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A Control and Driver Circuit for a Hydrogen Gas
Intl. Cl. C07G 13/00, H03K 3/30
14 May 1992
A control circuit for a capacitive resonant cavity water capacitor
(7) for the production of a hydrogen containing fuel gas has a resonant
scanning circuit cooperating with a resonance detector and PLL circuit
to produce pulses. The pulses are fed into the primary (TX1)
The secondary (TX2) transformer is connected to the resonant cavity
capacitor cell (7) via a diode and a resonant charging chokes (TX4,
This invention relates to electrical circuit systems useful in the
of a water fuel cell including a water capacitor/resonant cavity for
production of a hydrogen containing fuel gas, such as that described in
my US Patent # 4,936,961, Method for the Production of a Fuel Gas (26
In my aforesaid Patent for a method for the production of a fuel
voltage pulses applied to plates of a water capacitor tune into the
properties of the water and attenuate the electrical forces between the
hydrogen and oxygen atoms of the molecule. The attenuation of the
forces results in a change in the molecular electrical field and the
atomic binding forces of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. When resonance
is achieved, the atomic bond of the molecule is broken, and the atoms
the molecule disassociate. At resonance, the current (amp) draw from a
power source to the water capacitor is minimized and voltage across the
water capacitor increases. Electron flow is not permitted (except at
minimum, corresponding to leakage resulting from the residual
properties of water). For the process to continue, however, a resonant
condition must be maintained.
Because of the electrical polarity of the water molecule, the
produced in the water capacitor respectively attract and repel the
and like charges in the molecule, and the forces eventually achieved at
resonance are such that the strength of the covalent bonding force in
water molecule is exceeded, and the atoms of the water molecule (which
are normally in an electron sharing mode) disassociate. Upon
the formerly shared bonding electrons migrate to the hydrogen nuclei,
both the hydrogen and oxygen revert to net zero electrical charge. The
atoms are released from the water as a gas mixture.
In the invention herein, a control circuit for a resonant cavity
capacitor cell utilized for the production of a hydrogen containing
gas is provided.
The circuit includes an isolation means such as a transformer
a ferromagnetic, ceramic or other electromagnetic material core and
one side of a secondary coil connected in series with a high speed
diode to one plate of the water capacitor of the resonant capacitor and
the other side of the secondary coil connected to the other plate of
water capacitor to form a closed loop electronic circuit utilizing the
dielectric properties of water as part of the electronic resonant
The primary coil of the isolation transformer is connected to a pulse
means. The secondary coil of the transformer may include segments that
form resonant charging choke circuits in series with the water
In the pulse generation means, an adjustable first, resonant
generator and a second gated pulse frequency generator are provided. A
gate pulse controls the number of the pulses produced by the resonant
generator sent to the primary could during a period determined by the
frequency of the second pulse generator.
The invention also includes a means for sensing the occurrence of
resonant condition in the water capacitor/resonant cavity, which when a
ferromagnetic or electromagnetic core is used, may be a pickup coil on
the transformer core. The sensing means is interconnected to a scanning
circuit and a phase lock loop circuit, whereby the pulsing frequency to
the primary coil of the transformer is maintained at a sensed frequency
corresponding to a resonant condition in the water capacitor.
Control means are provided in the circuit for adjusting the
of a pulsing cycle sent to the primary coil and for maintaining the
of the pulsing cycle at a constant frequency regardless of pulse
In addition, the gated pulse frequency generator may be operatively
with a sensor that monitors the rate of gas production from the cell
controls the number of pulses from the resonant frequency generator
to the cell in a gated frequency in a correspondence with the rate of
production. The sensor may be a gas pressure sensor in an enclosed
capacitor resonant cavity which also includes a gas outlet. E gas
sensor is operatively connected to the circuit to determine the rate of
gas production with respect to ambient gas pressure in the water
Thus, an omnibus control circuit and its discrete elements for
and controlling the resonance and other aspects of the release of gas
a resonant cavity water cell is described herein and illustrated in the
drawings which depict the following:
Figure 1 is a block diagram of an
control circuit showing the interrelationship of sub-circuits, the
core/resonant circuit and the water capacitor resonant cavity.
