetic permeability is the counterpart. Both K and
mu, so far as space is concerned, go together. But for the
present, let us consider only the effects that a variation in K
can produce on the apparent resistance of a conductor.
For the sake of explanation, let us consider a simple charged
condenser (capacitor). If the dielectric constant (wrongly
named because it may not be constant) changes, the voltage
changes inversely. In other words, the terminal voltage of any
capacitor (for a given charge) is inversely proportional to its
K (the dielectric constant of its dielectric).
Hence, a section of wire is also a capacitor. The dielectric
constant of a metal is theoretically considered to be very high.
Any change in its K will affect the terminal voltage of the
section. But a current must be flowing for the capacitance
effect to be present.
Resistance and capacitance are therefore related. A variation
of K in a conductor can create an EMF which may add or subtract
from the IR loss of the conductor, giving the appearance of a
change in resistance.
K waves from space (if they exist) may cause apparent
variations of resistance of a conductor, just as they would
cause variations in the terminal voltage of any capacitor.
It follows then, that resistance of electrical conductors may
be affected by:
(1) absolute electrostatic potential changes resulting from
electron density and motion thru space;
(2) K waves.
Long range, comparatively slow variations may originate in (1)
while rapid variations could only originate in (2).
Note: It must be borne in mind, in making the distinction
above, that the capacitance of the Earth (p. 92) may also be
subject to K waves, so as to change the absolute potential. Such
an effect may actually be present for the slow variations (long
waves) but may average out the faster variations.
On p. 85, the effect of mass was discussed briefly as the
combination Km. Mass (density) and K were grouped together. The
function of mass in these considerations is not quite clear and
will be taken up in later pages. In general, mass is so
interlocked with dielectric constant in metals that these two
factors are virtually inseparable. Wire with high mass, such as
platinum or tungsten, is considered also to have high K, and it
is chosen in the resistance bridges (herein discussed) for this
Wires with low mass, such as aluminum, and also carbon
resistors, are thought to have low K.
The differential resistance bridges set forth in the previous
pages make use of high Km and low Km arms.
In general, the high Km arms conduct more current/unit length
and therefore must be longer to have equivalent resistance,
although with certain metals this is not the case.
One wonders, quite naturally, why this resistance variation has
not been observed --- considering to what great sophistication
the electronic technology has reached in recent years. The
thought is discouraging to say the least. I have no idea. Maybe
it is simply that when variations were noticed, they were blamed
on experimental error, temp. errors or random fluctuations in
Maybe, the idea of combining heavy and light conductors as arms
of a resistance bridge was never considered. Possibly there was
no theory to predict any effect or to justify the experiment.
Only time will tell. We shall see.
108. Another Form of Resistance Capacitance Bridge.
Catalina Island; Sept 6, 1973.
A bridge operating strictly on the basis of a capacitance
change with DC feed will produce observable variations, if
theory is correct, only during a change in the incoming factor
(whatever that factor may be). In other words, it is strictly a
If an incoming K wave strikes a charged capacitor, the terminal
voltage will change only while the K (potential) is changing.
Steady K potential creates no voltage.
The same may be said of an inductance when a mu wave strikes
it. Steady conditions produce no voltage.
Any steady potential can, it would seem, produce a mu wave
strikes it. Steady conditions produces no voltage.
Any steady potential can, it would seem, produce an effect only
thru, or by means of, resistance.
Most capacitors have internal resistance, being the resistance
of the dielectric. This "leakage" current is inseparably linked
with capacitance "emf" so that the total is either additive or
In this respect, the deliberate combining of capacitors with
resistors is probably needless. The resistance of the capacitors
should suffice to observe cosmic factors.
A satisfactory circuit may be as follows:
The bridge will balance in steady state when the resistances of
the capacitors match. Any variation on the K ambient will
immediately create an imbalance, with the capacitance providing
the rate-of-change potential and the resistance providing
Higher voltage should provide greater sensitivity. 25 KV
capacitors are suggested, both oil-filled (Pyramid) and ceramic.
But matching should be on the basis of resistance, not
This circuit (Fig. 1) is a radical departure from that tested
at Atherton, CA in 1970. See p. 25.
109. The Structure of Space and the Significance of K-mu
Catalina Island; Sept 7, 1973.
On p. 92, it was suggested that space, so-called empty space
may actually have structure. It was inferred that because of
this structure, manifested as the ability to store energy, that
light was limited to a certain fixed velocity (c).
The principal factors of this structure are the twin
energy-storage means K and mu, being the routes by which
electric and magnetic energy can be stored as electric and
magnetic fields respectively. Probably, if it were not for the
progressive storage of energy, light would have infinite
velocity. As it is, the progressive delays causes by the
creation of these "energy pockets", their momentary storage and
their release from storage limits the speed of light. When these
pockets increase their capacity, as when K-mu is greater, the
speed of light is further reduced. This is readily seen when
light passes thru transparent dielectrics of greater dielectric
constant (K), such as water.
Hence, K represents the velocity control produced by the
temporary storage of the electric (field) component of the
moving light wave or quantum.
In the same way, mu represents the control produced by the
temporary storage of the magnetic (field) component.
