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Is the Universe Really Expanding?
The expansion of the universe has been invoked from the ‘Big Bang’ theory of the creation of the universe and as the only logical explanation for the redshifts observed in the spectra from distant galaxies. The author, however, utilizing a ‘new’ cosmology developed by him, shows that redshifts are but a necessary consequence of the process of EM wave propagation and that the universe must be finite and spherical. Therefore, the universe is not really expanding!
The vastness of our universe was not realized until about 1919 when a study of novae in so-called ‘spiral nebulae’ were found to be, on the average, at least 100 times further away as those which appeared at times in our own galaxy. Therefore, these objects were found to be ‘extra-galactic’, and the universe received an enormous extension in space. Determination of a velocity of approach or recession for these extra-galactic nebulae, i.e., galaxies, indicated that practically all galaxies were receding from us. This was culminated, in 1929, by the announcement by E.P. Hubble, that the velocity of recession was proportional to the galaxy distance, e.g., galaxies at a distance of d million light years, have velocities of about 100d miles per second. Present day cosmologists postulate an expansion of the universe primarily because of the Hubble relation, This enabled an explanation for the ‘redshifts’ in the spectra of distant galaxies in terms of a Doppler Shift effect (which would be proportional to the velocity of recession). No other ‘effect’ was known which could explain this without further ad hoc assumptions.
In general, the velocity of recession of a galaxy at a distance d, is given by:
V = Ho d ,
Where Ho is a constant of proportionality called the Hubble Constant. Since this factor is determined from experimental observations and certain assumptions, it is uncertain and thus has changed value many times over the years. The constant has a value ranging from about 50 to 100 km/sec per megaparsec. The presently accepted value is 55, but recent work indicates 75 may be more correct. The current value of 55 will be used in the following illustrations for this constant. Therefore, the present day calculated Hubble factor is Ho~ 5.9 x 10-29 per centimeter of light travel time. Since light (in vacuum) travels at 2.977 x 1010 cm/sec, it will have a travel time, to, of 3.36 x 10-11 sec for the one centimeter length. Therefore, this equation can be re-expressed as follows:
V = Ho / to~ 5.9 x 10-29 / 3.36 x 10-11 sec ~ 1.76 x 10-18 sec-1 .
Thus, for a galaxy at a distance, d, say one million light years, which is 106 LY x 9.46 x 1017 cm/LY or 9.46 x 1023 cm away, the velocity is:
V = Htd = 1.76 x 10-18 / sec x 9.46 x 1023 cm
= 1.67 x 106 cm/sec, or about 10.4 miles/sec.
Therefore, the original Hubble factor was about 10 times too high! The present Hubble factor may be a factor of 2 or 3 too low now?
However, the author has developed a ‘new’ cosmology in which an alternate explanation is given for the observed redshift in the spectra of distant galaxies (Ref. 1). This cosmology enabled a new approach to the basis of electromagnetic wave propagation (Ref. 2). In essence, it restores an updated version of an ‘aether’ as the constituent of the vacuum. A substratum particle which he termed the rhysmon, after another early Greek term for the atom, forms the very fabric of the universe and is the basis of this rhysmonic cosmology. Some concepts, essential to any discussion of the EM wave propagation process, will be briefly presented here. Further details will be found in the reference cited above.
The substratum, or the new arther of the vacuum, is a storehouse of potential energy provided by the extremely small spherical objects called the rhysmons. The rhysmons are contained within individual ‘orbits’ and have energy equal to one Planck Constant quantum of action, h. Individual rhysmons intertwine with other rhysmons in a matrix structure as shown in Figure (1). In this planar view it is seen that interweaving results in short directed rhysmonic vectors which now have energies of h/2 pi, or h quantum of action. From this construction, one can define some additional parameters based upon Planck’s Constant and his system of natural Units (Ref 3). These are given in Appendix I for reference. The complete matrix is shown in 3-dimensional form in Figure (2). This basic cell is reminiscent of R. Buckminster Fuller’s vector equilibrium (Ref 4) in that all directed energy vectors in the pure rhysmoid, i.e., the undisturbed vacuum, cancel their energies and thus display no effects or phenomena which can be ‘observable’. The basic cell structures interlock with other cells to form the vacuum of the universe. This interlocking is depicted for an extended planar view in Figure (3). Maximum use of energy content requires that the 3-dimensional universe be in spherical form. Shown in Figure (3) are the directed energy vectors as given in a single instant of time as given by the Planck Time, T*. In the next instant of time, T*, all the vectors reverse direction, and then restore to the original direction in time, T*, later. Thus the universe is like a movie, in which each frame in the cinema of existence lasts for only Planck Time, T*. As seen in Figure (3), directed vectors join head-to-tail to form an ‘instantaneous’ vector which can span the universe. The instantaneous vectors are especially significant in the rhysmonic explanation of the nature of gravitation. However, the interaction of these vectors in the process of EM wave propagation must be discussed briefly here as they are essential to a discussion of the redshift mechanism. This simple interpretation of the structure of the universe forms the basis of rhysmonics.
Figure 1: Complete planar view of balanced forces of vectors in basic cell of matrix structure ~
Figure 2: 3-Dimensional view of vector equilibrium of basic cell of matrix structure
Figure 3: Extended planar view of basic cell of matrix structure
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
As is shown in the planar view of the circumferential vectors of the basic cell of the matrix structure of Figure (1), the closest approach of any two adjacent parallel directed vectors is approximately two time the Planck Length, or 2L*, which is equal to about 3.2 x 10-33 cm. Since the magnetic component in electromagnetic wave propagation is at right angles to the direction of the propagation and since curl or a rotational vector geometry is involved, magnetic field reversal cannot take place closer than this closest approach of parallel vectors, or 2L*. It can be shown that a similar requirement is needed for the electric field (curl) vectors (see References). Therefore, for each magnetic field (or electric field reversal), i.e., for each half wavelength of electromagnetic wave propagation, the wavelength must increase by this increment of 2L*, or 4L* for the entire wavelength.