Figure 2 shows a type of digital
means for regulating the ultimate rate of gas production as determined
by an external input. (Such a control means would corresponding,
for example, to the accelerator in an automobile or a building
Figure 3 shows an analog voltage
Figure 4 is a voltage amplitude
circuit interconnected with the voltage generator and one side of the
coil of the pulsing core.
Figure 5 is the cell driver
that is connected with the opposite side of the primary coil of the
Figures 6, Fig.
7, Fig. 8, and Fig.
9 relate to pulsing control means including a gated pulse
generator (Figure 6); a phase lock circuit (Figure 7); a resonant
circuit (Figure 8); and the pulse indicator circuit (Figure 9) that
pulses transmitted to the resonant cavity/water fuel cell capacitor.
Figure 10 shows the pulsing core
the voltage intensifier circuit that is the interface between the
circuit and the resonant cavity.
Figure 11 is a gas feedback
Figure 12 is an adjustable
The circuits are operatively interconnected as in Figure 1 and to
pulsing core voltage intensifier circuit of Figure 10, which, inter
electrically isolates the water capcitor so that it becomes an
isolated cavity for the processing of water in accordance with its
resonance properties. By reason of the isolation, power consumption in
the control and driving circuits is minimized as voltage is maximized
the gas production mode of the water capacitor/fuel cell.
The reference letters appearing in the Figures, A, B, C, D, E,
to M and M1 show, with respect to each separate circuit depicted, the
at which a connection in that circuit is made to a companion or
In the invention, the water capacitor is subjected to a duty pulse
builds up in the resonant changing choke coil and then collapses. This
occurrence permits a unipolar pulse to be applied to the fuel cell
When a resonant condition of the circuit is locked-in by the circuit,
leakage is held to a minimum as the voltage which creates the
field tends to infinity. Thus, when high voltage is detected upon
the phase lock loop circuit that controls the cell driver circuit
the resonance at the detected (or sensed) frequency.
The resonance of the water capacitor cell is affected by the
of water in the cell. The resonance of any given volume of water
in the water capacitor cell is also affected by contaminants in the
which act as a damper. For example, at an applied potential difference
of 2000 to 5000 volts to the cell, an amp spike or surge may be caused
by inconsistencies in water characteristics that cause an
condition which is remedied instantaneously by the control circuits.
In the invention, the adjustable frequency generator (Figure 12)
into the resonant condition of the circuit including the water cell and
the water therein. The generator has a frequency capability of 0-10 KHz
in a typical 3.0 inch water capacitor formed of a 0.5 inch rod enclosed
within a 0.75 inside diameter cylinder. At start up, in this example,
draw through the water cell will measure about 25 milliamp; however,
the circuit finds a tuned resonant condition, current drops to a 1-2
minimum leakage condition.
The voltage to the capacitor water cell increases according to the
of the winding and size of the coils, as in a typical transformer
For example, if 12 volts are sent to the primary coil of the pulsing
and the secondary coil resonant charging choke ration is 30 to 1, then
360 volts are sent to the capacitor water cell. Turns are a design
that control the voltage of the unipolar pulses sent to the capacitor.
The high speed switching diode shown in Figure 10 prevents charge
from the charged water in the water capacitor cavity, and the water
as an overall capacitor circuit element, i.e., the pulse and charge
of the water/capacitor never pass through an arbitrary ground. The
to the water capacitor is always unipolar. The water capacitor is
isolated from the control, input and driver circuits by the
coupling through the core. The switching diode in the VIC circuit
10) performs several functions in the pulsing. The diode is an
switch that determines the generation and collapse of an
field to permit the resonant charging choke(s) to double the applied
and also allows the pulse to be sent to the resonant cavity without
the capacitor therein. The diode, of course, is selected in accordance
with the maximum voltage encountered in the pulsing circuit. A 600 PIV
fast switching diode, such as an NVR 1550 high speed switching diode,
been found to be useful in the circuit herein.