The region of space in this part of our galaxy appears to have
an average fixed value for both K and mu. This value is referred
to as "unity". The question arises, is there another region
somewhere where the value of K and mu is more or less than
unity? If so, light would have a correspondingly different
velocity that it has here. It is precisely this velocity change
that causes the refraction of light. The index of reflection is
a measure of a differential in K.
The purpose of this discussion is to set forth the idea that K
is not necessarily constant in space, nor is mu constant. The
idea that regions of differing K and mu exist in so-called free
space has not been accepted in today’s technology.
Let us postulate the existence of such regions and that they
may propagate thru space. What would be their velocity? And
would the velocity necessarily be limited to the speed of light?
I think not.
K and mu cause light to be velocity. Limited thru the
C = sq root K mu, but K and mu are not limited. K and mu may,
more accurately, be classified as actions at a distance,
although wavelike characteristics may be present.
How could such waves be detected? K waves would affect a
capacitor. Mu waves would affect an inductance. Both would
generate a voltage change.
This, in short, is the purpose of performing the bridge
experiment described in the foregoing sections. A capacitance
bridge, with arms of differential K, and an inductance bridge,
with arms of differential mu. Both can be combined in the form
of a simple bridge, as:
I doubt if a K wave can exist without its counterpart, the mu
wave. Both are probably effective together. Both probably
increase and decrease in phase. Otherwise, tank circuits would
show frequency variations and this, to my knowledge, has never
been noted. Space vehicles have traveled to Mars, sending back
telemetric signals which are accurately monitored. No shift in
frequency has ever been noted, at least to the extent I would
expect if K and mu varied independently.
Certain theoretical physicists have considered mass (m) to be
indicative of gravitation al permeability, just as K represents
magnetic permeability. The respective fields act upon m,
K and mu in much the same way. If m is to be considered
in this light, then it should also appear in with the factors
describing space. So that the speed of light in free space has
yet another limiting factor, as:
Is it possible that the resistive bridge as described on p. 77
owes its operability upon a mass differential, just as that of
Fig. 1 (previous page) depends upon K and mu differential (in
two balanced arms of the resistance bridge) produces a
consistent effect that is steady state, then it cannot be either
K or mu. Mass may be the causative factor: K and mu could
contribute only transient or rate-of-change effects. M
may produce so-called steady state effects or long-term
Gravitational waves, since they carry energy, probably are
limited to the velocity of light thru the same mechanism of
energy storage in space as that caused by K and mu.
It is difficult to imagine the connection between simple
electrical resistance and gravitational permeability. It is not
so difficult to see the connection between capacitance and
magnetic permeability. Changes in the latter two are revealed
(in the bridge) as an emf. Could the change in resistance
actually be the result of a counter emf?
If a counter emf is generated in a wire, due to cosmic
variables, it may be masquerading as a change in resistance. One
would accompany or be indistinguishable from the other. A
counter emf would impose an electrostatic field longitudinally
in the wire, or conversely, a generated electrostatic field
could cause a counter emf. Either way, the very presence of the
fluid would cause physical (dimensional) distortion in the same
amount and direction as the field.
Hence, I am wondering if Weber’s cylinders may not
contract/extend because of the electrostatic field which
accompanies the cosmically-induced change of electrical
In this respect, the Weber cylinder may be functionally similar
to the resistance cross (p. 71). Unlike the mass-differential
resistance bridge (p. 77) the resistance cross has the same
metal (same density) in both arms. The imbalance results from
the azimuth 90 degrees difference in the direction of the arms.
So it is with the Weber cylinder.
The resistance cross (if it proves out) should show a
resistance imbalance between the N-S arm and the E-W arm. This
may reveal solar, lunar and sidereal cycles, even secular
changes which are long-term and comparatively slow-moving.
Diurnal rhythms, due to the rotation of the Earth, may become
Weber’s cylinder, and associated circuitry, is not sufficiently
sensitive to reveal these slow-moving rhythms. It can only
indicate shock-induced effects (events) or response to
frequencies with which the cylinder resonates mechanically.
The resistance cross, on the other hand, may be infinitely more
useful because of its great sensitivity to both periodic and
The resistance cross, if it made to be rotatable as a
turnstile, may show effects similar to the interferometer of
Miller. In the above discussion of the possibility of an
electrostatic field accompanying the resistance (mechanically)
shorten the arm in which the field is longitudinal. This may be
the mechanism for the Lorentz-Fitzgerald (L-F) contraction. It
is apparent that the L-F contraction theoretically is not
adequate --- otherwise Miller would not have obtained consistent
positive results. An electrostatically driven contraction may be
Considering further the possible explanation(s) for the change
in resistance, the idea was explored earlier in this notebook
that electron density might affect conductivity. Now, if
contraction occurs due to a longitudinal field in a conductor,
would not the conductivity increase? It is the electrostatic
field longitudinally in the conductor that causes the electrons
to flow. An increase in that field would cause an increase in
the flow --- hence the conductivity. Increasing the field would
tend to shorten the wire also, hence the contraction
These are all so-called "steady-state" effects. Mass (m) rather
than K or mu is the motivating factor.
At the moment, I am inclined to think of resistance change as
primarily caused by an emf concurrently with an electrostatic
As a matter of fact, being a little more precise with the K and
mu factors, it would be the electrostatic field which could
cause the emf in both instances.