Determination of L* from Astronomy
The incremental factor of 4L* can be determined from astronomical data, confirming in part this explanation for the redshifts in distant optical spectra. Shown in Figure (4) is a simple sketch depicting the magnetic component in EM wave propagation and it is shown in cross-section with the direction of propagation noted. The electric field component is directed into the paper at (+) and out of the paper at (-). Since the magnetic field lines are made up of closed loops of rhysmonic vectors (see References), at the closest approach of the increment, D, is approximately 2L* as was indicated in the previous section. Note that this increment is the basic cell of the matrix structure of the vacuum and may, in a broad sense, be considered as the ‘idler wheel’ in Maxwell’s mechanical model for EM wave radiation.
Figure 4: Vector depictions for EM wave propagation; clarification of rhysmonic 'idler' concept
The relation of the rhysmonic model to astronomical data can be made as follows: The best overall estimate of the radius of the visible universe, Ro, from various determinations, is about:
Ro ~ 1.2 x 1010 LY, or 1.14 x 1028 cm.
Redshift of EM wavelengths from the far gamma ray regions ( ~ 10-13 cm) to the deep red region ( ~ 7.5 x 10-5 cm) would be an incremental change (Dl) in wavelength in the order of 7.5 x 10-5 cm. Therefore, the number of incremental steps needed for light in the universe to go ‘dark’ in Ro, the radius of the visible universe is:
1.14 x 1028 cm (Ro) / 7.5 x 10-5 cm (Dl) ~ 1.52 x 1032 increments.
From this, we have a new ‘Hubble’ factor of:
H* ~ (1.52 x 1032)-1 or 6.58 x 10-33 per wavelength of light travel time. Compare this with the present Hubble factor of :
Ho ~ (1.7 x 1028)-1 or 5.9 x 10-29 per centimeter of light travel time.
As shown in Figure (4), 2L* was about 3.23 x 10-33 cm, and thus L* is about 1.61 x 10-33 cm. From the above astronomical determinations, 4L* is about 6.58 x 10-33 cm and thus L* is about 1.64 x 10-33 cm, in close agreement with both the Planck and rhsymonic determination.
Rhysmonic cosmology predicted that electromagnetic wave propagation would require about a 2L* (double Planck Length) increase in wavelength with each half wavelength of EM wave propagation. For the full wavelength the increase would be in the order of 4L*, due to the nature of the propagation process in this theory. The process has been depicted in Figure (4) for the magnetic component only. Therefore, this mechanism results in increased wavelength for EM waves as a function of the time (or length of path) of the progation. Thus, the redshifts in the spectra of distant optical phenomena are part of this propagation process, and not the result of an expanding universe.
A rough calculation based upon the presently accepted radius of the visible universe agrees rather closely with the concepts of this theory. Therefore, a new ‘Hubble’ factor, H*, as determined by rhsymonic cosmology, is fundamentally more accurate, and thus may be used to calculate astronomical distances without the uncertainties of the present Hubble factor. The wavelength-distance relation is given simply by:
d ~ Dl / H* ~ zlo / H* ,
where the units are in centimeters.
To answer the title question: No, the universe is not expanding according to rhysmonic cosmology. Therefore, the universe may be an essentially static, finite, and spherical closed system with no need to postulate either an expansion or a ‘Big Bang’ creation process.
1) G. Hodowanec: Rhysmonic Cosmology (1985).
2) G. Hodowanec: "The Nature of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation", unpublished paper, April 1985.
3) Max Planck: The Theory of Heat Radiation, Dover, 1959.
4) R. Buckminster Fuller & R. Marks: The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller; Doubleday Anchor Books, 1973.
Planck Units (also rhysmonic units):
h = Planck’s Constant ~ 6.624 x 10-27 erg-sec.
h= Planck’s Reduced Constant ~ 1.054 x 10-27 erg-sec.
L* = Planck’s Length ~ 1.616 x 10-33 cm.
T* = Planck’s Time ~ 5.391 x 10-44 sec.
C* = Planck’s Velocity ~ L*/T* = C ~ 2.997 x 1010 cm/sec
M* = Planck’s Mass ~ 2.177 x 10-5 gm.
L*3 = Planck’s Volume ~ 4.22 x 10-99 cm3.
D* = Planck’s Density ~ 5.157 x 1093 gm/cm3
Rhsymon radius ~ 1.62 x 10-66 cm.
Rhsymon volume ~ 1.78 x 10-197 cm3.
Rhsymon number ~ 2.37 x 1098 rhysmons/ cm3.
Derived Rhsymonic Units:
A* = action of rhysmon = h / 2 pi = h = E* x T* = E*/ f*
E* = energy of rhysmon = M* x C*2 = F* x L* = h /T*
F* = force of rhysmon = M* x a* = E*/ L*
f* = rhsymonic frequency = M* x a* = E*/L*
a* = rhysmonic acceleration = F*/M* = L*/T*2
Visible Universe Parameters:
Ro = radius ~ 1.14 x 1028 cm
Vo = volume ~ 6.2 x 1084 cm3
Mo = mass ~ 3.2 x 10178 gm
No = number of rhysmons ~ 1.47 x 10183
Eo = energy ~ 2.9 x 10199 ergs
Note: Some of the above determinations are only preliminary and these may be changed in the future.