The VIC circuit of Figure 10 also includes a ferromagnetic or
ferromagnetic pulsing core capable of producing electromagnetic flux
in response to an electrical pulse input. The flux lines equally affect
the secondary coil and the resonant charging choke windings.
the core is a closed loop construction. The effect of the core is to
the water capacitor and to prevent the pulsing signal from going below
an arbitrary ground and to maintain the charge of the already charged
and water capacitor.
In the pulsing core, the coils are preferably wound in the same
to maximize the additive effect of the electromagnetic field therein.
The magnetic field of the pulsing core is in synchronization with
pulse input to the primary coil. The potential from the secondary coil
is introduced to the resonant charging choke(s) series circuit elements
which are subjected to the same synchronous applied electromagnetic
simultaneously with the primary pulse.
When resonance occurs, control of the gas output is achieved by
voltage amplitude or varying the time of the duty gate cycle. The
core is a pulse frequency doubler. In a figurative explanation of the
of the fuel gas generator water capacitor cell, when a water molecule
hit by a pulse, electron time share is affected, and the molecule is
When the time of the duty cycle is changed, the number of pulses that
the molecules in the fuel cell is correspondingly modified. More hits
in a greater rate of molecular disassociation.
With reference to the overall circuit of Figure 1, Figure 3
a digital input signal, and Figure 4 depicts the control means that
0-12 volts across the primary coil of the pulsing core. Depending upon
design parameters of primary coil voltage and other factors relevant t
core design, the secondary coil of the pulsing core can be set up for a
predetermined maximum, such as 2000 volts.
Figure 5, the cell driver circuit, allows a gated pulse to be
in direct relation to voltage amplitude.
As noted above, the circuit of Figure 6 produces a gate pulse
The gate pulse is superimposed over the resonant frequency pulse to
a duty cycle that determines the number of discrete pulses sent to the
primary coil. For example, assuming a resonant pulse o 5 KHz, a 0.5 Hz
gate pulse may be superimposed over the 5 KHz pulse to provide 2500
pulses in a 50% duty cycle per Hz. The relationship of resonant pulse
the gate pulse is determined by conventional signal
Figure 7, a phase lock loop, allows pulse frequency to be
at a predetermined resonant condition sensed by the circuit. Together,
the circuits of Figures 7 and 8 determine an output signal to the
core until the peak voltage signal sensed at resonance is achieved.
A resonant condition occurs when the pulse frequency and the
input attenuates the covalent bonding forces of the hydrogen and oxygen
atoms of the water molecule. When this occurs, amp leakage through the
water capacitor is minimized. The tendency of voltage to maximize at
increases the force of the electric potential applied to the water
which ultimately disassociate into atoms.
Because resonances of different waters, water volumes, and
cells vary, the resonant scanning circuit of Figure 8 is useful. The
circuit o Figure 8 scans frequency from high to low to high repeating
a signal lock is determined. The ferromagnetic core of the voltage
circuit transformer suppresses electron surge in an out-of-resonance
of the fuel cell. In an example, the circuit scans at frequencies from
0 Hz to 10 KHz t 0 Hz. In water having contaminants in the range of 1
to 20 ppm, a 20% variance in resonant frequency is encountered.
on water flow rate into fuel cell, the normal variance range is about
For example, iron in well water affects the status of molecular
Also, at a resonant condition harmonic effects occur. In a typical
of the cell with a representative water capacitor described below, at a
frequency of about 5 KHz at unipolar pulses from 0 to 650 volts at a
resonant condition into the resonant cavity, conversion of about 5
of water per hour into a fuel gas will occur on average. To increase
rate, multiple resonant cavities can be used and/or the surfaces of the
water capacitor can be increased, however, the water capacitor cell is
preferably small in scale. A typical water capacitor may be formed from
a 0.5 inch in diameter stainless steel rod and a 0.75 inch inside
cylinder that together extend concentrically about 3.0 inches with
to each other.
Shape and size of the resonant cavity may vary. Larger resonant
and higher rates of consumption of water in the conversion process
higher frequencies such as up to 50 KHz and above. The pulsing rate, to
sustain such high rates of conversion must be correspondingly
From the foregoing description of the preferred embodiment, other
and modifications of the system disclosed will be evident to those of
in the art.
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