In summary then:
(1) K ambient change causes an electrostatic field in the
dielectric which reveals itself as an emf. This is a
rate-of-change function. Capacitance change.
(2) Mu ambient changes causes an electrostatic field in
conductor or the inductor which reveals itself as an emf. This
is an inductance change. Rate-of-change.
(3) M ambient change causes an electrostatic field within a
mass which reveals itself as an emf across the mass which is
indistinguishable in effect from a change in resistance. Steady
Absolute motion (thru space) causes a rod to contract in the
alignment of the motion. It also causes an electrostatic field
aligned in the same direction. The field may cause the
An emf is also generated by the field proportional to the rate
of motion. If the rod is conducting a current, the emf will
either aid or hinder such current, the emf will either aid or
hinder such current. If it aids, the resistance will appear to
decrease. If it hinders, the resistance will appear to increase.
The electrical polarity of the m-induced field will depend upon
the direction of absolute motion thru space. Subject to
experimental confirmation, let us assume --- no, on second
thought, I take this back. We will run into trouble. For the
time being, we should assume only that contraction takes place,
and that contraction causes an increase in conductivity or
decrease in resistance.
In the case of the resistance cross, the arm in the alignment
of motion will probably have lower resistance than the
In Fig. 1, p. 79, the alignment of the bridge with absolute
motion would lower the resistance of the carbon arms with
respect to the wire-wound arms.
This is based on the assumption that the low K, low mu, low
mass arms are more susceptible to the effects of the respective
110. Model A Differential Resistor Bridge.
Catalina Island; Sept 8, 1973.
Today, at 2 pm, an experimental Model A was placed in
The arms of the bridge are as shown in Fig. 1, p. 79. 2 Ohmite
10,000 ohm wire wound resistors, 1 fixed carbon 10,000 ohm and 1
variable carbon 10,000 ohm are used. The variable resistor
proved helpful. The null was deliberately set to 14 ua (100 ua
DC meter), 6 V.
The following observations were made:
Overnight observations were made. Resistance as indicated by
the microameter did vary. Current reading increased during the
afternoon from 14 ua to 14.35 ua then by 10 pm had dropped again
to 14.00 ua. At first, this was thought to be related to a room
temperature change from 73° F to 73.5° and then back to 72° at
The following morning the resistor system was deliberately
heated to 90° F but the current reading did not change. It
remained at 14.00 ua!
Voltage has now been increased to 19 V DC, 1.76 ma total
current drain and a new set of observations started.
111. Model B Differential Resistor Bridge.
Catalina Island, Sept 9, 1973.
If the resistance effect is directional with respect to motion
in space, and if the sensitivity is a function of resistance,
then a slight change in the form of differential resistor
appears to be warranted. We will call this Model B.
Each arm would have a very low resistance return circuit, such
as a copper rod or tube.
In Fig. 1, the return path is thru the copper tube. In Fig. 2,
it is thru the rod.
This appears to be a better arrangement than that shown on p.
71 for directional ability.
This basic design will be investigated as a next step.
112. Circuit of Model B Differential Resistor Bridge.
Catalina Island, Sept. 9, 1973.
It seems important, in arranging the circuit of this bridge
that the current flows unidirectionally thru the 4 arms of the
bridge. It would be possible, then, for the electric fields
within the conductors of all 4 arms to share the same alignment.
This would seem to be necessary if the device is sensitive to
the motion of the Earth thru space and/or the direction of the
Therefore, the circuit is as follows:
113. Some Thoughts about Gravitational Permeability (m).
Catalina Island; Sept 11, 1973.
When one considers that electric permitivity (or dielectric
constant K) represents the storage of electric energy in space
and mu (magnetic permeability) represents the storage of
magnetic energy in space, then the question is: If m represents
gravitational permeability, how can it also represent the
storage of gravitational energy in space?
Let us consider a simple tank circuit, a so-called "ringing
circuit", consisting of a capacitance, an inductance and, of
course, an inevitable resistance.
Energy storage alternates between the region of A to that of B.
In A, the storage is enhanced by K, the permitivity of the
dielectric. In B, it is enhanced by mu, the permeability of the
core (iron) or the region around B. Also in C, the resistance,
it could be enhanced by mass m (of the conductor).
In other words, as viewed from the capacitor’s voltage, the
energy storage shifts as follows:
Every 90 degrees, the energy storage shifts from capacitor to
inductance and return. Resistance enters the picture when
current is flowing in the conductor (including the winding of
the inductor). This current is in phase with the magnetic field,
hence, gravitational storage coincides with magnetic storage.
Within the capacitor, the leakage current (thru the dielectric)
is in phase with the voltage across the capacitor, hence,
gravitational storage coincides with electric storage.
Therefore, since gravitational storage occurs with both
electric and magnetic storage, the frequency of grav. storage is
doubled over the voltage frequency of the tank circuit. However,
since the electric (field) polarity is reversed with each
successive grav. storage (both in the capacitor and the rest of
the circuit), the gravitational vector reverses at the source
frequency as the tank circuit.
The direction of the electric vector determines the direction
of the gravitational vector, as:
The gravity vector within the conductor is in the same
alignment as the flow of electrons (opposite to the "flow" of
the classical current).
