William J. HOOPER
The Motional Electric Field
Commentaries & Reviews
US Patent # 3,610,971
US Patent # 3,656,013
Frances Gibson : The All-Electric Field Generator & Its Potential
William J Hooper : New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic & Gravitational Field Theory
W. Hooper : Similarities of the Motional Electric & Gravitational Forces ( PDF )
"A Review Of William J. Hooper and his All-Electric Motional Electric Field Generator"
by James E. Hartman
(Feb. 1, 1996)
In the 1960's - William J. Hooper developed what could be a real workable system. In Hooper's view there are three different forms of electric fields due to the distribution of electric field, two are doue to induction. He put forth an interesting theory with the v x B terms of dynamic electrical circuits. He assigns a difference to electric fields generated by differing methods.
The most important for propulsion is called the "motional" electric field. He goes to extraordinary lengths to differentiate the motional electric field arising from:
E = v x B
with an induced electric field due to time changing magnetic field and with static fields related to stationary electrical charge.
To understand Hooper's analysis, consider the Lorentz force from
E = v x B
which Hooper interpreted it as Em, the induced motional electric field.
He claims to have experimentally verified that it is different from other electric fields and that it was akin to GRAVITATIONAL fields.
Unlike electro-static fields this force acts in line with the electric field. One important result is that for the total system the superposition of all B fields can be zero but the motional electric field can still be nonzero.
Consider a long conductor folded back on itself at its center labeled as b. The current then flows from one end, a, to the center, b and then finally reaches the other end, c. the magnetic field from the current flow from a to b is B, and from b to c is -B.
They must be equal and opposite since each has the same current flow (but in opposite directions). Likewise the velocity of the electric charges must also be equal and opposite. The B field is calculated from the sum of the parts, then its magnitude goes to zero.
On other hand, its calculated from super-position of E fields; then it sums to a nonzero quantity. It can be disagreed that either the assumption of superposition of the B field (and hence separability of force fields) is incorrect or Hooper's idea of a "motional electric field" is correct.
Hooper concluded that the magnetic field (associated with currents) moves with the charge carriers within the current. This is consistent with Ampere's law and at variance with Biot-Savart law.
* I'll leave it up to you mathematical majors to affirm this claim.
Two U.S. Patents (3,610,971 and 3,565,013) by Hooper have claimed gravitational-like fields from the motional electric field of v x B.
Superconductors are said to be on the order of 1012 times better than normal conductors and he foreseen improvement in them. Improvement would reflect improved propulsiveness.
Hooper and along with others have claimed to have witnessed the gravitational and ANTIGRAVITATIONAL forces in the functioning of this said device.
The following claims are from U.S. Patent 3,610,971:
"It is desirable to have an apparatus with which to experimentally study gravitational and antigravitational phenomena under steady continuous conditions." "It should be noted that this field is practically uniform and parallel close to the disk, hence it is not attractive in its action on neutral matter. Its action on such matter can only change the state of electrical polarization in the matter. Any change thus effected in the state of polarization should cause the earth's gravitational field to act less intensely, on any object placed
close to the undersurface of the device, causing it to weigh less, become weightless, or to actually be accelerated upward by antigravitational action of the earth's field."
"In a very short interval of time (1969) an intense B x V field should effect the reversal of the gravitational polarization of an object. Once achieved, only a small expenditure of energy would be required to hold the polarization. Energy from atoms of the earth would
supply the lift and propulsion through the medium of the earth's gravity field. The most formidable problem would appear to be the problem of holding the B x V generator at cryogenic temperatures. In view of the overall possibilities of this invention, this problem does not appear to be incapable of a solution. A breakthrough in finding superconductive materials or even near superconducting at slightly elevated temperatures from those presently (at that time) required would greatly aid in the solution of this problem."
In Fig. 4 - "The antigravity gravity control features of the coils 73 and 74 thus control the lift and movement of vehicle."
What was this man's drive?
"This country's space projects have become expensive beyond the ability of the of the average man to comprehend. Achieving lift by means of costly propellants will someday soon be seen as akin to primitive man's use of awkward clubs as a means of exerting force."
With the ozone layer hole seemingly growing larger every year. Perhaps, I speculate that project HAARP in Alaska was built to produce OZONE to heal the earth's atmosphere. Such devices has Hooper's may give off charged negative ions and therefore may aid in the healthfulness of humans (Hence, the Home Ionizer) as well healing the atmospheric properties over a longer period of time.
With advances in new superconductivity technologies and with a NASA budget that is shrinking. What a real bargain for the tax payer and the well-being of our atmosphere.
With a $35B dollar a year NASA budget. They perhaps could build a small fleet of nice B x V reusable Spacecraft and aircraft that are perhaps environmentally more sound.
"Electric Propulsion Study"
[ Excerpt ]
Dr. Dennis Cravens, SAIC Corp; prepared for USAF Astronautics Lab/Edwards AFB (August 1990)
Section 3.7: Non-Inductive Coils
Several authors have suggested that v x B term in the Lorentz expression should be called into question. Several unverified experimental results have ever been made. An experiment is suggested to test one or several of these theoretical views. This is an area where the experimental procedure is workable and the outcome could have direct results in the area of inertia forces.
During the late 60's William J. Hooper put forth an interesting theory involving the v x B terms dynamic electrical circuits. There was and is uncertainty as to the exact physical understanding of the Biot-Savart-Lorentz law and Ampere's law involving the set of reaction forces. Peter Graneau has studied these expressions. Hooper's view was that there are three different types of electric fields due to the distribution of electric field and two due to induction.
At the heart of the issue is the connection of the magnetic field and its source in the charged particles. EM theory is presently consistent with the idea that spinning magnetic dipoles create effects indistinguishable from charged particles. There has been no critical experiment which can disprove whether a magnetic flux rotates with its source. If it does co-move with its source then it is logical to assume that a motional electric field in a fixed reference frame of the current induces a magnetic field. This concept is likewise consistent with a field-free interpretation such as Ampere's original laws. [with 4 pages more about Hooper's theories]