The complete gravitational field, out into the ambient, may
look like this:
The gravity vector within the conductor acts upon the mass (m)
of the conductor to move it (if free to move) from (-) to (+) as
Masses in the ambient, solid, gaseous or liquid, would (if this
is true) move in the opposite direction. Hence, action and
reaction would be equal. However, in free space, where there
would be no masses in the immediate ambient, the quantum arises
--- would the conductor still possess a "gravitator" force One
might answer the question in the affirmative by rationalizing
that the so-called ambient actually extends to infinity so as to
encompass all mass in the universe!
In a tank circuit there are three components, (1) the
capacitor, (2) inductor, ad (3) the leads connecting same.
Gravitational storage would seem to exist in all three, but not
necessarily in phase.
In the capacitor, max. grav. storage exists when the capacitor
is fully charged. At this point in time, the leakage current is
maximum across the dielectric.
Since the dielectric is also the conductor, the gravity
gradient is from (-) to (+) (electric) and the mass of the
dielectric is within this concentrated gravity gradient and
hence processes a force in that direction. Calling such a
structure a gravitator, (see lab notes of 1926-27-28-29).
This structure more in the neg to pos direction when charged.
This is what happened, even in vacuum.
One of the basic problems in those years was to understand the
energy relationships. It was not understood that leakage current
in the dielectric was involved. No distinction was made between
condensers for this reason. The force developed seemed to be a
function only of voltage --- hence, wattless. There was no
understandable channel for the conversion of electrical energy
into kinetic energy. I was even believed that the kinetic energy
was somehow derived from the gravitational field!
Now that we believe the conversion is directly from electrical
to kinetic energy, the whole idea of the gravitator makes more
In those early experiments, it was known that the gravitator
force was a function of mass. Lead monoxide loading was common
practice. The conductivity of the mass was never investigated
A simple experiment to test the present concept might take any
of several forms:
(1) bifilar suspension of a wire conductor;
(2) bifilar suspension of a massive dielectric rod;
(3) rotatable (torque) suspension of a coil of wire.
Describing (1, 2, 3):
By placing any of the above in an insulating fluid such as oil
or carbon tetrachloride (more dense), the force may be
increased. Fluid would move in the opposite direction.
In the case of a rotor having sectors of different
conductivity, a net circular current (as in , previous page),
could produce torque on the rotor as a whole. The reaction on an
ambient mass (such as oil) or on metallic reactor plates would
be in the opposite direction.
This could represent an additional and quite independent
explanation for the operation of the sidereal radiation
electrometer other than that set forth on pages 55 and 80 of
this notebook. It could be that both explanations apply, each
one contributing to the torque.
Energy Relationships ~
At this point, it would appear that the IR loss in a conductor,
when the conductor is free to move (and does move) is not 100%
converted into heat. A portion (unknown at this time) is
converted into kinetic energy. I am not talking about any
electromagnetic effect but purely about the possible
The electromagnetic effect would appear to be embodied in a
semiconductor possessing an internal electric field thru which
(as a consequence of such field) a current is passing, A gravity
gradient appears in the alignment of the electron flow. Any mass
within that gravity gradient tends to "fall" in the same
direction (as the electron flow). At the positive (elec.)
terminal of the semi-conductor, the gravity gradient fans out
into the ambient space to the negative terminal, as show in Fig.
2, p. 112.
The gravity gradient(flux) is greatest within the body of the
semiconductor. The intensity is a function of the potential
difference and the current. F = || E / || watts.
Thrust (electrogravitic) is a direct function of the mass of
the semiconductor; being the effect of the gradient upon the
body of the semiconductor. This thrust is truly a ponderomotive
Semiconductor sections may be placed interrelated with high
insulation sections as:
All active gravitator sections could be placed in line and
electrically connected in parallel.
Additional mass could be added (as lead plates) between
gravitator sections as:
In developing the concept set forth on p. 110, gravitational
storage represents the existence of closed flux-domains in
space. Such domains represent energy. They are formed by
electric fields and electric currents operating jointly. In
semiconductors, an electric field (potential difference across
said conductor) causes the electric current. Both field and
current are necessary to create the gravity gradient and the
flux domain. The domain persists so long as the field and
current persist. When the field collapses, the domain collapses
and the energy temporarily residing in the domain (if no thrust
is utilized) returns to the electric field (and circuit). If
motion is permitted, the energy resident in the domain is
balanced between kinetic energy and electrical energy when the
Could it be that the motion of the Earth in space changes the
ratio of electric field and/or conductivity of the
semiconductor? Could it affect the resistivity of metals for the
same reason? Could this explain the Miller interferometer fringe
shift? It is all highly complex to say the least.
The flux domains resulting from electric magnetic and gravitic
fields are remarkably similar in pattern and in the way they
arch out into the ambient.
(1) The magnetic field from an inductor fans out into the
Dipole N and S orients with lines of force.
Its intensity is influenced by an iron core (mu).
(2) The electric field from a capacitor fans out into the
Dipole (+) and (-) charges. Orients with lines of force.
Its intensity is influenced by dielectric constant (K).
(3) The gravitic field from a resistor (semi-conductor) fans
out into the ambient as:
Dipole --- terrene and contra-terrene orients with grav.
Its intensity is influenced by mass (m). The core mass in this
instance could be the mass or density of the resistance material
(usually wire). Tungsten better than aluminum or carbon.
Several thoughts occur at this point. First the gravitator
experiments conducted in the 20’s may no have been too far
wrong. As stated on p. 114, the need for leakage current as a
result of the applied high voltage was not understood nor
appreciated as essential to the operation.
Lead monoxide was mixed with paraffin or beeswax to obtain a
massive dielectric for use in the capacitors. The relation to
gravitation was believed to be solely the function of a
capacitor. Leakage meant simply a loss. Now, it seems that
leakage current is as important as the high voltage field, maybe
The high voltage field must be of such intensity as to drive
the electrons thru the semi-conductor vigorously. Just what is
required remains to be determined.
Both field and current are necessary to create a gravity vector
within the semiconductor. As stated before, this vector is in
the same direction s the electron flow, i.e., from negative to
positive. This vector or gravity gradient passing thru the mass
of the semiconductor causes the conductor to move (when free to
move) in the same direction (passive grav. mass).
The gravity gradient then arches out with reduced flux density)
into the surrounding space and then returns to the opposite
(negative end) of the semiconductor. The pattern resembles the
magnetic field around a bar magnet.
Any mass resident in the ambient part of the gravity field will
obtain a ponderomotive thrust in the opposite direction. This
was discussed on p. 112.
It is possible that such a gravitator may be sensitive to
"absolute" velocity, the motion of the earth in space. It may
operate very much like a DC motor, with its motion resulting in
a generator action – producing a counter emf.
Such a counter emf would alter the input current, making itself
evident as a change in input resistance.
The gravitational permeability of the ambient space would also
alter the total flux density and it too would make itself
evident as a change in input resistance.
At least two factors, therefore, may affect the wattage demand
of the gravitator: (1) velocity thru space and (2) gravitational
potential of that region.
Such a gravitator, fixed to the Earth, would operate, I
believe, as a sensor for both the movement of the Earth and the
gravitic potential of the region thru which the earth passes.
Two additional factors may influence such a sensor, (1) the
electrostatic charge upon the Earth and (2) the transient
pulsing or cyclic effect of gravitational waves (possibly from
the center of our galaxy).
The electrostatic charge of the Earth would affect the
conductivity of the semiconductor directly --- increasing
negativity causing increased conductivity. Note: This could be
easily checked by an experiment wherein the resistance
(carbon-metal) bridge is placed upon an insulated island and the
potential altered several hundred thousand volts.
The sensitivity to gravity waves is the same as the sensitivity
to the ambient gravitational potential or flux density. Incoming
gravity waves affect the gravitic permeability of the ambient
region, hence the flux density thru the semi-conductor, then the
counter emf and back to the input resistance or wattage demand.
In 1946, the Giocobini Zinner comet caused rapid erratic
fluctuations of the electrometer, while the Earth passed thru
the residue of the comet’s tail. No explanation has been
I suppose we could speculate that this strange effect was
caused either by (1) rapid variations of gravitic potential or
permeability of the ambient region, or (2) variations in the
electrostatic charge of the Earth, both effects being caused by
the impingement of particulate matter upon the Earth from the
Next March (1974), the earth will pass thru the tail of the
Kohoutek comet, and I hope to have several resistance bridge
recorders running, in the hope of getting another look at this
All of these efforts may help in tying together the theory
covering the Miller observations, the Sanford experiments on
resistance, the Weber gravity wave observations (or whatever the
are) and my own observations for the last 50 years (which have
never been formally published.
Today, we have ordered a 2-channel recording galvanometer
(Brush) with adequate amplifiers to observe the resistance
variations in several different bridges. Surely, something
worthwhile will come of all this effort and expense.
We are also consulting with Dr Pres at Cal Tech and plan to
have another meeting with him next week, at which time we will
give him photostats of electrometer records (recently processed)
covering readings for the ears 1937, 1939, 1946, 1947, 1948, and
114. A Semiconducting Rod as a Sensor for Earth Movement
Sept 12, 1973.
On p. 121, it was proposed that the gravitator may be sensitive
to the absolute motion of the Earth thru space --- inferring as
to both the direction and extent of that motion.
The simplicity of this hypothesis is overwhelming and I am
inclined to carry it further in an attempt to test it ---
possibly "to absurdity".
It was stated that, in effect a massive rod would have lower
resistance, higher wattage demand when aligned with a motion
vector opposite to its internal electric field (meaning in this
case the direction of electron flow from neg to pos.). When
aligned in the same direction as its electric field the
resistance would increase, resulting in lower wattage demand.
This then is equivalent to the motor/generator effect where, as
velocity increases, a counter emf is generated which reduces
(and even reverses) the wattage demand of the motor.
Hence, it would seem possible that by merely rotating the
gravitator (altering its direction in any way) that a change in
resistance would occur.
Case #1 --- High wattage demand (low resistance)
Case #2 --- Low wattage demand (high resistance)
In the above representation, (f) is the ponderomotive force
resulting from the action of the internal (synthetic) gravitic
field caused by the joint E1 (electrogravitic) effect. In Case
1, this force is opposed by the existing motion, so as to cause
increased wattage demand (lower resistance), whereas in Case 2,
the existing motion is assisting so as to cause lower wattage
demand or higher resistance.
This "directional sensor" capability was referred to on p. 84
and may be tested shortly when suitable resistance units become
If this concept is valid, it may offer some explanation for the
behavior of the Miller interferometer. Although the steel arms
of the interferometer were not charged, nor were they given any
electric gradient deliberately, the intermolecular structure of
the steel may have developed such gradient by electrogravitic
(more precisely gravito-electric) induction from its motion thru
space. This may have caused inter-molecular contraction.
Perhaps, this may turn out to be the mechanism of the L-F
But why the Miller effect exceeded the theoretical L-F
contraction or (more exactly) was only about 1/20 of the total
expected shift, all of which should have been cancelled by the
L-F contraction, remains unexplained. The relativists are simply
Then, of course, the systematic and cyclic change in resistance
observed in 1892 by Sanford appears never to have been seriously
considered. To my knowledge, few (if any) physicists today have
ever heard of Sanford’s results or, for that matter, would
consider them valid if the subject were brought up. For such
reasons, difficult to understand, the ideas presented in this
book will undoubtedly be classed as rank heresy. But we hope
this will not alter the truth, which will eventually emerge.
Only time will tell.
Now comes the controversy regarding the validity of Weber’s
work allegedly purported to have observed gravity waves --- now,
more particularly the effects correlated with sidereal time.
Weber has stated he believes he has been receiving gravity
radiation from the galactic center.
If our electrometer records for 1937 and 1939 are considered in
the same light, we also might make the same claim that radiation
was being received from the galactic center.
But the question I raise at this time is --- Does velocity (of
the Earth) thru space contribute? Could the Earth be running
thru regions of varying gravitational potential such as may
result from clouds of dust, variations in the density of the
solar wind, etc. If the gravito-electric concept is valid and
electric fields are intimately tied in with gravitational
potential, what of possible variations in the electrostatic
charge of the Earth --- and/or the Earth-Moon system.
Why is it that the electrometer, consistently for 6 years, has
shown an effect readily correlated with the phases of the Moon?
Weber’s equipment records only "events", sudden shock stimuli
which cause his cylinders to resonate mechanically. Of course,
as Weber reasons, the stimuli could also be the arrival of a
wave of that same frequency. Perhaps evidence, even, of a
"whistler" train of waves of varying frequency which resonate
(at one point) with the cylinder.
Could it be that Weber’s cylinder, longitudinally and
transversely, resembles Miller’s interferometer arms? Did
Miller’s "arms" respond to gravity waves?
To my knowledge, Miller reported no sudden fringe shifts such
as Weber might call an "event". If he had, he may have
attributed it to an earthquake!
The interferometer has the advantage over the Weber cylinder,
of providing "steady state" readings. The electrometer has the
same advantage. The resistance bridge likewise has this
advantage, and with a possible sensitivity many orders of
I can see a similarity, both in structure and function, between
the four instruments mentioned above. All appear to depend upon
the same set of phenomena, the relationship between electric and
gravitational fields. Of the four, I like the resistance bridge
(differential mass) the best and feel it has the most to offer
in the future
I certainly hope we can proceed without delay to build and test
various bridge and various resistive elements in the light of
this new concept.
Possibly not only will the results add greatly to the fund of
scientific knowledge but may provide new devices for
astronomical measurements and new methods, such as the
gravitator, for commercial utility.
115. Velocity-Sensing Differential Resistance Bridge.
Sept 13, 1973.
On p. 125, the possibility that a resistor may be sensitive to
absolute motion was considered. If the resistor were aligned
with the motion, it is suggested that the resistance would
change with polarity.
Two methods, therefore, come to mind which may make possible a
continuous reading velocity sensor or speedometer to indicate
the absolute motion of the Earth thru space. (This, of course,
is impossible in the view of today’s technology).
Nevertheless, method No. 1 may take the form of a resistive
bridge where similar arms carry currents in opposite directions,
Here, the resistance balance is established between pairs of
arms where current is flowing in opposite directions.
The receding would be maximum when the resistors were aligned
with the movement and minimum when at right angles to the
The practical value of such an instrument would be enormous,
especially in this age of space travel. It would be, in effect,
a compass for space, unaffected by the magnetic field of the
Earth. Not only that, it would confirm (finally) the earth’s
movement away from the galactic center toward that point in
space (as Miller believed) approx 5h RA –70 Decl. at about 208
Method No. 2.
If resistance changes with polarity, according to the original
premise, the in-alignment resistor will act as a rectifier, as:
The greater the resistance differential the greater will be the
indicated voltage DC. No motion, hence, no resistance
differential would produce no DC voltage. While the circuit
illustrate above contributes a half-wave rectifier, the same
principles apply to a full wave rectifier (by using 4 – 2 pairs
--- of resistors properly aligned). A capacitor is shown merely
to smooth the DC output.
116. Improvement in Velocity Sensor
Sept 14, 1973.
A possible improvement over the circuit shown in Fig. 2
(previous page) is as follows:
In this circuit, the metal tube enclosing the resistance wire
carries the return current making the sensor non-inductive.
117. Variations in Resistance Bridge Output.
Sept 16, 1973.
Containing the observations started Sept 8 (p. 107) two systems
are now operating:
No. 1 --- 10,000 ohm --- 19 V, Output ~ 10 ua.
No. 2 --- 200,000 ohm --- 38 V, Output ~ 10 ua.
The former is connected to indicate conductivity while the
latter indicates resistance of the wire-wound arms. Observations
to date show a true reciprocal relationship. Continuous
variations in readings are readily apparent, some rather rapid
fluctuations are occasionally seen, but these are of such small
magnitude that exceedingly close observation of the 0-50 ua
meter is necessary to detect them.
Tomorrow, I understand, the 2-channel Brush recording
galvanometer will be delivered and this instrument will have
such amplification and sensitivity that these rapid fluctuations
will be ready observed and recorded.
At 10:05 pm, I happened to be watching the meter with a
magnifying glass and saw a sudden jump from 9.95 to 10.03 ua,
fluctuating at the high level for about 30 sec then returning
the former reading. There is no question that rapid fluctuations
exist. The Brush will be able to record anything up to 100 Hz.
If higher frequencies are present, it will require a scope.
Also, if there are frequencies in the audible range, a suitable
amplifier and loudspeaker may provide some fascinating
information. Even the variations as I have just witnessed may be
audible. The next two or three weeks (when we have the proper
equipment) will certainly be interesting.
The microammeters used in this experiment (p. 107) are 1800
ohms. Maximum deflections so far has been 9.5 to 10.0 ua or 0.5
ua = 0.0009 V or approx 1 mV. The Brush recorder therefore
should have ample sensitivity. Also an audio amplifier, using
the crystal microphone pickup, should provide adequate
amplification for ~ 1 mV.
117-1. A Velocity-Vector Sensor.
Sept 17, 1973.
On the premise that the variation in resistance is "felt" by
the more massive conductor (wire-wound arms) primarily when the
conductor is in the alignment of absolute motion, the following
(1) The flow of current (in the conductor) is in the alignment
with the absolute motion.
(2) Current vector and velocity vector are unidirectional.
A velocity vector sensor may, therefore, have this circuit.
In the above circuit, current flow in the carbon resistors is
in opposite directions (canceling) while that in the wire-wound
resistors is unidirectional. It is the thought that the
indicating meter will read maximum or minimum when the
wire-wound arms of the bridge are aligned with the earth’s
movement, thru space, and only when so aligned.
As to whether it will be maximum or minimum, an analysis is as
(1) Based on the counter emf theory (p. 124), when current flow
(opposite to electron flow).
(2) The meter reading, therefore, would be maximum when the
wire-wound arms and the current in those arms is in the same
direction as the absolute motion.
(3) Hence, such a bridge would "point" in the same direction
that the Earth is moving. It would be a kind of "Space Compass".
It is entirely possible that the current or energy asymmetry may
introduce a torque on a carefully balanced system so that the
system would actually align itself at a position of minimum
(4) In summary then, such a space compass would align itself so
that the positive end "points" in the direction the Earth is
moving in space.
I am wondering if this may not be as Miller predicts: 5h RA –70
Decl. (See p. 130).
The basic diagram of such a system where current asymmetry
provides mechanical torque so that the space compass actually
aligns itself toward the point in space toward which the earth
is moving is:
Mounting has 3 degrees of freedom.
This is predicted on the belief that a counter emf is generated
in an y conductor or semiconductor, with polarity as indicated
above, when it is moved longitudinally. If that conductor is
carrying a current, the resistance will be increased and the
current will drop to a minimum.
Simple circuit showing (in red) the polarity of emf created in
a conductor by its motion thru space. This means that an
electric field of the same polarity is impressed upon all matter
by absolute motion. This electric field ma be the mechanism of
the L-F contraction.
118. Results of Tests of Models A-14, 15 and 16.
Nov 9, 1973.
It is now quite apparent that the bridge structure outlined on
p. 79 is operative. The results are quite surprising as to
magnitude. The two arms of the bridge are of wire-wound and
carbon composition resistors of approximately the same
resistance. It is adjusted at the start to a null voltage which
is fed to both strip-chart recorder and a visual digital
Three models have been constructed. A-14 (45 V at 600 K), A-15
(300 V at 1.2 megs) and A-16 (6 V at 10 K). All units are
running concurrently. Records for the past two weeks indicate a
consistent drift downward on all three units; i.e., toward the
negative on the charts (which probably means that the Earth is
becoming increasingly electropositive).
It has not yet been determined which arm of the bridge is
changing the more, the wire-wound arm (sp. gr. 7.8), or carbon
comp. (sp. gr.2.0). I suspect that it is the carbon side. And I
am wondering why this variation has not been discovered before
this or predicted in resistance theory.
While all three models indicate a common trend, there are
individual consistent differences which were not foreseen. These
differences must be explained. They obviously are not sporadic
When one examines the basic differences in the construction of
the three models, it appears that voltage (applied) and
resistance are the only operating factors. Hence, one might
classify the three models as follows:
Model --- V x R (voltohms)
A-16 --- 6 x 104
A-14 --- 3 x 107
A-15 --- 3.6 x 108
If voltage represents the "driving" field which acts upon the
conducting electrons and R represents the "distance" or gradient
thru which this force acts, then Fd = work or energy.
Hence, it is possible these three models operate at three
different energy levels, perhaps some kind of quantum
If this is found to be the case, we might actually have the
evidence for many energy level, only three of which we may have
Following this line of reasoning, there may be a series of
so-called "spectral bands" in this newly-discovered phenomenon,
expressed as follows:
Spectral Bands (energy levels)
Exponent ( V x R ) --- Model
+10 --- A-17
+9 --- A-17
+8 --- A-15
+7 --- A-14
+6 --- A-14
+5 --- A-14
+4 --- A-16
+3 --- A-16
+2 --- A-16
+1 --- A-16
0 --- A-18
-1 --- A-18
-2 --- A-18
-3 --- A-19
Accordingly, it is now proposed that we construct Model A-17
with a total R = 10 megaohms and V = 1 KV.
Also Model A-18 --- R = 1 ohm, V = 1.5 (battery)
These models will be constructed in the Menlo Park shop
(Polytec) during the week of Dec 3, 1973.
Additional recording and printout instruments are being
installed and will be operational during the week of Nov 12 and
More definitive information will become available.
119. Conductor Density and Resistance Variation
Nov 9, 1973.
Contrary to the opinion expressed on p. 136, a provisional
examination of the circuit and performance of Model A-15 appears
to indicate that the wire-wound resistors, rather than the
carbon-comp. resistors, are responsible (largely) for the
anomalous resistive variation which the bridge detects.
This would bear out the hypothesis that the bridge functions
because of a mass differential of the two arms. Here, the
density of the wire (arm) is 7.8 whereas that of the carbon
(arm) is approx 2.0 --- a differential of 5.8. It is believed
that the carbon (low mass) arm holds relatively steady while the
iron (high mass) arm suffers a (larger) change, a spreading due
mainly to the higher-density arm. This is certainly evidence of
a gravitational relation.
In the Sanford experiments (p. 63), measurements were made of a
copper wire vs (it is assumed) an iron-wire resistance decade
box. Therefore, the copper (sp. gr. 9.0)is measured against iron
(sp. gr. 7.8) --- differential 1.2. Both iron and copper would
vary in resistance, but the variation in copper would be the
An experiment is planned (p. 77) using platinum or tungsten
wire-wound resistors. Here, the mass differential would be
appreciable --- approx 16 gr/cm3. It is supposed that
the tungsten would show the greater resistance variation. This
combination would be superior to the iron-carbon combination by
a factor of about 3.
In the use of tungsten wire in velocity sensors (p. 129) it is
preferred for the same reason.
Aluminum wire, it seems, would be preferred over carbon-comp.
because of its greater stability and freedom from resistor
noise. However, since the drawing of aluminum into very fine
wire is difficult (smallest size approx 0.001 inch) the higher
resistance bobbins are quite large. Where size is no problem,
aluminum wire resistors have a definite advantage. Therefore,
the combination of tungsten with aluminum is preferred.
Assuming that tungsten (or the more massive wire) is primarily
receptive to these strange newly-discovered resistance changes,
one may draw certain conclusions regarding sensor performance
which are based on observations over many years. Some of these
conclusions are as follows:
(1) Resistance decreases as the original electrometer readings
(2) Resistance decreases as Earth negative charge increases.
(3) Decreases as moon crosses upper meridian.
(4) Decreases at 16h ST (Ohio 1937)
(5) Decreases to minimum 4 days after full moon.
(6) Elevation ?
The above may be subject to correction or revision as further
evidence comes from alternate records.
Based on the above, but still subject to confirmation, the
possibilities are as follows:
(1) There exists a basic change in electrical resistance to
which all conductors are subject which has an extra-terrestrial
(2) The magnitude of this change appears to be dependent only
upon the mass or density of the conductor, the more dense or
massive the greater the magnitude of the resistance change.
(3) Platinum has roughly 10 times the variation to which
(porous) carbon is subject.
(4) Resistance bridges made of platinum vs carbon-composition
resistor arms easily reveal this extra-terrestrial effect.
(5) Other optimum combinations are gold-aluminum or
(6) The electrostatic charge upon the conductor also influences
(7) Electro-negativity lowers resistance or increases
(8) Electron density probably is responsible so that increase
in (free) electron population increases conductivity.
(9) The Earth, being an insulated sphere in space, is free to
accept, maintain and/or vary its electrostatic charge.
(10) Influenced to a great extent by solar wind, this charge
may vary over wide limits. It appears probable that the earth is
positively charged relative to the Sun (Sanford).
(11) This may be due in part to the gravito-electric
equilibrium whereby the gravitational potential of the sun
induces an (equivalent) negative electric potential on the Sun.
(12) If the Earth’s orbital position (ambient) has (in my view)
a higher gravitational potential, then the Earth would have a
positive potential relative to the Sun.
(13) Earth’s position relative to the Sun (perigee and apogee)
would vary the electrical potential of the Earth because of the
corresponding change in gravitational potential.
(14) At full moon, the moon would be more positive than the
Earth for the same reason. At new moon more negative.